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  • 301.
    Becker, Vincent
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Framing in the time of Swine flu: policy success and policy fiasco in media frames of the Swedish handling of H1N1 in 20092016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis concerns the notion that the terms success and fiasco are often used, but seldom put into a context. By studying the Swedish handling of the Swine flu, or H1N1-outbreak in 2009, this brings two new notions into the research surrounding policy success and fiasco, namely framing theory and specialized media. An incremental dichotomy is proposed as for measuring success and fiasco within the media, then frames, found both deductively and through a mixed approach are sought after. This was done in national Swedish media as well as what this thesis calls specialized media, i.e. media that is focused on the health care industry. This lead to results pointing to frequent use of different perspectives, or reference objects when framing either success or fiasco. Another result is that of the ubiquitous relativity of the notions of success and fiasco, a relativity that needs further addressing.

  • 302.
    Becker, Per
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Bynander, Fredrik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training). CNDS.
    The System for Crisis Management in Sweden: Collaborative, Conformist, Contradictory2017In: Handbook of Disaster Risk Reduction and Management / [ed] Madu, Christian N.; Kuei, Chu Hua, World Scientific, 2017, 1, p. 69-95Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter introduces the system for crisis management in Sweden. Over the last century, Sweden has gone from being a poor European backwater to being among the countries with the highest human development in the world. The droughts and harsh winters that killed thousands and drove numerous Swedes to emigrate in the past are mere distractions today and the contemporary system for crisis management is designed to deal with a broader variety of crises than the ones triggered by natural hazards. The system is based on the principles of responsibility, parity and proximity, and distributes sector and area responsibility for crisis management to numerous actors. It is built to a great extent on collaboration between these actors, which is challenging but working relatively well in the cultural context of consensus-seeking and compliance to official guidelines and accepted rules of engagement. However, the system is in itself ambiguous in the sense of distributing responsibility to all kinds of actors and then focusing almost exclusively on public actors in legislation, guidelines and practice. There is also often a gap between policy and practice concerning how area responsibility is exercised, and a lack of clarity in current sector specific legislation

  • 303.
    Beckman, Anders
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Vad är det som krävs?: En undersökning av orsakerna till avhoppen på Försvarsmaktens aspirantutbildning2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna undersökning har med utgångspunkt ifrån två kända motivationsteorier prövat sambandetmellan aspiranters förväntningar och avbrott på Försvarsmaktens Aspirantutbildning. Detta hargenomförts genom att utifrån två motivationsteorier utveckla hypoteser som sedan har testats påstatistik över avhoppen ifrån Aspirantutbildningen 2010. Undersökningen finner tecken som pekar påatt det finns ett samband mellan förväntade fysiska krav på en utbildning och andelen frivilligaavbrott. Resultaten visar att en utbildning som förväntas vara fysiskt lätt har en större andel avhopppå egen begäran än en utbildning som förväntas vara fysiskt svår. Då jag utifrån egna erfarenhetermenar att den faktiska fysiska svårighetsnivån på samtliga inriktningar inom Aspirantutbildningen ärlikställda drar jag slutsatsen att aspiranternas förväntningar på den fysiska svårigheten är en viktigareorsak till frivilliga avhopp än den faktiska fysiska svårigheten. Min analys av detta resultat pekar påatt Försvarsmakten kan ha en möjlighet att i framtiden minska sina avhopp genom att utveckla deninformation de ger till sökande aspiranter. Att i ett tidigt stadium ge ut information som berättar mer idetalj om den specifika tjänst de söker samt vilka krav som de facto ställs på aspiranten skulle kunnabidra till att förväntningarna på den sökta utbildningen ligger närmare verkligheten och avhoppenminskar.

  • 304.
    Bekkestad, Erlend
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Effektsbaserte operasjoner under Operation Iraqi Freedom: utvikling av militærteorin ; element i ny doktrine?2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The term Effects-Based Operations is increasingly referred to in articles and publicationsas a possible operational concept for the future. However, the essence of the term is notnew in the history of the use of military power. The use of the military instrument hasalways had the aim of creating an effect on an adversary in order to influence hisbehaviour.During the last 15 years the USA has been involved in several large joint operations withinthe framework of a coalition or an alliance. The evolution in military theory and doctrinefrom Operation Desert Storm in 1991 to Operation Iraqi Freedom in 2003 has been viewedas a shift from a methodical approach to an integrated use of all means of power.Consideration of the effects of each means has become essential, rather than a focus on thedestruction of an adversary’s military capabilities.The aim of this study is to describe the term Effects-Based Operations and the elementswhich constitute the essence of the concept and, furthermore, to investigate whether thetheory was used in practice during Operation Iraqi Freedom. The findings should give anindication of the relevance and possible consequences for the Norwegian Armed Forces ofimplementing an Effects-Based concept at the joint level.To accomplish this aim, the study will answer the following questions:- How is the term Effects-Based Operations described?- Were Effects-Based Operations used in the planning for, and execution ofOperation Iraqi Freedom?- What are the relevance and possible consequences for the Norwegian ArmedForces of implementing Effects-Based Operations, in its current theoretical andpractical status?This study indicates that there is still differences in the understanding of Effects-basedOperations, but the following elements seem to be essential: a clear link between strategyand tasks, and an attack on the adversary’s will where the adversary is seen as a ComplexAdaptive System. In addition, all available means including civilian means of powershould be brought into the campaign. Bearing these characteristics in mind, Operation IraqiFreedom cannot be seen as an Effects-Based Operation; however, elements can be seenboth in the planning and execution of the operation. The study concludes that Effects-Based Operations are relevant to the Norwegian Armed Forces because of the focus on thecomplex nature of today’s battlefield. The consequences of implementing the concept,however, indicate a need to decide how the political and strategic level is willing to letcivilian agencies cooperate with the military. In addition, one has to gain knowledge, notonly of the theoretical and practical implications of effects, but also of how to approach theconcept. Effects- Based Operations or an Effects-Based Approach?

  • 305.
    Bele, Daniel
    Swedish Defence University.
    Warden i Israel: En studie av Wardens tillämpning i Israels luftkrig 2006-20092013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den amerikanske luftmaktsteoretikern John A Warden III har skrivit ett flertal artiklar och böcker om vad han anser är det bästa sättet att använda luftmakt. Warden förordar luftmaktens offensiva natur och eftersträvar ett snabbt, för egen del, fördelaktigt slut på en konflikt. Warden har bl.a. liknat fienden vid ett system, där han menar att strävan skall ligga i att slå ut fiendens ledarskikt vilket får tillföljd att dess vilja till strid upphör.

    I detta arbete ges en sammanfattning av, enligt författaren, centrala delar av Wardens teorier. Sammanfattningen mynnar ut i tre stycken parametrar som kommer att utgöra Wardens teorier i detta arbete. De tre parametrarna är "enemy as a system", "center of gravity" samt "parallell attack". Dessa parametrar ligger sedan till grund för en analys av Israels luftkampanjer i dess krig mot Hizbollah 2006, Operation Change of Direction samt dess krig mot Hamas 2008-09, Operation Cast Lead.

    Syftet med detta är att ta reda på om Israel använde sig av Wardens teorier under dessa båda operationer.

    Anledningen till valet av dessa två konflikter är att Israel bl.a. sin doktrin slagit fast att de aldrig har råd att förlora ett krig. Detta tvingar Israel att optimera sin taktisering.

    Slutsatsen blev att det tydligt går att se att Wardens teorier genomsyrade Operation Change of Direction. Det var enbart "parallell attack" som inte tydligt efterföljdes genom hela operationen. Under Operation Cast Lead däremot så följde Israel Wardens teorier i mycket mindre utsträckning. Det var enbart "center of gravity" som följdes genom hela den operationen.

  • 306.
    Belin, Alexander
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Hemvärnets utveckling: förmågor och uppgifter2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 307.
    Belin, Jean
    et al.
    Chaire Economie de défense.
    Hartley, Keith
    University of York.
    Lefeez, Sophie
    IRIS.
    Linnenkamp, Hilmar
    SWP.
    Lundmark, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Masson, Hélène
    FRS.
    Maulny, Jean-Pierre
    IRIS.
    Ungaro, Alessandro
    IAI.
    Defence industrial links between EU and US2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Commission’s initiatives in the field of armament should lead to a deeper integration of European DTIBs in the coming years. In parallel, the links between European and American DTIBs take the form of technological and armament cooperation, and of capital links between European or American companies. This report aims at analysing the links between the US DTIB and the EU DTIB, and the consequences these links carry on cooperation between European DTIBs.

    These links vary by country. France has strived to preserve its strategic autonomy when developing its DTIB. Its technological and capability-related reliance on the United States has thus remained limited. Nonetheless, cooperation is sought when it is mutually beneficial while French companies seek to invest in the US market, as do other European DTIBs.

    The German DTIB was rebuilt belatedly after World War II, partly on the basis of French-German cooperation. German industry is now privatised and the scope of the German DTIB’s partnerships has widened to other European countries and to the US. The German supply chain is now well established in American armament programmes.

    The Italian DTIB has consistently pursued a policy of active cooperation, whether with the US or with EU member states. Links with the US have notably been built in the context of NATO and through bilateral agreements. In parallel, Italy has developed partnerships with European countries. Rome’s cooperation policy is thus inclusive, and has considered diverse factors such as political links, capability requirements, the need to develop certain technologies and to preserve industrial capabilities and jobs in Italy.

    The British DTIB has historically enjoyed deeper links with US industry, as a result of the cultural closeness between the UK and the US, and of the strategic proximity that dates back to the end of World War II. The links between US and UK DTIBs thus follow a model of strategic partnership. Nevertheless, the UK’s industrial and defence policy is also pursued within a European framework. The missile manufacturer MBDA is nowadays considered as the deepest model of transnational industrial and defence integration in Europe.

    While Sweden seeks to preserve its industrial capabilities in two sectors – submarines and military aircraft – it appears to be most technologically reliant on the US among the surveyed countries. It is worth noting also that these links are long-standing, dating back to the cold war and the Soviet threat, despite Sweden not being a NATO member state.

    The links with the US are thus very different from one country to another, and carry varying implications. While the costs of acquiring American equipment can be low despite their high technological grade, there are often constraints on their use and restrictions on technologies that will not be transferred, or that will be unusable for other partnerships.

    These links are also formalised through bilateral agreements promoting armament cooperation, as is the case for UK-Italian cooperation. For its part, Sweden has signed interstate agreements with the US in the field of technological cooperation.

    DEFENCE INDUSTRIAL LINKS BETWEEN EU AND US / September 2017

    3

    Since the European Council meeting in December 2013 and in its 2016 Global Strategy, the EU has set itself the task of developing "a certain degree of strategic autonomy" supposed to encourage greater competitiveness of European DTIBs.

    In order to promote the development of this European defence industrial policy, we must seek to ensure that the links between US and EU DTIB are mutually beneficial. To do this, two conditions must be met:

    -That the rules governing relations between US and EU DTIB be based on the principle of reciprocity and on equal rules of regulation of respective DTIBs.

    -That the rules governing relations between US and EU DTIB be defined in the context of a dialogue between the European Union and the United States and not bilaterally between each European country and the United States.

    Today the multiplication of bilateral agreements between the United States and European Union member states are potential obstacles to the establishment of a level playing field governing the relations between European DTIBs;

    There is also a lack of reciprocity and equal regulation of EU and US DTIB. This concerns different areas: access to advanced capabilities, unrestricted use of exported armament, access to cooperated technologies, rules governing investment in US and European companies, rules governing property rights over technologies, rules governing export controls.

    Organizing the transatlantic relationship in the field of armaments in order to have a more balanced and profitable relationship, can be achieved in two complementary ways.

    At the European level, the European Defence Research Program (EDRP) will have strong implications for the relations between the companies of the US DTIB and the EDTIB. The rules governing access to finance and the ownership of intellectual property rights (IPR), which will be adopted for collaborative R&T projects involving European defence companies, will result in a common framework governing the relationship between these companies and the US EDTIB: the more Europeans will collaborate among themselves in the field of defence research, the more they will be able to set common and mutually beneficial rules in their relationship with the United States.

    It may also be considered that some EU States will decide to engage in enhanced cooperation in the industrial defence field which could include the following rules:

    -Obligation to achieve a level of 30% R&T in common among the members of the enhanced cooperation, which means 10% more than the target that was defined 10 years ago by the European Defence Agency and that is regularly reminded in the objectives of the European Union;

    -Obligation to inform members of enhanced cooperation of agreements on defence R&T cooperation concluded with the United States so as to ensure compatibility of these agreements with existing agreements between members of enhanced cooperation. The objective is to prevent agreements with the United States from subsequently restricting the scope of existing agreements between European countries;

    DEFENCE INDUSTRIAL LINKS BETWEEN EU AND US / September 2017

    4

     

    -Obligation to systematically consider the acquisition of military equipment manufactured by one of the member countries of enhanced cooperation. This should be accompanied by reinforced security of supply rules;

    -The need to bring the export policies of the member states of the enhanced cooperation closer together.

    These rules, complementary with, and not contradictory to, those which are being defined at European Union level, would accelerate industrial defence consolidation in Europe and make it possible to consider on a more balanced, mutually equally beneficial, basis relations between the United States and the European Union in the field of armaments. These rules would also be inspired by political principles: to strengthen the strategic autonomy of the European Union when necessary. Far from forbidding cooperation between the US and the EU DTIB, such enhanced cooperation would be facilitated because cooperation between US EDTIB and EU DTIB would not be a brake on European cooperation, as it is currently still too often the case.

  • 308.
    Bendiksen, Roy Severeide
    Swedish Defence University.
    Operasjonell ildstøtte: Potensial for 9x styrkemultiplikasjon ved bruk av digital kommunikasjon2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [no]

    Militære operasjoner er i vedvarende endring, hvor en sentral utviklingstrend er bruk av tekniske hjelpemiddel. Dette har medført nye og mer effektive samhandlingsmåter og en påfølgende økning i innslag av fellesoperasjoner. Oppgaven handler om hvordan denne utviklingstrenden påvirker den operasjonelle ildstøttens bidrag til at landmakten kjerneoppdrag – å finne, binde og ramme motstan- deren. Dette tilnærmes gjennom å undersøke hvordan innføringen av digital kommunikasjon påvir- ker det operasjonelle ildstøttesystemets potensial for å skape effekt i det militære spillerom.

    Oppgavens undersøkelse viser at digital kommunikasjon gir ytelsesforbedring gjennom kompresjon av tid, hvilket i tur muliggjør situasjonsspesifikk styrkemultiplikasjon gjennom ekspansjon av rom. Samtidig indikeres det at situasjonsspesifikke kombinasjoner operasjonell ildstøtte har potensial for 3x ytelsesbedring og opp til 9x styrkemultiplikasjon, hvilket betyr at man kan bruke mindre ressurser for å oppnå samme effekt eller de samme ressurser for å oppnå en større effekt! Realisering av potensialet for styrkemultiplikasjon setter økte krav til den metodiske målbekjempningsprosessen og da spesielt kunnskap om egne muligheter og begrensninger. Dette handler om operasjonskunst og peker på viktigheten av systemkompetanse i planlegging og utførelse av operasjoner.

    Innføring av digital kommunikasjon må ses i sammenheng med hvordan pågående utviklingstrend skyver på det operasjonelle ildstøttesystemets sosio-tekniske balanse. Forståelse av fenomenet blir derfor viktig for videre funksjon- og kapabilitetsutvikling.

  • 309.
    Bengtsson, Anders
    Swedish Defence University.
    Svensk Psyops i Afghanistan: Påverkan i en irreguljär miljö2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det har i alla tider varit eftersträvansvärt att nå framgång i krig och konflikter med så få offrade människoliv, så lite påverkan på egendom och med så lite våldsanvändning som möjligt. Denna framgång kan nås på olika sätt, bland annat genom olika former av påverkan på deltagare i konflikten.

    Sedan 2008 har Sverige haft team med speciellt utbildad personal inom psykologiska operationer på plats i Afghanistan för att uppnå just detta.

    Syftet med detta arbete är att, genom en kvalitativ textanalys samt en intervju, undersöka vilka metoder de svenska psyopsförbanden använder sig av för att påverka lokalbefolkningen i Afghanistan samt om dessa metoder är lämpliga att använda i denna miljö.

    Resultatet visar att de metoder som används är lämpliga om de väljs med omsorg och olika metoder används mot olika målgrupper. Dock så lämpar sig inte samtliga metoder att användas mot samtliga målgrupper utan där måste en analys av uppgiften samt möjligheten till effekt analyseras innan operationen påbörjas. Vidare så visar resultatet på problematiken med rotationstider samt organisationen hos psyopsförbanden.

  • 310.
    Bengtsson, Erik
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Luftmaktsteori: en analys av Warden och Pape2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsens övergripande syfte är att undersöka författarens hypotes om att Warden och Papes teorier om luftmakt utgår från ett stormaktsperspektiv vilket minskar deras överförbarhet för mindre stater. I uppsatsens redogörs och blottläggs Wardens och Papes luftmaktsteorier för att förstå deras bakomliggande resonemang och krav.

    Ett urval av teoretikernas texter har analyserats enligt Fabers analysmodell vilket genererat en fragmenterad men analyserbar bild över respektive teori. Underlaget möjliggjorde för författaren att besvara uppsatsens två frågor: Vilka är huvuddragen i respektive teori? Vilka grundläggande förmågor är framträdande i respektive teori?

    Huvuddragen i Wardens teori kan sammanfattas med samhällets sårbarhet, parallell attack samt systemkollaps. Huvuddragen i Papes teori kan sammanfattas med att orsaka förluster, gemensam operation samt vinna territorium. Undersökningen visade att underrättelser, rörlighet samt skydd är framträdande förmågor i Wardens teori samt att uthållighet är framträdande i Papes teori.

    Avslutningsvis anser författaren att undersökningens resultat verifierar uppsatsens hypotes om luftmaksteoriernas stormaktsperspektiv minskar dess överförbarhet för mindre stater.

  • 311.
    Bengtsson, Ingemar
    Swedish Defence University.
    Militärteknikens betydelse för operationskonst – en fallstudie utav operativ planering2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats tar sin utgångspunkt i att den tekniska utvecklingen påverkar hur krig genomförs idag, där strid på operativ nivå utövas med sensor- och vapensystem från någon form av plattform. Därmed kommer teknik i högre grad påverka utgången av militära operationer. Vilket gör att det är viktigt att förstå hur militärteknik påverkar operationskonst. Då operativ planering kan ses som operationalisering av operationskonst torde militär-tekniska perspektiv återfinnas i planeringsmetodbeskrivningar. För att påvisa det kausala sambandet mellan operationskonst och militärteknik formulerades hypotesen – Militärteknik omhändertas i operativ planering genom att utgöra perspektiv på operationskonstens beståndsdelar. Denna hypotes prövades sedan gentemot två svenska planeringsmetoder, utan att kunna förkastas. Därmed är hypotesen tills vidare verifierad.

    Även om hypotesen prövats på svenska planeringsmetoder finns det stöd för att hypotesen även är giltig för andra planeringsmetoder. Faktum är att det snarare är detaljeringsgraden på metodbeskrivningarna som avgör om hypotesens indikatorer kan återfinnas. Då operations-konst kan vara både vetenskap och konst, räcker det inte med en tydlig metodbeskrivning. Chefer och planerare måste själva omsätta underlaget till en faktisk plan. Därför är det viktigt att dessa har kunskap och vetskap om hur de ska tänka. Vilket gör att militärteknik måste vara en naturlig del av utbildningen när operationskonstens beståndsdelar diskuteras.

  • 312.
    Bengtsson, Ingemar
    Swedish Defence University.
    Vad innebär införandet av FMN för Försvarsmaktens insatsledningssystem?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Armed Forces have declared that by the year 2023, the Swedish Armed Forces C2-systems are to be fully FMN compliant. This thesis is to answer what initially needs to change in the C4ISR to enable them to achieve FMN compatibility.

    The current FMN Spiral specification provides, in principle, only support for the essential human-to-human communication services. With this, the SA, JISR and MEDEVAC Mission Thread are to be conducted.

    The Swedish Armed Forces is clear about the importance of interoperability in order to act together with others, both within and outside its region. But it is less clear which of the Swedish Armed Forces C2-system that is affected by FMN.

    This thesis has come to the conclusion that SWECCIS probably is the C4ISR that best represents what FMN is trying to achieve today, and that SWECCIS basically is FMN compliant. SWECCIS provides, however, only four of the six human-to-human communications services, and the Swedish Armed Forces' current solution to provide audio-based collaboration services is not FMN compliant.

    The future FMN Spiral specifications will place more demands on the Swedish Armed Forces C4ISR for those to maintain their FMN compliant.

  • 313.
    Bengtsson, Kristofer
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Golanhöjderna, den strategiska betydelsen 1967-19732009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The topic of this essay is the strategic importance of the Golan Heights during the period 1967-1973, specifically targeting the following questions;

    -          Why were the heights strategically important?

    -          What are the gains of either of the states in controlling the Golan Heights?

    A theoretical framework based on Jerker Widén´s and Jan Ångström´s Militärteorins grunder (The fundamentals in Military Theory) and its chapter regarding the strategic context will be used as an analytical framework.

    The framework has been applied on the specific conditions of the Golan Heights during a given and limited period of time; stretching from 1967 to 1973, however, the study will not deal with the war of attrition in 1970 as the impact on the Golan Heights and the surrounding geographical strategically important area was limited if at all. The two wars waged during this particular time are used in an attempt to give a somewhat objective picture of the strategic importance of the area.

    The conclusions are that the importance of the Golan heights during the selected period was significant as the Golan Heights provided a “strategic lock” both ways and provides a favourable area to deploy artillery, intelligence and surveillance sensors.

  • 314.
    Bengtsson, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College.
    UCAV vs. Armed UAV - en studie i realiteters inverkan på visioner2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade of the 20th century, visionary theorists predicted that advanced UCAVswould replace or complement existing fighter aircraft of today. Those predictions have not beenfulfilled. The Armed UAVs used in today’s conflicts could almost be seen as armed sailplanes andthe development can be described as more pragmatic then innovative. The development could beexplained as two separate development tracks, Armed UAV and UCAV. The analysis shows thatArmed UAVs characteristic persistence is the driving factor in today’s low intensive conflicts. Themore glamorous UCAV on the other hand has showed to be more complex and expensive thanexpected, and especially that its characteristics: speed, autonomy and stealth are not demanded intoday’s conflicts.

  • 315.
    Bengtsson, Ola
    Swedish Defence University.
    Infanteriet - pånyttfött eller återanvänt?: En jämförelse av infanterireglemente under kalla kriget och idag2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay aims at studying how swedish infantry regulations have changed from the invasion-deterring army of the Cold War to today’s modern expeditional army, but also to show likenesses between these.The essay is based upon two regulations, Infanterireglemente Skyttebataljon 1974 and Markstridsreglemente 6: Manöverbataljon Förhandsutgåva 4 2012, which are compared with an analytical tool constructed from elaborated and operationalized parts of the six basic abilities.The thesis shows that there is a difference concerning the use of indirect method in order to defeat the opponent, and also in the terms of mission tactics. Similarities can be found in the description delaying the opponent and the use of indirect fire.

  • 316.
    Bengtsson, Rikard
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Stigmatisering: upphov till mörkertal efter genomförd internationell militär insats?2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Receiving support and help for physical injuries when returning from a military operation is natural and fully acceptable. As far as doing the same thing when having mental illness is not as likely to happen. The shame of admission in front of the people around you holds you back.  The problem might be stigma; you do not want to be seen as odd or different, seen as someone who mentally could not cope with the experience.

     

    If the need for care is unknown to the Armed Forces then there will be an unknown number of individuals who do not receive the support they are entitled to by law.

     

    This thesis aims to investigate how much impact the fear of stigmatization is after an international military operation.

  • 317.
    Bengtsson, Rikard
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Tjänstvillighet för Internationell militär insats2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with this essay is to present the reasons and explanations behind the decision to go or not to go on missions abroad and how obliging you can be. The essay relay on an examine of opinions due out of five categories of people, who either have an employment with or relative who is in connections with one who have an employment with the Swedish Defence Forces. Besides that two interviews have been conducted to get to know the thoughts or decisions behind for the relatives. The result is to give answer on what the main reasons are for the willingness of service abroad and what the Swedish Defence Forces and their principal can do about it to promote foreign service further more.

    The essay can be seen as a parallel investigation as the Veteran policies which have been conducted by the Defence ministry in 2008.

  • 318.
    Berg, Bo
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Nyttan med modulär design av stridsfartyg2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 319.
    Berg, Claes
    Swedish Defence University.
    Utan svans - inga tänder: Framgång ur ett logistikperspektiv2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Professionella militärer menar att logistik har en avgörande roll för krigföringen. Trots detta är det få forskare som studerat logistikens betydelse. Fram till 1900-talets senare hälft var området i stort sett outforskat men sedan dess har fler och fler intresserat sig för logistiken. Jämfört med exempelvis strategi är det få, och relativt små, studier som genomförts men alla är överens om att området är dåligt utforskat. De få teorier som utvecklats om logistikens betydelse har prövats av respektive författare men ingen har jämfört och ställt teorierna mot varandra.

    I en studie av Falklandskriget 1982 kommer därför logistikens roll för utgången av konflikten att undersökas ur två teoretiska perspektiv. Thomas M. Kanes teori om logistiken som skiljedomare och Mark Erbels & Christopher Kinseys teori om det logistiskstrategiska navet kommer båda att appliceras på fallet och resultatet användas för att jämföra teoriernas skillnader i syfte att visa på möjligheter för framtida teoriutveckling.

    Resultatet visar att logistik spelade en avgörande roll för utgången av Falklandskriget och att den sida som hade de bästa logistiska förutsättningarna segrare. De båda teorierna visar sig kunna förklara detta men de skiljer sig åt. Dessa skillnader och de frågor som skapas visar på behovet av ytterligare forskning om logistik och dess relation till strategi.

  • 320.
    Berg, Hillevi
    Swedish National Defence College.
    IMPROVISATIONSKRIS: Improvisation i svenska nationella krishanteringsövningar2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen syftar till att beskriva hur improvisation tagit sig uttryck i utformandet och genomförandet av de fyra samverkansövningar (SAMÖ) som hitintills genomförts i Sverige. SAMÖ ska öka den nationella krisberedskapsförmågan och då robust och effektiv krishantering kräver improvisation studeras hur improvisation tagit sig uttryck i dessa övningar. Tre improvisationstyper har identifierats i tidigare forskning; nyskapande, adaptiv och återskapande improvisation. Förekomst av dessa i form av implicita respektive explicita uttryck eftersöks i övningsutvärderingarna genom att operationaliseringar av begreppen används som raster vid analys av materialet. Studien har funnit att uttryck av improvisation saknas i utformandet av övningarna men att uttryck av nyskapande improvisation förekommer i övningsdeltagarnas genomförande av SAMÖ 2004, 2007 och 2008 och SAMÖ-KKÖ 2011 samt att adaptiv improvisation förekommer i genomförandet av SAMÖ 2004 och 2007.

  • 321.
    Berg, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University.
    Förändring genom inlärning: Händelserelaterad policyförändring inom svensk krisberedskap2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen syftar till att förklara uppkomsten av förändringsförslagen som presenterades i MSB:s rapport ” Ansvar, samverkan, handling. Åtgärder för stärkt krisberedskap utifrån erfarenheterna frånskogsbranden i Västmanland 2014” Med hjälp av processpårning görs en inomfallsanalys där Västmanlandsbranden ses som en ”fokus händelse”. Denna händelse agerar som ett stimuli till förändring. Till detta används Birklands teori krig den händelserelaterade policyförändringen och dess indikatorer för att förklara förändring genom inlärning. Studien visar det troligt att lärdomar från Västmanlandsbranden tagits till vara och gett upphov till förslag till förändring inom svensk krisberedskap.

  • 322.
    Berg, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Nanostrukturell ytbeläggning på utsatta delar av marina drivlinor2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays naval units are participating in international missions, where new and in many cases tougher conditions will affect their propulsion.

     

    This essay deals with some of the now developed nanostructure coatings and gives a presentation of how the coatings could function on some exposed parts of the naval powertrain. The essay investigates the possibility that the coatings can be used as a protective layer that will reduce or prevent wear on selected parts of the naval powertrains. As a basis for the essay, nanotechnology is described, as well as different reasons that wear occurs and application techniques for coatings

     

    The conclusion is that nanostructured coatings can be applied and provide a much better result on hardness and wear resistance as of naval powertrains compared to micro-structural coatings, both for manufacturing and renovation.

     

    The essay presents a few examples of the military utility of the nanostructure coatings as well as suggestions for further research.

  • 323.
    Berg, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Självsanerande ytbeläggning i nanostruktur: Är det möjligt att applicera på elektrooptiska sensorer och till vilken nytta?2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with now developed self-cleaning coatings and gives a presentation of how they work on some electro-optical sensor lenses used in the navy. The study also examines the coatings transmittance and how efficient they can clean the sensor lenses from undesired salt layers and other soiling particles.

    After the introduction the study presents basic facts of the chosen sensors, nanotechnology, surface wettability and also salts and salinity. Thereafter the study describes current nano-research on self-cleaning coatings and possible results there of, when the coatings are applied on the different sensors.

    In the study I give my opinion of the military benefit of using self-cleaning coatings, which from a general point of view is that there mostly are positive effects using such a coating, in a technical perspective.

    The study ends with conclusions that there are self-cleaning coatings based on TiO2-nanoparticles which can transmit within the visual spectra and also can clean undesired soiling particles. But can not confirm that these coatings have the desired effect on salt crystals, or transmit within wavelengths spectrum for IR-detectors and lasers.

  • 324.
    Berg, Torgeir
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Anvenderlogistikkens betydning for tempo i et manøverkonsept2002Student paper otherStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with operational logistics. The transition from a static conceptbased on attrition, to a consept based on tempo and maneuver, put newdemands on the logistic system. It is therfore interesting to look closer into theconnection between tempo and logistical support. This is done by describingand anlysing possibilities and limitations regarding support of tactical armyunits, with the aim of gaining a deeper understanding of the significance oflogistics in a maneuver concept. The basic question is how logistics cansupport tempo in army operations and what kind of distribution procedureshould be used in logistical support? The method used is qua litative textualanalysis and I use the perspective of general systems theory.The first part of the paper examines logistics as an integral part of maneuverwarfare. Because it is an integral part of war, logistics is also subject tocharacteristics of war, as non- linearity, friction, uncertainty and fluidity. At thesame time the battlespace is expanding and creating an non linear array offorces with conciderable separation between units and an intermixing offriendly and enemy forces. This factors will together put more strain on thelogistic system and delivery of resources can never be taken for grantedManeuver warfare depends heavily upon the use of tempo, both as a means ofexploiting opportunities and as a weapon on its own right. This first part of thepaper focuses upon analyzing logistics as a critical contributor for thegeneration and maintenance of tempo.The second part of the paper focuses primarily upon the distribution process atthe tactical level. The discussion of the levels of logistics, combined withexamples from the Gulf War, illustrates the complexity and interrelationship oflogistics and shows that the system must be able of operating at all three levelsog logistics in order to fully support the commander. In examining the make upof the logistic system, I identified the procedures being used as a key element.Basically there are two types of procedures that can be employed to effectdistribution. The first, pull, places almost total responsibility on the needingunit. The second, push, places most responibility on the logistic system itself.My key findings are that an army must use a combination of push and pullprocedures, although the push procedure seem to be the best system in amaneuver warfare concept. Finally I found that the maneuver warfarephilosophy will demand units to be self sufficient for longer periods in order tobe able to exploit opportunities and maintain tempo.

  • 325.
    Bergdahl, Oscar
    Swedish Defence University.
    Dynamiken i slaget om befolkningens stöd: Upprorsmakarnas misslyckande i Malaya2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The military interventions in Afghanistan and Iraq in the early 21st century evolved into extended counterinsurgency operations based on lessons from The Malayan Emergency 1948-1960. However, these lessons have been questioned as the study of the emergency has concentrated on one-sided studies, looking to explain the outcome merely as a result of the counterinsurgent’s actions. Furthermore, the case contradicts former research stating that the use of coercive measures leads to failure, which indicates that other factors also affect the outcome. Therefore - to be able to draw correct lessons from cases of counterinsurgency - it is not only needed to study the acts of the counterinsurgent, but also the actions of the insurgent. Hence, this case study examines what measures the insurgent used and how these, combined with the acts of the counterinsurgent, affected the outcome. The study suggests that the insurgent embraced an enemy-centric strategy which, through the substantial use of coercive measures, outweighed the coercive measures of the counterinsurgent and consequently alienated the insurgent’s cause from the population. Therefore, the findings complement past explanations to why the uprising failed and highlights the dynamics of insurgency warfare.

  • 326.
    Berge, Patrik
    Swedish Defence University.
    Hur förklaras framgång i kustförsvarsoperationer genom tillämpningen av kombinerade vapen?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    När det föreligger ett hot om angrepp via havet är förmågan till kustförsvar vitalt. Kustförsvaret ska verka i en utmanande stridsmiljö där elementen hav, luft och land möts. Genomförande av kustförsvar samlas normalt under begreppet kustförsvarsoperationer. Forskningsläget pekar på att förmågan till kustförsvar är viktigt för en kuststat, samtidigt är det konceptuella teoretiska ramverket för dess genomförande outvecklat. Ur ett manöverteoretiskt perspektiv utgör kombinerade vapen en generell konceptuell metod avseende genomförande av strid. Undersökningens syfte utgörs av att utöka den förståelsen för hur framgång i kustförsvarsoperationer kan förklaras genom tillämpning av kombinerade vapen. Forskningsdesignen är konstruerad såsom en jämförande fåfallsstudie, med olika utfall. Undersökningens analysenheter består av två empiriska fall, kustförsvarsoperationerna vid Salerno 1943 respektive Falklandsöarna 1982.

    Resultatet pekar på ett samband mellan tillämpning av kombinerade vapen och graden av framgång i kustförvarsstriden. Resultatet pekar också på att dessa principer ofta, men inte alltid, är interrelaterade mellan varandra och att det finns ett samband mellan förmågan att exploatera en vunnen framgång och dess varaktighet och effekt. Generalieringsambitionen avseende resultatet måste betraktas utifrån att endast två fall som undersökts. Detta medför att fler empiriska prövningar på fall av kustförsvarsoperationer kan utgöra förslag för fortsatt forskning.

  • 327.
    Berge, Patrik
    Swedish Defence University.
    Överraskning och tempo i amfibieoperationer: Om två av krigföringens grundprincipers innebörd och betydelse på amfibieanfallen vid Inchon samt Anzio2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An amphibious assault can open new fronts and totally change the operational and strategic situation. Amphibious assault often depends on the principles of surprise and tempo.

     

    The principles of war, surprise and tempo are the main focus in this thesis. The context consists of the operational type, amphibious assault. The main problem that the study will try to answer is the paradox that theorists highlight these principles as essential conditions for amphibious operations, but they have not developed specifically why and how. In this context it is interesting because there are a number of paradoxes between the type of operation and the principles.

     

    To be able to examine the principles a higher degree of concreteness has to be applied. This is done by examining what other modern theorists has developed on the principles. The most prominent factors then become the thesis operationalized indicators that provides the analysis tool for the thesis. The theory will then be tested by analysing two case studies, Operation Shingle in Anzio and Operation Chromite in Inchon.

     

    The result shows that the indicators of surprise consists of unexpected acting, diversion and operations security. The results of the case study regarding this comes to the conclusions that unexpected acting and operation security are key factors. The indicators of tempo are rapid decision-making and quick physical movement. The case study result indicates that both are criterias for success and are based on a mutual relationship between the indicators.

  • 328.
    Bergfeldt, Sandra
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Biased Mediators and Sustainable Peace: Why are some peace agreements more durable than others?2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mediator characteristics have been found to affect both the process of getting warring parties to sign an agreement and how sustainable that agreement will turn out to be. Since the type of peace agreement also has been found to affect the sustainability of peace agreements, this study aims at examining whether the identity of the mediator is related to which type of agreement is being signed and to see if this could be an explaining factor to the previous results in this field. Many earlier studies have defined success in different ways, mainly either as the signing of an agreement or the durability of agreements. This study contributes to the research field by combining these two definitions. Since type of agreement has been shown to affect the durability of peace, factors that influence what type of agreement is signed will also affect how sustainable the agreement will be. Peace agreement sustainability is seen as the definition of success, but in the search for what makes an agreement last, you might have to look at what makes the parties sign the agreement in the first place. This will therefore develop the concept of successful mediation and analyze the two definitions as one. It is argued that international mediators will have a higher degree of comprehensive agreements compared to regional mediators and that this is the reason for why international mediators have been found to generate more durable peace. The results indicate that there is no difference between the two types of actors in terms of how much of the incompatibility is solved in the agreement, but when looking at how many parties are signatories, international and mixed mediators were correlated with a higher degree of comprehensiveness than regional mediators.

  • 329.
    Berggren, Anders W.
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Weibull, Louise
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Hedlund, Erik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Granberg, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Hyllengren, Peder
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Gustavsson, Björn
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Makt, pedagogik, ledarskap och organisation: En studie av ett mekaniserat skyttekompani2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport sammanfattar en studie som genomförts vid P4 i Skövde, där forskargruppen följt 414. Skkomp från augusti 2010 till juni 2011.

    Utbildningen av 414. skyttekompaniet aktualiserar frågor rörande rollspelet mellan solda­ter och officerare, utbildningens utformning, samt frågor om yrkeskunnande och yrkesidenti­tet.

    Mer konkret identifierar studien följande områden för Försvarsmakten att fokusera:

    • begreppen ”soldat” och ”officer” i det nya personalförsörjningssyste­met, och vad det innebär att vara professionell i Försvarsmakten.
    • soldaten och kompetensutveckling av dessa.
    • grpC tänkta roll och kompetensutveckling av dessa.
    • hur man på förbanden kan involvera GrpC i ”chain of command”?
    • hur kan Försvarsmakten i handling visa att soldaterna är viktiga”.
    • kring erfarenhetsresonemanget/trappan i syfte att stärka officerarna samt att utveckla professionen totalt sett.
    • hur utbildning skall genomföras när PRIO-org är intagen?

     

    Vidare pekar studien ut frågor kring hur man lokalt hanterar att alla anställda soldater inte kan ingå i en insats (givet att t ex FS-organisationen skiljer sig numerärt från förbandets grund­organisation), samt hur ett förband vidmakt­håller förmågor över tiden.

    I rapporten beskrivs även ett fenomen som handlar om ett informationsglapp mellan kompa­niets ordinarie ledningsstruktur (kompanichef och plutonchefer) och de som genomför olika utbildningsmoment, d v s när den som genomför en trupputbildning inte har ett direkt chefsansvar.

  • 330.
    Berggren, Jonatan
    Swedish Defence University.
    Mål och metoder i svensk säkerhetspolitik: Policykoherens i Ett användbart försvar2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Propositionen Ett användbart försvar från 2009 innebar ett slutgiltigt brott med den gamla idén om alliansfrihet och neutralitet – ersättningen blev vad som kommit att kallas en ”solidaritetstrategi”. Parallellt med denna strategiska omläggning har omfattande förändringar skett på andra områden inom säkerhetspolitiken, bl.a. i det att värnplikten i praktiken avskaffats. Dessa olika reformer sammanfaller förvisso i tid, men de kausala sambanden är inte självklara. Utgångspunkten i undersökningen är därför att söka klargöra hur väl den svenska säkerhetspolitikens mål och metoder hänger samman, givet att utformningen av dessa är sprungna ur olika faktorer. Föreligger överensstämmelse, dels inbördes mellan olika metoder för att nå målen, dels mellan dessa metoder och den övergripande målsättningen, eller går det att identifiera brister och oklarheter?

    Den metodologiska utgångspunkten har varit en innehållslig idéanalys, där propositionen Ett användbart försvar tillsammans med regeringens utrikesdeklaration använts för att teckna en bild av den säkerhetspolitiska målsättningen och strategin utifrån den strategiska hierarkin. Denna bild har i sin tur sedan analyserats med utgångspunkt i begreppet policykoherens. Slutligen har analysen placerats i en kontext, i det att den sätts i relation till motsvarande förhållande i den föregående svenska säkerhetspolitiska epoken, det kalla kriget.

    Undersökningen visar att den säkerhetspolitiska strategin hänger relativt väl samman på de högre nivåerna, i det att den betonar samarbetesstrategier för att nå säkerhet tillsammans med andra länder. I de stratgier som syftar till konkret genomförande återfinns dock koherensproblem, främst knutet till den unilaterala solidaritetsförklaringen och den militära allianfriheten; säkerhet ska skapas tillsammans med andra, men samtidigt saknas garantier för att hjälp faktiskt kommer i händelse av kris eller konflikt. Mindre koherensproblem uppstår som följd av detta, men förekommer också självständigt i det att hotbilden som beskrivs i propositionen är mångtydig och därmed undandrar sig den analys som skulle krävas för att kunna beskriva politiken som sammanhängande.

  • 331.
    Berggren, Magdalena
    Swedish Defence University.
    Planering i militär kontext: En studie av PUT-modellen utifrån den svenska doktrinen2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 332.
    Berggren, Peter
    et al.
    Department of Computer and Information Science, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Björn J E
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, Information and Aeronautical Systems, Linköping, Sweden.
    Baroutsi, Nicoletta
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Assessing the quality of Shared Priorities in teams using content analysis in a microworld experiment2017In: Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, ISSN 1463-922X, E-ISSN 1464-536X, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 128-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective, easy to use, and easy to comprehend assessment methods for measuring shared understanding in teams are hard to find. This paper describes an experiment where a measure called Shared Priorities, which is based on ranking of self-generated strategic items, is assessed. Trained teams were compared to non-trained teams in a dynamic problem-solving task. The maturity of the participating teams was also assessed using a content analysis measure. The Shared Priorities measure was used alongside other well-documented measures of team awareness based on self-rating. Results show that the Shared Priorities measure correlates with task performance and could also distinguish between trained and non-trained teams. However, the Shared Priorities measure did not correlate with the other team measures (cf. CARS – Crew Awareness Rating Scale – and DATMA – Distributed Assessment of Team Mutual Awareness), suggesting that it captures a different quality of teamwork than the self-rating measures. Further, the Shared Priorities measure was found to be easily administered.

  • 333.
    Berggren, Peter
    et al.
    FOI.
    Johansson, Björn JE
    FOI.
    Baroutsi, Nicoletta
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Dahlbäck, Nils
    Department of Computer and Information Science, Linköping University.
    The shared priorities measure as a way of assessing team strategic awareness: a bridge between self-assessment and the deep blue sea of field recordings2014In: Proceedings of the 2014 European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics, ACM Digital Library, 2014, p. 13-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective, easy to use, easy to comprehend, high face-validity assessment methods for measuring shared awareness in teams are hard to find. This paper describes an experiment where a new measure called Shared Priorities, which is based on ranking of self-generated strategic items, is tested. Trained teams were compared to non-trained teams in a dynamic problem-solving task in terms of performance and shared awareness. The shared priorities measure was used alongside other, well-documented measures of team awareness based on self-rating. The results show that the Shared Priorities measure correlate with performance and could also distinguish between trained and non-trained teams. However, the Shared Priorities measure did not correlate with the other team measures, suggesting that it captures a different quality of team work than the self-rating measures. Further, the shared priorities measure was found to be easily administered and gained a high user acceptance.

  • 334.
    Berggren, Peter
    et al.
    FOI.
    Johansson, Björn JE
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Baroutsi, Nicoletta
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Turcotte, Isabelle
    Laval University, Canada.
    Tremblay, Sébastien
    Laval University, Canada.
    Assessing team focused behaviors in emergency response teams using the shared priorities measure2014In: Proceedings of the 11th International ISCRAM Conference / [ed] S.R. Hiltz, M.S. Pfaff, L. Plotnick, and P.C. Shih, Pennsylvania, USA: ISCRAM , 2014, p. 130-134Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this work in progress paper is to report on the method development of the Shared Prioritiesmeasure to include content analysis, as a way of gaining a deeper understanding of team work incrisis/emergency response. An experiment is reported where the performance of six trained teams is comparedwith the performance of six non-trained teams. The experiment was performed using an emergency responsemicroworld simulation with a forest fire scenario. Dependent measures were simulation performance, the CrewAwareness Rating Scale (CARS), and content analysis. Trained teams performed better and scored higher onmeasures of team behaviors.

  • 335.
    Berggren, Peter
    et al.
    FOI.
    Johansson, Björn JE
    FOI.
    Svensson, Erland
    Baroutsi, Nicoletta
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Dahlbäck, Nils
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Statistical modelling of team training in a microworld study2014In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Sage Publications, 2014, p. 894-898Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A command and control environment is a dynamic and complex setting with complicated technical systems where teams of operators interact to reach shared goals. This study presents an experiment in which we, by means of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), explain the relations between basic concepts of command and control environments: mental workload, frustration, situational awareness, and performance. This paper reports a LISREL analysis of the Baroutsi, Berggren, Nählinder, & Johansson (2013) data. From that data, a new latent variable “Frustration” emerges, which now can be included in the model.

  • 336.
    Berggrund, Ebba
    Swedish Defence University.
    “You can choose your friends, but not your neighbours”: A field study of the informal practice of restorative justice and its ties to community resilience in rural communities in Nakuru County, Kenya2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The justice system in the east-African country Kenya has long been subject to severe corruption and lengthy bureaucracy.  Both historical and current injustices have been left unattended and unaddressed, obstructing community resilience. This has lead to the development of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) mechanisms that often build on traditional practices. In this study the ADR of restorative justice is examined. The study seeks to explore the relationship between the informal practice of restorative justice and the social dimensions of community resilience in the rural communities of Nakuru County in western Kenya. By merging questions on the practice of restorative justice with indicators of community resilience the study has found that the informal practice of restorative justice indeed has links to the shaping of community resilience. The practice has enabled dialogue between different ethnic groups. This has facilitated reconciliation and healing of trauma partly because new narratives have formed and partly because the culture of silence has been broken allowing people to share testimonies of violence and conflict. The study has also informed the community resilience field on the importance for collectivistic communities to have historical and ancestral events honoured, shared and addressed in order to fully enable conditions under which community resilience can form. However the practice shows ambiguous tendencies when it comes to inclusion of all members of society as community elders’ possesses a lot of power over the process, partially restricting community resilience to form. 

  • 337.
    Bergh, Andreas
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Intentionen att tillämpa uppdragstaktik: en fallstudie av TD012009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 338.
    Bergh, Mats
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Manövertänkande inom armén: "nytt" namn på gammalt tänkande?2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Military Strategic Doctrine was published in 2002 and it stated for the first time, that allactivity performed by the Swedish Armed Forces was to be influenced by the concept ofManeuver Thinking. A concept known since the 1980s and established, among others, byWilliam S. Lind in connection with his work concerning new doctrines for the U.S. MarineCorps. In Sweden we have talked about the concept since the 1990s, but we have not madeany formal expression of it in regulations and governing documents.Taking a starting point in the time after the Second World War and moving forward to the endof the 20th century this investigation will take a closer look at three occasions, which all markimportant events for the Swedish Armed Forces and the Army. First the 1950s, which meant acontinuing quantitative development as a consequence of the rearmament during the SecondWorld War. Second the 1970s, which was the beginning of the disarmament by the SwedishArmed Forces that is still in progress, as a result of the Defence Resolution in 1968. Finally,the 1990s, which meant an increased mechanization of the Army with the procurement of theLeopard 2 Improved, Combat Vehicle 90 and various vehicles from the former Eastern states.By using some specifically selected indicators representing the concept of Maneuver Thinkingand a number of governing documents and regulations from the three chosen periods, thisinvestigation will be able to find out to what degree the concept of Manoeuvre Thinkingexisted in the Army before it was formalized in The Military Doctrines. The literature anddocuments that are to be investigated consist of everything from the political and militarystrategic level and the Defence Resolutions down to the common soldier and his instructionsin the “Soldier’s Handbook” (Svensk soldat).The results prove that there has been a concept of Maneuver Thinking within the Army and ithas been expressed in different ways, especially in the investigated Army regulations.

  • 339.
    Bergkvist, Erik
    Swedish National Defence College.
    En relation med problem: problematiken kring den politiska styrningen av Försvarsmakten2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay, at a C-level as a part of the National Defense College Senior Staff Course, has as purpose

    to contribute to the general understanding of the problems connected to the political governance

    of armed forces.

    The main method used in the empiric part of this essay is a text analysis of the political guidelines

    to the military part of the states finances budget process and the corresponding military counterpart.

    A comparison between the documents will be done in order to seek discrepancies in the directives

    from the government and the way they are interpreted by the armed forces.

    The main question is if the governments´ guidelines are indistinct and difficult to interpret or if the

    military, on the contrary, is unable to apprehend?

    In the essay some possible interpretations of how to understand the problems about political governance

    of armed forces will be presented.

  • 340.
    Berglund, Anna Karin
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Alvinius, Aida
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Om höga chefer trivs/inte trivs på jobbet - "smittar det av sig" ända ned till soldater och sjömän?2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med undersökningen var att få fördjupad förståelse om upplevelsen av engagemang i arbetet ”smittar” mellan hierarkiska nivåer. Avsikten var att belysa denna form av påverkan såväl uppifrån och ned som nedifrån och upp. Intervjuer med totalt 26 informanter genomfördes på följande fyra nivåer: (1) Produktions-avdelningen på Högkvarteret, (2) förbands och bataljons-/divisionsledning, (3) kompani och plutons-/fartygsledning och (4) soldater och sjömän.

    Resultatredovisningen fokuserar på betydelsen av informanternas eget handlande för andras engagemang i arbetet och betydelsen av andras handlande för informanternas engagemang i arbetet. Både positiva och negativa aspekter tas upp.

    Resultatet visar att det finns en viss smittoeffekt uppifrån och ned på så sätt att handlingar utförda av ledningen på Högkvarteret har en effekt på förbands-ledningsnivå, som i sin tur har en viss effekt på kompaniledningsnivå, som slutligen har en viss effekt på soldat/sjömansnivå. Smittoeffekten finns i hela den hierarkiska kedjan men är svag när man är två eller fler hierarkiska nivåer från ”smittspridaren”.

    Smittokraften kan däremot vara stark gentemot närmsta hierarkiska nivå, framförallt nedåt i hierarkin. På soldat/sjömansnivå, som är den viktigaste för Försvarsmaktens personalförsörjning, innebär detta att de som betyder mest är de officerare och specialistofficerare som soldaterna och sjömännen dagligen möter. Sannolikt förhåller det sig så att engagerade befäl på denna nivå kan övervinna att ogynnsamt engagemang högre upp i hierarkin. På ett likartat sätt kan sannolikt en brist på engagemang på den lägsta befälsnivån kullkasta effekten av ett stort engagemang högre upp i organisationen.

    Ur personalförsörjningssynpunkt är det således angeläget att den lägsta chefsnivån är engagerad och att organisationen gör sitt yttersta för att optimera förutsättningarna för detta engagemang. Enkelt uttryckt, det är viktigare att gruppchefer, instruktörer samt plutons- och kompanibefäl är engagerade än att förbandsledning och försvarsmaktsledning är det.

  • 341.
    Berglund, Lars
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Rätt människa på rätt plats - under rätt tid2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay was to study how the Swedish Armed Forces, officers manningsystem provides officers for Armed Forces HQ and The National Defence College oncompletion of The Advanced Command Program. How is selection turned out and whathappens after the program when the officer is to be posted? The aim was to examine if theofficer manning system is up to date, or if change is required.The essay begins with an introduction of Jay Hall´s theories about competences. Thiscompetence process is strengthened with Sandberg and Targama´s theory about the issue ofcomprehension.Most part of the empiric material is interviews with officers of this level (lieutenant-colonel).The method used in this essay is a qualitative and investigational analysis of the interviewswithin the hermeneutic tradition of science. The purpose is not to fully describe the attitude ofthe Swedish officer corps on this subject, but rather to explore the ideas and thoughts of theseofficers who have actually experienced the situation.Summary: The role of the Swedish Armed Forces is changing, but the officer manning processwith support of officers to higher levels has its limitations, because the overall process has notchanged and must be reviewed. The lack of a clear vision and all-embracing goals for theorganization makes this picture even darker.

  • 342.
    Berglund, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Sturesson, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division. Uppsala University.
    Persson, Anders
    Uppsala University.
    Thornell, Greger
    Uppsala University.
    Manufacturing Miniature Langmuir probes by Fusing Platinum Bond Wires2015In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 25, no 10, article id 105012Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on a novel method for manufacturing microscopic Langmuir probes with spherical tips from platinum bond wires by fusing for plasma characterization in microplasma sources. Here, the resulting endpoints, formed by droplets on the ends of a fused wire, are intended to act as spherical Langmuir probes. For studying the fusing behavior, bond wires were wedge bonded over a 2 mm wide slit, to emulate the final application, and fused with different voltages and currents. For electrical isolation, a set of wires were coated with a 4 μm thick layer of Parylene before they were fused. After fusing, the gap size, as well as the shape and area of the ends of the remaining stubs were measured. The yield of the process was also investigated, and the fusing event was studied using a high-speed camera for analyzing its dynamics. Four characteristic tip shapes were observed: spherical, folded, serpentine shaped and semi-spherical. The stub length leveled out at  ~400 μm as the fusing power increased. The fusing of the coated wires required a higher power to yield a spherical shape. Finally, a Parylene coated bond wire was integrated into a stripline split-ring resonator (SSRR) microplasma source, and was fused to form two Langmuir probes with spherical endpoints. These probes were used for measuring the IV characteristics of a plasma generated by the SSRR. In a voltage range between  −60 V and 60 V, the fused stubs exhibited the expected behavior of spherical Langmuir probes, and will be considered for further integration.

  • 343.
    Berglund, Viktor
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Värnplikt eller frivillighet?: Nya krav på Försvarsmaktens ledare2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the changes in the objectives for the Swedish Armed Forces, where national defense is beingreplaced by international missions in defense of Sweden’s interests, some major changes are taking place within the organization. One of these is replacing the conscription-based army with a professional employed one. One can assume that the human resource direction will have consequences for the demands on the Armed Forces and its leaders. The focus of this paper is on the platoon commanders leadership and management. The aim of the paper is to determine if there are any differences between being a platoon commander over conscripts versus employed soldiers. The question this paper is attempting to answer is whether there is a difference in their leadership and management. The paper is based primarily upon literature concerning leadership and organizations and interviews with platoon commanders. The results of the paper can be summarized with two conclusions. The first is that through realistic and relevant goals, the units become more effective and motivated, unlike when goals are abstractand theoretical, as Sweden’s national defense once was. The second conclusion is that by using a transformational leadership that permeates the organization, personnel and training, end results are much better. The commitment, motivation and openness within the studied units became much higher when transformational leadership was applied.

  • 344.
    Bergman, Amanda
    Swedish Defence University.
    Sveriges avskräckningsstrategi som småstat under två perioder2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Deterrence was during the cold war and is still today an important part of being war deterrent. The military defence of Sweden has since the end of the cold war been under disarmament. Despite the disarmament of the Swedish military, the military strategic policy is still that Sweden shall be able to deter a superpower.

    In what way has the deterrence strategy changed between the periods 1957 to 1963 and 2014 to 2017, regarding the strategic threat, security policy and military capability?

    The aim with this thesis is to mediate an understanding, how Sweden as a small state is trying to accomplish deterrence against a superpower and how Sweden has changed its view of deterrence.

    The analysis show that there has been a change of the deterrence strategy, based on the strategic threat, security policy and military capability, but still some parts remain the same. The biggest change between to two periods is that today deterrence is regarded best achieved together with other countries rather then alone.

     

  • 345.
    Bergman, Andreas
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Strategy Section.
    The Regulation of Private Military and Security Services in Sweden2010Report (Other academic)
  • 346.
    Bergman, Nicklas
    Swedish Defence University.
    Avskräckande effekt hos defensiva luftstridskrafter: En motstridighet?2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Svensk doktrin stipulerar att grunden för Försvarsmaktens uppträdande att avskräcka olika aktörer från att använda våld. Detta ifrågasätts här grundat på att avskräckning oftast utgår ifrån numerär överlägsenhet, och Sverige kan anses ha en hotbild från regionala stormakter.

    Vilka luftoperativa förmågor kan då ligga bakom en avskräckande effekt hos en numerärt underlägsen luftstridskraft?  Syftet är att förklara detta genom en flerfallstudie utifrån avskräckningsteorier kopplade till luftmaktsteori i ett småstatsperspektiv. I en avslutande diskussion återkopplas detta mot Sveriges luftoperativa förmågor för att utröna om dessa bidrar till den avskräckande effekt som beskrivs som grundläggande i Försvarsmaktens doktrin.

    Fallstudien gav att Jaktflyg var den enda variabeln som sågs samvariera med lyckad avskräckning. I diskussionen om Sveriges motsvarande förmågor framkom att Försvarsmakten har en relativt hög förmåga till jaktflyg.

  • 347.
    Bergman, Nicklas
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Syfte och mening inom svensk doktrinutveckling?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I och med Militärstrategisk doktrin 2012 och senast Operativ doktrin 2014 har Försvarsmakten gått ifrån att vara en debutant i doktrinära sammanhang till att faktiskt genomföra doktrinutveckling. Detta mitt under en tidsperiod som varit säkerhetspolitiskt omvälvande och där doktrinutvecklingen globalt har accelererat under åren som följt efter 9/11. För att få djupare förståelse och insikt för doktrinutveckling går uppsatsen in bakom doktrinens egen text för att analysera dess innebörd och syfte utifrån ett vetenskapligt angreppssätt.

    Uppsatsen syftar till att systematiskt analysera Operativ doktrin 2014 för att få en djupare förståelse för vilken roll och utformning Försvarsmaktens rådande doktrin har.

  • 348.
    Bergqvist, Carl
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Den svenska försvarsreformens drivkrafter 1994-20042014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I och med de tre försvarsbesluten 1996, 2000 och 2004 genomgick det svenska försvaret en omfattandereform där stora delar av försvaret avvecklades, samtidigt som en radikal ominriktning skeddeav försvarets huvuduppgifter. 2014 när det nationella försvaret åter börjar bli en huvuduppgiftför Försvarsmakten ställer sig många frågande till varför så lite av försvaret är kvar idag.Uppsatsen syftar till att identifiera vilka drivkrafter som låg bakom denna mycket omfattande försvarsreformoch även se huruvida drivkrafterna förändrades under reformens gång. För att identifieradrivkrafterna används två analysmodeller för beslutsfattande ur Graham Allisons Essence ofDecision.Resultatet visar att de huvudsakliga drivkrafterna bakom den svenska försvarsreformen kan förklarassom ekonomiska och som en vilja från både politiskt håll och Försvarsmakten att använda försvarettill att genomföra internationella insatser. Under försvarsreformens gång har den ekonomiskadrivkraften bestått och förstärkts av ett köpslående mellan de olika partier som behövts föratt en minoritetsregering ska överleva. Viljan till internationella insatser har under perioden kommitatt bli en allt starkare drivkraft.

  • 349.
    Bergqvist, Tuula
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Avdelningen för arbetsvetenskap.
    Hobbins, Jennifer
    Karlstads universitet, Avdelningen för arbetsvetenskap.
    Eriksson, Birgitta
    Karlstads universitet, Avdelningen för arbetsvetenskap.
    YOUNEX WP4 National Report Sweden2011Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 350.
    Bergset, Tor Steinar
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Deteksjon av optikk og elektro-optikk ved hjelp av laser: En studie av den militære nytten med et lasersystem for deteksjon av en motstanders optikk og elektro-optikk2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Detection of the optics of an opponent has proven to be of military interest, in order to detect snipers before they have fired. This kind of detection is also of interest when it comes to locating forward observers and other observers, who also use optics to affect our forces indirectly. The principle of such detection is called retro-reflection, where one applies a laser to scan an area and then detect the retro-reflected signal from the opponents optics, and thereby the opponent himself. This thesis investigates what parameters such a system should have, in order to achieve military utility, in a situation where one is typically securing a base or an object in one’s own rear area of operations. This utility is measured against a situation where one does not have systems for detection of the threat. The objects in question may be command posts or other installations of special interest to a sophisticated opponent.

    This thesis examines this topic from a perspective where the military need for such a system is analysed first, followed by identifying what overall functions are needed to fulfill this need and finally what the technical requirements are. The analysis, results and discussions point to four such functions central to fulfilling the military need. It is necessary to have a range that matches the ranges an opponent will operate from. The system must be able to reduce the number of false targets that appear. The safety of one’s own personnel must be adequate. The system configuration must support the other functions at the same time as it fulfills the need for increased situational awareness and flexibility. The examination of the technical factors has shown that the best possible balance of these factors is essential in achieving the desired effects, and avoiding the undesired effects of the system. These factors are described and include laser pulse energies, wavelengths, scanning methods, beam divergence, techniques to minimize the number of false targets and different system configurations, which can increase situational awareness and the usability of the system.

    In order to achieve military utility for the system it is crucial to understand the technical and procedures that can counter the weaknesses of the technology, and in thus produce a flexibility that enables the user to utilize the system as appropriate to the situation

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