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  • 251.
    Deverell, Edward
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Crisis induced learning: Swedish public sector organizations’ learning after crises2006Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning from major failures and crisis experiences is essential for creating robust, safe, and reliable organizations and societies as well as for preventing a repeat of the crisis. Hence, it is of great importance to increase knowledge about why some individuals and organizations learn from crisis experiences and others do not. Studying how organizations learn from crisis episodes raises a number of issues pertaining to the difficulties of applying the concept of organizational learning empirically. This article discusses the problems of defining, disaggregating, and categorizing the organizational learning concept along with the effects of timing on organizational learning and why we should expect that crises are stimulants to learning in the first place. The concluding section presents an empirical application of the organizational learning concept that acknowledges the learning cycle as a fourfold process involving knowledge gathering, acting on knowledge, knowledge dissemination, and maintaining/reconsidering knowledge.

  • 252.
    Deverell, Edward
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Crisis-induced learning in public sector organizations2010Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    How do public organizations manage crises? How do public organizations learnfrom crises? These seemingly basic questions still pose virtual puzzles for crisismanagement researchers. Yet, the interest of the academic and practitionerrealms in crisis management has grown in recent years. In this doctoral dissertationEdward Deverell sheds light on the problems regarding the lack ofknowledge on how public organizations manage and learn from crises, with anumber of critical knowledge gaps in contemporary crisis management as thestarting point. 

    In the last few decades the interest in crisis management as a scholarly fieldhas grown. This developing field is composed of an increasing number of looselyconnected social science scholars concerned with issues of extraordinary events,their repercussions and the way in which they are managed by authorities,organizations, policy makers and other key actors. However, there are severallacunae to be dealt with in the emerging field of crisis management research.This dissertation sets the spotlight on four of these limitations of the crisis managementliterature to date. 

    First, influential scholars within the field call for increased structuration andfeasible models to help us understand and explain various important factorsinfluencing the crisis management process. In this dissertation I try to bridgethis gap by developing theory on crisis response and learning. Crisis responsesignifies organized activities undertaken by a stakeholder when a community ofpeople – an organization, a town, or a nation – perceives an urgent threat to corevalues which must be dealt with under conditions of uncertainty. Crisis-inducedlearning refers to purposeful efforts, triggered by a crisis event and carried out bymembers of an organization working within a community of inquiry, that leadto new understanding and behavior on the basis of that understanding. 

    Second, organizations play a key role in crisis management. Surprisinglyenough, however, crisis management research have only occasionally built theoryon how organizations respond to crisis. So far, the literature tells us moreabout crises as events than on how these events are actually managed. One reasonis the focus within crisis management research on highly unusual, big catastrophicevents and industrial accidents. Therefore, this dissertation explorescrisis episodes that affect specific organizations rather than entire communitiesor national governments. In addition, the dissertation brings together debateson crisis management and crisis-induced learning from a public managementand organizational perspective. 

    Third, crisis management researchers have to date dealt mostly with acutecrisis response and issues of preparedness, while the issues of crisis aftermathsand crisis-induced learning are still relatively unknown. However, althoughthis study recognizes the importance of crisis planning and sense-making, thisshould not lead to a relative neglect of the issue of learning from crisis. Crisisinducedlearning is important as crises are rare events with huge repercussions.Thus crises are opportunities to draw lessons in order to improve future managementand crisis response, and to mitigate the risk of future crises. 

    Fourth, the relatively few studies that have dealt with crisis-induced learninghave focused on learning after the crisis (intercrisis learning), while theoryon learning during crisis (intracrisis learning) is not as developed. My interestin both inter- and intracrisis learning obligates me to study crisis response andcrisis learning in conjunction. This means studying how organizations respondto crises and how they learn during and from these episodes. By focusing onprocesses of crisis response and learning under pressure – rather than pre-crisisplanning, threat perception, risk management and preparedness – the dissertationlooks into how organizations and their members manage the challenge ofcrises and how they take on, make use of and implement lessons learned fromone crisis to the next. 

    The lacunae outlined above are theoretical points of departure for this dissertation’sinterest in the extent to which public organizations learn from crises.Accordingly, the overall objective of the dissertation is to increase understandingof crisis response and crisis learning in public organizations. In doing so, Iconduct an abductive study of how public organizations respond to crises andhow they learn during and after these events. The term ‘abductive’ refers toa research strategy which is characterized by continuous movement back andforth between theory and empirical data. 

    The first step of the research process was grounded in the empirical world.The empirical contribution is a careful process tracing and case reconstructionof six cases involving Swedish public sector organizations. In the methodologychapter (Chapter 3) I describe the basis of the empirically bounded case study approach and case reconstruction and process tracing method. Six case studiesof organizational crisis management and learning were selected for furtheranalysis. The case studies were based on a variety of sources including posthoc accident investigations, articles, organizational documents and 129 extensivesemi-structured interviews with key crisis managers. The process tracingand reconstruction efforts led to case narratives, which were then dissected byidentifying dilemmas and critical decision-making occasions that were studiedin more detail. The following cases are explored in the dissertation: TheSwedish energy utility Birka Energi’s management of two cable fires that causedlarge-scale blackouts in Stockholm in March 2001 and May 2002; The cityof Stockholm’s management of the 2001 blackout and the repeated incidentin 2002; The Swedish Defence Research Agency’s (FOI) management of hoaxanthrax letters in 2001; and three Swedish media organizations’ (the Swedishpublic service radio Sveriges Radio, the Swedish private TV station with publicservice tasks TV4, and the Swedish public service TV station Sveriges Television)management of news work and broadcasting challenges on 11 September 2001(and to some extent following the murder of the Swedish Foreign MinisterAnna Lindh in September 2003). 

    As the case selection reveals, all organizations under study are not puregovernment organizations. Rather three organizations (Birka Energi, SverigesRadio and Sveriges Television) are publically owned corporations, while one(TV4) is a privately owned media organization. Accordingly, this dissertationclaims that ownership is not the only measure of ‘publicness’. Media organizations,for instance, are of great importance for democratic societies. The term‘public organization’ is thus in this dissertation not used in the sense of equatingto government, but rather in reference to the degree of which political authorityand influence impacts on the organization. 

    The theory generating approach that this dissertation takes on impliesthat the case studies are ‘heuristic’ case studies. The dissertation aims to promotenew hypotheses for further research rather than to produce generalizedknowledge. To this end the case studies are further analyzed by specific theoreticalapproaches suggested by prior research. This second step of the researchprocess is dealt with in some detail in the literature review. The literature reviewin Chapter 2 aims to bring an injection of organizational studies into the fieldof crisis management research. The review presents relevant studies from thefields of crisis management studies, organization studies (with special attentiongiven to organizational learning theory) and public administration and management.The review puts forth a twofold argument: There is a need of increasedknowledge not only about crises and how they develop, but also about how theyare actually managed by public organizations. However, prior crisis managementresearch with bearing on public management organizations are mostly based on either political executive foreign policy decision making or on veryspecific high reliability organizations operating in the pre-crisis phase. Hence,organization studies and public management studies should play a greater partin crisis management research. 

    The review also provides an overview frame for the study by highlightingrelevant research. The chapter discusses the problems of defining, categorizingand operationalizing key concepts such as crisis, crisis management and organizationallearning. 

    In the third step of the research process, the case studies are further analyzedusing theoretical approaches aimed at proposing propositions on how publicsector organizations may respond to crises, and how they may learn from theircrisis experiences. These analyses have been carried out with an aim to producestand-alone articles aimed for publication in international scholarly journals.Thus this dissertation differs somewhat from the typical public administrationdissertation as it is comprised of an analysis of several articles, as opposed to amonograph. The journal articles are published or accepted for publication inthe Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, the Journal of HomelandSecurity and Emergency Management, Public Management Review, and RiskManagement. The articles are reprinted in four empirical chapters (Chapters4-7), which make up the core of the dissertation. Introductory and concludingchapters aimed at bringing the discussion together have then been added.I present the first empirical analysis in Chapter 4. It looks into how organizationalculture affects strategy and adaptability in crisis management. The keyresearch question is: What mechanisms affect organizations’ ability to restructurein order to cope with acute crisis management challenges? In the study I propose atypology of temporal organizational responses to crises in public perception. Thetypology is based on organizations’ abilities to change strategy and adapt theirmanagerial and operational levels to deal with crises. The empirical data used toconstruct the typology covers three organizational crisis responses: 1) The utilityBirka Energi’s response to a cable fire that caused a thirty-seven hour blackoutin Stockholm in 2001; 2) The TV station TV4’s response in terms of how toreorganize and broadcast during the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks; 3)FOI, the Swedish National Defence Research Agency’s response to the anthraxletter scare of 2001 and 2002. The different organizational outcomes featuredby the typology reveal distinct aspects of organizational crisis management.According to the typology, the Fully Adapting Organization (TV4) managesto adapt both its strategy and its managerial and operational levels to deal withthe crisis. The Semi-Adapting Organization (FOI) changes its strategy but lacksthe capacity to change managerial and operational levels according to the newstrategy. The Non-Adapting Organization (Birka Energi) does not grasp theimportance of strategy change in the first place. Based on three inductive case studies, the study concludes that organizational culture plays an important rolein this process where the Semi-Adapting Organization and the Non-AdaptingOrganization were dominated by strong expert cultures which proved to be lessinclined to change. In contrast, the Fully Adapting organization had deliberatelyfostered an organizational culture in which flexibility – understood as thecapacity to readily adapt to changing demands – was a cornerstone. 

    The second empirical analysis is presented in Chapter 5. It deals with theissue of flexibility and rigidity in crisis response and crisis learning at two Swedishpublic organizations. The point of departure for the study is that the relationshipbetween crises, organizational crisis management response and learning hasto date been understudied. In an effort to broaden theoretical knowledge on therelation between crisis and learning, the study analyzes the crisis responses oftwo public organizations during a sequence of two failures. The empirical datais grounded in thorough process tracing and case reconstruction analyses ofhow the utility Birka Energi and the city of Stockholm managed two comprehensiveblackouts in March 2001 and in May 2002. The key research questionis: How does organizational rigidity and flexibility affect public organizations’ crisisresponse and crisis learning? A framework of rigidity versus flexibility in responseis utilized in the analysis. The findings are then discussed in relation to theirimplications for the nexus between crisis and learning. The study concludes byraising four propositions for further research. 

    The third empirical analysis is presented in Chapter 6. This study aims tocontribute to the debate on organizational learning from crisis by sheddinglight on the phenomenon of crises as learning triggers. In the study I pose thefollowing key research question: How can we analyze organizational learningduring and after crisis and what criteria should be part of the analysis? In an effortto unveil patterns of how organizational crisis-induced learning may appearand develop, I suggest a conceptual framework based on conceptual categoriesand answers to four fundamental questions: what lessons are learned (single- ordouble-loop)?; what is the focus of the lessons (prevention or response)?; whenare lessons learned (intra- or intercrisis)?; is learning carried out or blocked fromimplementation (distilled or implemented)? In the analysis section I explorethe practical applicability of the framework by using the same empirical casestudies as in Chapter 5. The final section suggests four propositions for furtherresearch. 

    The last empirical study is presented in Chapter 7. There I construct aframework of management, learning and implementation in response to crisis.My point of departure is a proposition from previous crisis managementresearch which posits that previous experience can shape crisis response as away of repeating former routines or as a precondition for improvisation. Thekey research question is: How do organizational management structures affect crisis response, learning and implementation? In the study I argue that flexibilityis closely connected to the way organizations learn – in behavioral or cognitivemodes. Moreover, these learning modes are connected to the role of managerialgroups, where I differentiate between centralized and decentralized top managerialgroups. In addition, two case studies of how two bureaucratic media organizations(Sveriges Radio and SVT) managed and learned from extraordinarynews events – most notably 9/11 and the assassination of the Swedish ForeignMinister Anna Lindh – are conducted. The findings show how the decentralizedmanagerial group learned in a behavioral fashion, by creating new formalpolicies and structures, while organizational members in the centralized managerialgroup relied on individual cognitive structures as a way of ‘storing’ lessonslearned. The study ends by discussing the findings from a crisis managementperspective, where I propose that the two modes of learning profoundly affectthe crucial issue of flexibility in organizational crisis response.The concluding Chapter 8 discusses and contrasts the findings and propositionsgenerated from the four separate empirical analyses. Here the role oforganizational structure and culture are highlighted by revisiting specific organizationalfactors that seem to impact on organizational crisis management andlearning processes, such as previous experience, flexibility and rigidity in crisisresponse and learning, and centralization and decentralization. These factorswere also outlined in the literature review. Further empirical evidence of howthe factors affect crisis response and crisis learning in organizations was foundin the four empirical analyses. 

    In addition, findings from the empirical studies also related to different types of learning processes such as intra- and intercrisis learning and singleand double-loop learning. Consequently these concepts are also deliberated upon in the concluding sections of the dissertation. As a final attempt to bring the propositions and arguments together, a framework of the crisis management and learning process is proposed. In regard to this venture, it is important to acknowledge the limitations of the framework, and of the dissertation as a whole. As it is only based on data from six cases of Swedish public organizational responses to crisis, the framework is merely a visual schematic of a number of propositions to be further tested and validated by further research. However, the framework also has a few virtues. It is an attempt to approach the ambiguous nature of crises and crisis management processes. The framework may also assist in providing more sensible and practical conceptualizations, and thus bring us closer to definitions that remain close to everyday operations of practitioners involved in crisis management. This dissertation thus makes an effort to bridge the gap between crisis management scholars and practitioners. This is also an overall goal guiding research activities at the National Center for Crisis Management Studies (CRISMART) at the Swedish National Defence College, where the research behind this dissertation has been conducted.

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  • 253.
    Deverell, Edward
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Decision-Making and Crisis-Induced Learning at Swedish Public Sector Organizations Under Pressure2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to analyse the crisis management and learning responses of two public organizations during two sequences of failures in order to develop theory on the relationship between crisis and learning. It is found that organizations initially respond rigidly to crisis signals and that crisis-induced creativity and learning tends to be initiated in the acute crisis management phase. The findings are also discussed in relation to their implications for the nexus between crisis and organizational learning and it is found that politicization in the crisis aftermath may generate organizational learning.

  • 254.
    Deverell, Edward
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Elavbrottet i Kista den 29-31 maj 2002: organisatorisk och interorganisatorisk inlärning i kris2004Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 255.
    Deverell, Edward
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Flexibility and Rigidity in Crisis Management and Learning at Swedish Public Organizations2010Ingår i: Public Management Review, ISSN 1471-9037, E-ISSN 1471-9045, Vol. 12, nr 5, s. 679-700Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To date the relationship between crises,organizational crisis management, and learninghas been understudied. In an effort tobroaden theoretical understandings of therelation between crisis and learning, thisarticle analyses the crisis management andlearning processes of two public organizationsduring a sequence of two failures. Aframework of rigidity versus flexibility inresponse is utilized in the analysis. Thefindings are discussed in relation to theirimplications for the nexus between crisis andlearning. The study concludes by raising fourhypotheses for further research.

  • 256.
    Deverell, Edward
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Investigating the Roots of Crisis Management Studies and Outlining Future Trajectories for the Field2012Ingår i: Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, ISSN 2194-6361, E-ISSN 1547-7355, Vol. 9, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a review of some literatures that have been instrumental in forming attimes disparate scholarly thoughts on managerial and operational decision-making and behaviorduring extraordinary events into the nascent academic field known as crisis management studies.The article outlines some of the most influential literature streams, presents their main findings,reveals four significant knowledge gaps in the present literature, and calls for future crisismanagement research to direct attention to the organization as the principal level of analysis.

  • 257.
    Deverell, Edward
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Is Best Practice Always the Best?: Learning to Become Better Crisis Managers2012Ingår i: Journal of Critical Incident Analysis, ISSN 1949-1182, Vol. 3, nr 1, s. 26-40Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article argues for a reassessment of the idea of learning from critical incidents and crises in organizations. Crisis management research looks upon crisis-induced learning as highly desirable albeit immensely challenging. This paper argues that, although learning from crisis is important for crisis management performance, the idea of crisis-induced learning holds an intrinsic contradiction, which becomes one of the main challenges to building crisis management capacities and competencies from lessons learned from previous crisis experiences. As crises are dynamic and evolving processes permeated by uncertainty and elements of surprise, learning from prior crisis experiences will not suffice for an effective future crisis response. Empirical episodes from inductive case studies are used to show that learning from crisis can lead to rigid structures and behavior hampering crisis management and organizational resilience. The study concludes by discussing conditions that need to accompany crisis-induced learning processes in organizations in order to avoid rigidity in future crisis response.

  • 258.
    Deverell, Edward
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Is best practice always the best? Learning to become better crisis managers2012Ingår i: Åre Risk Event: Att kommunicera det (o)tänkbara: Hur formar vi framtidens kriskommunikation.: Book of abstracts, 2012, s. 8-8Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper argues for a reassessment of the idea of learning from critical incidents and crises in organizations. Crisis management research looks upon crisis-induced learning as highly desirable albeit immensely challenging. This paper argues that, although learning from crisis is important for crisis management performance and resilience, the idea of crisis-induced learning holds an intrinsic contradiction, which becomes one of the main challenges to building crisis management capacities and competencies from lessons based in previous crisis experiences. As crises are dynamic and evolving processes permeated by uncertainty and elements of surprise, learning from prior crisis experiences will not suffice for an effective crisis response. Empirical episodes from deep case studies are used to show how learning from crisis can lead to rigid structures and behavior hampering crisis management and organizational resilience. The study concludes by discussing conditions that need to accompany crisis-induced learning processes in organizations in order to avoid rigidity in future crisis response. 

  • 259.
    Deverell, Edward
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Krishantering och lärande: Faktorer som påverkar myndigheters förmåga att lära2012Ingår i: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, Vol. 216, nr 1, s. 117-130Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This essay discusses new research on how public sector organizations learn from their crisis experiences. The essay aims to distill practical lessons from theoretical studies on crisis-induced learning that should offer public officials advice on how to increase the learning capacities of public sector organizations in the wake of crises. The essay concludes that for organizational crisis-induced learning to take place, it is favorable to document incidents and crises thoroughly and to refine the documentation into investigations and evaluations. Moreover, in order for organizations to reform in line with suggestions put forth in investigations and evaluations, organizational self-reflection and flexibility is required.

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  • 260.
    Deverell, Edward
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Statsvetenskapliga avdelningen, Sektionen för krishantering och internationell samverkan.
    Managing Extraordinary Influx of Migrants: The 2015 Migration Crisis in Sweden2020Ingår i: Collaborative Crisis Management: Inter-Organizational Approaches to Extreme Events / [ed] Fredrik Bynander and Daniel Nohrstedt, New York, NY: Routledge, 2020, s. 43-56Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 261.
    Deverell, Edward
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Organizational learning from crisis2013Ingår i: Handbook of Research on Crisis Leadership in Organizations / [ed] Andrew J. Dubrin, Cheltenham, UK & Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2013, s. 290-310Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The chapter explores the concepts of crisis, leadership and learning. It takes a critical glance at research, opinion and advice from the interdisciplinary field of crisis management studies. Analysts using literature from the nascent field of crisis management studies as a point of departure, tend to look at a crisis as a series of interconnected challenges presented to leaders of firms, agencies or organizational units. Under conditions of uncertainty, complexity, time pressure, and threats to core values, leaders are expected to make sense of unfolding events, make and implement strategic decisions, clarify complex issues of accountability and mandates, and convey meaning to these processes in internal and external communication. When management of the crisis is approaching termination, leaders find themselves playing an important role in the return to normalcy. Apart from managing the present crisis, leaders are also expected to prevent crisis repetition. Amidst hazardous, uncertain and stressful conditions then, leaders need to notice and reflect upon lessons enabling them to prevent future crises, and at a later stage make sure that these lessons are implemented throughout their organizations. Learning from crisis experience thus becomes a core task and demanding challenge for any leader. So far the important issue of crisis-induced learning has only attracted limited attention from scholars. There are only a few studies on the topic and even fewer relate to the strategic management and leadership perspective. This chapter takes stock of this budding knowledge on the crossroads of crisis management, organizational learning and leadership. Moreover, it suggests some implications for practice and points out potential trajectories for future research. 

  • 262.
    Deverell, Edward
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Statsvetenskap med inriktning krishantering: Hur kan vi utbilda i det vid FHS?2012Ingår i: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, ISSN ISSN 0023-5369, nr 4, s. 109-119Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den statsvetenskapliga forskningen och utbildningen vid Försvarshögskolan (FHS) utmärker sig från statsvetenskap vid andra lärosäten genom sin särskilda inriktning på säkerhetspolitik och krishantering. Kurser med denna inriktning har genomförts vid FHS sedan 2000 och kommer att utgöra huvuddelen av innehållet i det civila utbildningsprogram som ska inledas hösten 2013. Medan säkerhetspolitik traditionellt sett har varit ett ämnesområde inom statsvetenskapen som har fått relativt stor uppmärksamhet även vid andra universitet och högskolor, är krishantering en yngre och mer otydligt definierad underdisciplin. Denna otydlighet ger upphov till syftet med föreliggande artikel. Först diskuteras den till synes enkla frågan vad statsvetenskap med inriktning krishantering egentligen är. Sedan förs utifrån pedagogisk litteratur en diskussion som utmynnar i ett antal konkreta förslag på hur vi kan gå tillväga för att utbilda studenter inom kunskapsfältet.

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  • 263.
    Deverell, Edward
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Systems for Post-Crisis Learning: A Systemic Gap in Civil Security Governance?2015Ingår i: European Civil Security Governance: Diversity and Cooperation in Crisis and Disaster Management / [ed] Raphael Bossong & Hendrik Hegeman, Houndsmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015, s. 160-187Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing the capacity of governments to learn from harmful events, such as for instance pandemics, hurricanes, terrorist attacks or large scale accidents, is of importance for civil security and organizational safety (Stern, 1997; Deverell, 2010). A frequently used strategy by governments and public organizations in this regard is to launch a crisis investigation after an event. This chapter deals with such forms of investigations and especially the importance of organizing structures for post hoc crisis investigations. The chapter argues that a lack of structured arrangements regarding post hoc crisis investigations will have negative effects on organizational and governmental lesson drawing from crises, and thus on long term EU civil security. We depart from the premise that taking structured and deliberate steps after crisis events to restore legitimacy and to make sure that historic mistakes are not repeated is an important part of civil security governance (cf. Sulitzeanu-Kenan and Holzman-Gazit, 2013). At the same time, civil security governance can also be seen as a problem for learning. Civil security governance involves a wide variety of actors and confronts ambiguous policy problems and fuzzy boundaries. As such it tends to work against systemization and standardized organisational processes required for effective post hoc crisis investigations.

  • 264.
    Deverell, Edward
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Statsvetenskapliga avdelningen, Sektionen för krishantering och internationell samverkan.
    Tema: Krishantering, förvaltning och statsvetenskap2019Ingår i: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 121, nr 4, s. 513-520Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 265.
    Deverell, Edward
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    The 2001 Kista blackout: Corporate crisis and urban contingency2003Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The study examines the management of the blackout in Stockholm’s northwestern suburbs, most importantly in Sweden’s center for high-tech industry in Kista, on March 11, 2001. The blackout, which was a result of a cable fire, was one of Sweden’s most comprehensive power disturbances ever and its effects were dramatic for the residents, the accountable power company, and the city leadership.The crisis management displayed by the operational units, public administrations, municipal companies and private corporations is examined, and the communication between these actors is considered throughout the report. Seven decision occasions are selected and scrutinized. The case is then analyzed and compared to similar cases studied by CRiSMART researchers, most notably: the blackouts in Auckland, New Zealand (1998) and Buenos Aires, Argentina (1999), and the power outages which followed the wake of the ice storm in eastern Canada (1998). Some examples of best practices in crisis management are also presented based on the case findings.

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  • 266.
    Deverell, Edward
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    What makes some organizations better than others at handling crises?: Exploring state of the art public crisis management2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport görs en populärvetenskaplig sammanfattning av det arbete som har genomförts inom det MSB-finansierade post doc-projektet "What makes some organizations better than others at handling crises? Exploring state of the art public crisis management". Projektet leddes av Fil dr Edward Deverell vid Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap vid Försvarshögskolan 2011-2013. Utgångspunkten för projektets arbete var avhandlingen "Crisis-induced learning in public sector organizations" (Deverell, 2010). Avhandlingen ramade in krishanteringsstudier som kunskapsfält och betonade vikten av att i vidare studier undersöka organisationers roll i krishantering. Vidare framhölls vikten av att mer ingående studera organisationers lärprocesser i samband med kriser eftersom mer kunskap om lärande i relation till kriser behövs för att vi ska kunna skapa mer robusta organisationer och samhällen samt för att undvika att drabbas av liknande kriser framöver. I linje med det tidigare avhandlingsprojektet ämnade post doc projektet att fördjupa studiet av krishanteringsstudier med fokus på organisationers lärprocesser i relation till kriser. Detta genom att studera krishanteringslitteratur och fallstudier av verkliga kriserfarenheter. Föreliggande rapport ger en kortfattad beskrivning av de delstudier som sammanställdes under de två år som projektet löpte.

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  • 267.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Statsvetenskapliga avdelningen, Sektionen för krishantering och internationell samverkan.
    Alvinius, Aida
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Hede, Susanne
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Horizontal Collaboration in Crisis Management: An Experimental Study of the Duty Officer Function in Three Public Agencies2019Ingår i: Risk, Hazards & Crisis in Public Policy, ISSN 1944-4079, E-ISSN 1944-4079, Vol. 10, nr 4, s. 484-508Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Lately, scholars have been engaging in studies on the crossroads between collaborative public management and crisis management, but our knowledge on how organizations work together with interorganizational goals in times of crisis or in relation to the threat that crises pose, is still limited. This study aims to illuminate how interagency horizontal collaboration plays out in practice. An interview study with twenty‐three Swedish duty officers in three organizations with critical tasks in the institutional crisis management system is carried out to unearth impediments to interagency collaboration that emerge when organizations from different policy subsystems engage in crisis collaboration. Empirically, the study contributes with new knowledge on how a crucial function in crisis management carries out work and deals with challenges. Theoretically, it contributes to the literature on crisis management collaboration by shedding light on processes of horizontal collaboration in the area of crisis management.

  • 268.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Statsvetenskapliga avdelningen, Sektionen för krishantering och internationell samverkan.
    Alvinius, Aida
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Hede, Susanne
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Maktförskjutning och maktutjämning i myndighetssamverkan: En kvalitativ studie om tjänstemän i beredskap på regional nivå2019Ingår i: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 121, nr 4, s. 549-567Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Power displacement and recapture: A qualitative study of regional duty officers in government agency interaction

    This study highlights and discusses challenges organizations face when collaborating in the field of crisis management. We study how Swedish County Council duty officers experience collaboration with external government agencies. Our interview study is based on thirteen interviews with duty officers from six County Councils. In the analysis we discuss our results from a gender perspective. Furthermore we lay the foundation for an analytical model that can be used to better understand problems with collaboration in the field of crisis preparedness and management.

  • 269.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Dan, HansénFörsvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).Olsson, Eva-KarinFörsvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Perspektiv på krishantering2015Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Du tycker att samhällsfrågor är spännande och har ett särskilt intresse för kriser och oförutsedda händelser. Vad gör egentligen de som har ansvar och förväntningar på sig att ställa saker till rätta i en krissituation? Hur fungerar mediernas granskning och hur agerar andra parter som har till uppgift att utkräva ansvar? När väl den akuta fasen är över, vad lär sig de inblandade aktörerna, och hur fungerar förändringsarbetet och införandet av nya policyer? Perspektiv på krishantering är till för dig som vill fördjupa dig i dessa frågor.

    De perspektiv som presenteras är olika sätt att närma sig och studera krishantering som fenomen. Boken är indelad i tre övergripande perspektiv: hantera, granska och förändra. Genomgående i boken presenteras fallbeskrivningar av verkliga händelser och faktiskt handlande. Men fokus ligger inte på händelserna som sådana, utan på förståelsen av dem – de teoretiska perspektiven. Även om boken är rik på perspektiv gör den inte anspråk på att vara heltäckande. Snarare inbjuder den dig som är intresserad och engagerad att själv studera krishantering och bidra till kunskapsfältet.

  • 270.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Hansén, Dan
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Perspektiv på krishantering: Introduktion2015Ingår i: Perspektiv på krishantering / [ed] Deverell, Edward, Hansén, Dan & Olsson, Eva-Karin, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, s. 5-18Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 271.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Culture Clash – How organizational culture affects effective crisis management2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Given the importance of organizational culture in explaining organizational behavior, it is surprising that research on how organizational culture affects organizations’ ability to react to and act in times of crisis has received limited interest. In this paper we examine how specific organizational cultures affected crisis responses in three cases – the handling of the so called anthrax letters in Sweden by the Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI) in 2001, the electrical power company Birka Energy’s management of a big tunnel fire in Stockholm, Sweden in 2001 and the television broadcasting company TV 4’s response to September 11, 2001. The cases have been researched by the use of a detailed process tracing of the main decision making occasions that the organizations confronted that e.g. included interviews with key participants in the crisis management. The studies show that in the FOI case, the democratic expert advisory culture led to a crisis response that was characterized by vague leadership and lack of decision making capacity. In the case of Birka Energy, the technical engineering culture resulted in a crisis response that lacked understanding of symbolic and communicative dimensions of crisis communication, focusing solely on the technical and operational parts of the crisis. The TV 4 case on the other hand shows a flexible organizational culture that managed to handle the change in mission.

  • 272.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Organizational culture effects on strategy and adaptability in crisis management2010Ingår i: Risk Management: An International Journal, ISSN 1460-3799, E-ISSN 1743-4637, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 116-134Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a typology of temporal organizational responsesto crises in public perception aimed at examining the ability of organizations torestructure in order to cope with acute crisis management challenges. The typologyis based on organizations ’ capacities to launch crisis management strategies andadapt their managerial and operational levels to deal with crises. According to thetypology, the Fully Adapting Organization manages to adapt both its strategy andits managerial and operational levels to deal with the crisis. The Semi-AdaptingOrganization changes its strategy but lacks the capacity to change managerial andoperational levels according to the new strategy. The Non-Adapting Organizationdoes not grasp the importance of strategy change in the first place. Based on threeinductive case studies the study concludes that organizational culture plays animportant role in this process where the Semi and the Non-Adapting organizationswere dominated by strong expert cultures that proved to be less inclined to change.In contrast, the Fully Adapting Organization had deliberately fostered an organizationalculture in which flexibility was a cornerstone.

  • 273.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Statsvetenskapliga avdelningen.
    Hellman, Maria
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Statsvetenskapliga avdelningen.
    Johnsson, Magnus
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen.
    Understanding Public Agency Communication: the case of the Swedish Armed Forces2015Ingår i: Journal of Public Affairs, ISSN 1472-3891, E-ISSN 1479-1854, Vol. 15, nr 4, s. 387-396Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article suggests a diagnostic framework of public communication intended to capture new communication strategies used by Armed Forces across Europe to legitimize new tasks and recruit new personnel. Three distinct communicative models that impact differently on democratic values and public support are suggested: an Old Public Administration (OPA) model influenced by bureaucratic values, a New Public Management (NPM) model fuelled by market values and a deliberative model labelled ‘New Public Service’ (NPS) that is largely influenced by proponents of ‘e-democracy’. A case study of the communication of the Swedish Armed Forces identifies a lingering bureaucratic (OPA) ideal. The market ideal (NPM) however clearly dominates. The article concludes that communication along market purposes, principles and practices risks distancing Armed Forces further from society. Yet, an embryonic deliberative ideal (NPS)—much fuelled by the use of social media such as blogs—was also identified. This growing ideal holds the potential of infusing deliberative vigor into the organization and presumably facilitates the bridging of the gap to society.

  • 274.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Stiglund, Jonatan
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Crisis: Designing a method for organizational crisis investigation2015Ingår i: Organizing after crisis: the challenge of learning / [ed] Nathalie Schiffino, Laurent Taskins, Cecile Donis & Julien Raone, Brussels: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2015, s. 29-54Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 275.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Statsvetenskapliga avdelningen.
    Marknadiseringen av Försvarsmaktens kommunikation: ett strategiskt maktmedel i en tid av förändring2016Ingår i: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 118, nr 4, s. 589-622Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research shows that the Swedish Armed Forces’ communication is dominatedby market communication, and that this may impact on how the organizationis anchored in society. By adopting a neo-institutional perspective to the studyof agency communication, this article aims to deepen the analysis of the ArmedForces’ communication. Our analysis, based on interviews and official documents,demonstrates both risks and opportunities with marketization of the Armed Forces’communication. On the one hand, market communication may lead to the neglectof alternative values and images of the Armed Forces. Also, the rushed changes incommunication strategies identified risk providing an image of a complex organizationthat is difficult to comprehend, which may undermine the Armed Forces’legitimacy. On the other hand, the Armed Forces’ enhanced role as an employer andcomprehensive use of social media has led to more transparency and to the fosteringof values corresponding to values in society at large. How the Armed Forces, itsleadership, management, and communicators relate to these opportunities andrisks will be crucial for the organization’s future legitimacy.

  • 276.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet och strategi (ISS), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Örtenwall, Per
    Almgren, Ola
    Bombattentatet i köpcentrumet i Finland 20022005Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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    Kamedo87
  • 277.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Örtenwall, Per
    Almgren, Ola
    Bombattentatet i Myyrmanni köpcentrum 20022004Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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    fulltext
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    presentationsbild
  • 278.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Örtenwall, Per
    Almgren, Ola
    Riddez, Louis
    KAMEDO Report No. 87: Bomb Attack in Finnish Shopping Center, 20022007Ingår i: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, ISSN 1049-023X, E-ISSN 1945-1938, Vol. 22, nr 1, s. 86-88Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 279.
    Di Baldassarre, Giuliano
    et al.
    Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; IHE Delft Institute for Water Education, Delft, The Netherlands.
    Nohrstedt, Daniel
    4Department of Government, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mård, Johanna
    Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Burchardt, Steffi
    Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Albin, Cecilia
    Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bondesson, Sara
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Statsvetenskapliga avdelningen, Sektionen för krishantering och internationell samverkan. Department of Government, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Breinl, Korbinian
    Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Deegan, Frances
    Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Fuentes, Diana
    Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Girons Lopez, Marc
    Department of Geography, University of Zurich, Switzerland.
    Granberg, Mikael
    Centre for Climate and Safety, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Centre for Climate and Safety, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Rydstedt Nyman, Monika
    Centre for Climate and Safety, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Rhodes, Emma
    Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Troll, Valentin
    Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Young, Stephanie
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Walch, Colin
    5Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Political Science, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA.
    Parker, Charles F
    Department of Government, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    An integrative research framework to unravel the interplay of natural hazards and vulnerabilities2018Ingår i: Earth's Future, ISSN 1384-5160, E-ISSN 2328-4277, Vol. 6, nr 3, s. 305-310Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change, globalization, urbanization, social isolation, and increased interconnectednessbetween physical, human, and technological systems pose major challenges to disaster risk reduction(DRR). Subsequently, economic losses caused by natural hazards are increasing in many regions of theworld, despite scientific progress, persistent policy action, and international cooperation. We argue thatthese dramatic figures call for novel scientific approaches and new types of data collection to integratethe two main approaches that still dominate the science underpinning DRR: the hazard paradigm and thevulnerability paradigm. Building from these two approaches, here we propose a research framework thatspecifies the scope of enquiry, concepts, and general relations among phenomena. We then discuss theessential steps to advance systematic empirical research and evidence-based DRR policy action.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 280.
    Dittmer, Lowell
    et al.
    University of California, Berkeley.
    Weissmann, Mikael
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Krigsvetenskapliga avdelningen (KVA), Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark). Swedish Institute of International Affairs.
    China’s Maritime Embroilments2015Ingår i: Asian Survey, ISSN 0004-4687, E-ISSN 1533-838X, Vol. 55, nr 3, s. 447-454Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    China's maritime periphery or ‘‘near seas’’—the Yellow Sea, the East China Sea, and the South China Sea—are waters through which a great deal of vital commerce flows, as China, Japan, Korea, and numerous Southeast Asian countries are all major trading nations that import the energy and raw materials that sustain their thriving economies. Since 2009 the East and South China Seas have become increasingly fraught with tension. This has generally been attributed to rising Chinese assertiveness, but not because China has started making a lot of assertions it never made before. As the authors assembled here point out in replete detail, China’s explicit claims to the Diaoyu/Senkaku islets in the East China Sea date back at least to 1971, while it can trace its claim in the South China Sea back to the publication of the famous ‘‘nine-dashed line’’ map by the Nationalists in 1947 (at the time it contained eleven segmented lines; the victorious Communists subsequently dropped two). What has changed since 2009 is China’s more rigorous enforcement of existing claims. This too is brought out in the articles collected below: its actors have seized islands well within the exclusive economic zones (EEZs) of neighboring Southeast Asian nations, detained fishing boats and confiscated their catch, cut the cables of ships engaged in oil exploration, harassed American surveillance vessels, and most recently undertaken ‘‘reclamation’’ of subsurface islets in order to construct airstrips and harbors. 

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  • 281. Doeser, Fredrik
    Domestic Politics and Foreign Policy Change in Small States: The Fall of the Danish 'Footnote Policy'2011Ingår i: Cooperation and Conflict, ISSN 0010-8367, E-ISSN 1460-3691, Vol. 46, nr 2, s. 222-241Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 282.
    Doeser, Fredrik
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen.
    From Enthusiasm to Reluctance: Poland and International Military Operations2016Ingår i: European Participation in International Operations: The Role of Strategic Culture / [ed] Malena Britz, Palgrave Macmillan, 2016, s. 123-149Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 283.
    Doeser, Fredrik
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen.
    Historical experiences, strategic culture, and strategic behavior: Poland in the anti-ISIS coalition2018Ingår i: Defence Studies, ISSN 1470-2436, E-ISSN 1743-9698, Vol. 18, nr 4, s. 454-473Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article contributes to an explanation of why Poland, after a period of almost two years’ hesitation, decided to dispatch military forces to the United States-led coalition against the Islamic State in June 2016. The Polish case is examined by applying the concept of strategic culture, taking into account a state’s core military strategic beliefs and the historical experiences on which these beliefs are based. The case study shows that strategic culture shaped the Polish decision-making on the coalition, by predisposing the decision-makers toward a typical Polish behavior in international military operations, namely to exchange security benefits with important allies. The article also has implications for the general study of strategic culture, by specifying the relationship between historical experiences and strategic culture.

  • 284.
    Doeser, Fredrik
    Utrikespolitiska institutet.
    Kalla krigets slut och utrikespolitisk förändring i Finland och Sverige2012Ingår i: Norden mellan stormakter och fredsförbund: Nordiskt säkerhetspolitiskt samarbete i det gamla och nya Europa / [ed] Fredrik Doeser, Magnus Petersson, Jacob Westberg, Stockholm: Santérus Academic Press Sweden, 2012Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 285.
    Doeser, Fredrik
    Utrikespolitiska institutet.
    Leader-driven foreign-policy change: Denmark and the Persian Gulf War2013Ingår i: International Political Science Review, ISSN 0192-5121, E-ISSN 1460-373X, Vol. 34, nr 5, s. 582-597Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In contrast to most previous research on foreign-policy change, this article investigates how an individual decision-maker can have an impact on major changes in foreign policy. The article takes as its theoretical point of departure the concept of leader-driven change, which focuses on the determined efforts of a political leader to change policy. Empirically, the article investigates the change that occurred in Denmark’s foreign policy when its government decided to participate in the United Nations sanctions against Iraq in August 1990. The article finds that the foreign minister was the main initiator of the policy change, that his personal characteristics played a decisive role, and that the Gulf crisis created a window of opportunity for the foreign minister to initiate the change in policy. In implementing the policy change, however, the foreign minister could not act independently, since he needed the support of other political actors. On the basis of these empirical      findings, the article suggests a new theory of foreign-policy change.

  • 286.
    Doeser, Fredrik
    Utrikespolitiska institutet.
    Obamas USA eller Romneys?2012Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 287. Doeser, Fredrik
    Sovjetunionens upplösning och utrikespolitisk förändring i Sverige2010Ingår i: Nordisk Östforum, Vol. 24, nr 2, s. 149-166Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 288.
    Doeser, Fredrik
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen.
    Strategic Culture, Domestic Politics, and Foreign Policy: Finland’s Decision To Refrain From Operation Unified Protector2017Ingår i: Foreign Policy Analysis, ISSN 1743-8586, E-ISSN 1743-8594, Vol. 13, nr 3, s. 741-759Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article integrates literature on strategic culture with literature on the domestic politics of foreign policy, illustrating how the interaction of culture and domestic political calculation can influence government foreign policy on participation in international military operations. Empirically, the article investigates the decision made by the Government of Finland to refrain from participation in the military intervention in Libya in March–April 2011. The Finnish decision-making illustrates that domestic politics, in particular the factor of election timing, can strengthen the feeling among decision-makers that they should follow the country’s strategic culture. The article ends with theorization on the domestic political conditions under which decision-makers are more or less likely to deviate from strategic culture.

  • 289.
    Doeser, Fredrik
    Utrikespolitiska institutet.
    Sverige och Finland på ESK-arenan: Medlings- och brobyggarinsatser under Stockholmskonferensen2012Ingår i: Norden mellan stormakter och fredsförbund: Nordiskt säkerhetspolitiskt samarbete i det gamla och nya Europa / [ed] Fredrik Doeser, Magnus Petersson, Jacob Westberg, Stockholm: Santérus Academic Press Sweden, 2012Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 290.
    Doeser, Fredrik
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum (upphört).
    Sweden’s Libya decision: A case of humanitarian intervention2014Ingår i: International Politics, ISSN 1384-5748, E-ISSN 1740-3898, Vol. 51, nr 2, s. 196-213Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates why Sweden decided to participate in the enforcement of the no-fly zone over Libya in 2011. The Swedish decision was the result of a combination of factors, including feelings of altruism, the legal basis for the operation, the involvement of North Atlantic Treaty Organization in the operation, the political power play in the Swedish parliament and Sweden’s availability of military resources. The case study relies on a multitude of different sources, such as government reports, speeches and remarks, parliamentary records, media coverage, blog entries, secondary sources, and interviews with high-level civil servants.

  • 291.
    Doeser, Fredrik
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum (upphört).
    Sweden's Participation in Operation Unified Protector: Obligations and Interests2014Ingår i: International Peacekeeping, ISSN 1353-3312, E-ISSN 1743-906X, Vol. 21, nr 5, s. 642-657Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the necessary conditions behind the decision made by the Government of Sweden to participate with fighter jets in the monitoring of the no-fly zone over Libya in March 2011. The article identifies five explanatory factors whose presence was necessary for Sweden's military contribution: a feeling of moral obligation to intervene on the part of the government; the international legal foundation for the operation; strong leadership provided by NATO; broad parliamentary support; and the availability of military capabilities.

  • 292.
    Doeser, Fredrik
    Utrikespolitiska institutet.
    Utan röst och status - de facto-stater i världen2013Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 293.
    Doeser, Fredrik
    Utrikespolitiska institutet.
    When governments ignore public opinion in foreign policy: Poland and the Iraq invasion2013Ingår i: European Security, ISSN 0966-2839, E-ISSN 1746-1545, Vol. 22, nr 3, s. 413-431Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article asks why the Government of Poland participated in the invasion of Iraq in March 2003 when a large majority of the Polish public was opposed to national involvement in Iraq. The aim is to further an understanding of the circumstances under which democratic governments ignore public opinion in their foreign policy decision-making. The article argues that a combination of three circumstances increased the willingness of the government to ignore the public. First, the Iraq issue had relatively low salience among the Polish voters, which decreased the domestic political risks of pursuing the policy. Second, the government's Iraq policy was supported by a considerable consensus among the political elite. Third, the political elites were unified in their perceptions that participating in the invasion would yield essential international gains for Poland.

  • 294.
    Doeser, Fredrik
    et al.
    Utrikespolitiska institutet.
    Blomdahl, Mikael
    Utrikespolitiska institutet.
    Humanitära interventioner: Hjälp eller självhjälp?2015Ingår i: Internationella studier, ISSN 0020-952x, nr 2, s. 47-50Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 295.
    Doeser, Fredrik
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen.
    Eidenfalk, Joakim
    University of Wollongong, Australien.
    Ignoring public opinion: The Australian and Polish decisions to go to war in Iraq2016Ingår i: Cambridge Review of International Affairs, ISSN 0955-7571, E-ISSN 1474-449X, Vol. 29, nr 2, s. 562-580Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates why the governments of Australia and Poland decided to contribute military forces to the United States led invasion of Iraq in March 2003 when a majority of Australian and Polish citizens were opposed to national involvement in the invasion. The objective of the article is to increase understanding of the conditions under which governments ignore the public in their foreign policymaking. The article examines the explanatory power of four intervening variables: issue salience, elite debate, timing of the next election and the importance assigned to international gains by the government. On the basis of the Direct Method of Agreement, the article concludes that government perceptions of international gains and the timing of the next election were potentially necessary factors for the outcomes of the cases, while issue salience and elite debate were not necessary conditions. A distant election may, thus, provide sufficient electoral protection for a government that conducts a foreign policy to which the public is opposed.

  • 296.
    Doeser, Fredrik
    et al.
    Utrikespolitiska institutet.
    Eidenfalk, Joakim
    University of Wollongong, Australien.
    The importance of windows of opportunity for foreign policy change2013Ingår i: International Area Studies Review, ISSN 2233-8659, E-ISSN 2049-1123, Vol. 16, nr 4, s. 390-406Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article emphasizes how individual decision-makers and their perceptions of windows of opportunity can play a decisive role for major changes in the foreign policy of states by conducting two case studies. The first case is the change that occurred in Denmark’s foreign policy in August 1990 when its government dispatched a warship to the Persian Gulf to participate in the monitoring of the United Nations sanctions against Iraq. The second case is the change that occurred in Australia’s foreign policy in April–May 2003 when its government abandoned Australia’s long-standing “hands-off” approach toward Solomon Islands by leading a multinational military intervention. The article demonstrates that individual decision-makers, with a long-standing desire to change policy, perceived structural changes as a window of opportunity for initiating the desired policy changes. The article concludes that, had it not been for these particular individuals, and their perceptions of the world around them, events would most likely have unfolded in a different way

  • 297.
    Doeser, Fredrik
    et al.
    Utrikespolitiska institutet.
    Petersson, MagnusInstitutt for forsvarsstudier, Oslo.Westberg, JacobFörsvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum.
    Norden mellan stormakter och fredsförbund: Nordiskt säkerhetspolitiskt samarbete i det gamla och nya Europa2012Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kalla krigets slut har inneburit nya möjligheter för nordiskt försvars- och säkerhetspolitiskt samarbete. Det är dock främst de senaste åren som konkreta initiativ till ett ökat och fördjupat samarbete tagits. Stoltenbergrapporten från våren 2009, där 13 områden för ett fördjupat nordiskt samarbete pekas ut, och bildandet av Nordefco hösten samma år utgör två av de viktigaste exemplen på ett förnyat intresse för nordiskt samarbete i försvars- och säkerhetsfrågor.

    Författarna utgår från exempel på konkreta samarbetsprojekt som sträcker sig från Napoleonkrigens slut till 2000-talet. Exemplen söker svar på två huvudfrågor: I vilken utsträckning existerar det en nordisk säkerhetspolitisk modell? Vilka internationella och nationella faktorer har verkat pådrivande respektive återhållande på nordiskt försvars- coh säkerhetssamarbete.

     

  • 298.
    Doeser, Fredrik
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen.
    Westberg, Jacob
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen.
    Inledning2012Ingår i: Norden mellan stormakter och fredsförbund: Nordiskt säkerhetspolitiskt samarbete i det gamla och nya Europa / [ed] Fredrik Doeser, Magnus Petersson och Jacob Westberg, Stockholm: Santérus Academic Press Sweden, 2012Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 299.
    Donati, Gabriel
    Försvarshögskolan.
    Räven och Lejonet: En jämförelse av Machiavelli och Kilcullen avseende att nå framgång i irreguljär krigföring2013Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien jämför de råd som Niccolò Machiavelli presenterar i "Fursten" med David Kilcullens handledning "Twenty-Eight articles" avseende en framgångsrik förvaltning av makten i ett insatsområde som präglas av en konflikt med irreguljär prägel. Jämförelsen fokuserar främst på hur lokalbefolkningens stöd erhålls men tar även upp andra aspekter på förvaltarskapet såsom flexibilitet och tillfälligheters inverkan på dess dynamik. Studien är genomförd som en kvalitativ, jämförande textanalys där resultatet påvisar ett flertal likheter mellan de två teoretikernas alster rörandes hur framgång erhålls i en irreguljär konflikt.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 300.
    Dufvenberg, Amanda
    Försvarshögskolan.
    En undersökning om förståelse för det oavgjorda Skagerackslaget2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    There are few studies investigating marine unfinished battles. Most research is focused on victory and defeat, which are, however, rather undefined concepts. Therefore, this study intends to help understand why The Battle of Jutland ended as a draw. Geoffrey Till’s theory, on how success is achieved in a battle, was used to illustrate this. Nine factors from the theory constituted the analytical instrument to assist the author in identifying the essential elements regarding The Battle of Jutland. By doing so, the result will demonstrate what is important in a marine battle when it comes to success. The results of the study show that the factors of the theory are influenced by each other and because of this the battle was unfinished​.

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