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  • 251.
    Banck, Daniel
    Swedish Defence University.
    För kung och fosterland?: En studie av invandrares incitament att söka sig till det militära2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Armed Forces aim to reflect Swedish society, including its ethnical composition. Despite these ambitions and the fact that non-native Swedes are overrepresented among unemployed Swedes, recruitment is over all slow. Perhaps the Swedish Armed Forces know too little about what motivates this potential group of recruits? And perhaps the recruitment process is discriminating against non-native Swedes? This essay aims to answer what attracts foreign born citizens to join the military and what makes them stay in the service. The research methodology includes interviews and surveys of immigrants. The results of these interviews and surveys are subsequently analysed and viewed through the perspective of military sociologist Fabrizio Battistellis’ theory about soldiers' incentives. According to Battistelli, three types of incentives exist: the paleomodern, the modern and the postmodern. His own study, Peacekeeping and the Postmodern Soldier, determined Italian solders primarily enlisted for postmodern incentives. Swedish scholars has found that the same pattern applies to Swedish military personnel. But how about the non-native Swedes? This study shows that predominantly modern incentives attract non-native Swedes to join the military, and mainly paleomodern incentives make them stay within it.  However, while Swedish soldiers seem to be driven by postmodern incentives, immigrants are not influenced by these in any noticeable way. Instead the study’s results indicate that there are further categories of motives affecting the non-native Swedes, namely contextual and cultural incentives.

  • 252.
    Banck, Daniel
    Swedish Defence University.
    KVINNA eller FÖRSVINNA?: En studie av kvinnors incitament till att stanna i Försvarsmakten2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Armed Forces aims to have women represent at least twenty percent of its employed military personnel.  A significant amount of effort is put into attracting and recruiting women and once employed; a large amount of money is spent on training and education. Despite these investments, the percentage of women within the Swedish Armed Forces has never reached beyond fifteen percent. Perhaps not enough is done to keep the women within the forces? This essay aims to answer what makes women stay in the service and what actions the Swedish Armed Forces could take to preserve its female resources.

    The research consists of a four step method combining both qualitative and quantitative measurements. The initial step is a meta-analysis of pre-existing surveys performed by the Swedish Armed Forces analysing notable differences between men’s and women’s incentives to stay or leave the service. In the second step, a number of women informants are interviewed to research and support a preliminary theory originating from step one. The third step correlates the first two steps to determine specific women’s incentives to staying or leaving.  In the fourth and final step, a conclusion is made and a recommendation is brought forth on what could be done in order to keep women employees within the Swedish Armed Forces.

    The results show that three factors above others tend to influence women's incentives to stay or leave the service: firstly the relationship to the closest commander, secondly; an equal opportunity work environment, and thirdly; long term personal development and career planning. 

  • 253.
    Banck, Paula
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Taktiska reglementen för Marinen: svensk taktik eller internationellt gångbart?2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 254.
    Bang, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    A Shared Epistemological View Within Military Intelligence Institutions2017In: The international journal of intelligenca and counter intelligence, ISSN 0885-0607, E-ISSN 1521-0561, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 102-116Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 255.
    Bang, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Applications Section.
    Institutional influence on assessments: the institutional analysis and development framework applied to military intelligence2018In: The International Journal of Intelligence, Security, and Public Affairs, ISSN 2380-0992, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 47-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How can we understand intelligence assessments and intelligence work? The intelligence literature offers several plausible causes of failures and the consequences of such failures. However, there is a direct lack of theories or frameworks that connect these variables, that is, there is an incomplete understanding of both how those variables interact and their underlying mechanisms. Failures as such do only give one part of the picture. Why intelligence succeed is equally if not more important to understand. The military intelligence service from an institutional perspective may help to give this understanding.

    This study connects these variables with Ostrom’s Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) framework, which yields a model to understand the mechanisms of institutional on the assessment and lays a foundation for a common terminology. The study uses the Swedish military intelligence institution active in Afghanistan between 2008 and 2012 as a case.

  • 256.
    Bang, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Applications Section.
    Military intelligence analysis: institutional influence2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Intelligence is vital for the outcome of battles. As long as humans wage war, there will be a need for decision support to military and civilian leaders regarding adversaries or potential adversaries. However, the production of intelligence is neither easy nor without pitfalls. There is a need to better understand the predicaments of intelligence analysis.

    Intelligence is bureaucratically produced as well as socially constructed and created in a distinct cultural context. The ‘institution’ captures these three aspects of influence. Therefore, with a particular focus on military intelligence, this thesis aims to deepen the understanding regarding institutional influence on intelligence assessments. The literature regarding intelligence has grown steadily over the last three decades. However, theories and frameworks aimed to understand the phenomenon are still sparse. This is even more true for literature regarding contemporary military intelligence. This thesis intends to contribute to bridging these research gaps. This is done by studying the Swedish military intelligence institution from several different perspectives: its rules-in-use, shared beliefs, and the incoming stimuli primarily related to conducting threat assessments.

    More precisely the thesis investigates the use of quantitative methods, doctrines (i.e. the formal rules), and shared beliefs connected to epistemological assumptions and threat assessments. The main contribution of this thesis is that it establishes and describes a casual link between a military intelligence institution and an assessment, by drawing upon rulesin-use and belief systems and their effect on the mental model and consequently the perception of the situation connected to a cognitive bias, and thereby its effect on a given assessment. The thesis makes an effort to render intelligence studies more generalizable, by way of adopting the Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) framework. The metatheoretical language of the IAD is a promising avenue for explaining and describing the institutional influence on intelligence assessments.

  • 257.
    Bang, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Pitfalls in Military Quantitative Intelligence Analysis: Incident Reporting in a Low Intensity Conflict2016In: Intelligence and national security, ISSN 0268-4527, E-ISSN 1743-9019, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 49-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Incidents are the key data for several of the statistical reports and analyses created within the military intelligence community. This paper discusses factors that affect the utility of quantitative methods in military intelligence analysis when used in a low intensity conflict. The first half of the paper presents the general critique of the use of quantitative methods. The second half applies this critique to the case of incident reporting in Afghanistan.

  • 258.
    Bang, Martin
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Liwång, Hans
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Influences on threat assessment in a military context2016In: Defense and Security Analysis, ISSN 1475-1798, E-ISSN 1475-1801, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 264-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The anchoring effect is a well-studied subject. This article connects the effect with the rules-in-use within a military intelligence institution. Particularly the rules-in-use that dictate that an analyst takes his or hers starting point from recently conducted assessments of the specific area or threat. The threat assessment as well as the written assessment were affected. The results show that officers have an aversion to lower a previous given threat assessment. This gives that to understand risk assessment we not only need to understand the methods used, we also need to understand the institutions in which they are used. This is especially relevant for military intelligence as the assessments are conducted in an environment of high uncertainty.

  • 259.
    Barius, Per
    Swedish Defence University.
    COPD och Uppdragstaktik2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Nato:s planeringsmodell Comprehensive Operations Planning Directive ska framgent användas för nationell militär planering. Anpassning till svenska förhållanden kommer att genomföras. Överbefälhavaren betonar redan i inledningen på ny Militärstrategisk doktrin att uppdragstaktik ska vara grunden för ledning i Försvarsmakten. Forskningen i uppsatsen fokuserar till mötet mellan planeringsmetod och betoning av att uppdragstaktik ska vara grunden för ledning.

    Syftet är att identifiera om operativ planering enligt COPD och doktrinens betoning av uppdragstaktik harmonierar. Genom det kan uppsatsen bidra med ny kunskap inom området och med ett analysverktyg för uppdragstaktik.

    För att genomföra analys av COPD har ett analysverktyg skapats, baserat på olika forskares teorier om vad som stödjer och motverkar uppdragstaktik.

    Forskningen visar att COPD i hög grad stödjer uppdragstaktik i ett filosofiskt perspektiv, men i lägre grad i praktiken. Svensk anpassning av COPD kräver ett ställningstagande om uppdragstaktik ska ses som en ledningsmetod eller filosofi.

  • 260.
    Bark, Patrik
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Stridsfordon 9040, en krigsmaskin i en internationell kontext2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During a long time the Swedish Armed Forces has performed reorganization, leaving the old structure with a defence focused at hostile invasions to become a nation performing operations abroad. A change that affects and creates new tasks for own forces. The main effort is no longer to protect the nation border. The Swedish Armed Forces has troops deployed in several locations all over the world but I want to illuminate their commitment in Afghanistan. The Swedish/Finnish contingent has been reinforced by Combat Vehicle 9040 (CV 9040), a system designed to operate in a subarctic climate.This essay wants to contribute with an idea if CV 90 conducts in the proper type of tasks in Afghanistan. The purpose is also to give a foundation for a discussion whether it is right that the system is deployed in the area of responsibility. My intention is to create an understanding of how the vehicle is constructed and what attribute it displays today. In order to do that I will describe on what grounds Sweden chose to develop and acquire the concept called the 90-family and which demands that affected its construction. After that, describe the tasks that the CV90 platoon carries out inAfghanistan and compare it with the parameters that the construction admits. This essay shows that the CV 90 is appropriate in Afghanistan, out of a technical and combattechnical perspective. Out of a construction perspective there are few limitations in the tasks that the vehicle solves today in Afghanistan.

  • 261.
    Baroutsi, Nicoletta
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Observing Sensemaking in C2: Performance Assessment in Multi-Organizational Crisis Response2016In: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management / [ed] Andrea H. Tapia, Pedro Antunes, Victor A. Bañuls, Kathleen Moore & João Porto de Albuquerque, ISCRAM, 2016, Vol. Command and Control Studies, article id 1385Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A crisis can involve multiple organizations during high pressure events, and it is up to the Command & Control (C2) unit to provide direction and coordination for the response (Brehmer, 2006). Hard as this problem is, there is still no ‘one-solution’. Dissimilar organizations with very different methods seem to be able to master the problem. This paper presents the initial development of a new evaluation method for C2 in the context of multi-organizational crisis response. The data is collected at an emergency water exercise series conducted in several cities in Sweden. Each exercise involves multiple agencies and organizations, with up to 76 participants from 15 unique organizations/units. The analysis is brief, but presents the possibility of observing Sensemaking as it unfolds, and that generic behavioral patterns can be found. The existence of generic and observable behavior patterns suggests the possibility of assessing, and maybe even quantifying, Sensemaking performance in C2.

  • 262.
    Baroutsi, Nicoletta
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division. Linköping University.
    Berggren, Peter
    FOI.
    Nählinder, Staffan
    Linköping University.
    Granlund, Rego
    Santa Anna IT Research Institute, Sweden.
    Turcotte, Isabelle
    Laval University, Canada.
    Tremblay, Sébastien
    Laval University, Canada.
    Assessing development of team training2014In: ISCRAM 2014 Conference Proceedings. Book of Papers / [ed] Starr Roxanne Hiltz, Mark S. Pfaff, Linda Plotnick, Patrick C. Shih, The Pennsylvania State University, USA , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 263.
    Baudin, Arne
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Manöverkrigföring2009In: Tankar om fälttåg: en bok om fälttåg och den gemensamma stridens komplexitet / [ed] Peter Ahlström och Ulf Högström, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan , 2009, p. 233-241Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 264.
    Baudin, Arne
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Elg, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Högström, Ulf
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Kallak, Jaak
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Sulocki, Charles
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Thunholm, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Handbok i taktikutbildning, Mark: Inklusive generella anvisningar för planering och genomförande av krigsspel, fältövningar och stabstjänstövningar2012Book (Other academic)
  • 265.
    Baudin, Arne
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Forsberg, Ronald
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Multinationella fälttåg: Ett styrkemässigt vågspel2009In: Tankar om Fälttåg: en bok om fälttåg och den gemensamma stridens komplexitet / [ed] Peter Ahlström och Ulf Högström, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan , 2009, p. 141-162Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 266.
    Bech, Björn Thore
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Fremmer frihetsgraden skrevet inn i norske brigadeordre oppdragsbasert ledelse?2001Student paper otherStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study has been to examine if a level of freedom exists in a selection of Norwegian brigade orders, that encourages a practising and execution of mission tactics/directive control. In order to give a definition of the level of freedom, a historic summary of auftragstaktik has been made. In this summary, a number of conceptions are identified as being parts of the construction of the level of freedom. The conceptions were: thrust, initiative, speed, mission based orders, delegate, decentralisation, independence, uncertainty, flexibility, allowed to make mistakes, professional behaviour and the will to take risks. All the conceptions are then analysed in order to give a description of their contribution to the level of freedom. A theoretical model for the level of freedom was created as a theoretical reference frame. The conceptions have been placed into the model, based on the conclusions from the analysis.The brigade orders that are analysed come from Brig North and Brig 6 of 6. Division and 12.Brigade, all participating in exercise “Battle Griffin 99”.In the analyses of the orders a number of factors were uncovered and put into the conceptions. By placing the results into the model for the level of freedom and after a discussion of the result, it appeared that Brig. North gave a high level of freedom to its subordinate commanders, Brig. 6 gave a medium level of freedom to its subordinate commanders and 12.Brigade gave a medium level of freedom to its subordinate. From the results I have found, I would like to maintain that the level of freedom given in the brigade orders encourages mission tactics/directive control (mission based command philosophy). 

  • 267.
    Beck, Mikael
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Ledningsfilosofi i luftvärnet: Uppdragstaktik - Från decentralisering till centralisering2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    War is nothing but a duel on an extensive scale, an act of violence to compel our opponent to fulfil our will.

    The aim of the action in war is to disarm the enemy. If our opponent is to be made to comply with our will, we must place him in a situation which is more oppressive to him than the sacrifice which we demand. Every change in this position which is produced by a continuation of the war, should therefore be a change for the worse. Many theories and doctrines are based on this truth. To succeed to place our opponent in an adverse situation one must lead the battle and do it faster than the opponent. This is also what Colonel Boyd saw in his studies of the air fights during the war in Korea. The OODA loop or Boyd’s cycle is now a basic theory of maneuver warfare. William S. Lind writes in his handbook in maneuver warfare that the purpose itself of maneuver warfare is to go through the OODA loop faster than your enemy. As remark number 1 in the guidance for succeeding with that task, Lind state that only a decentralized force can go through the cycle of decision fast. This conclusion can be found in all doctrines and handbooks in the Swedish Armed Forces (SAF). Mission type tactics with decentralized control is ordered, or recommended and described in all service doctrines. It is the base for command and control within the whole organization. In all doctrines and regulations in the SAF there are exceptions when mission type tactics with direct control is preferred or an imperative necessity.

    After closer inquiries one can see that sometimes mission type tactics are carelessly used to describe both a philosophy and a method. After several years of service within the Ground Based Air Defense troops, my experience is that mission type control is not used as much as centralized control. This entails very little space for subordinated to take any initiative in the air war. Is that desirable, inevitable or on the whole consistent with mission type tactics? Is it possible that the GBAD with its unique position in both the ground- and air troops can go through the OODA loop faster than its opponents without decentralized control, as Lind alleged as rule number 1?

    Through a elucidation of mission type tactics as both philosophy and as a method, a comparison between how airpower and maneuver theory treat mission type tactics and together with the conditions for GBAD the answer to how the GBAD can apply mission type tactics will be found. Mission type tactics is a sine qua non for the GBAD in order to be able to use centralized control and to lead through command. Detailed guidance is right now inevitable and necessary with the conditions now at hand. At the same time the ability for the GBAD to be effective in the air is founded through the mission type tactics.

  • 268.
    Beck, Mikael
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Luftvärn, defensiv luftmakt och tröskeleffekt : Luftvärnets förmåga att höja tröskeleffekten och bidra till avskräckning2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag finns inga vetenskapliga belägg huruvida luftvärn kan bidra till att avskräcka en utmanare. Bristen på kunskap kring detta kan kopplas till bristen på forskning kring defensiv luftmakt då det i luftmaktskretsar främst varit offensiva teorier om luftmakt som härskat.

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka kausala samband mellan nyttjande av luftvärn och en ökad tröskeleffekt i syfte att avskräcka en utmanare.

    Utgångspunkten är duellen mellan luftvärn och offensiva luftmaktsresurser i kampen om luftherravälde. Resultatet visar att det finns ett kausalt samband mellan luftvärnets förmåga att bestrida en utmanares luftherravälde och ökade genomförandekostnader för en utmanare vid utövandet av luftmakt, med ökad tröskeleffekt som följd. Ett kausalt samband mellan luftvärnets förmåga och en lägre grad av luftkontroll för utmanaren att genomföra luftoperationer ifrån kan inte påvisas.

    Undersökningen visar även på ett möjligt kausalt samband mellan att uppträda med kombinerade luftvärnssystem och höjda genomförandekostnader för utmanaren.

    Resultatet ger insikt i hur luftvärn kan påverka en tröskeleffekt och bidra till avskräckning samt utökar teoribasen för defensiv luftmakt med ett luftvärnsfokus.

  • 269.
    Becker, Per
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Bynander, Fredrik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training). CNDS.
    The System for Crisis Management in Sweden: Collaborative, Conformist, Contradictory2017In: Handbook of Disaster Risk Reduction and Management / [ed] Madu, Christian N. and Kuei, Chu Hua, World Scientific Publishing Company , 2017, 1Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 270.
    Becker, Vincent
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Framing in the time of Swine flu: policy success and policy fiasco in media frames of the Swedish handling of H1N1 in 20092016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis concerns the notion that the terms success and fiasco are often used, but seldom put into a context. By studying the Swedish handling of the Swine flu, or H1N1-outbreak in 2009, this brings two new notions into the research surrounding policy success and fiasco, namely framing theory and specialized media. An incremental dichotomy is proposed as for measuring success and fiasco within the media, then frames, found both deductively and through a mixed approach are sought after. This was done in national Swedish media as well as what this thesis calls specialized media, i.e. media that is focused on the health care industry. This lead to results pointing to frequent use of different perspectives, or reference objects when framing either success or fiasco. Another result is that of the ubiquitous relativity of the notions of success and fiasco, a relativity that needs further addressing.

  • 271.
    Beckman, Anders
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Vad är det som krävs?: En undersökning av orsakerna till avhoppen på Försvarsmaktens aspirantutbildning2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna undersökning har med utgångspunkt ifrån två kända motivationsteorier prövat sambandetmellan aspiranters förväntningar och avbrott på Försvarsmaktens Aspirantutbildning. Detta hargenomförts genom att utifrån två motivationsteorier utveckla hypoteser som sedan har testats påstatistik över avhoppen ifrån Aspirantutbildningen 2010. Undersökningen finner tecken som pekar påatt det finns ett samband mellan förväntade fysiska krav på en utbildning och andelen frivilligaavbrott. Resultaten visar att en utbildning som förväntas vara fysiskt lätt har en större andel avhopppå egen begäran än en utbildning som förväntas vara fysiskt svår. Då jag utifrån egna erfarenhetermenar att den faktiska fysiska svårighetsnivån på samtliga inriktningar inom Aspirantutbildningen ärlikställda drar jag slutsatsen att aspiranternas förväntningar på den fysiska svårigheten är en viktigareorsak till frivilliga avhopp än den faktiska fysiska svårigheten. Min analys av detta resultat pekar påatt Försvarsmakten kan ha en möjlighet att i framtiden minska sina avhopp genom att utveckla deninformation de ger till sökande aspiranter. Att i ett tidigt stadium ge ut information som berättar mer idetalj om den specifika tjänst de söker samt vilka krav som de facto ställs på aspiranten skulle kunnabidra till att förväntningarna på den sökta utbildningen ligger närmare verkligheten och avhoppenminskar.

  • 272.
    Bekkestad, Erlend
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Effektsbaserte operasjoner under Operation Iraqi Freedom: utvikling av militærteorin ; element i ny doktrine?2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The term Effects-Based Operations is increasingly referred to in articles and publicationsas a possible operational concept for the future. However, the essence of the term is notnew in the history of the use of military power. The use of the military instrument hasalways had the aim of creating an effect on an adversary in order to influence hisbehaviour.During the last 15 years the USA has been involved in several large joint operations withinthe framework of a coalition or an alliance. The evolution in military theory and doctrinefrom Operation Desert Storm in 1991 to Operation Iraqi Freedom in 2003 has been viewedas a shift from a methodical approach to an integrated use of all means of power.Consideration of the effects of each means has become essential, rather than a focus on thedestruction of an adversary’s military capabilities.The aim of this study is to describe the term Effects-Based Operations and the elementswhich constitute the essence of the concept and, furthermore, to investigate whether thetheory was used in practice during Operation Iraqi Freedom. The findings should give anindication of the relevance and possible consequences for the Norwegian Armed Forces ofimplementing an Effects-Based concept at the joint level.To accomplish this aim, the study will answer the following questions:- How is the term Effects-Based Operations described?- Were Effects-Based Operations used in the planning for, and execution ofOperation Iraqi Freedom?- What are the relevance and possible consequences for the Norwegian ArmedForces of implementing Effects-Based Operations, in its current theoretical andpractical status?This study indicates that there is still differences in the understanding of Effects-basedOperations, but the following elements seem to be essential: a clear link between strategyand tasks, and an attack on the adversary’s will where the adversary is seen as a ComplexAdaptive System. In addition, all available means including civilian means of powershould be brought into the campaign. Bearing these characteristics in mind, Operation IraqiFreedom cannot be seen as an Effects-Based Operation; however, elements can be seenboth in the planning and execution of the operation. The study concludes that Effects-Based Operations are relevant to the Norwegian Armed Forces because of the focus on thecomplex nature of today’s battlefield. The consequences of implementing the concept,however, indicate a need to decide how the political and strategic level is willing to letcivilian agencies cooperate with the military. In addition, one has to gain knowledge, notonly of the theoretical and practical implications of effects, but also of how to approach theconcept. Effects- Based Operations or an Effects-Based Approach?

  • 273.
    Bele, Daniel
    Swedish Defence University.
    Warden i Israel: En studie av Wardens tillämpning i Israels luftkrig 2006-20092013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den amerikanske luftmaktsteoretikern John A Warden III har skrivit ett flertal artiklar och böcker om vad han anser är det bästa sättet att använda luftmakt. Warden förordar luftmaktens offensiva natur och eftersträvar ett snabbt, för egen del, fördelaktigt slut på en konflikt. Warden har bl.a. liknat fienden vid ett system, där han menar att strävan skall ligga i att slå ut fiendens ledarskikt vilket får tillföljd att dess vilja till strid upphör.

    I detta arbete ges en sammanfattning av, enligt författaren, centrala delar av Wardens teorier. Sammanfattningen mynnar ut i tre stycken parametrar som kommer att utgöra Wardens teorier i detta arbete. De tre parametrarna är "enemy as a system", "center of gravity" samt "parallell attack". Dessa parametrar ligger sedan till grund för en analys av Israels luftkampanjer i dess krig mot Hizbollah 2006, Operation Change of Direction samt dess krig mot Hamas 2008-09, Operation Cast Lead.

    Syftet med detta är att ta reda på om Israel använde sig av Wardens teorier under dessa båda operationer.

    Anledningen till valet av dessa två konflikter är att Israel bl.a. sin doktrin slagit fast att de aldrig har råd att förlora ett krig. Detta tvingar Israel att optimera sin taktisering.

    Slutsatsen blev att det tydligt går att se att Wardens teorier genomsyrade Operation Change of Direction. Det var enbart "parallell attack" som inte tydligt efterföljdes genom hela operationen. Under Operation Cast Lead däremot så följde Israel Wardens teorier i mycket mindre utsträckning. Det var enbart "center of gravity" som följdes genom hela den operationen.

  • 274.
    Belin, Alexander
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Hemvärnets utveckling: förmågor och uppgifter2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 275.
    Belin, Jean
    et al.
    Chaire Economie de défense.
    Hartley, Keith
    University of York.
    Lefeez, Sophie
    IRIS.
    Linnenkamp, Hilmar
    SWP.
    Lundmark, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Masson, Hélène
    FRS.
    Maulny, Jean-Pierre
    IRIS.
    Ungaro, Alessandro
    IAI.
    Defence industrial links between EU and US2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Commission’s initiatives in the field of armament should lead to a deeper integration of European DTIBs in the coming years. In parallel, the links between European and American DTIBs take the form of technological and armament cooperation, and of capital links between European or American companies. This report aims at analysing the links between the US DTIB and the EU DTIB, and the consequences these links carry on cooperation between European DTIBs.

    These links vary by country. France has strived to preserve its strategic autonomy when developing its DTIB. Its technological and capability-related reliance on the United States has thus remained limited. Nonetheless, cooperation is sought when it is mutually beneficial while French companies seek to invest in the US market, as do other European DTIBs.

    The German DTIB was rebuilt belatedly after World War II, partly on the basis of French-German cooperation. German industry is now privatised and the scope of the German DTIB’s partnerships has widened to other European countries and to the US. The German supply chain is now well established in American armament programmes.

    The Italian DTIB has consistently pursued a policy of active cooperation, whether with the US or with EU member states. Links with the US have notably been built in the context of NATO and through bilateral agreements. In parallel, Italy has developed partnerships with European countries. Rome’s cooperation policy is thus inclusive, and has considered diverse factors such as political links, capability requirements, the need to develop certain technologies and to preserve industrial capabilities and jobs in Italy.

    The British DTIB has historically enjoyed deeper links with US industry, as a result of the cultural closeness between the UK and the US, and of the strategic proximity that dates back to the end of World War II. The links between US and UK DTIBs thus follow a model of strategic partnership. Nevertheless, the UK’s industrial and defence policy is also pursued within a European framework. The missile manufacturer MBDA is nowadays considered as the deepest model of transnational industrial and defence integration in Europe.

    While Sweden seeks to preserve its industrial capabilities in two sectors – submarines and military aircraft – it appears to be most technologically reliant on the US among the surveyed countries. It is worth noting also that these links are long-standing, dating back to the cold war and the Soviet threat, despite Sweden not being a NATO member state.

    The links with the US are thus very different from one country to another, and carry varying implications. While the costs of acquiring American equipment can be low despite their high technological grade, there are often constraints on their use and restrictions on technologies that will not be transferred, or that will be unusable for other partnerships.

    These links are also formalised through bilateral agreements promoting armament cooperation, as is the case for UK-Italian cooperation. For its part, Sweden has signed interstate agreements with the US in the field of technological cooperation.

    DEFENCE INDUSTRIAL LINKS BETWEEN EU AND US / September 2017

    3

    Since the European Council meeting in December 2013 and in its 2016 Global Strategy, the EU has set itself the task of developing "a certain degree of strategic autonomy" supposed to encourage greater competitiveness of European DTIBs.

    In order to promote the development of this European defence industrial policy, we must seek to ensure that the links between US and EU DTIB are mutually beneficial. To do this, two conditions must be met:

    -That the rules governing relations between US and EU DTIB be based on the principle of reciprocity and on equal rules of regulation of respective DTIBs.

    -That the rules governing relations between US and EU DTIB be defined in the context of a dialogue between the European Union and the United States and not bilaterally between each European country and the United States.

    Today the multiplication of bilateral agreements between the United States and European Union member states are potential obstacles to the establishment of a level playing field governing the relations between European DTIBs;

    There is also a lack of reciprocity and equal regulation of EU and US DTIB. This concerns different areas: access to advanced capabilities, unrestricted use of exported armament, access to cooperated technologies, rules governing investment in US and European companies, rules governing property rights over technologies, rules governing export controls.

    Organizing the transatlantic relationship in the field of armaments in order to have a more balanced and profitable relationship, can be achieved in two complementary ways.

    At the European level, the European Defence Research Program (EDRP) will have strong implications for the relations between the companies of the US DTIB and the EDTIB. The rules governing access to finance and the ownership of intellectual property rights (IPR), which will be adopted for collaborative R&T projects involving European defence companies, will result in a common framework governing the relationship between these companies and the US EDTIB: the more Europeans will collaborate among themselves in the field of defence research, the more they will be able to set common and mutually beneficial rules in their relationship with the United States.

    It may also be considered that some EU States will decide to engage in enhanced cooperation in the industrial defence field which could include the following rules:

    -Obligation to achieve a level of 30% R&T in common among the members of the enhanced cooperation, which means 10% more than the target that was defined 10 years ago by the European Defence Agency and that is regularly reminded in the objectives of the European Union;

    -Obligation to inform members of enhanced cooperation of agreements on defence R&T cooperation concluded with the United States so as to ensure compatibility of these agreements with existing agreements between members of enhanced cooperation. The objective is to prevent agreements with the United States from subsequently restricting the scope of existing agreements between European countries;

    DEFENCE INDUSTRIAL LINKS BETWEEN EU AND US / September 2017

    4

     

    -Obligation to systematically consider the acquisition of military equipment manufactured by one of the member countries of enhanced cooperation. This should be accompanied by reinforced security of supply rules;

    -The need to bring the export policies of the member states of the enhanced cooperation closer together.

    These rules, complementary with, and not contradictory to, those which are being defined at European Union level, would accelerate industrial defence consolidation in Europe and make it possible to consider on a more balanced, mutually equally beneficial, basis relations between the United States and the European Union in the field of armaments. These rules would also be inspired by political principles: to strengthen the strategic autonomy of the European Union when necessary. Far from forbidding cooperation between the US and the EU DTIB, such enhanced cooperation would be facilitated because cooperation between US EDTIB and EU DTIB would not be a brake on European cooperation, as it is currently still too often the case.

  • 276.
    Bendiksen, Roy Severeide
    Swedish Defence University.
    Operasjonell ildstøtte: Potensial for 9x styrkemultiplikasjon ved bruk av digital kommunikasjon2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [no]

    Militære operasjoner er i vedvarende endring, hvor en sentral utviklingstrend er bruk av tekniske hjelpemiddel. Dette har medført nye og mer effektive samhandlingsmåter og en påfølgende økning i innslag av fellesoperasjoner. Oppgaven handler om hvordan denne utviklingstrenden påvirker den operasjonelle ildstøttens bidrag til at landmakten kjerneoppdrag – å finne, binde og ramme motstan- deren. Dette tilnærmes gjennom å undersøke hvordan innføringen av digital kommunikasjon påvir- ker det operasjonelle ildstøttesystemets potensial for å skape effekt i det militære spillerom.

    Oppgavens undersøkelse viser at digital kommunikasjon gir ytelsesforbedring gjennom kompresjon av tid, hvilket i tur muliggjør situasjonsspesifikk styrkemultiplikasjon gjennom ekspansjon av rom. Samtidig indikeres det at situasjonsspesifikke kombinasjoner operasjonell ildstøtte har potensial for 3x ytelsesbedring og opp til 9x styrkemultiplikasjon, hvilket betyr at man kan bruke mindre ressurser for å oppnå samme effekt eller de samme ressurser for å oppnå en større effekt! Realisering av potensialet for styrkemultiplikasjon setter økte krav til den metodiske målbekjempningsprosessen og da spesielt kunnskap om egne muligheter og begrensninger. Dette handler om operasjonskunst og peker på viktigheten av systemkompetanse i planlegging og utførelse av operasjoner.

    Innføring av digital kommunikasjon må ses i sammenheng med hvordan pågående utviklingstrend skyver på det operasjonelle ildstøttesystemets sosio-tekniske balanse. Forståelse av fenomenet blir derfor viktig for videre funksjon- og kapabilitetsutvikling.

  • 277.
    Bengtsson, Anders
    Swedish Defence University.
    Svensk Psyops i Afghanistan: Påverkan i en irreguljär miljö2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det har i alla tider varit eftersträvansvärt att nå framgång i krig och konflikter med så få offrade människoliv, så lite påverkan på egendom och med så lite våldsanvändning som möjligt. Denna framgång kan nås på olika sätt, bland annat genom olika former av påverkan på deltagare i konflikten.

    Sedan 2008 har Sverige haft team med speciellt utbildad personal inom psykologiska operationer på plats i Afghanistan för att uppnå just detta.

    Syftet med detta arbete är att, genom en kvalitativ textanalys samt en intervju, undersöka vilka metoder de svenska psyopsförbanden använder sig av för att påverka lokalbefolkningen i Afghanistan samt om dessa metoder är lämpliga att använda i denna miljö.

    Resultatet visar att de metoder som används är lämpliga om de väljs med omsorg och olika metoder används mot olika målgrupper. Dock så lämpar sig inte samtliga metoder att användas mot samtliga målgrupper utan där måste en analys av uppgiften samt möjligheten till effekt analyseras innan operationen påbörjas. Vidare så visar resultatet på problematiken med rotationstider samt organisationen hos psyopsförbanden.

  • 278.
    Bengtsson, Erik
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Luftmaktsteori: en analys av Warden och Pape2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsens övergripande syfte är att undersöka författarens hypotes om att Warden och Papes teorier om luftmakt utgår från ett stormaktsperspektiv vilket minskar deras överförbarhet för mindre stater. I uppsatsens redogörs och blottläggs Wardens och Papes luftmaktsteorier för att förstå deras bakomliggande resonemang och krav.

    Ett urval av teoretikernas texter har analyserats enligt Fabers analysmodell vilket genererat en fragmenterad men analyserbar bild över respektive teori. Underlaget möjliggjorde för författaren att besvara uppsatsens två frågor: Vilka är huvuddragen i respektive teori? Vilka grundläggande förmågor är framträdande i respektive teori?

    Huvuddragen i Wardens teori kan sammanfattas med samhällets sårbarhet, parallell attack samt systemkollaps. Huvuddragen i Papes teori kan sammanfattas med att orsaka förluster, gemensam operation samt vinna territorium. Undersökningen visade att underrättelser, rörlighet samt skydd är framträdande förmågor i Wardens teori samt att uthållighet är framträdande i Papes teori.

    Avslutningsvis anser författaren att undersökningens resultat verifierar uppsatsens hypotes om luftmaksteoriernas stormaktsperspektiv minskar dess överförbarhet för mindre stater.

  • 279.
    Bengtsson, Ingemar
    Swedish Defence University.
    Militärteknikens betydelse för operationskonst – en fallstudie utav operativ planering2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats tar sin utgångspunkt i att den tekniska utvecklingen påverkar hur krig genomförs idag, där strid på operativ nivå utövas med sensor- och vapensystem från någon form av plattform. Därmed kommer teknik i högre grad påverka utgången av militära operationer. Vilket gör att det är viktigt att förstå hur militärteknik påverkar operationskonst. Då operativ planering kan ses som operationalisering av operationskonst torde militär-tekniska perspektiv återfinnas i planeringsmetodbeskrivningar. För att påvisa det kausala sambandet mellan operationskonst och militärteknik formulerades hypotesen – Militärteknik omhändertas i operativ planering genom att utgöra perspektiv på operationskonstens beståndsdelar. Denna hypotes prövades sedan gentemot två svenska planeringsmetoder, utan att kunna förkastas. Därmed är hypotesen tills vidare verifierad.

    Även om hypotesen prövats på svenska planeringsmetoder finns det stöd för att hypotesen även är giltig för andra planeringsmetoder. Faktum är att det snarare är detaljeringsgraden på metodbeskrivningarna som avgör om hypotesens indikatorer kan återfinnas. Då operations-konst kan vara både vetenskap och konst, räcker det inte med en tydlig metodbeskrivning. Chefer och planerare måste själva omsätta underlaget till en faktisk plan. Därför är det viktigt att dessa har kunskap och vetskap om hur de ska tänka. Vilket gör att militärteknik måste vara en naturlig del av utbildningen när operationskonstens beståndsdelar diskuteras.

  • 280.
    Bengtsson, Ingemar
    Swedish Defence University.
    Vad innebär införandet av FMN för Försvarsmaktens insatsledningssystem?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Armed Forces have declared that by the year 2023, the Swedish Armed Forces C2-systems are to be fully FMN compliant. This thesis is to answer what initially needs to change in the C4ISR to enable them to achieve FMN compatibility.

    The current FMN Spiral specification provides, in principle, only support for the essential human-to-human communication services. With this, the SA, JISR and MEDEVAC Mission Thread are to be conducted.

    The Swedish Armed Forces is clear about the importance of interoperability in order to act together with others, both within and outside its region. But it is less clear which of the Swedish Armed Forces C2-system that is affected by FMN.

    This thesis has come to the conclusion that SWECCIS probably is the C4ISR that best represents what FMN is trying to achieve today, and that SWECCIS basically is FMN compliant. SWECCIS provides, however, only four of the six human-to-human communications services, and the Swedish Armed Forces' current solution to provide audio-based collaboration services is not FMN compliant.

    The future FMN Spiral specifications will place more demands on the Swedish Armed Forces C4ISR for those to maintain their FMN compliant.

  • 281.
    Bengtsson, Kristofer
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Golanhöjderna, den strategiska betydelsen 1967-19732009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The topic of this essay is the strategic importance of the Golan Heights during the period 1967-1973, specifically targeting the following questions;

    -          Why were the heights strategically important?

    -          What are the gains of either of the states in controlling the Golan Heights?

    A theoretical framework based on Jerker Widén´s and Jan Ångström´s Militärteorins grunder (The fundamentals in Military Theory) and its chapter regarding the strategic context will be used as an analytical framework.

    The framework has been applied on the specific conditions of the Golan Heights during a given and limited period of time; stretching from 1967 to 1973, however, the study will not deal with the war of attrition in 1970 as the impact on the Golan Heights and the surrounding geographical strategically important area was limited if at all. The two wars waged during this particular time are used in an attempt to give a somewhat objective picture of the strategic importance of the area.

    The conclusions are that the importance of the Golan heights during the selected period was significant as the Golan Heights provided a “strategic lock” both ways and provides a favourable area to deploy artillery, intelligence and surveillance sensors.

  • 282.
    Bengtsson, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College.
    UCAV vs. Armed UAV - en studie i realiteters inverkan på visioner2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade of the 20th century, visionary theorists predicted that advanced UCAVswould replace or complement existing fighter aircraft of today. Those predictions have not beenfulfilled. The Armed UAVs used in today’s conflicts could almost be seen as armed sailplanes andthe development can be described as more pragmatic then innovative. The development could beexplained as two separate development tracks, Armed UAV and UCAV. The analysis shows thatArmed UAVs characteristic persistence is the driving factor in today’s low intensive conflicts. Themore glamorous UCAV on the other hand has showed to be more complex and expensive thanexpected, and especially that its characteristics: speed, autonomy and stealth are not demanded intoday’s conflicts.

  • 283.
    Bengtsson, Ola
    Swedish Defence University.
    Infanteriet - pånyttfött eller återanvänt?: En jämförelse av infanterireglemente under kalla kriget och idag2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay aims at studying how swedish infantry regulations have changed from the invasion-deterring army of the Cold War to today’s modern expeditional army, but also to show likenesses between these.The essay is based upon two regulations, Infanterireglemente Skyttebataljon 1974 and Markstridsreglemente 6: Manöverbataljon Förhandsutgåva 4 2012, which are compared with an analytical tool constructed from elaborated and operationalized parts of the six basic abilities.The thesis shows that there is a difference concerning the use of indirect method in order to defeat the opponent, and also in the terms of mission tactics. Similarities can be found in the description delaying the opponent and the use of indirect fire.

  • 284.
    Bengtsson, Rikard
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Stigmatisering: upphov till mörkertal efter genomförd internationell militär insats?2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Receiving support and help for physical injuries when returning from a military operation is natural and fully acceptable. As far as doing the same thing when having mental illness is not as likely to happen. The shame of admission in front of the people around you holds you back.  The problem might be stigma; you do not want to be seen as odd or different, seen as someone who mentally could not cope with the experience.

     

    If the need for care is unknown to the Armed Forces then there will be an unknown number of individuals who do not receive the support they are entitled to by law.

     

    This thesis aims to investigate how much impact the fear of stigmatization is after an international military operation.

  • 285.
    Bengtsson, Rikard
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Tjänstvillighet för Internationell militär insats2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with this essay is to present the reasons and explanations behind the decision to go or not to go on missions abroad and how obliging you can be. The essay relay on an examine of opinions due out of five categories of people, who either have an employment with or relative who is in connections with one who have an employment with the Swedish Defence Forces. Besides that two interviews have been conducted to get to know the thoughts or decisions behind for the relatives. The result is to give answer on what the main reasons are for the willingness of service abroad and what the Swedish Defence Forces and their principal can do about it to promote foreign service further more.

    The essay can be seen as a parallel investigation as the Veteran policies which have been conducted by the Defence ministry in 2008.

  • 286.
    Berg, Bo
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Nyttan med modulär design av stridsfartyg2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 287.
    Berg, Claes
    Swedish Defence University.
    Utan svans - inga tänder: Framgång ur ett logistikperspektiv2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Professionella militärer menar att logistik har en avgörande roll för krigföringen. Trots detta är det få forskare som studerat logistikens betydelse. Fram till 1900-talets senare hälft var området i stort sett outforskat men sedan dess har fler och fler intresserat sig för logistiken. Jämfört med exempelvis strategi är det få, och relativt små, studier som genomförts men alla är överens om att området är dåligt utforskat. De få teorier som utvecklats om logistikens betydelse har prövats av respektive författare men ingen har jämfört och ställt teorierna mot varandra.

    I en studie av Falklandskriget 1982 kommer därför logistikens roll för utgången av konflikten att undersökas ur två teoretiska perspektiv. Thomas M. Kanes teori om logistiken som skiljedomare och Mark Erbels & Christopher Kinseys teori om det logistiskstrategiska navet kommer båda att appliceras på fallet och resultatet användas för att jämföra teoriernas skillnader i syfte att visa på möjligheter för framtida teoriutveckling.

    Resultatet visar att logistik spelade en avgörande roll för utgången av Falklandskriget och att den sida som hade de bästa logistiska förutsättningarna segrare. De båda teorierna visar sig kunna förklara detta men de skiljer sig åt. Dessa skillnader och de frågor som skapas visar på behovet av ytterligare forskning om logistik och dess relation till strategi.

  • 288.
    Berg, Hillevi
    Swedish National Defence College.
    IMPROVISATIONSKRIS: Improvisation i svenska nationella krishanteringsövningar2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen syftar till att beskriva hur improvisation tagit sig uttryck i utformandet och genomförandet av de fyra samverkansövningar (SAMÖ) som hitintills genomförts i Sverige. SAMÖ ska öka den nationella krisberedskapsförmågan och då robust och effektiv krishantering kräver improvisation studeras hur improvisation tagit sig uttryck i dessa övningar. Tre improvisationstyper har identifierats i tidigare forskning; nyskapande, adaptiv och återskapande improvisation. Förekomst av dessa i form av implicita respektive explicita uttryck eftersöks i övningsutvärderingarna genom att operationaliseringar av begreppen används som raster vid analys av materialet. Studien har funnit att uttryck av improvisation saknas i utformandet av övningarna men att uttryck av nyskapande improvisation förekommer i övningsdeltagarnas genomförande av SAMÖ 2004, 2007 och 2008 och SAMÖ-KKÖ 2011 samt att adaptiv improvisation förekommer i genomförandet av SAMÖ 2004 och 2007.

  • 289.
    Berg, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University.
    Förändring genom inlärning: Händelserelaterad policyförändring inom svensk krisberedskap2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen syftar till att förklara uppkomsten av förändringsförslagen som presenterades i MSB:s rapport ” Ansvar, samverkan, handling. Åtgärder för stärkt krisberedskap utifrån erfarenheterna frånskogsbranden i Västmanland 2014” Med hjälp av processpårning görs en inomfallsanalys där Västmanlandsbranden ses som en ”fokus händelse”. Denna händelse agerar som ett stimuli till förändring. Till detta används Birklands teori krig den händelserelaterade policyförändringen och dess indikatorer för att förklara förändring genom inlärning. Studien visar det troligt att lärdomar från Västmanlandsbranden tagits till vara och gett upphov till förslag till förändring inom svensk krisberedskap.

  • 290.
    Berg, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Nanostrukturell ytbeläggning på utsatta delar av marina drivlinor2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays naval units are participating in international missions, where new and in many cases tougher conditions will affect their propulsion.

     

    This essay deals with some of the now developed nanostructure coatings and gives a presentation of how the coatings could function on some exposed parts of the naval powertrain. The essay investigates the possibility that the coatings can be used as a protective layer that will reduce or prevent wear on selected parts of the naval powertrains. As a basis for the essay, nanotechnology is described, as well as different reasons that wear occurs and application techniques for coatings

     

    The conclusion is that nanostructured coatings can be applied and provide a much better result on hardness and wear resistance as of naval powertrains compared to micro-structural coatings, both for manufacturing and renovation.

     

    The essay presents a few examples of the military utility of the nanostructure coatings as well as suggestions for further research.

  • 291.
    Berg, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Självsanerande ytbeläggning i nanostruktur: Är det möjligt att applicera på elektrooptiska sensorer och till vilken nytta?2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with now developed self-cleaning coatings and gives a presentation of how they work on some electro-optical sensor lenses used in the navy. The study also examines the coatings transmittance and how efficient they can clean the sensor lenses from undesired salt layers and other soiling particles.

    After the introduction the study presents basic facts of the chosen sensors, nanotechnology, surface wettability and also salts and salinity. Thereafter the study describes current nano-research on self-cleaning coatings and possible results there of, when the coatings are applied on the different sensors.

    In the study I give my opinion of the military benefit of using self-cleaning coatings, which from a general point of view is that there mostly are positive effects using such a coating, in a technical perspective.

    The study ends with conclusions that there are self-cleaning coatings based on TiO2-nanoparticles which can transmit within the visual spectra and also can clean undesired soiling particles. But can not confirm that these coatings have the desired effect on salt crystals, or transmit within wavelengths spectrum for IR-detectors and lasers.

  • 292.
    Berg, Torgeir
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Anvenderlogistikkens betydning for tempo i et manøverkonsept2002Student paper otherStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with operational logistics. The transition from a static conceptbased on attrition, to a consept based on tempo and maneuver, put newdemands on the logistic system. It is therfore interesting to look closer into theconnection between tempo and logistical support. This is done by describingand anlysing possibilities and limitations regarding support of tactical armyunits, with the aim of gaining a deeper understanding of the significance oflogistics in a maneuver concept. The basic question is how logistics cansupport tempo in army operations and what kind of distribution procedureshould be used in logistical support? The method used is qua litative textualanalysis and I use the perspective of general systems theory.The first part of the paper examines logistics as an integral part of maneuverwarfare. Because it is an integral part of war, logistics is also subject tocharacteristics of war, as non- linearity, friction, uncertainty and fluidity. At thesame time the battlespace is expanding and creating an non linear array offorces with conciderable separation between units and an intermixing offriendly and enemy forces. This factors will together put more strain on thelogistic system and delivery of resources can never be taken for grantedManeuver warfare depends heavily upon the use of tempo, both as a means ofexploiting opportunities and as a weapon on its own right. This first part of thepaper focuses upon analyzing logistics as a critical contributor for thegeneration and maintenance of tempo.The second part of the paper focuses primarily upon the distribution process atthe tactical level. The discussion of the levels of logistics, combined withexamples from the Gulf War, illustrates the complexity and interrelationship oflogistics and shows that the system must be able of operating at all three levelsog logistics in order to fully support the commander. In examining the make upof the logistic system, I identified the procedures being used as a key element.Basically there are two types of procedures that can be employed to effectdistribution. The first, pull, places almost total responsibility on the needingunit. The second, push, places most responibility on the logistic system itself.My key findings are that an army must use a combination of push and pullprocedures, although the push procedure seem to be the best system in amaneuver warfare concept. Finally I found that the maneuver warfarephilosophy will demand units to be self sufficient for longer periods in order tobe able to exploit opportunities and maintain tempo.

  • 293.
    Bergdahl, Oscar
    Swedish Defence University.
    Dynamiken i slaget om befolkningens stöd: Upprorsmakarnas misslyckande i Malaya2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The military interventions in Afghanistan and Iraq in the early 21st century evolved into extended counterinsurgency operations based on lessons from The Malayan Emergency 1948-1960. However, these lessons have been questioned as the study of the emergency has concentrated on one-sided studies, looking to explain the outcome merely as a result of the counterinsurgent’s actions. Furthermore, the case contradicts former research stating that the use of coercive measures leads to failure, which indicates that other factors also affect the outcome. Therefore - to be able to draw correct lessons from cases of counterinsurgency - it is not only needed to study the acts of the counterinsurgent, but also the actions of the insurgent. Hence, this case study examines what measures the insurgent used and how these, combined with the acts of the counterinsurgent, affected the outcome. The study suggests that the insurgent embraced an enemy-centric strategy which, through the substantial use of coercive measures, outweighed the coercive measures of the counterinsurgent and consequently alienated the insurgent’s cause from the population. Therefore, the findings complement past explanations to why the uprising failed and highlights the dynamics of insurgency warfare.

  • 294.
    Berge, Patrik
    Swedish Defence University.
    Hur förklaras framgång i kustförsvarsoperationer genom tillämpningen av kombinerade vapen?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    När det föreligger ett hot om angrepp via havet är förmågan till kustförsvar vitalt. Kustförsvaret ska verka i en utmanande stridsmiljö där elementen hav, luft och land möts. Genomförande av kustförsvar samlas normalt under begreppet kustförsvarsoperationer. Forskningsläget pekar på att förmågan till kustförsvar är viktigt för en kuststat, samtidigt är det konceptuella teoretiska ramverket för dess genomförande outvecklat. Ur ett manöverteoretiskt perspektiv utgör kombinerade vapen en generell konceptuell metod avseende genomförande av strid. Undersökningens syfte utgörs av att utöka den förståelsen för hur framgång i kustförsvarsoperationer kan förklaras genom tillämpning av kombinerade vapen. Forskningsdesignen är konstruerad såsom en jämförande fåfallsstudie, med olika utfall. Undersökningens analysenheter består av två empiriska fall, kustförsvarsoperationerna vid Salerno 1943 respektive Falklandsöarna 1982.

    Resultatet pekar på ett samband mellan tillämpning av kombinerade vapen och graden av framgång i kustförvarsstriden. Resultatet pekar också på att dessa principer ofta, men inte alltid, är interrelaterade mellan varandra och att det finns ett samband mellan förmågan att exploatera en vunnen framgång och dess varaktighet och effekt. Generalieringsambitionen avseende resultatet måste betraktas utifrån att endast två fall som undersökts. Detta medför att fler empiriska prövningar på fall av kustförsvarsoperationer kan utgöra förslag för fortsatt forskning.

  • 295.
    Berge, Patrik
    Swedish Defence University.
    Överraskning och tempo i amfibieoperationer: Om två av krigföringens grundprincipers innebörd och betydelse på amfibieanfallen vid Inchon samt Anzio2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An amphibious assault can open new fronts and totally change the operational and strategic situation. Amphibious assault often depends on the principles of surprise and tempo.

     

    The principles of war, surprise and tempo are the main focus in this thesis. The context consists of the operational type, amphibious assault. The main problem that the study will try to answer is the paradox that theorists highlight these principles as essential conditions for amphibious operations, but they have not developed specifically why and how. In this context it is interesting because there are a number of paradoxes between the type of operation and the principles.

     

    To be able to examine the principles a higher degree of concreteness has to be applied. This is done by examining what other modern theorists has developed on the principles. The most prominent factors then become the thesis operationalized indicators that provides the analysis tool for the thesis. The theory will then be tested by analysing two case studies, Operation Shingle in Anzio and Operation Chromite in Inchon.

     

    The result shows that the indicators of surprise consists of unexpected acting, diversion and operations security. The results of the case study regarding this comes to the conclusions that unexpected acting and operation security are key factors. The indicators of tempo are rapid decision-making and quick physical movement. The case study result indicates that both are criterias for success and are based on a mutual relationship between the indicators.

  • 296.
    Bergfeldt, Sandra
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Biased Mediators and Sustainable Peace: Why are some peace agreements more durable than others?2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mediator characteristics have been found to affect both the process of getting warring parties to sign an agreement and how sustainable that agreement will turn out to be. Since the type of peace agreement also has been found to affect the sustainability of peace agreements, this study aims at examining whether the identity of the mediator is related to which type of agreement is being signed and to see if this could be an explaining factor to the previous results in this field. Many earlier studies have defined success in different ways, mainly either as the signing of an agreement or the durability of agreements. This study contributes to the research field by combining these two definitions. Since type of agreement has been shown to affect the durability of peace, factors that influence what type of agreement is signed will also affect how sustainable the agreement will be. Peace agreement sustainability is seen as the definition of success, but in the search for what makes an agreement last, you might have to look at what makes the parties sign the agreement in the first place. This will therefore develop the concept of successful mediation and analyze the two definitions as one. It is argued that international mediators will have a higher degree of comprehensive agreements compared to regional mediators and that this is the reason for why international mediators have been found to generate more durable peace. The results indicate that there is no difference between the two types of actors in terms of how much of the incompatibility is solved in the agreement, but when looking at how many parties are signatories, international and mixed mediators were correlated with a higher degree of comprehensiveness than regional mediators.

  • 297.
    Berggren, Anders W.
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Weibull, Louise
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Hedlund, Erik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Granberg, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Hyllengren, Peder
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Gustavsson, Björn
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Makt, pedagogik, ledarskap och organisation: En studie av ett mekaniserat skyttekompani2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport sammanfattar en studie som genomförts vid P4 i Skövde, där forskargruppen följt 414. Skkomp från augusti 2010 till juni 2011.

    Utbildningen av 414. skyttekompaniet aktualiserar frågor rörande rollspelet mellan solda­ter och officerare, utbildningens utformning, samt frågor om yrkeskunnande och yrkesidenti­tet.

    Mer konkret identifierar studien följande områden för Försvarsmakten att fokusera:

    • begreppen ”soldat” och ”officer” i det nya personalförsörjningssyste­met, och vad det innebär att vara professionell i Försvarsmakten.
    • soldaten och kompetensutveckling av dessa.
    • grpC tänkta roll och kompetensutveckling av dessa.
    • hur man på förbanden kan involvera GrpC i ”chain of command”?
    • hur kan Försvarsmakten i handling visa att soldaterna är viktiga”.
    • kring erfarenhetsresonemanget/trappan i syfte att stärka officerarna samt att utveckla professionen totalt sett.
    • hur utbildning skall genomföras när PRIO-org är intagen?

     

    Vidare pekar studien ut frågor kring hur man lokalt hanterar att alla anställda soldater inte kan ingå i en insats (givet att t ex FS-organisationen skiljer sig numerärt från förbandets grund­organisation), samt hur ett förband vidmakt­håller förmågor över tiden.

    I rapporten beskrivs även ett fenomen som handlar om ett informationsglapp mellan kompa­niets ordinarie ledningsstruktur (kompanichef och plutonchefer) och de som genomför olika utbildningsmoment, d v s när den som genomför en trupputbildning inte har ett direkt chefsansvar.

  • 298.
    Berggren, Jonatan
    Swedish Defence University.
    Mål och metoder i svensk säkerhetspolitik: Policykoherens i Ett användbart försvar2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Propositionen Ett användbart försvar från 2009 innebar ett slutgiltigt brott med den gamla idén om alliansfrihet och neutralitet – ersättningen blev vad som kommit att kallas en ”solidaritetstrategi”. Parallellt med denna strategiska omläggning har omfattande förändringar skett på andra områden inom säkerhetspolitiken, bl.a. i det att värnplikten i praktiken avskaffats. Dessa olika reformer sammanfaller förvisso i tid, men de kausala sambanden är inte självklara. Utgångspunkten i undersökningen är därför att söka klargöra hur väl den svenska säkerhetspolitikens mål och metoder hänger samman, givet att utformningen av dessa är sprungna ur olika faktorer. Föreligger överensstämmelse, dels inbördes mellan olika metoder för att nå målen, dels mellan dessa metoder och den övergripande målsättningen, eller går det att identifiera brister och oklarheter?

    Den metodologiska utgångspunkten har varit en innehållslig idéanalys, där propositionen Ett användbart försvar tillsammans med regeringens utrikesdeklaration använts för att teckna en bild av den säkerhetspolitiska målsättningen och strategin utifrån den strategiska hierarkin. Denna bild har i sin tur sedan analyserats med utgångspunkt i begreppet policykoherens. Slutligen har analysen placerats i en kontext, i det att den sätts i relation till motsvarande förhållande i den föregående svenska säkerhetspolitiska epoken, det kalla kriget.

    Undersökningen visar att den säkerhetspolitiska strategin hänger relativt väl samman på de högre nivåerna, i det att den betonar samarbetesstrategier för att nå säkerhet tillsammans med andra länder. I de stratgier som syftar till konkret genomförande återfinns dock koherensproblem, främst knutet till den unilaterala solidaritetsförklaringen och den militära allianfriheten; säkerhet ska skapas tillsammans med andra, men samtidigt saknas garantier för att hjälp faktiskt kommer i händelse av kris eller konflikt. Mindre koherensproblem uppstår som följd av detta, men förekommer också självständigt i det att hotbilden som beskrivs i propositionen är mångtydig och därmed undandrar sig den analys som skulle krävas för att kunna beskriva politiken som sammanhängande.

  • 299.
    Berggren, Magdalena
    Swedish Defence University.
    Planering i militär kontext: En studie av PUT-modellen utifrån den svenska doktrinen2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 300.
    Berggren, Peter
    et al.
    Department of Computer and Information Science, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Björn J E
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, Information and Aeronautical Systems, Linköping, Sweden.
    Baroutsi, Nicoletta
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Assessing the quality of Shared Priorities in teams using content analysis in a microworld experiment2017In: Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, ISSN 1463-922X, E-ISSN 1464-536X, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 128-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective, easy to use, and easy to comprehend assessment methods for measuring shared understanding in teams are hard to find. This paper describes an experiment where a measure called Shared Priorities, which is based on ranking of self-generated strategic items, is assessed. Trained teams were compared to non-trained teams in a dynamic problem-solving task. The maturity of the participating teams was also assessed using a content analysis measure. The Shared Priorities measure was used alongside other well-documented measures of team awareness based on self-rating. Results show that the Shared Priorities measure correlates with task performance and could also distinguish between trained and non-trained teams. However, the Shared Priorities measure did not correlate with the other team measures (cf. CARS – Crew Awareness Rating Scale – and DATMA – Distributed Assessment of Team Mutual Awareness), suggesting that it captures a different quality of teamwork than the self-rating measures. Further, the Shared Priorities measure was found to be easily administered.

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