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  • 251.
    Granberg, Staffan
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division, Sektionen för krigsspel.
    Hulterström, Patrik
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Ecological Psychology: A Framework for Wargame Design2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 252.
    Granåsen, Magdalena
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    Barius, Per
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Command and Control Section.
    Hallberg, Niklas
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    Josefsson, Anders
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Command and Control Section.
    Exploring Mission Command in a Concept for Future Command and Control2018In: 23rd International Command and Control Research & Technology Symposium (ICCRTS): Multi-Domain C2 / [ed] Alberts, David, International Command and Control Institute , 2018, Vol. Topic 3, article id 22Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Future Command and Control (C2) need to be both agile and resilient to cope with unpredictable operational environments and to make use of the technological advances. The Swedish Armed Forces develops a concept for future C2 of military operations. The objective of this paper is to explore the utilization of mission command in a future C2 concept. Sweden has a solid tradition of mission command, promoted by the Swedish culture of participation and empowerment. However, the future operational environment demands a need for organizational agility, thus changing the prerequisites for mission command. The future C2 concept, which is under development, encompasses centralized and decentralized command in fixed and temporary organizations. Centralized approaches may be preferred when it comes to prioritization of technologically advanced exclusive resources. On the other hand, dynamic situations demand rapid decision making and seizing the opportunity given in the moment. The future operational environment includes hybrid warfare and gray zone issues, demanding thorough analysis in order to foresee the political consequences of decisions. Sensor and communication technologies enable enhanced situation awareness; however, the infrastructure is vulnerable. The current paper analyses the application of mission command in the future operational environment, and further mission command in relation to organizational agility. The conclusion is that mission command is still relevant in the complex future operational environment. However, the increasingly complex operational environment demands continuous development of the C2 function.

  • 253.
    Granåsen, Magdalena
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Sweden.
    Huskaj, Gazmend
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section. School of Informatics, University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Stefan, Varga
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Data Collection and Research in CDXs: Command and Control, Cyber Situational Awareness and Intelligence Perspectives on Cyber Defense2019In: 24th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium (ICCRTS): Cyber Risk to Mission / [ed] Alberts, David, International Command and Control Institute , 2019, Vol. Topic 9, article id 24Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The annual cyber defense exercise Locked Shields is the world’s largest unclassified defensive exercise. The exercise participants form “blue teams” that are tasked to defend their critical infrastructure against an attacking “red team.” The blue teams are scored based on how well they keep their essential system functions running and the extent to which they manage to assess and report what they are exposed to. During Locked Shields 2019, 24 blue teams from 30 countries participated in a two-day exercise. The case study presented in this paper focuses on one of the blue teams. The team consisted of around 60 people from governmental institutions as well as private companies. The objective of this paper is to explore the possibilities to collect meaningful data for research on Command and Control, C2, Cyber Situational Awareness, CSA, and Intelligence in conjunction with an inter-organizational cyber defense team during a cyber defense exercise. During preparations preceding the exercise, the research team observed the development of strategy, coordination structures and organization in the temporarily formed team as it prepared to solve the highly challenging exercise tasks. During the exercise, data collection included questionnaires, observations, team communication logs, reporting from the blue to the white team and performance scores. The data collection sought to satisfy needs within three research themes - 1) command and control, C2, 2) cyber situational awareness, and 3) intelligence. A review of the dataset showed that the data is well suited for further analysis. The paper presents initial results as well as an outline of how the different types of data collected contribute to research within the three research themes.

  • 254.
    Greberg, Peter
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Den underlägsnes väg till framgång: En luftmaktsteoretisk analys av oktoberkriget 19732016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den 6 oktober 1973, på den judiska högtidsdagen Yom Kippur, påbörjar Egypten och Syrien Oktoberkriget genom att överraskande anfalla Israel över två fronter. Inledningsvis led Israel stora förluster men lyckades återta initiativet och vända det allvarliga läget till slutligframgång, en bedrift där de israeliska flygstridskrafterna spelade en avgörande roll. 

    Då vedertagen luftmaktsteori har kritiserats som resursfokuserad och enbart applicerbar för stormakter väcks frågan hur Israel som underlägsen part kunde vinna framgång med flygstridskrafter mot den kvantitativt överlägsna arabiska koalitionen? 

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka vilka luftmaktsteoretiska faktorer som kan

    förklara hur en underlägsen nation kan vinna framgång mot en kvantitativt överlägsen motståndare inom ramen för luftkrigföring under mellanstatlig konflikt. I centrum av undersökningen står Oktoberkriget 1973 som analyseras genom två luftmaktsteoretiska perspektiv: det revolutionära där luftmakt betraktas som ett medel för direkt strategisk effekt och det evolutionära där flygstridskrafter utgör en integrerad del av de gemensamma styrkorna. Studien visar att israels framgångar med flygstridskrafter under Oktoberkriget till största del förklaras ur ett evolutionärt perspektiv där operativ samverkan var avgörande för utvecklingen på konfliktens båda fronter.

  • 255.
    Gunnarsson, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Kraftsamling i Defensiven: Ett tidsperspektiv på tysk operationskonst under andra världskriget2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats behandlar tysk operationskonst under andra världskriget utifrån ett tidsperspektiv med betoning på rörligt försvar inom ramen för en operativ defensiv. Detta är en teorikonsumerande uppsast som syftar till att utveckla förståelsen av begreppet kraftsamling i tid. Robert Leonhards teori om tidsaspektens betydelse appliceras på en teoretisk ansats om tysk operationskonst  och på den tyska defensiven i Donkröken vintern 1942-1943.

  • 256.
    Gunnarsson, Simon
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Svensk taktik inom Counterinsurgency2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Försvarsbesluten under 2000-talet har inneburit en inriktning för Försvarsmakten mot internationella insatser. En del av de internationella insatserna har ställt Försvarsmakten mot en motståndare av irreguljär karaktär, speciellt i Afghanistan. Denna uppsats vill undersöka vilka lärdomar Försvarsmakten dragit avseende upprorsmotverkan (COIN), och specifikt, lärdomar avseende marktaktik inom COIN, för att öka kunskapen om COIN inom Försvarsmakten.

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka Försvarsmaktens syn på taktik inom COIN, genom att undersöka ett antal svenska samtida normativa dokument och se om de överensstämmer med ett antal utvalda COIN-teorier samt besvara frågeställningen: Hur karaktäriseras beskrivningar av taktik inom Counterinsurgency, i samtida svenska normativa texter, jämfört med ett urval COIN-teorier?

    I uppsatsen beskrivs ett antal teorier angående taktik inom COIN. Utifrån teorierna formas variabler vilka används i en kvalitativ textanalys för att undersöka de olika dokumenten. Resultatet visar att beskrivningar av taktik inom COIN kan karakteriseras som bristande i doktrinerna. Reglementena beskrev däremot taktik både utförligt och detaljrikt och kompletterade varandra. Dock visade det sig att variabeln, offensiva operationer, inte beskrevs överensstämmande av något dokument. Bedömningen är att det finns ett behov av att Försvarsmakten utvecklar beskrivningar om offensivt agerande inom COIN, som tidigare forskning stödjer. Officersprogrammet bör även undersöka ifall en uppdatering av utbildningen, avseende irreguljär krigföring, är nödvändig. Speciellt med fokus på balansen mellan befolkningsfokuserad och fiendefokuserad COIN.

  • 257.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Fältanalys och fältövningar2018In: Militära Arbetsmetoder: lärobok i krigsvetenskap / [ed] Thunholm, Peter; Widén, Jerker; Wikström, Niklas, Malmö: Universus Academic press , 2018, p. 313-329Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utgångsläget för texten är att terräng är en viktig del av fältövningar och att terrängen kan ses från olika perspektiv. Syftet med föreliggande text är att visa på att den för krigföring så viktiga terrängen kan problematiseras och teoretiseras för att ge fruktbara idéer på dess användande, dess natur men också analys av den.

  • 258.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Hybrid warfare and law2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The weaponization of culture in Russia.

    The weaponization of Western weakness in the cases Ukraine & Syria.

    Western unwillingness to recognise Russian hostility: turned into a tool for Russia to undermine Western power.

  • 259.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Hybrid Warfare: Theoretical concept2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 260.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Legoknektar över alla gränser: Recension av Nir Arielli, och Bruce Collins (eds.), Transnational Soldiers: Foreign Military Enlistment in the Modern Era2015In: Militärhistorisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0283-8400, Vol. 2014, no 2, p. 151-153Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 261.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Mau Mau-upproret och brittisk upprorsbekämpning i nytt ljus?: Recension av Huw Bennett, Fighting the Mau Mau: the British Army and Counter-Insurgency in the Kenya Emergency2014In: Militärhistorisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0283-8400, Vol. 2014, no 2, p. 147-150Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 262.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Planning workshop talk2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 263.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    “Teaching in the trenches": A discussion on German tactical frontline training at the end of the First World War”2017Manuscript (preprint) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Texten diskuterar den omorganisation som skedde i den kejserliga tyska armén inför våroffensiverna 1918. Detta görs utifrån primärkällor i det tyska landsarkivet i Karlsruhe, som inte tidigare använts. Såväl det snabba systemet för att tillvarata de senaste erfarenheterna från fronten diskuteras, som upplägget för att bokstavligen utbilda och omorganisera arméenheterna i skyttegravarna. Hanteringen av erfarenheter belyses genom en rapport som dels innehöll viktiga slutsatser, dels hanterades mycket snabbt från slaget i fråga, till de väpnade styrkornas befälhavares (Eric von Ludendorff) förord och vidare ned i tryckt form vid förband på Västfronten. Det andra exemplet visar på den snabba men ad hoc liknande process som vidtog vid omorganisationen av arméenheter till stormtruppstaktik. Förutsättningarna för att detta kan göras berörs i inledningen och anknyter till några faktorer såsom institutionell tillit och utbildning i det tyska civila samhället som underlättade det som sedan skedde i armén.  Perspektivet brygger från det allmänna i Tyskland till specifika dagorders vid Västfronten. Det senare går inte att komma åt annat än genom att använda de dokument som producerades för användande i den välfungerande byråkratiska hanteringen vid fronten.

  • 264.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Bachmann, Sascha
    Bournemouth Univerrsity.
    Military teaching for the future2015In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, Vol. 2, p. 131-145Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Med nya militära utmaningar ställs frågan vad taktisk utbildning egentligen? Många sysselsätter sig med att undervisa i taktisk utbildning, men ställer man dem frågan vad taktik är så händer det ofta att svaret blir svävande och vagt. Är den taktiska utbildningen något som är tidsbundet och daterat? Tesen är att det centrala vid den taktiska utbildningen är förmedlandet och hanterandet av ett taktiskt språk. För att visa på detta inleds med ett exempel från det första världskrigets kejserliga tyska armé där relationen stat, krigsmakt, taktik och språk diskuteras. Stora taktiska förändringar kan genomfras på kort tid, under pågående konflikt med miljontals människor inblandade bara förutsättningarna finns. En välorganiserad stat med hög utbildnings och organisationsnivå är viktigt för en militär organisation då den bara är en exponent av samhället i stort. Denna del följs av taktisk utbildning vid två olika tillfällen i Sverige under det nära förflutna, dels vid stabsprogrammet, dels på officersprogrammet. Vid båda tillfällena är det uppenbart att skolandet i ett uniformt och effektivt taktiskt språk är centralt i undervisningen, oaktat den hierarkiska skillnaden vid tillfällena. Sammanfattningsvis kan sägas att på ytan må den taktiska undervisningen te sig bunden av sina scenarion och fall men att den på ett djupare plan uppehåller sig vid något mer allmänt som språk som också i lika hög grad är viktigt.

  • 265.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Bachmann, Sascha Dov
    Bournemouth University, United Kingdom.
    Western Denial and Russian Control: How Russia’s National Security Strategy Threatens a Western-Based Approach to Global Security, the Rule of Law and Globalization2017In: Polish Political Science Yearbook, ISSN 0208-7375, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 9-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Russian National Security Strategy of 2015 aims at achieving autarky from Western influences on global security, the rule of law and global trade. Russia aims at attaining this by applying a holistic mix of military, political and economic means to weaken the West and to strengthen its own role as a global player. The Russian approach builds on a strategy of reflexive control which as such is an old method, but the outcome of the application of this approach results in hybrid warfare which as such is a new emerging concept of warfighting. This short article looks at one particular aspect of this Russian strategy, namely using Hybrid, or non-linear, Warfare against its Western direct neighbours in particular and the West in general. We will discuss the underlying cultural logic in Russia’s actions and will reflect on the impact of Russia’s utilization of the existing cultural asymmetry as a form of warfare in regard to the West. The examples used in this text are taken from the context of the conflicts of Ukraine and Syria, but have to be seen as constituting a part of an on-going global conflict aimed at NATO and the EU. The text builds on years of research within the hybrid threat, warfare respectively, context by both authors.

  • 266.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Lindahl, Per
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Defensiven – begrepp och doktrinbakgrundIn: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, Vol. BihäfteArticle in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I DENNA ARTIKEL kommer defensiven att belysas utifrån två olika perspektiv och genom två historiska exempel tagna från första respektive andra världskriget. Inledningsvis betraktas defensiven utifrån försvararen perspektiv och med ett exempel från Estland (Narva) 1944. Efter en historik bakgrundsbeskrivning, där bl a doktrinutvecklingen beskrivs, följer ett avsnitt avseende doktrin- och reglementsjämförelse mellan dåtida tyska och nutida svenska reglementen. Vi har i den delen valt att som metod söka efter vissa militärteoretiska indikatorer – fyra typiska begrepp inom defensiv och offensiv strid – för att diskutera likheter och olikheter mellan dåtid och nutid. De fyra valda begreppen är eldens (verkans) betydelse, terrängens betydelse, djupets betydelse och slutligen reservernas betydelse. Jämförelsen appliceras sedan på det taktiska exemplet innan denna del avslutas med en kort sammanfattning.

  • 267.
    Gunnérus, Philip
    Swedish Defence University.
    Interoperabilitet: Ett sätt att mäta den diffusa gränsen - The Blurring Lines Between Civil And Military2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 268.
    Gustafson, Michael
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för operationskonst (KV Opkonst).
    Hybridkrigföring: nya utmaningar eller klassiska principer som vi redan förstår?2016In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 3, p. 161-170Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 269.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Interoperabilitet mellan mark- och flygstridskrafter: En nulägesanalys av Försvarsmaktens styrande och inriktande dokument utifrån Michael Codners och Ingvar Sjöbloms interoperabilitetsteori2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Armed Forces tend to ask themselves if it is sufficiently multinational interoperablefor participation in international operations. An equally valid question today should be whether theSwedish Armed Forces are sufficiently nationally / internally interoperable, between their branchesof service, to be able to conduct independent operations based on the joint warfare theory.The lack of ability to joint warfare in the armed forces in general and the Swedish Armed Forcesspecially constitutes the essay´s fundamental problem. By using Codners and Sjöbloms custominteroperability theory, the Swedish Armed Forces documents were analyzed to highlight anyweaknesses related to joint warfare and national interoperability between Ground and Air Forces.The survey shows weaknesses linked to the custom theory and Swedish Armed Forces governingdocuments. The ability of a national interoperability is limited between Ground and Air Forcestoday, mostly because of weaknesses in the Swedish Armed Forces strategic concept which doesnot describe the importance of joint warfare at all levels sufficiently. This leads to deficienciesreflected in doctrines, regulations, technology, techniques and exercises. Lack of common documents,techniques, methods and exercises in turn affects armed services understanding of theirdifferent backgrounds and unique perspectives. The result will therefore be low national interoperabilityamong the armed services.

  • 270.
    Gustafsson, Emma
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Luftförsvar enligt svensk doktrin: En studie om Luftförsvar, Doktriner och kombinerade vapen2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 271.
    Gustafsson, Fredrik
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Optimering mot den operativa miljön - en studie av logistik i stabiliseringsoperationer2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Adaption to the operational environment -

    a study of logistics in Stabilisation

     

    Abstract

    The study covers topics operational environment in fragile states, along with military operational and tactical logistics. Since the operating environment and therefore the purpose of the military instrument in important respects are distinctive in Stabilisation, in comparison with regular warfare, this means adaptation needs for the logistics.

    The purpose of this study is to analyze and develop the logistics can be designed for Stabilisation, in order to contribute to the logistics adapted to the generic features of the operational environment.

    The empirical data for the study was developed by Western operational and tactical doctrines of stabilisation and the theory is taken from Moshe Kress Operational Logistics. The analysis carried out by a logistics system's operation formalized criteria, and presents the salient adaptation needs for each phase of the operation.

    The generic need for adjustment proved to ensure the continuity that requires operational flexibility. The exception is the Secure where attainability, which in turn requires the ability of survivability, is the dominant criterion for optimizing the logistics system. A key finding of this study is that the Hold is likely to generate the greatest need for adaptation and capacity in an operational logistics system, in terms of operation as a whole.

    Keywords: Stabilisation, Counterinsurgency, Comprehensive Approach, Operational Environment, Logistics

  • 272.
    Gustafsson, Hans-Emil
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Ur ett COIN perspektiv: Kriget mellan Israel och Libanon 20062010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the essay that follows I have used David Galulas COIN theory. I have then used Galulas theory and analyzed the war between Israel and Lebanon in 2006. The war from the Israeli point of view was a failure, as they failed to defeat Hezbollah and stop their rockets from firing into Israel. Despite the facts that the Israel had the most technologically advanced army in the Middle East and that they had air superiority in the area. In this essay I have discussed the following question: Are Galulas theories usable against an opponent like Hezbollah? After having written this essay, I have not beenable to conclude a definite answer, however I am convinced that it is possible. The reason for the Israeli failure was the fact that the Hezbollah were so well prepared for war. Whereas the Israeli forces were ill-prepared because of a substantial decrease in numbers compared to earlier years, and because the Israeli soldiers and officers were not trained for this type of war. In my opinion, the Israeli forces would have needed to focus much more on ground operations because the Hezbollah were so well prepared. This is exactly what stage one in Galulas COIN theory advises, where through military presence, separate the civilian population from the insurgents.

  • 273.
    Gustafsson, Linus
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CATS (Center for Asymmetric Threat Studies).
    Hyllengren, Peder
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Allt fler från Sverige strider i Syrien och Irak2015In: Vårt Försvar, ISSN 0042-2800, no 2Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 274.
    Gustavsson, Alfred
    Swedish National Defence College.
    En undersökning om doktrinutveckling: Minskad operativ effektivitet i den militärstrategiska doktrinen2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis purpose is to analyze specific content in Sweden’s doctrine to illustrate a trend in doctrine development in small states. Small states doctrine tends to promote political messages rather than messages about operational efficiency. Due to this trend, it is important to study how small states implement and accept these types of developments. Kjell Bjerga and Torunn Haaland describes this phenomenon through an analysis of the Norwegian doctrine. The arguments they point out creates a tool, which explain concepts in Sweden’s military strategic doctrine. This thesis then takes a discursive form to identify the doctrines hidden roots and underlying narratives. It is then possible to structure concepts such as operational efficiency or operational inefficiency. The result of this analysis is that Sweden follow the development in small states strategic doctrine, decreasing the amount of concepts promoting operational efficiency. The result comply with Bjerga and Haalands theory and confirm the question at issue. This may lead to a dilemma where Sweden cannot achieve military operational efficiency because their doctrine promoting messages hard to translate to distinct military action.

  • 275.
    Gääw, Anton
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Andra Libanonkriget 2006 – Finns det Ytterligare förklaringar till Israels misslyckande?2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 276.
    Göth, Martin
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Försvarssamarbetet mellan Sverige och Finland -framgångsfaktorer och deras betydelse2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Försvarssamarbeten uppstår mellan stater av olika anledningar och påverkar långsiktigt de nationella militära styrkorna och deras förmågor. Det är dock inte helt oproblematiskt då skillnader och likheter både kan möjliggöra eller omöjliggöra ett samarbete. För att utveckla det pågående fördjupade försvarssamarbetet mellan Sverige och Finland i positiv riktning behöver dessa variationer förstås. Det finns därför anledning att undersöka vilka framgångsfaktorer som föreligger i det nämnda samarbetet och vilken betydelse de har.

     

    Syftet med denna studie är att med stöd av relevant teori och empiri undersöka det fördjupade försvarssamarbetet mellan Sverige och Finland. Därmed bidrar studien med ökad kunskap om påverkansfaktorerna i det bilaterala samarbetet. Det visar att olika faktorer har olika stor påverkan vid olika tidpunkter i ett försvarssamarbete. Föga förvånande har strategisk kultur stor påverkan men är också den faktor som är mest påverkansbar genom samarbete. Hårdvara verkar vara av mindre betydelse men tillit, allvarligt uppsåt och tydliga intentioner är alla av grundläggande karaktär, särskilt i en operativ planering bortom gränsen för fred.

  • 277.
    Hagberg, Mathias
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Sjukvårdsorganisationen vid svenska marina missioner2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish armed forces have been through a big reformation since the Parliamentary Resolution 2004. The Resolutions biggest statement was that the armed forces should change from a invasiondefence to a mobile armed force. This means that Swedish troops and ships are meant to operate far from the Swedish coast line and infrastructure; this can give many new interesting problems.

    One of these problems is if the Swedish units are fit for the missions that they now are entitled to take part in. I particularly if they have the capability to take care of injured personal far from Swedish infrastructure.

    Have the medical organisation and the armed forces the right means to give adequate medical treatment and transportation?

    The methods that the writer has used to solve these questions have been the descriptive method combined whit fall studies on ML 01-02 and ME 01. The literature consists part of reglements, doctrines both Swedish and domestic, in particular the Nato doctrine AJP 4-10

    The conclusions that have been made are that the Swedish ships are not adjusted for this kind of missions, the abcens of the helicopter capability is one of the arguments for this. The effect of what this can mean for the soldier is a decreased will to fight, which can be drastic for the ship.

  • 278.
    Hagström, Linus
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section. The Swedish Institute of International Affairs.
    Weissmann, Mikael
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section. The Swedish Institute of International Affairs.
    Hanssen, Ulv
    The Swedish Institute of International Affairs.
    Allt bör göras för att bygga relationer med Nordkorea2017In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 279.
    Haldén, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Heteronymous politics beyond anarchy and hierarchy: The multiplication of forms of rule 750-13002017In: Journal of International Political Theory, ISSN 1755-0882, E-ISSN 1755-1722, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 266-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anarchy and hierarchy are two central concepts of international relations theory but as conventionally defined they cannot describe political life for most of Western history. Neither concept describes the structure of medieval politics well. Rather, many different principles of differentiation existed simultaneously, both stratificatory and segmentary. The situation was closer to anarchy as understood as the absence of overarching principles of order rather than as ‘anarchy’ in the conventional sense used in international relations and absence of government. The power of the Popes over temporal rulers was considerable, but it never corresponded to the concept ‘hierarchy’ as conventionally understood either. Between c. 700 and c. 1300, Europe became more heteronymous as time went by, not less. More principles of differentiation were developed, and both Popes and kings became more powerful. The reinvention of the papacy after the ‘Investiture Controversy’ (1075–1122) created a system of law and practices in which European monarchs and realms were embedded, but it did not create an all-powerful papacy.

  • 280.
    Haldén, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Kan dygdetiken bryta den "postheoriska" ängslan i 2000-talets risksamhälle?2017In: Mod i strid och filosofi: Dygdetiska perspektiv från Aristoteles till drönarkriget / [ed] Peter Haldén och Biörn Tjällén, Lund: Nordic Academic Press, 2017, p. 217-238Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 281.
    Haldén, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Organized Armed Groups as Ruling Organizations2018In: Armed forces and society, ISSN 0095-327X, E-ISSN 1556-0848, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 606-625Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies of the cohesion of organized armed groups (OAGs) have made great progress, but they have mostly focused on units fighting for modern Western states. I argue that the study of OAGs that contain their own legitimacy requires a broadened theoretical framework. Such groups may be conceptualized as “ruling organizations” in Max Weber’s terminology. Examples of such groups range from early medieval warbands to modern militias and guerrillas. Members of ruling organizations obey commands for a combination of three reasons: rational, traditional, and charismatic—these in turn form the basis of the legitimacy of the organization. Pinpointing the foundations of obedience in a group provides us with another way of emphasizing weak points that we want to either target or reinforce. This study contributes theoretically to the study of cohesion by linking it to theories of legitimacy in political orders.

  • 282.
    Haldén, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Respublikanism i mirovaya politika: politsentichnyi poryadok i zaschita ot dominirovaniya2015In: Sovremenaya Respoblikanskaya Teoriya Svobody / [ed] Evgeny Roschin, St. Petersburg: European University at St. Petersburg, 2015Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 283.
    Haldén, Peter
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    "Respublikanism i mriovaya politika": politsentrichnyi poryadok i zaschita ot dominirovaniya2015In: Sovremennaya Respublikanskaya Teoriya Svobody / [ed] Evgeny Rochin, St Petersburg: European University at St. Petersburg, 2015, p. 293-326Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 284.
    Haldén, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    The Realm as a European Form of Rule: Unpacking the Warfare Thesis through the Holy Roman Empire2017In: Does War Make States?: Investigations of Charles Tilly's Historical Sociology / [ed] Lars Bo Kaspersen & Jeppe Strandsbjerg, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017, p. 154-180Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 285.
    Haldén, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Karlborg, Lisa
    Uppsala universitet, Sverige.
    Esparraga, Francis
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    Kulturarv i krig och konflikt: en forskningsöversikt2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Som denna forskningsöversikt visar finns det en hel del forskning om kulturarv i krig och konflikt inom statsvetenskap, kulturhistoria, juridik, historia m.fl. ämnen. Framför allt finns mycket forskning om de konsekvenser som krigen på Balkan under 1990-talet förde med sig för kulturarv och kulturskatter. Även kriget i Irak under 2000-talet och första och andra världskriget är väldokumenterade.Med tanke på den pågående katastrofen för kulturarvet i det östra Medelhavsområdet och den akuta risk som såväl islamiströrelsers verksamhet som bekämpandet av desamma utsätter kulturarvsplatser och föremål för över stora delar av den islamiska världen krävs dock mycket mer forskning. De nu pågående krigen aktualiserar en rad frågeställningar om hur kulturarv kan bevaras, skyddas men även exploateras i krig

  • 286.
    Haldén, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Tjällén, Biörn
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Inledning: Mod, dygd och militära miljöer2017In: Mod i strid och filosofi: Dygdetiska perspektiv från Aristoteles till drönarkriget / [ed] Peter Haldén och Biörn Tjällén, Lund: Nordic Academic Press, 2017Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 287.
    Haldén, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Tjällén, BiörnMittuniversitetet.
    Mod i strid och filosofi: Dygdetiska perspektiv från Aristoteles till drönarkriget2017Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Mod är en egenskap som hyllats i alla krigförande kulturer. Konsten, litteraturen och filosofin har ofta tagit upp modet som tema, både för att befästa ett militärt ideal och för att problematisera denna egenskap. Men vad är egentligen mod? Var går gränsen till övermod? Vad utmärker mod i strid, och kan man träna soldater att bli modiga? Dessa frågeställningar tar plats även i vår tid där krig och försvar diskuteras i dagens militära miljöer, och frågor om etik är lika aktuella som frågor om effektivitet.

    Mod i strid och filosofi studerar författarna historiska perspektiv på mod och dagsaktuell forskning kring strid och militär utbildning. Förr talade man om mod eller tapperhet som en av flera eftersträvansvärda dygder – idag talar man hellre om professionalism. Men hur mycket skiljer sig egentligen den moderna tidens militära ideal från de historiska? Kan vi lära oss något av den dygdetik som i århundraden användes för att forma modiga individer och tappra krigare?

  • 288.
    Hall Svensson, Johan
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Officerare stöps i samma form, eller?: en studie på officerares likformighet avseende logistiktänk2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine how officers´ thoughts regarding logistics can be understood depending on their service and unit affiliation. The contribution to war science is to show how service and unit affiliation affect Swedish military thoughts about logistics. 

    Theories describe uniformity in thoughts among the officer corps due to drills and discipline in their basic training. Today, the debate on future warfare and logistics suggests that there is no such uniformity. Officers seem to have different ways to think about future logistics. This study investigates why and focuses on service, unit affiliation and joint staff experience. To study this problem, officers at the Swedish Defence University were asked to answer a survey, where their military background and thoughts about logistics were investigated.    

    The results show that officers at the Swedish Defence University have different thoughts about logistics but it is not statistically significant and cannot be explained by service or unit affiliation. It shows, thus, that in 25 per cent of the cases, joint staff experience can explain military thoughts among officers. The main conclusion is that service, unit affiliation or joint staff experience can not fully explain military thoughts in the Swedish armed forces.

     

  • 289.
    Hallander, Jim
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Att leda: En studie om svensk samtida ledningsvetenskap och Försvarsmaktens doktrinutveckling2010Student paper other, 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The theoretical principle for successful command and control depends on such elements as the factor of coordination between Swedish research within command and control science and the development of the Swedish Armed Forces doctrine.

    The ongoing Swedish research within command and control science has created a generic model, the dynamic OODA-loop. The dynamic OODA-loop presents two major key aspects for command and control, the outer and the inner system and how they interface. Furthermore, the Swedish Armed Forces is in a developmental process of the Military Strategic Doctrine. The purpose of the development is to adjust the doctrine to be more useful within the Armed Forces and to describe the ongoing changes in a dynamic and complex environment.

    The purpose of this study is to identify if the development of the doctrine has been guided by the latest research within command and control science. The purpose is also to get a deeper understanding and awareness in order to meet the demands leading to a successful command and control within the military strategic doctrine.

    The study shows a positive doctrinal development in a number of areas such as; the environment where military effects will take action and attach descriptions concerning the intent and the understanding of a mission. It also shows the need for a continued doctrinal development within command and control in close cooperation within the areas of Swedish research.

  • 290.
    Hallberg, Niklas
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    Granåsen, Magdalena
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    Josefsson, Anders
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Command and Control Section.
    Ekenstierna, Christina
    Swedish Armed Forces, Sweden.
    Framework for C2 Concept Development: Exploring Design Logic and Systems Engineering2018In: 23rd International Command and Control Research & Technology Symposium: Multi-Domain C2 / [ed] Alberts, David, International Command and Control Institute , 2018, Vol. Topic 9, article id 23Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The conditions for military operations have changed due to, e.g., globalization, climate change, and nations' ambitions and actions. This has resulted in new demands on command and control (C2) capability. Further, the rapid evolution of information technology has provided vigorous opportunities to enhance the C2 capability, e.g., through advanced communication, information management, and decision support. However, the need to rely on modern technology also causes increased vulnerabilities. The sociotechnical nature of C2 systems means that the development of C2 systems is complex and challenging. Developing C2 concepts requires collaboration between people from different knowledge disciplines, traditions, and perspectives. Therefore, there is a need for elaborated concept development approaches and structures that promote collaborative efforts. The objective of this paper is a framework for the development of C2 concepts that enhance the collaboration of people from different traditions. The study was carried out as case study performed in two steps: theoretical development and formative evaluation. The case study targets the development of C2 concepts for future military operations of the Swedish Armed Forces. The framework includes terminology models, a development process, and system representations. The case study shows that in diverse teams, it is essential to agree upon terminology, development process, and systems representations used for the development to avoid misunderstandings and unnecessary rework. The framework explored in this paper is only in its first version. However, the development and the application of the framework was found to facilitate and focus the work of the multi-disciplinary team.

  • 291.
    Hallenborg, Edward
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Hotuppfattningar och strategier för maritim säkerhet i Östersjön, ur ett svenskt perspektiv2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna uppsats avhandlas hotuppfattningar och strategier för maritim säkerhet i Östersjön ur ett svenskt perspektiv. Ökade varuflöden, oljetransporter och handel inom östersjöregionen har tillsammans med den snabba omvärldsutvecklingen bidragit till ett nationellt och transnationellt intresse för bibehållen maritim säkerhet i Östersjön.

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att med kunskap om av regering och riksdag identifierade hot under perioden 1998-2009, analysera vilka strategier Sverige valt för att hantera hoten och bibehålla den maritima säkerheten.

    För att identifiera hoten mot svenska intressen i Östersjön har teorin om det vidgade säkerhetsbegreppet använts för att med sektorerna; politik, ekonomi, samhälle, miljö samt militär identifiera de hot som regering och riksdag lyfter fram i propositioner och försvarsberedningar.

    Strategierna som har analyserats har fokus både på svenskt nationellt såväl som transnationellt samarbete och berör både nutid och framtid.

    Resultatet av uppsatsen visar att Sverige lägger allt mer fokus på transnationellt samarbete med bl.a. EU och de nordiska länderna men att även instruktioner till svenska myndigheter betonar ökat behov av samarbete för att hantera de identifierade hoten.

  • 292.
    Hallström, Fredrik
    Swedish Defence University.
    Artilleri i nationell konflikt: En studie om finländskt principfokus i det Finska vinterkriget och en jämförelse med svenska artillerireglementet2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den svenska något begränsade artilleri-förmågan skall kunna verka effektivt i alla konfliktnivåer och detta skapar behov av erfarenhetsinhämtning av tidigare konflikter. Finska vinterkriget har i denna uppsats behandlats för att utvärdera en konflikt av nationell karaktär liknande den svenska försvarsmakten skulle kunna ställas inför.

    Undersökningen behandlade två områden; ”Mannerheim-linjen” och ”Norr om Ladoga” på grund av dess olika karaktär och på så sätt behov av finsk taktikanpassning. Analysen genom kvalitativ litteraturstudie genomfördes med utgångspunkt i teorin krigföringens principer. Analysen skulle sedan mynna ut i ett antal principer som verkade framgångsfrämjande för artilleriets användande. En jämförelse gjordes senare mellan resultatet av studien och svenska artilleriets tänkta principfokus idag.

    Resultatet av undersökningen visar att principerna måste vägas mot varandra för att vara framgångsfrämjande, dock framträdde principer som stridsekonomi, samordning, mål och målsättningar samt god anda som viktiga dels som enskilda principer men även för att kunna möjliggöra andra principers uppfyllande.

     

  • 293.
    Halmela, Jimmy
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Implementeringen av underrättelsedoktriner: Tre perspektiv för hur underrättelsetjänst bör utövas samt dess implementering inom FM 3-242010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Within the academic field of intelligence studies, there is no established theory. Theories regardingwhat intelligence is and how it should be conducted vary, and national interests have a major impact in the design of these. Within the military context, the situation is different in certain aspects. Today's multinational operations require cooperation in a variety of areas, including intelligence. In this essay a study of three doctrine/manuals is presented. These are examined from three perspectives, Control, Adaptivity, and Cooperation. The purpose of this is to find what these documents present as important for intelligence exercise. These important points are then used to construct an analysis tool that examine whether these doctrines are implemented in a currently highly topical doctrine, FM 3-24 Counterinsurgency. This study shows a clear link between how intelligence services are organized in Sweden, the United States and NATO. This despite the fact that some variation around concepts and structures exists between their regulatory documents. Cooperation is a central concept among all intelligence documents and appears to be important in FM 3-24. The importance of interoperability within the Intelligence Service, as all intelligence document stresses, does not seem to be implemented in FM 3-24.

  • 294.
    Halvardsson, Joakim
    Swedish Defence University.
    Taktisk offensiv framgång: en teoriprövande tvåfallsstudie ur ett fältarbetsperspektiv2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 295.
    Hamberg, Viktor
    Swedish Defence University.
    Klassiska principer i en modern marin kontext2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The principles of war have for a long time been contested and criticized for being too imprecise and vague, even questioned as to their validity and applicability in modern warfare. Despite military thinkers and officers having questioned them, the principles of war constitute a central part of the western military doctrines and regulations.

    The purpose of this study is to examine the meaning of the principle of concentration of force and surprise in modern naval warfare. Due to the ambiguity of the principles of war, both principles have been analysed through the theoretical views of Clausewitz, Fuller, Montgomery and Collins. Using a case study method, the two principles of war have been tested hypothetically on the battle of Baltim during the Yom Kippur War in 1973.

    The result of the study shows that all hypotheses were confirmed in the analysis and the principles of concentration of force and surprise were applicable in modern naval warfare. There is however, a need for further empirical studies regarding the principles of war in order to strengthen this study’s result and to test the validity of other principles in modern warfare. 

  • 296.
    Hamdouni, Hana
    Swedish Defence University.
    The digital destruction: A case study of Stuxnet within the theory of new and old wars2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to examine the extent to which Stuxnet can be characterized as a new war, if at all. The cyber-attack is studied within the theoretical framework of Mary Kaldor’s ‘New and Old Wars’, where the case has been analysed through the perspective of both conventional and modern wars. Stuxnet is the first cyber-attack that has managed to act in complete secrete during a long period of time and causing its target physical destruction, while hiding all the evidence that could lead to the malware. The significance with Stuxnet is not merely based on its sophisticated operation but rather to the selection of its target, which is the Iranian nuclear enrichment program. The cyber-attack has raised questions of vulnerability and lack of securitization that the world faces in these situations. Nonetheless, it is rather difficult to prepare and secure ourselves from such attacks, if we do not understand their nature.

    After examining the aim, the actors involved and the method of Stuxnet, it becomes clear that that the cyber-attack contain features from both old and new wars.

  • 297.
    Hammarlind, Eric
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Svenska strategiska narrativ under kalla kriget och 2010-talet: en kvalitativ textanalys av fyra regeringars deklarationer i jämförelse mellan neutralitets- och solidaritetspolitik2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Is the credibility of today's Swedish security policy under question? Through two world wars and the years that followed Sweden has invoked a policy of neutrality and military nonalignment. This policy has come to be perceived as an integral part of the Swedish national identity. Is it possible then that Sweden’s past and present strategic narratives could be contested?

    This thesis investigates whether or not there is consistency in the narratives expressed by both right wing Swedish governments and socialist Swedish governments. The narratives of both parties are examined during two separate eras of history; the Cold War era of the 1980s is compared with the current more globalized era of the 2010s.

    A constructivist perspective is utilized in the analysis and a narrative analysis is applied.

    The results show that there has been significant consistency in the narratives of Swedish security policy from both right wing and socialist governments. There is much greater variation shown between the two eras than there is between the two parties themselves.

  • 298.
    Hammarström, Caroline
    Swedish Defence University.
    Logistik en viktig eller oväsentlig faktor för framgång i fälttåg2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Military campaigns has throughout time been analysed through the eyes of the commanding officers and their tactical knowledge. Is this the only way to analyse military campaigns or can victory be explained through other actions then tactical decisions? Can the importance of logistics explain outcomes in different military campaigns?

    This study strives to explain how logistic measures can explain different outcomes in military campaigns. The concept which is used in this study is Moshe Kress theory on operational logistics, and through this I will try to explain the importance of logistics as a factor for outcomes in military campaigns.

    This study has shown that pre-emptive measures in the operational logistics level can change the outcome of military campaigns. Although logistics isn´t the only reason for victory or defeat in military campaigns this study shows the importance in understanding and making sure your logistic planning is as well planned as your tactical planning.

  • 299.
    Hammarström, Charlotte
    Swedish Defence University.
    Operation Barbarossa - en jämförande fallstudie av Tysklands invasion av Ryssland/Operation Barbarossa2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is a debate about what’s the principles or which principle that leads an armed force in to victory in war. In maneuver warfare there also an discussion about how maneuver warfare should be practiced and what’s maneuver warfare.  This study examines a theory of maneuver warfare and strives to see if and how, the theory can explain the outcome in two cases from the campaign in the east, during the second world war, also known as Operation Barbarossa year 1941.  

    This study compares the outcome in the initial battle of the 22 of June and the initial battle of 2 of October during the campaign. By using Martin van Crevelds theory of manuever warfare and his six principles tempo, schwerpunkt, surprise, combined arms, flexibility and decentralized command. The study shows that you can explain the outcome with van Crevelds theory and how, but there is alot more factors that must be taken into account when you try to understand the complex natur of war and what’s the causes  that brings an armed force to victory or defeat

  • 300.
    Hanby, Tove
    Swedish Defence University.
    Fortfarande "Normative Power Europe"?: En studie av militariseringens effekt på EU:s internationella roll2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to contribute to the discussion on the effects of the militarization of the European Union’s external action. Based on Ian Manners’ “Normative Power Europe” (NPE) - the idea that the EU’s international role is better understood as normative, instead of civil or military, the following is an examination of two current military missions as possible promoters of universal norms.

    The research has shown that military action coincides with several norms and ways of diffusion described in NPE, which leads to the assumption that a militarization of the EU’s normative power is not only possible, but can also be positive.

    However, to keep a good balance between civilian values and military power – critical reflection regarding aims and consequences need to be an integrated part of the process.

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