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  • 251.
    Axelsson, Jörgen
    Swedish Defence University.
    Målinriktad träning eller bortkastad tid?: insatspiloters användning av simulatorer2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract:

    The Swedish Air Force (SwAF) has a long experience of using simulators for pilot training and they are in use within many of the aircraft-systems the SwAF currently operates. However, statistics show that the simulators are not used to their full extent. In combination with the lack of clear and adequate objectives in some cases, questions concerning the effectiveness of the use of simulators arise.

    The aim of this essay was to investigate if pilots working at a operational squadron in the Swedish Air Force believe that their training in simulators contributes to their knowledge and progress and also what the planning for and realization of the training itself looks like.

    The research was conducted as qualitative interviews of operational pilots during a period of training at Swedish Air Force Combat Simulation Centre (FLSC). The answers from the interviews was analyzed using operational indicators deduced from general training theories as well as from more specific results from studies of simulator characteristics.

    The result shows that the pilots believe that simulators are a valuable supplement to their flight training and if the use of simulators in the Swedish Air Force is ineffective, it most likely is not due to the attitude of the operational pilots concerning simulator training or them having an inadequate knowledge of how simulators should be used.

  • 252.
    Axelsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    Försvarsmakten.
    Sörenson, Karl
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Strategisk teoris bidrag till förståelse av svensk säkerhets- och försvarspolitik2016In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 118, no 4, p. 445-470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What is the added value of strategic theory in the understanding of Swedish securityand defence policies? By introducing a series of concepts that identify policiesthat are pursued in both peace and war such as escalation, deterrence, andweapons acquisition, we argue that strategic concepts contribute to the analysisof Swedish security policy mainly by highlighting forms of policy that do not conceptuallyrest upon the dichotomy of war and peace. Differently from mainstreamscholarly analysis that treats deterrence as one, uniform concept, we differentiatebetween four different logics of deterrence. Using this conceptual tool, we analyseSwedish policies in the 1950s and 2010s and discover that although Sweden pursueddeterrence during both this periods, her policies depend on a different logic. Bycomparison, 1950s Sweden understood to pursue deterrence understood as a wall,while 2010s Sweden understands the term in terms of a shield.

  • 253.
    Axelsson, Lucas
    Swedish Defence University.
    Överraskning - Vilka indikatorer påverkar?: En studie av de två fallen Pearl Harbor och Sexdagarskriget2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The principle of surprise is one of the oldest principles that is to used in battle. Principle as the basis of the conflict and the methods you can use to succeed in battle. But what does surprise really mean, and how is it used?

    The essay will problematize the principle of surprise and connect the research on surprise to Pearl Harbor and the Six Day War that has been seen to be typical surprise attacks. Did the attacks look the same and do the indicators from the literature show that it was a surprise?Initially the principle surprise will describe the selected literature to illustrate the meaning. The literature will be analyzed and make a basis for the later part of the essay.

    Then I will analyze the literature and apply it on the two surprise attacks, if they were using the same indicators.

    Finally it discusses the results and the author suggests new research related to the topic.

    The purpose of this paper is to problematize the principle of surprise and the indicators that affect the principle of surprise. The essay will conduct a comparative method between Pearl Harbor and the Six Day War.

    This analysis is performed by a qualitative text analysis and essay analytical framework is the principle of surprise. The theoretical basis of this paper is the analysis based on the theory and literature surprise of Pearl Harbor and the Six-Day War.

  • 254.
    Axelsson, Rickard
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Understöd av manöverbataljoner: logistikorganisationer ur ett resurseffektivitetsperspektiv2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 255.
    Axenfjord, Tobias
    Swedish Defence University.
    Flexibilitet vid specialoperationer: En förmåga som kan skapas för att hantera det okända?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 256.
    Baade, Hans Petter
    Swedish Defence University.
    Acquiring Deterrence: Defence Procurements’ Role in Deterrence2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A major Norwegian defence procurement project takes decades from project initiation to the desired military capability is delivered and has reached full operational capability. The Norwegian Armed Forces’ primary mission is to maintain a credible deterrence and prevent armed conflicts arising, meaning that the capability acquired through military procurement projects must play into future general deterrence. Do Norway’s strategic military capability procurement projects contribute to a credible and capable deterrence?

    The purpose of this study is to gain a deeper understanding of the deterrence potential of two chosen Norwegian military procurement projects of strategic importance. The capabilities studied are the acquisition of the US fifth generation fighter, F-35 Lightning II and the 212CD submarine to be designed and built by Germany. The two projects have a combined estimated investment cost of 113 billion NOK.

    Deterrence is a large area in social science and the discipline of War Studies. This study applies a deterrence theory lens, primarily based on the conclusion in Zagare’s and Kilgour’s perfect deterrence theory regarding the importance of capable and credible threats, operationalised through Dalsjö’s five dimensions of threshold defence.

    The analysis identifies a clear credibility issue with one of the projects and the paradox that cost saving decisions intended to ensure operational availability and increase credibility also make the capability more vulnerable and less credible due to lack of redundancy.

  • 257.
    Baazius Bågenholm, Hans
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Unmanned Aircraft Systems och dess möjliga roll inom Svenska marinen2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning: Detta självständiga arbete har utifrån ett taktiskt perspektiv studerat på vilket sätt obemannade system i kategorin UAS, Unmanned Aircraft Systems, kan tänkas bidra till taktisk uppgiftslösning inom marinen om dessa infördes idag. Arbetet har genom kvalitativ litteraturanalys studerat utvecklingen av dessa system och vad som är rimligt att förmågemässigt förvänta sig av dem idag. En analys har gjorts av den för arbetet aktuella operationsmiljön, den kvalificerade sjöstriden. Vidare har en analys av hur utvecklingen av UAS i USA och Ryssland gjorts för att sätta ett svenskt system i en kontext. Arbetet har haft sin grund i teorin om sjökrigets principer då dessa ger en god teoretisk grund för hur sjöofficeraren bör agera.

    Slutsatser som redovisas i arbetet är att UAS kan komma att spela en stor roll i att ge ökad förmåga till god lägesuppfattning för marinens taktiska chefer. Vidare redovisas hur UAS kan bidra till att lösa vissa av de marina taktiska uppgifterna och stridsuppgifter som finns i Försvarsmaktens Taktikreglemente för marinstridskrafterna. Vidare redovisas att en UAS-förmåga även kan bidra till att sjöofficerare har större möjlighet att agera utefter de i teorin redovisade sjökrigets principer. Ytterligare slutsatser som redovisas är att UAS kan lösa marina uppgifter av både offensiv och defensiv karaktär. Även uppgifter inom marin logistik kan lösas av UAS.

  • 258.
    Bach, Robert
    U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency.
    Strategies for Supporting Community Resilience: Multinational Expereinces2015Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 259.
    Bachmann, Jan
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Bell, ColleenUniversity of Saskatchewan, Kanada.Holmqvist, CarolineSwedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    War, police and assemblages of intervention2015Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book reflects on the way in which war and police/policing intersect in contemporary Western-led interventions in the global South. The volume combines empirically oriented work with ground-breaking theoretical insights and aims to collect, for the first time, thoughts on how war and policing converge, amalgamate, diffuse and dissolve in the context both of actual international intervention and in understandings thereof.

    The book uses the caption WAR:POLICE to highlight the distinctiveness of this volume in presenting a variety of approaches that share a concern for the assemblage of war-police as a whole. The volume thus serves to bring together critical perspectives on liberal interventionism where the logics of war and police/policing blur and bleed into a complex assemblage of WAR:POLICE. Contributions to this volume offer an understanding of police as a technique of ordering and collectively take issue with accounts of the character of contemporary war that argue that war is simply reduced to policing. In contrast, the contributions show how – both historically and conceptually – the two are ‘always already’ connected. Contributions to this volume come from a variety of disciplines including international relations, war studies, geography, anthropology, and law but share a critical/poststructuralist approach to the study of international intervention, war and policing.

    This volume will be useful to students and scholars who have an interest in social theories on intervention, war, security, and the making of international order.

  • 260.
    Bachmann, Sascha-Dominik (Dov)
    et al.
    Bournemouth University, UK.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Eyes Wide Shut: How Russia’s Hybrid Warfare Exposes and Exploits Western Vulnerabilities2017In: Georgetown journal of international affairs, ISSN 0315-0941, E-ISSN 2049-6060, no January 18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 2015 Russian National Security Strategy aims to achieve autarky from Western influences on global security, the rule of law, and global trade. By applying a holistic mix of military, political, and economic means to weaken the West, Russia is working hard to strengthen its own role as a global player. Militarily, Russia makes good use of Hybrid War against its Western neighbors, as seen in its intervention in Syria and in its efforts to undermine NATO and the EU.

  • 261.
    Bachmann, Sascha-Dominik
    et al.
    Bournemoth University, Storbritannien.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Hybrid wars: the 21st-centrury's new threats to global peace and security2015In: Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies, ISSN 2309-9682, E-ISSN 2224-0020, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 77-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses a new form of war, ‘Hybrid War’, under inclusion of aspects of ‘cyber-terrorism’ and ‘cyber – war’ before the backdrop of Russia’s ‘Ukrainian Spring’ and the continuing threat posed by radical Islamist groups in Africa and the Middle East. It discusses the findings of an on-going Hybrid Threat project by the Swedish National Defence College. This interdisciplinary article predicts that military doctrines, traditional approaches to war and peace and its perceptions will have to change in the future.

  • 262.
    Bachmann, Sascha-Dominik
    et al.
    Bournemouth University.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Terrorism and cyber attacks as hybrid threats: defining a comprehensive approach for countering 21st century threats to global peace and security2014In: Journal on terrorism and security analysis, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 26-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multimodal, low intensity, kinetic as well as non-kinetic threats to international peace and security including cyber war, low intensity asymmetric conflict scenarios, global terrorism, piracy, transnational organized crime, demographic challenges, resources security, retrenchment from globalization and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction were identified by NATO as so called "Hybrid Threats" (cf BI-SC Input for a New NATO Capstone Concept for The Military Contribution to Countering Hybrid Enclosure 1 to 1500/CPPCAM/FCR/10-270038 and 5000 FXX/0100/TT-0651/SER: NU0040, dated 25 August 2010). This submission aims to introduce the audience to this form of security threat with a particular focus on "cyber" terrorism and war. This new form of conflict in the fifth dimension has a truly hybrid risk potential and warrants a new holistic counter approach: from law enforcement, counter cyber strategies to kinetic responses. The authors will present the findings of an ongoing Hybrid Threat experiment, which is being undertaken at the Swedish Defence College, with a focus on the role of cyber attacks within the wider context of asymmetric conflict and how the existing legal framework governing the use of force and the law applicable to hostilities does not necessarily reflect on this new form of threat.

  • 263.
    Backlund, Joel
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Analys av de formella och informella kraven ställda på helikoptertekniker i Försvarsmakten2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 264.
    Backlund, Karl
    Swedish Defence University.
    Svenskt offensivt agerande: En enfallstudie av den svenska insatsen i Afghanistan 2009–20122018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This case-study examines the Swedish armed forces in Afghanistan between 2009 and 2012. The aim of this study is to explore how it comes that an organization that is promoting security and stabilizing operations in a post conflict setting in northern Afghanistan gaudily turns in to an aggressive fighting force. The analytic framework is based on Theo Farrells theory of military adaption as well as Lauren Wilcox’s theory of the role of gender as an explanation of military organisations offensive bias. The results show that the Swedish behaviour should be understood as a combination of adaption to demands form allied forces, a result of pollical will to achieve national political goals and a strong offensive bias.

  • 265.
    Backlund, Patrik
    Swedish National Defence College. General Jonas Zemaitis Military Academy of Lithuania.
    Asault rifles: Comparison, analysis and future trends2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is a large worldwide market for assault rifles. Many armed forces need new weapons when their old cold war equipment starts to break down. Throughout the world today, the development of new variants of assault rifles continues and the defence industries are doing business across the globe. Customers demand low prices and high quality.

    Objective: To investigate assault rifles that are currently being used around the world, how they evolved and which factors are important in the development of a future assault rifle, and to compare two widely used assault rifles to explore the differences and determine which one is better.

    Methods: A qualitative study of literature combined with a multi-target analysis of two assault rifles from a given scenario in an urban area.

    Results: Small arms have been the soldier's main weaponry for hundreds of years, and will continue to be so for many years to come. Development of the future assault rifle will be based on such factors as shooting distance, size of magazine and weight. The AK5C rifle was ranked number one ahead of the G36E rifle in the comparison as it was smaller and therefore easier to use in confined spaces.

    Conclusion: Many current rifles are similar in performance and size. Development of the future rifle will not only depend on the rifle itself, but also on the accessories, including ammunition, and the possibilities for customization.

  • 266.
    Backlund, Stina
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Rörlighet i en ökenoperation: USA:s VII armékår under Gulfkriget2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 267.
    Backman, Filip
    Swedish Defence University.
    Irakkriget 2003: En studie om tillämpningen av Rapid Dominance2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis discusses Rapid Dominance and Shock and Awe. A theory developed by the authors Ullman and Wade, published in a paper 1996. The paper called Shock and Awe Achieving Rapid Dominance was intended to develop a new way for the U.S. military to plan and execute operations. After the Cold War were inevitable changes of the U.S. military's resources taking place. United States Armed Forces would be reduced. The authors of the theory wanted to develop a concept that made the Armed Forces able to manage this change. To manage this change, the authors wanted to develop a concept that could work as a doctrine in the future. The concept would require fewer resources but provide the same or even more power than they previously admitted concepts.

    The theory is illustrated by a study on how the theory applied in the planning of the Iraq war in 2003. Iraq war which would be characterized by a plan intended to utilize modern technology for activity against selected Iraqi military targets in the military command and information dissemination to create confusion in the Iraqi troops to the will to fight would end by the shock and awe they experienced.

    The study concludes with a discussion about the planning of operations and the generalization of Ullman and Wade's theory. The author concludes that the thoughts of the theory can be found in depictions of the planning of the operation. However, it is difficult even in the planning stages is difficult to plan to achieve Rapid Dominance by Shock and Awe although there is access to modern military equipment and methods.

  • 268.
    Backman, Joakim
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Marin diplomati ur ett småstatsperspektiv.: Fallstudie svenska Ålandsexpeditionen 1918.2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract:

    The old established description gunboat diplomacy has in modern time changed to a broader and more nuanced definition called maritime diplomacy. But what is maritime diplomacy and how is it described? This essay analyses the theories from the Englishman James Cable and the American Edward Luttwak. Both Cable and Luttwak represent nations which have a global security interests and deploy their maritime forces worldwide. The foundation for their theories is power politics. Is it possible to apply their theories in a small-state perspective?

     

    Analyze of Cable and Luttwaks theories crystallizes three categories that can be defined in maritime diplomacy: naval presence, naval coercion and naval deterrence. By applying these three categories on a case study I want to scrutinize if the categories is applicable on a small state. The Swedish naval expedition to Aland in 1918 works as case study. The aim is to see if today’s theory of maritime diplomacy is applicable on how a small-state uses their maritime forces.

     

    The conclusion is that naval presence is suitable for a small-state to use. Naval presence gives room for political maneuvers and god possibilities to have an influence on the situation. Naval presence also gives reasonable security to own forces due to the possibility to withdrawal if the situation deteriorates.

     

    Naval coercion is also useful for a small-state, but the situation should be thoroughly analyzed in order to have control over the course of events. The political will together with proper guidance is important for succeeding in naval coercion.

     

    Naval deterrence can be used but depends on the relation between forces. A small-state can only deter an opponent that has less ability of power projection.

  • 269.
    Backman, Sarah
    Swedish National Defence College.
    EU som normativ makt i det östliga partnerskapsområdet2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie handlar om EU som normativ makt i området för EU:s östliga partnerskap (Eastern Partnership/EP). Med utgångspunkt från säkerhetsgemenskapsteori och konstruktivism undersöks EU:s försök att sprida sina normer och intensifiera kopplingarna till länderna Moldavien och Armenien, som omfattas av European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) och EP. Studien finner att EU:s strategi för att intensifiera kopplingarna till Moldavien och Armenien är mycket lika, där utvecklingen av praktikergemenskaper verkar vara något som EU särskilt vill prioritera och etablera redan i ett inledande skede för att partnerlandet skall acceptera de normer, värden och uppfattningar om intressen som utgör ramverket för EU:s kollektiva identitet. Men det verkar som att ländernas förmåga, möjlighet och vilja att tillmötesgå ramverket skiljer sig åt, och att det är där vi kan hitta förklaringen till varför EU mer framgångsrikt spridit sina normer till Moldavien än till Armenien – ett faktum som denna studie argumenterar för ytterst visat sig genom Moldaviens godkännande av EU:s bindande samarbetsavtal Association Agreement, och Armeniens avvisande av samma avtal till förmån för en tullunion ledd av Ryssland.  

  • 270.
    Backman, Sarah
    Swedish National Defence College.
    The institutionalization of cybersecurity management at the EU-Level: 2013-20162016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    International cybersecurity is arguably one of the most serious, complex and recent security-issues of our time. The connectivity between EU member states regarding cybersecurity due to the borderless nature of cyber, together with increasing threat-levels, has made the need for a common response widely acknowledged in the EU for several years. Even so, a common EU cybersecurity response involves problems such as reluctance of member states to share information, that cybersecurity management is linked to national security and therefore touches upon sovereignty, and different levels of cybersecurity development between member states. Despite this, the Network and Information Security Directive was adopted by the European Council in May 2016, involving EU-wide binding rules on cybersecurity. This thesis examines and explains, through a neo-functionalistic approach, how and why this development towards supranational management of cybersecurity in the EU has happened. The author finds that cybersecurity management seems to have institutionalized from a nascent phase during 2013, moving towards an ascendant phase during the end of 2013 and 2014, to end up between an ascendant and a mature phase during 2015 and 2016 – which makes the adoption of the NIS-directive logical. The neo-functionalistic explanation to the development of supranational cybersecurity management in the EU highlights the role of the Commission as a ‘policy entrepreneur’ and the publication of the EU cybersecurity strategy, accompanied by the proposal for the NISdirective in 2013. These regulatory outputs sparked further institutionalization by providing many opportunities and venues for member states to interact and build networks on cybersecurity issues, by initiatives with normative impact to foster an EU ‘cybersecurity community’, by the continuous strengthening of supranational cybersecurity actors such as ENISA, and by supranational cybersecurity cooperation platforms, such as the NIS-platform and the European Private Public Partnership on cybersecurity. Between 2013 and 2016, 21 EU Member States published national cybersecurity strategies, almost all referring clearly to their commitment to EU cybersecurity initiatives. This provides an indicator of a high level of legitimacy of supranational cybersecurity management. However, the thesis also finds that the strongest supporters of EU cybersecurity management are not the most powerful member states but rather the smaller ones. While not expressing a strong commitment to EU initiatives in cyber policy documents, the most powerful member states still agreed to the NIS-directive. This supports the neo-functionalist notion about the “stickiness” of an institutionalization-process, and the possibility that powerful states might have double paths, committing to EU regulation and institutionalization while still continuing their own way.

  • 271.
    Backman, Ulf
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Distribuerade och heterogena databasers interaktion med ett militärt ledningssystem2001Student paper otherStudent thesis
  • 272.
    Backryd, Loise
    Swedish Defence University.
    Män och kvinnor, tillsammans för hållbar fred: En studie om den svenska underrättelseenhetens arbete med resolution 1325 i Förenta Nationernas Stabiliseringsinsats i Mali2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The following study aims to understand implementation of UN Security Council Resolution 1325 (SCR1325) in the Swedish international forces, with focus on the Swedish intelligence force in the UN peacekeeping mission in Mali, Africa. The intention is to understand how the Swedish national strategy regarding implementing SCR1325, is actually being successfully implemented on the tactical level of the Swedish military contribution in Mali. This is investigated with the help from 6 Swedish Mali veterans, who have served in the Swedish intelligence force in Mali. These veterans have answered a survey regarding their training and work, of how they involved women in the process of peace and security. Neither of the veterans had an officer training at the time leading to their deployment in Mali, which allowed this study to identify if the Swedish national strategy regarding SCR1325 was actually successfully implemented in the lower ranks of the military organization. Many scholars have observed the problem with implementing political decisions in military organizations, especially those with a feminist approach such as SCR1325. The material produced by the surveys is analyzed through an analytical framework consisting of these three variables: can, will and understand. These variables have previously been successfully used in studies regarding implementation in military organizations. The conclusion of this study is that the Swedish military organization doesn’t implement SCR1325 to its fullest. The Swedish military organization does not successfully reach their own, or the national, agenda regarding implementing SCR1325 on the tactical level. This problem is most likely because the variable of understanding is inadequate since the veterans had nearly any education regarding how to involve women in their work with peace and security.

  • 273.
    Baehrendtz, Ludvig
    Swedish Defence University.
    Hur används stridsflyget i Afghanistan?: Och tillämpas de lärdomar som Corum och Johnson har dragit avseende användandet av luftmakt inom irreguljära konflikter?2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den 7 oktober 2001 startade kriget i Afghanistan, en konflikt som idag har pågått i nästan 12 år. Målet med operationen var att driva den talibanska ledningen från makten, samt att tillfångata Usama bin Ladin och andra ledare inom al-Qaida och därmed få ett slut på den säkra tillflyktsort som al-Qaida och andra terroristgrupper haft i Afghanistan.

    Corum och Johnson är två militärteoretiker som har forskat inom användandet av luftmakt i irreguljära konflikter. Dessa två har i sin bok Airpower in Small Wars formulerat 11 lärdomar som de anser att man bör ha i beaktning då man använder luftmakt i irreguljära konflikter. Fem av dessa lärdomar går att applicera direkt vid en analys på stridsflygsfunktionen, medan de andra sex behandlar områden som strategi, lufttransport och utbildning.

    I analysen framkommer det att vissa av dessa fem lärdomar går till stor del att skönja i hur stridsflyget har använts i kriget i Afghanistan, medan andra har tillämpats i mindre omfattning. De två punkter där utvecklingspotentialen bedöms vara hög avseende nyttjandet av stridsflyget är inom Undvika civila offer samt Använda markmålsoperationer vid konventionell krigföring. De tre andra lärdomar som har använts i analysen; Viktig roll för tekniskt avancerade flygsystem och vapen, Väl tillämpad jointförmåga samt Irreguljära krig är underrättelseintensiva ser man användas i större utsträckning, dock med visst utrymme för förbättring även här.

  • 274.
    Baez Ullberg, Susann
    University of Gothenburg.
    Book review of "Rubble. The afterlife of destruction" by Gastón Gordillo. Durham and London: Duke University Press. 2014. 336 pages.2017In: Social Anthropology, ISSN 0964-0282, E-ISSN 1469-8676, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 113-115Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 275.
    Baez Ullberg, Susann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Desastre, Memoria y Economía Solidaria: El caso de la Ciudad Santa Fe y sus Inundaciones2015In: Revista de Extensión Universitaria, ISSN 2250-4591, no 5, p. 90-97Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [es]

    La inundación de 2003 que afectó la ciudad de Santa Fe tuvo profundas repercusiones en la comunidad urbana. En 2005, las personas afectadas todavía estaban tratando de reconstruir sus vidas, tanto materialmente como afectivamente. Los recuerdos de los momentos previos, simultáneos y posteriores a la inundación marcaron su vida diaria. Este artículo analiza de qué manera los recuerdos de la inundación estaban intrínsecamente impregnados en la vida cotidiana y posdesastre de los barrios en el oeste de la ciudad y en particular cómo se tejían estas memorias en las relaciones de la economía solidaria de los habitantes. El estudio se basa en trabajo de campo etnográfico en dicha ciudad entre los años 2005–2011.

  • 276.
    Baez Ullberg, Susann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Desastre y Memoria Material: La Inundación 2003 en Santa Fe, Argentina2017In: Iberoamericana - Nordic Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Studies, ISSN 2002-4509, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 42-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On April 29, 2003, a catastrophic flood occurred in the Argentina city of Santa Fe de la Vera Cruz. Soon, the disaster became a political issue, as they had made serious accusations against the authorities and decision makers regarding negligence, corruption and lack of disaster preparedness. A local protest movement emerged, claiming both the allocation of responsibilities and financial compensation for the losses suffered by the victims. This article analyses the role of material memory and oblivion on the post disaster scene, more specifically, how different social actors in Santa Fe used places and objects in the contentious making of a disaster memoryscape. The analysis is based on ethnography from transtemporal translocal and field research conducted in Santa Fe between 2004 and 2011, and applies anthropological and sociological theories of memory to analyse these processes.

  • 277.
    Baez Ullberg, Susann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Editorial: La Contribución de la Antropología al Estudio de Crisis y Desastres en América Latina2017In: Iberoamericana - Nordic Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Studies, ISSN 2002-4509, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 1-5Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This special issue focuses on the phenomena of disasters and crises, and how such extraordinary and disruptive events can be understood from the perspective of social anthropology. Critical events are not unique to Latin America, yet the impact of hydro-meteorological and geological disasters have dramatically increased in the region in the last century (IDB 2010, UNISDR and Corporation OSSO 2013) and many countries have historical and recent experience of profound social, political and economic crises. They are complex challenges for societies to manage, mitigate and reduce, which is why social science has a major contribution to make in understanding both the causes and the effects, and forward sustainable solutions. This special issue presents four articles based on empirical cases from Latin America, with an emphasis on Argentina and Brazil, which demonstrate the anthropological contribution to the understanding of critical events. The authors make no claim to provide a complete view of the anthropology of disasters and crises in Latin America, but rather to account for a growing research field in the region, which is already making important contributions to multidisciplinary studies of critical events, and to the policy development of disaster risk reduction and crisis management.

  • 278.
    Baez Ullberg, Susann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training). School of Global Studies, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Forgetting Flooding?: Post-disaster economy and embedded remembrance in suburban Santa Fe, Argentina2017In: Nature and Culture, ISSN 1558-6073, E-ISSN 1558-5468, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 27-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flooding has long been a recurrent problem in the Argentinian city of Santa Fe, mainly affecting the poverty-stricken suburban outskirts. In 2003 one of the worst floods ever occurred, which also affected residents in the middle income sectors who had never been flooded before and who reacted with an extraordinary process of commemoration and protest against the government for its lax disaster management. Paradoxically, most other past disastrous floods in the city’s history seem to dwell in the shadows of social oblivion. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork in the years 2004–2011, this article analyzes how local flood memories are made through daily life practices and places in the suburban outskirts, more than through public commemorations, which has implications for vulnerability and risk.

  • 279.
    Baez Ullberg, Susann
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    La Gestión de las Inundaciones y la Lógica de Omisión en la Ciudad de Santa Fe, Argentina2015In: Riesgos al Sur: Diversidad de Riesgos de Desastres en Argentina / [ed] Jesica Viand & Fernando Briones, Buenos Aires: Imago Mundi Editores , 2015, p. 49-60Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 280.
    Baez Ullberg, Susann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    La Mémoire de la Catastrophe et des Lieux: Le Cas de la Inundación de 2003 à Santa Fe, Argentine2016In: Traces: mémoires et politiques des désastres en Amérique latine / [ed] Diego Zenobi, Susann Baez Ullberg and Silva da Camargo Telma., Paris: L'Harmattan, 2016, p. 26-46Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 281.
    Baez Ullberg, Susann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Marcas de Agua: Un Análisis Antropológico de Inundaciones Urbanas y Memoria Social en la Ciudad de Santa Fe2016In: Pensamiento social sueco sobre América Latina / [ed] Maria-Therese Gustavsson & Fredrik Uggla, Buenos Aires: CLACSO , 2016, p. 267-296Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 282.
    Baez Ullberg, Susann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Memory and methodology: Translocal and transtemporal fieldwork in post-disaster Santa Fe (Argentina)2015In: Governing disasters: beyond risk culture / [ed] Sandrine Revet & Julien Langumier, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015, p. 163-189Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 283.
    Baez Ullberg, Susann
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Underlåtandets logik i argentinsk katastrofriskreducering2016In: Katastrofriskreducering: perspektiv, praktik, potential / [ed] Susann Baez Ullberg & Per Becker, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2016, p. 241-262Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 284.
    Baez Ullberg, Susann
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Becker, Per
    Lunds universitet.
    Katastrofriskreducering: Ett mång­vetenskapligt forskningsfält och ett tvärsektoriellt politikområde2016In: Katastrofriskreducering: perspektiv, praktik, potential / [ed] Susann Baez Ullberg & Per Becker, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2016, p. 23-58Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 285.
    Baez Ullberg, Susann
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Becker, PerLunds universitet.
    Katastrofriskreducering: perspektiv, praktik, potential2016Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Varför bosätter sig människor på riskfyllda platser? Hur beter sig människor i en katastrof och vilken betydelse har religion, hushåll och försörjning för återhämtning? Lär vi oss av våra kriserfarenheter och vilken roll spelar motivation och kollektiva minnen för detta? Är kapacitetsutveckling, multisektoriell samverkan och övning en hållbar väg mot reducerad katastrofrisk? Dessa är några av de många frågor som denna bok besvarar. 

    Katastrofriskreducering är ett växande område, såväl politiskt som inom forskning och utbildning. Det handlar om att förstå de samhällsprocesser som skapar risk för katastrofer och som påverkar villkoren för organisationer och individer att hantera dem. Denna kunskap kan bidra till att minska exponering och sårbarhet för människor, egendom och miljö och utveckla samhällens, organisa­tioners och enskildas förmåga att reducera risker och hantera katastrofers konsekvenser, vad som på senare tid kallas resiliens. Katastrofriskreducering innehåller både teoretiska kapitel och empiriska fallstudier baserade på aktuell forskning om katastrofrisk­reducering.

    Boken ger läsaren en god översikt av detta mång­vetenskapliga kunskapsområde, genom att beskriva och problematisera centrala begrepp och perspektiv. Det här är en bok som vänder sig till såväl studenter och forskare som praktiskt verksamma beslutsfattare inom krisberedskap, humanitära insatser och riskhantering på myndigheter, i kommunal verksamhet och i icke-statliga organisationer.

  • 286.
    Baez Ullberg, Susann
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Skill, Karin
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    The Asamblea: Social Protest and Political Mobilization in Contemporary Argentina2017In: Meeting Ethnography : Meetings as Key Technologies of Contemporary Governance, Development, and Resistance / [ed] Jen Sandler och Renita Thedvall, London, New York: Routledge, 2017, 1, p. 69-87Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 287.
    Baez Ullberg, Susann
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Warner, Jeroen
    Wageningen Universiteit, Netherlands.
    Mjuk infrastruktur central för katastrofriskreducering2016In: Mänsklig säkerhet, no 2016-12-15Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 288.
    Baez Ullberg, Susann
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Warner, Jeroen
    Wageningen Universiteit, Nederländerna.
    The Relevance of Soft Infrastructure in Disaster Management and Risk Reduction2016In: UN Chronicle, ISSN 1564-3913, Vol. LIII (53), no 3Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 289. Bailes, Alyson J.K.
    et al.
    Holmqvist, Caroline
    Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI).
    Les Affaires et la sécurité : quel rôle pour le secteur privé?2006In: Politique étrangère, ISSN 0032-342X, E-ISSN 1958-8992, Vol. 1, p. 119-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [fr]

    La fin de la guerre froide gomme une distinction faussement évidente entre monde des affaires et questions de sécurité. Les entreprises sont plus largement confrontées aux conflits locaux, et davantage concernées par les problématiques du terrorisme et de la prolifération des armes de destruction massive. Le recours aux services privés de sécurité s’étend. Ces évolutions exigent l’élaboration de normes nouvelles, nationales et internationales, qui ne peuvent être définies qu’avec le secteur privé.

  • 290.
    Bakardjieva Engelbrekt, Antonina
    et al.
    Stockholm universitet, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Michalski, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Sverige.
    Nilsson, Niklas
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Oxelheim, Lars
    Agder universitet, Kristianstad, Norge; Rsearch Institute of Industrial Economics, Stockholm, Sverige; Lund universitet, Lund, Sverige.
    The EU and the growing number of complex security threats2018In: The European Union: Facing the Challenge of Multiple Security Threats / [ed] Antonina Bakardjieva Engelbrekt, Anna Michalski, Niklas Nilsson, Lars Oxelheim, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2018, p. 1-17Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 291.
    Bakardjieva Engelbrekt, Antonina
    et al.
    Stockholm universitet, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Michalski, AnnaUppsala universitet, Uppsala, Sverige.Nilsson, NiklasSwedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.Oxelheim, LarsAgder universitet, Kristianstad, Norge; Rsearch Institute of Industrial Economics, Stockholm, Sverige; Lund universitet, Lund, Sverige.
    The European Union: Facing the Challenge of Multiple Security Threats2018Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book addresses the challenges presented to the EU by an increasingly complex security environment. Through the interdisciplinary approach taken, researchers in economics, law and political science identify a range of problems relating to the multiple security threats that the EU faces, and present new means to address them within their respective fields of expertise. The contributions provide accessible and policy-relevant analyses of crucial challenges to the EU’s ability to function as a political union in the years ahead. 

  • 292.
    Bakkelunn, Niklas
    Swedish Defence University.
    Blixtkrig: fortfarande tillämpbart efter andra världskriget?2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This work analyzed the German blitzkrieg in World War II to produce fourcomparison dimensions that can be said is the essence of blitzkrieg. Thesecomparative dimensions are then used in case studies to highlight the process ofblitzkrieg. I make two case studies in my work in Israel and the U.S. war in the SixDay War of 1967 and the Iraq war 2003.In World War II the Germans achieved great success in the beginning of the warbecause they used the blitzkrieg. After World War II, one can wonder whetherblitzkrieg is still feasible and the necessary conditions for this. The purpose of mystudy is to examine the key components of blitzkrieg after World War II.The method I am using in my work is qualitative text analysis, based on previousresearch on lightning war. In the analysis section, I make a comparative analysis ofmy two case studies.

  • 293.
    Balod, Erik
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Small State Influence in the European Union: The case of Sweden2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen behandlar små staters möjligheter att utöva inflytande inom EU. Detta är intressant då en större del av de europeiska medlemsstaterna består av mindre stater. Studiens empiri har varit till för att belysa det svenska nationella arbetet kring organiserad brottslighet och utformandet av Stockholmsprogrammet, då med hänsyn till att Sverige var ordförandeland i EU:s ministerråd hösten 2009. Utifrån Stockholmsprogrammet skapades sedan EU:s interna säkerhetsstrategi (ISS). Denna undersökning har ämnat belysa till vilken grad Sverige har använt sitt ordförandeskap för att utöva inflytande i skapandet av Stockholmsprogrammet och till vilken grad detta inflytande hade på EU:s interna säkerhetsstrategi som skapades under det spanska ordförandeskapet våren 2010. Studiens teoretiska anknytning har varit forskning som bedrivits kring småstaters möjlighet till att utöva inflytande i EU. Undersökningen har genomförts utifrån två metodologiska steg, det första steget har gjorts genom en explaining- outcome process-tracing för att se på det svenska arbetet fram till Stockholmsprogrammet och den andra delen av studien har genomförts genom en kvalitativ innehållsanalys, för att utröna ifall det svenska inflytandet från Stockholmsprogrammet gett några avtryck på EU:s interna säkerhetsstrategi (ISS).

    Resultatet för studien visar på att Sverige sett ordförandeskapet i EU som en essentiell plattform för att implementera nationella intressen och åsikter på den europeiska nivån. Undersökningen har sträckt sig från 2007 då Sverige startade sin nationella satsning mot grovt organiserad brottslighet till 2010 då både Stockholmsprogrammet och EU:s interna säkerhetsstrategi togs i bruk. Undersökningen tillbakavisar Diane Pankes teori att äldre småstater tenderar att inte se ordförandeskapet som ett centralt forum för att utöva inflytande, något denna studie i motsats påvisar att Sverige gjort. Studien har även visat på att det svenska inflytandet har gett vissa avtryck på den europeiska interna säkerhetsstrategin (ISS). 

  • 294.
    Banck, Daniel
    Swedish Defence University.
    För kung och fosterland?: En studie av invandrares incitament att söka sig till det militära2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Armed Forces aim to reflect Swedish society, including its ethnical composition. Despite these ambitions and the fact that non-native Swedes are overrepresented among unemployed Swedes, recruitment is over all slow. Perhaps the Swedish Armed Forces know too little about what motivates this potential group of recruits? And perhaps the recruitment process is discriminating against non-native Swedes? This essay aims to answer what attracts foreign born citizens to join the military and what makes them stay in the service. The research methodology includes interviews and surveys of immigrants. The results of these interviews and surveys are subsequently analysed and viewed through the perspective of military sociologist Fabrizio Battistellis’ theory about soldiers' incentives. According to Battistelli, three types of incentives exist: the paleomodern, the modern and the postmodern. His own study, Peacekeeping and the Postmodern Soldier, determined Italian solders primarily enlisted for postmodern incentives. Swedish scholars has found that the same pattern applies to Swedish military personnel. But how about the non-native Swedes? This study shows that predominantly modern incentives attract non-native Swedes to join the military, and mainly paleomodern incentives make them stay within it.  However, while Swedish soldiers seem to be driven by postmodern incentives, immigrants are not influenced by these in any noticeable way. Instead the study’s results indicate that there are further categories of motives affecting the non-native Swedes, namely contextual and cultural incentives.

  • 295.
    Banck, Daniel
    Swedish Defence University.
    KVINNA eller FÖRSVINNA?: En studie av kvinnors incitament till att stanna i Försvarsmakten2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Armed Forces aims to have women represent at least twenty percent of its employed military personnel.  A significant amount of effort is put into attracting and recruiting women and once employed; a large amount of money is spent on training and education. Despite these investments, the percentage of women within the Swedish Armed Forces has never reached beyond fifteen percent. Perhaps not enough is done to keep the women within the forces? This essay aims to answer what makes women stay in the service and what actions the Swedish Armed Forces could take to preserve its female resources.

    The research consists of a four step method combining both qualitative and quantitative measurements. The initial step is a meta-analysis of pre-existing surveys performed by the Swedish Armed Forces analysing notable differences between men’s and women’s incentives to stay or leave the service. In the second step, a number of women informants are interviewed to research and support a preliminary theory originating from step one. The third step correlates the first two steps to determine specific women’s incentives to staying or leaving.  In the fourth and final step, a conclusion is made and a recommendation is brought forth on what could be done in order to keep women employees within the Swedish Armed Forces.

    The results show that three factors above others tend to influence women's incentives to stay or leave the service: firstly the relationship to the closest commander, secondly; an equal opportunity work environment, and thirdly; long term personal development and career planning. 

  • 296.
    Banck, Paula
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Taktiska reglementen för Marinen: svensk taktik eller internationellt gångbart?2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 297.
    Bang, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    A Shared Epistemological View Within Military Intelligence Institutions2017In: The international journal of intelligenca and counter intelligence, ISSN 0885-0607, E-ISSN 1521-0561, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 102-116Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 298.
    Bang, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Applications Section.
    Institutional influence on assessments: the institutional analysis and development framework applied to military intelligence2018In: The International Journal of Intelligence, Security, and Public Affairs, ISSN 2380-0992, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 47-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How can we understand intelligence assessments and intelligence work? The intelligence literature offers several plausible causes of failures and the consequences of such failures. However, there is a direct lack of theories or frameworks that connect these variables, that is, there is an incomplete understanding of both how those variables interact and their underlying mechanisms. Failures as such do only give one part of the picture. Why intelligence succeed is equally if not more important to understand. The military intelligence service from an institutional perspective may help to give this understanding.

    This study connects these variables with Ostrom’s Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) framework, which yields a model to understand the mechanisms of institutional on the assessment and lays a foundation for a common terminology. The study uses the Swedish military intelligence institution active in Afghanistan between 2008 and 2012 as a case.

  • 299.
    Bang, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Applications Section.
    Military intelligence analysis: institutional influence2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Intelligence is vital for the outcome of battles. As long as humans wage war, there will be a need for decision support to military and civilian leaders regarding adversaries or potential adversaries. However, the production of intelligence is neither easy nor without pitfalls. There is a need to better understand the predicaments of intelligence analysis.

    Intelligence is bureaucratically produced as well as socially constructed and created in a distinct cultural context. The ‘institution’ captures these three aspects of influence. Therefore, with a particular focus on military intelligence, this thesis aims to deepen the understanding regarding institutional influence on intelligence assessments. The literature regarding intelligence has grown steadily over the last three decades. However, theories and frameworks aimed to understand the phenomenon are still sparse. This is even more true for literature regarding contemporary military intelligence. This thesis intends to contribute to bridging these research gaps. This is done by studying the Swedish military intelligence institution from several different perspectives: its rules-in-use, shared beliefs, and the incoming stimuli primarily related to conducting threat assessments.

    More precisely the thesis investigates the use of quantitative methods, doctrines (i.e. the formal rules), and shared beliefs connected to epistemological assumptions and threat assessments. The main contribution of this thesis is that it establishes and describes a casual link between a military intelligence institution and an assessment, by drawing upon rulesin-use and belief systems and their effect on the mental model and consequently the perception of the situation connected to a cognitive bias, and thereby its effect on a given assessment. The thesis makes an effort to render intelligence studies more generalizable, by way of adopting the Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) framework. The metatheoretical language of the IAD is a promising avenue for explaining and describing the institutional influence on intelligence assessments.

  • 300.
    Bang, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Pitfalls in Military Quantitative Intelligence Analysis: Incident Reporting in a Low Intensity Conflict2016In: Intelligence and national security, ISSN 0268-4527, E-ISSN 1743-9019, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 49-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Incidents are the key data for several of the statistical reports and analyses created within the military intelligence community. This paper discusses factors that affect the utility of quantitative methods in military intelligence analysis when used in a low intensity conflict. The first half of the paper presents the general critique of the use of quantitative methods. The second half applies this critique to the case of incident reporting in Afghanistan.

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