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  • 251.
    Paglia, Eric
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training). KTH, Historiska studier av teknik, vetenskap och miljö.
    The Telecoupled ArcticManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 252. Parker, C. F.
    et al.
    Stern, Eric K.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Blindsided?: September 11 and the origins of strategic surprise2002In: Political Psychology, ISSN 0162-895X, E-ISSN 1467-9221, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 601-630Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The devastating terror attacks of 11 September 2001 have often been characterized as a "bolt from the blue. " Drawing inspiration from the political psychological literature on strategic surprise, this article poses the deceptively simple question of why so many U.S. policymakers were caught so woefully off guard last year. Through a preliminary empirical exploration of three broad explanatory "cuts" derived from the relevant interdisciplinary literature psychological, bureau-organizational, and agenda-political-the authors seek to shed light on the sources of failure that may have contributed to 9/11 and point to promising avenues of investigation for future research as the available empirical record becomes more complete.

  • 253.
    Parker, Charles
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training). Uppsala universitet.
    Complex Negative Events and the Diffusion of Crisis: Lessons from the 2010 and 2011 Icelandic Volcanic Ash Cloud Events2015In: Geografiska Annaler. Series A, Physical Geography, ISSN 0435-3676, E-ISSN 1468-0459, Vol. 97, no 1, p. 97-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a world characterized by complex interdependence, crises that originate in one country have the potential to rapidly diffuse across borders and have profound regional and even global impacts. The eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull in April 2010 demonstrates how rapidly a natural disaster can morph from a local crisis with local effects to a cascading crisis with international effects across multiple sectors. After spreading to Europe the ash cloud severely disrupted air travel and paralyzed the European aviation transport system. This cascading crisis caught authorities by surprise and revealed the need to improve crisis preparedness to deal with the threat of volcanic ash in particular and aviation in general at the international, EU, and national levels. In the aftermath of the event, reforms and policy changes ensued. Just over a year later, the Icelandic volcano Grímsvötn erupted, providing an opportunity to observe the revised system respond to a similar event. The origins, response, reforms, lessons learned, and questions of resilience connected to these complex negative events are the subject of this paper. The article concludes by addressing the question of whether and to what extent the vulnerabilities and problems exposed by the 2010 volcanic ash cloud event are amenable to reform.

  • 254.
    Parker, Charles
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Lärdomar av 11 september: The Lessons from 9/112008In: Statsvetare ifrågasätter / [ed] Sverker Gustavsson, Jörgen Hermansson och Barry Holmström, Uppsala: Uppsala universitet, 2008, p. 493-509Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 255.
    Parker, Charles F.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    The Purpose, Functions, and Ethical Dimensions of Postcrisis Investigations: The Case of the 9/11 Commission2011In: Ethics and Crisis Management / [ed] Lina Svedin, Charlotte: Information Age Publishing, 2011, p. 183-198Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 256.
    Parker, Charles F.
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Dekker, Sander
    September 11 and Post Crisis Investigation: Exploring the Role and Impact of the 9/11 Commission2008In: Governing After Crisis: The Politics of Investigation, Accountability and Learning / [ed] Boin Arjen, McConnell Allan ,Hart Paul t, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press , 2008, p. 255-282Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 257.
    Parker, Charles F.
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training). Uppsala Univ, Polit Sci, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden; Uppsala Univ, Dept Govt, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden; Uppsala Univ, Ctr Nat Disaster Sci, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Christer
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Govt, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hjerpe, Mattias
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Water & Environm Studies, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Climate change leaders and followers: Leadership recognition and selection in the UNFCCC negotiations2015In: International Relations, ISSN 0047-1178, E-ISSN 1741-2862, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 434-454Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Past research has posited that effective leadership is an essential ingredient in reaching international agreements and overcoming the collective action problems associated with responding to climate change. Despite its fundamental importance for leadership relationships, the demand side of the leadership equation has been comparatively neglected in the literature. In this study, we answer several related questions that are vital for understanding the leadership dynamics that impact the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) negotiations. Are there any leaders in the field of climate change and, if so, who are they? How do followers select climate leaders? What factors are important to them? Using unique survey data collected at four consecutive United Nations (UN) climate summits, Conference of Parties (COP) 14–17, this article investigates which actors are actually recognized as playing a leadership role in the UNFCCC negotiations and probes how followers select leadership candidates in this issue area. The survey findings reveal a fragmented leadership landscape, with no one clear-cut leader, and spotlight that if an actor seeks to be recognized as a leader, it is crucial to be perceived as being devoted to promoting the common good.

  • 258.
    Parker, Charles F.
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Stern, Eric K.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Bolt from the Blue or Avoidable Failure?: Revisiting September 11 and the Origins of Strategic Surprise2005In: Foreign Policy Analysis, ISSN 1743-8586, E-ISSN 1743-8594, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 301-331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on the strategic surprise, warning-response, and foreign policy literature, this article argues that the September 11 terror attacks should be regarded as a strategic surprise and examines a number of key factors that contributed to vulnerability and inhibited vigilance. Three broad explanatory "cuts" derived from the literature-psychological, bureau-organizational, and agenda-political-are deployed to sift through the rapidly expanding empirical record in an effort to shed light on the processes and contextual factors that left the United States vulnerable to the attacks. The article aims to improve our understanding of generic processes and practices that enhance or detract from vulnerability and vigilance.

  • 259.
    Parker, Charles
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Karlsson, Christer
    Bortom Kyoto: Vad vill EU? Vad kan EU?2008In: Internationella studier, ISSN 0020-952X, no 2, p. 4-11Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 260.
    Parker, Charles
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Karlsson, Christer
    Uppsala universitet.
    Leadership and International Cooperation2014In: The Oxford Handbook of Political Leadership / [ed] R. A. W. Rhodes & Paul 't Hart, Corby: Oxford University Press, 2014, p. 580-594Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 261.
    Parker, Charles
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Paglia, Eric
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Hurricane Katrina: The Complex Origins of a Mega-Disaster2012In: Mega-crises: Understanding the Prospects, Nature, Characteristics, and the Effects of Cataclysmic Events / [ed] Louise Comfort, Brian Jacobs, Arjen Boin, and Ira Helsloot., Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas Publisher Ltd., 2012, p. 51-65Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 262.
    Parker, Charles
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Stern, Eric
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Paglia, Eric
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Brown, Christer
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Preventable Catastrophe?: The Hurricane Katrina Disaster Revisited2009In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 206-220Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 263.
    Porfiriev, Boris
    et al.
    Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia.
    Simons, GregSwedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Crises in Russia: Contemporary Management Policy and Practice From A Historical Perspective2012Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 264.
    Rhinard, Mark
    et al.
    Swedish Institute of International Affairs and Stockholm University, Box 27035, SE-102 51 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hollis, Simon
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Boin, Arjen
    School of Governance, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Explaining civil protection cooperation in the EU: the contribution of public goods theory2012In: European Security, ISSN 0966-2839, E-ISSN 1746-1545, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 248-269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years the European Union has taken a number of steps towards improving civil protection cooperation in Europe. European leaders regularly declare the importance of boosting cooperation to prepare for and respond to disasters and emergencies afflicting member states. Those declarations have been accompanied by a flourish of policy activity, the building of new structures, and even treaty changes. On the surface, this little-known area of European integration appears to be proceeding with great success. A closer look, however, reveals significant gaps between member states' general expressions of enthusiasm and problematic cooperation in practice. We draw upon public goods theory to explain why this might be the case; more specifically, we identify likely game-theoretic obstacles to cooperation in different areas of the civil protection field. We evaluate our theoretical propositions by examining the current state of cooperation in marine pollution response, chemical contamination management, and flood response. We find that cooperation success in practice corresponds generally, but not perfectly, with the predictions of public goods theory. Our findings offer a nuanced view of civil protection cooperation in Europe and illuminate options for improved cooperation in the future.

  • 265.
    Rhinard, Mark
    et al.
    The Swedish Institute of International Affairs, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sundelius, Bengt
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Forward Resilience and Enhanced Cooperation: Bringing Theory to Practice2016In: Forward Resilience: Protecting Society in an Interconnected World / [ed] Hamilton, Daniel S., Washington D.C.: Center for Transatlantic Relations , 2016, p. 53-66Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 266.
    Roberts, Peder
    et al.
    KTH, Historiska studier av teknik, vetenskap och miljö.
    Paglia, Eric
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training). KTH, Historiska studier av teknik, vetenskap och miljö.
    Science as National Belonging: the Construction of Svalbard as a Norwegian SpaceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines how science has been employed to establish, maintain, and contest senses of belonging on Svalbard, an Arctic archipelago administered by Norway since 1925 under an international treaty. The central argument is that the process of constructing Svalbard as a space belonging to Norway has long been intertwined with the processes of describing and representing the archipelago, and that participating in those processes has also permitted other states to articulate their own narratives of belonging— on Svalbard in particular and in the Arctic more generally. The concept of belonging is deployed to capture a sense of legitimate presence and stakeholdership that we do not believe can be adequately captured by the narrow concept of sovereignty. The article explores Norway’s historic and current use of science to validate (and even naturalize) its rule over Svalbard. At the same time, we argue that other states use science on Svalbard to articulate geopolitical scripts that portray them as stakeholders in an Arctic that is of trans-regional relevance due to the teleconnected effects of climate change.

     

  • 267.
    Sakellariou, Dikaios
    et al.
    Cardiff University.
    Baez Ullberg, Susann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Disaster, Daily Life And Meaning2015In: Disaster And Development: An Occupational Perspective / [ed] Nancy Rushford and Kerry Tomas, Oxford: Elsevier, 2015, 1, p. 30-37Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 268.
    Sandberg, Daniel
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Fagersta kommun: Utvärdering av krishanteringen under skogsbranden i Västmanland 20142015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Skogsbranden i Västmanland sommaren 2014 ledde till en omfattande räddningsinsats och blev den största samverkansinsatsen på svensk mark sedan det nuvarande krisberedskapssystemet infördes. Syftet med rapporten är att, utifrån ett krisberedskapsperspektiv, dra lärdomar och ta tillvara erfarenheter från händelsen genom en systematisk undersökning. Utvärderingen är skriven av Försvarshögskolan/Crismart på uppdrag av Fagersta kommun, genom Länsstyrelsen i Västmanlands län. Utvärderingen har främst baserats på skriftlig och muntlig information från Fagersta kommun som har erhållits genom processledning, intervjuer och dokumentanalys. Huvudfrågan har varit hur kommunen kan lära och utvecklas av händelsen och utvärderingen ger exempel på inom vilka områden kommunen bör utveckla sin verksamhet samt inom vilka områden det finns goda exempel på beslutsfattande och agerande.

    Skogsbranden bröt ut i Västmanland den 31 augusti 2014. Vid det initiala utbrottet ansåg Fagersta att det inte fanns något övergripande hot mot kommunen då skogsbranden ansågs vara begränsad till närliggande kommuner. Fagersta såg emellertid att skogsbranden var en allvarlig händelse men inga större åtgärder vidtogs under de första dagarna. Fagersta kommuns krisledningsgrupp aktiverades den 4 augusti 2014 i samband med att områdena Ängelsberg och Västervåla evakuerades. Evakueringen skedde skyndsamt och kommunen var oförberedd på händelseutvecklingen. Fagersta valde att inte aktivera krisledningsnämnden trots att kommunen ansåg att händelsen var extraordinär. Att krisledningsnämnden inte aktiverades berodde främst på att ordinarie förvaltningsstrukturer ansågs vara tillräckliga för att hantera situationen.

    Det finns några områden där Fagersta kommun kan lära och utvecklas av skogsbranden. Kunskaper avseende hur en evakuering bör genomföras saknades i kommunen. Fagersta bör därav dra lärdomar från händelsen för att sedan kunna integrera dessa i den kommunala beredskapsverksamheten. Lärdomarna bör främst innefatta registreringsförfarande och samverkan med räddningstjänst under en evakuering. En evakuering sker oftast snabbt något som skogsbranden vittnar om. Rutiner bör, i ljuset av detta, utvecklas för att snabbt kunna aktivera de krisberedskapsfunktioner som finns i kommunen.

    Under en händelse som skogsbranden finns det en informationsskyldighet gentemot kommuninvånarna. Fagersta kommun bör, med erfarenheter från skogsbranden, utveckla rutiner för hur kontakt ska etableras med drabbade samt hur kommunen ska kommunicera med kommuninvånarna. Dessa åtgärder grundas på det informationsmöte som kommunen anordnade vilket ledde till ett missnöje hos kommuninvånarna. Missnöjet föranleddes av att kommunens information ansågs som otillräcklig

  • 269.
    Sandberg, Daniel
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Funktionen samverkansperson: Kittet mellan aktörerna i hanteringen av samhällsstörningar?2017Report (Other academic)
  • 270.
    Sandberg, Daniel
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Sala kommun: Utvärdering av krishanteringen under skogsbranden i Västmanland 20142015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Skogsbranden i Västmanland sommaren 2014 ledde till en omfattande räddningsinsats och blev den största samverkansinsatsen på svensk mark sedan det nuvarande krisberedskapssystemet infördes. Syftet med rapporten är att, utifrån ett krisberedskapsperspektiv, dra lärdomar och ta tillvara erfarenheter från händelsen genom en systematisk undersökning. Utvärderingen är skriven av Försvarshögskolan/Crismart på uppdrag av Sala kommun, genom Länsstyrelsen i Västmanlands län. Utvärderingen har främst baserats på skriftlig och muntlig information från Sala kommun som har erhållits genom processledning, intervjuer och dokumentanalys. Huvudfrågan har varit hur kommunen kan lära och utvecklas av händelsen och utvärderingen ger exempel på inom vilka områden kommunen bör utveckla sin verksamhet samt inom vilka områden det finns goda exempel på beslutsfattande och agerande.

    Skogsbranden i Västmanland startade den 31 juli 2014. Sala kommuns vice ordförande i kommunstyrelsen uppmärksammade branden på sociala medier och tillsammans med kommunen fattades ett beslut om att löpande kontakt skulle ske med räddningsledaren från Sala-Hebys Räddningstjänst. I takt med att skogsbrandens spridning började kommunen betrakta branden som en extraordinär händelse. Ett informellt beslut fattades om att aktivera Sala kommuns krisledningsnämnd i samråd med räddningsledaren. Sala kommun beslutade även att öppna ett kontaktcenter dit oroliga medborgare kunde ringa samt ett kriscenter för drabbade kommuninvånare. Åtgärderna var början på Sala kommuns inblandning i den största (räddnings)insatsen i Sverige i moden tid.

    Det finns några områden där Sala kommun kan lära och utvecklas av skogsbranden. Tillvägagångsätt för hur krisledningsnämnden ska aktiveras är något som Sala kommun kan dra lärdomar om. Krisledningsnämndens aktiverandes via ett informellt beslut tillsammans med kommunchefen och räddningsledaren då kommunen ansåg att branden hade kapacitet att hota kommunal verksamhet och befolkning. Ett beslut om att aktivera krisledningsnämnden bör istället ske i samråd med övriga representanter från krisledningsnämnden i syfte att erhålla ett formellt stöd för de beslut som nämnden fattar.

    Erfarenheter från skogsbranden vittnar om att kommunens psyko-sociala verksamhet bör förtydligas om liknande händelser skulle inträffa. Representanter från kommunens psyko-social verksamhetsgrupp fick ett nästintill övermäktigt operativt ansvar under skogsbranden något som tärde på gruppens arbetskapacitet. Flera representanter som arbetade i gruppen var även inte utbildade för att hantera de arbetsuppgifter som gruppen ansvarade för. En viktig lärdom för kommunen är således att förtydliga gruppens ansvarsområden och klargöra inom kommunen om gruppen ska ha den operativa rollen som den hade under skogsbranden.

    En ytterligare lärdom är den personalla resursbristen som kan uppstå vid en extraordinär händelse. Sala kommuns växel var hårt belastad vilket var en stor påfrestning för kommunikatörerna. Uthållighetsaspekten är en viktig faktor under svåra påfrestningar på en mindre kommun. För att minska sårbarheten bör kommunen se över sina personella resurser för att kunna möta allmänhetens informationsbehov.

  • 271.
    Schyberg, Eric
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Surahammars kommun: Utvärdering av krishanteringen under skogsbranden i Västmanland 20142015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Skogsbranden i Västmanland sommaren 2014 ledde till en omfattande räddningsinsats och blev den största samverkansinsatsen på svensk mark sedan det nuvarande krisberedskapssystemet infördes. Syftet med rapporten är att, utifrån ett krisberedskapsperspektiv, dra lärdomar och ta tillvara erfarenheter från händelsen genom en systematisk undersökning. Utvärderingen är skriven av Försvarshögskolan/Crismart på uppdrag av Surahammars kommun, genom länsstyrelsen i Västmanlands län. Utvärderingen har främst baserats på skriftlig och muntlig information från Surahammars kommun som har erhållits genom processledning, intervjuer och dokumentanalys. Huvudfrågan har varit hur kommunen kan lära och utvecklas av händelsen och utvärderingen ger exempel på inom vilka områden kommunen bör utveckla sin verksamhet samt inom vilka områden det finns goda exempel på beslutsfattande och agerande.

    Surahammar var en av fyra kommuner som drabbades av skogsbranden i Västmanland som började den 31 juli 2014. Jämfört med de andra kommunerna utsattes dock inte Surahammar lika hårt. Evakueringar skedde i kommunen men under relativt lugna former. Inga fastigheter förstördes, det var till stora delar bolagsskog som brann och behovet av psykosocialt stöd var mycket litet. Surahammars hantering av händelsen präglades främst av lägesuppfattning, informationsspridning och efterarbete. Kommunen ansåg sig inte behöva aktivera krisledningsnämnden, utan kunde hantera händelsen med en tjänstemannastab. Surahammars kommun ansåg att efterarbetet försvårades av att länsstyrelsen inte hade förståelse för att de inblandade kommunerna var olika drabbade av händelsen.

    Även om kommunen jämförelsevis inte drabbades så hårt av branden finns det ändå ett par lärdomar och goda exempel på krishantering från händelsen. Kommunen evakuerade på eget initiativ bl.a. ett äldreboende i förebyggande syfte, ett bra beslut då situationen var mycket osäker och det inte fanns anledning att invänta evakueringsbeslut från annat håll. Surahammars kommun var också mycket aktiv i informationssökning på plats i Ramnäs. Dels satt informatörer som rapporterade för kommunens räkning, dels åkte kommunens beredskapssamordnare mellan Ramnäs och kommunens stab med lägesuppdateringar. Samordnarens arbete visade också att personliga kontakter inom kommunen var avgörande för hanteringen. Informationsarbetet och lägesuppdateringarna försvårades dock av att samordnaren och informatörerna även belades att utföra andra uppgifter på plats i Ramnäs.

    En lärdom för kommunen är att informatörerna som arbetade i Ramnäs hade behövt en bättre uppfattning om vilka behov som fanns inom kommunen. Loggföring under händelsen hade också behövt vara bättre och information på minoritetsspråk borde ha givits ut snabbare. Även om arbetstidsplanering genomfördes var en del bland kommunens personal mycket trött efter händelsen och hade begränsade möjligheter att återhämta sig efteråt. Det är därför alltid viktigt att tänka på uthållighet ur ett längre perspektiv.

  • 272.
    Simons, Greg
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Book review of Television and Culture in Putin’s Russia: Remote Control: written by Stephen Hutchings och Natalia Rulyova. London: Routledge. 2009.2010In: Slavonica, ISSN 1361-7427, E-ISSN 1745-8145, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 177-Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 273.
    Simons, Greg
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Centre for Societal Security, CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training). Uppsala Univ, Uppsala Ctr Russian & Eurasian Studies, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Carnage and Connectivity: Landmarks in the Decline of Conventional Military Power2017In: Technology and culture, ISSN 0040-165X, E-ISSN 1097-3729, Vol. 58, no 1, p. 290-291Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 274.
    Simons, Greg
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Censorship in Contemporary Russian Journalism in the Age of the War against Terrorism: A Historical Perspective2012In: International Communication / [ed] Daya K. Thussu, Sage Publications, 2012Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 275.
    Simons, Greg
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Communicating Tragedy and Values Through the Mass Media During Crises: The Lessons of Submarine Accidents in Russia2012In: Crises in Russia: Contemporary Management Policy and Practice From A Historical Perspective / [ed] Boris Porfiriev and Greg Simons, Farnham: Ashgate, 2012, p. 139-174Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 276.
    Simons, Greg
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training). Uppsala universitet.
    Digging Our Own Grave?: The Results of CT, COIN, and Regime Change2014In: Small Wars Journal, ISSN 2156-227X, Vol. 10, no 7, p. 30-31Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    War is being increasingly used as an instrument of foreign policy, which has been assisted been political level appreciation of the potential of the West’s superior tangible military strength. The short-term results have been predictable, Saddam Hussein was quickly defeated, Gaddafi was overthrown. Emphasis has been placed on short-term goals and objectives, seemingly without thought to the long-term consequences of these actions. The recent ISIS offensive in Iraq has re-focussed attention that these various wars are still all ongoing. What are the likely or possible results and consequences of failing to take into account the consequences and costs of these wars of choice?

  • 277.
    Simons, Greg
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    El uso del ius ad bellum para fabricar una causa deguerra contra Libia2011Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 278.
    Simons, Greg
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Intraortodoxa relationeri de postsovjetiska staterna2012In: Religion och politik i Ryssland / [ed] Elena Namli och Ingvar Svanberg, Uppsala: Swedish Science Press, 2012, p. 27-44Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 279.
    Simons, Greg
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Mass Media and the Battle for Public Opinion in the Global War on Terror: Violence and legitimacy in Iraq2008In: Perceptions : journal of international affairs, ISSN 1300-8641, Vol. 13, no Spring-Summer, p. 79-92Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 280.
    Simons, Greg
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Milena Michalski and James Gow. War Image and Legitimacy: Viewing Contemporary Conflict2008In: The War and Media NetworkArticle, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 281.
    Simons, Greg
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training). Uppsala Centre for Russian and Eurasian Studies, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Perception of Russia's soft power and influence in the Baltic States2015In: Public Relations Review, ISSN 0363-8111, E-ISSN 1873-4537, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper seeks to explore and analyse the different means and mechanisms of influence employed by Russia on the three Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania). By influence, it means the attempt to try and get another country to behave in a manner that benefits the influencer's policy and/or interests. As such, this can entail exerting one of two forms of power, hard or soft (as defined by Nye, 2004) to bring about the compliance. The current paper restricts its focus to those mechanisms related to shaping opinion and perception, such as public diplomacy (in its various forms).

    To begin with the paper shall define the various concepts used – influence, power and public diplomacy. It shall then shift to the different Russian institutions that have been created to shape and manage influence, such as Russky Mir or Rossotrudnichestvo. Plus there are those other elements that exist in the region – Russian compatriots and Russian language media (both local and external to the Baltic States). Then the paper shall deal with relations between Russia and the Baltic States, with a focus upon recent history. Sources shall not be limited to academic literature and mass media resources, but will also include interviews for an ‘insider’ perspective on the issue. The responses shall be used to address the following question: How do people in the Baltic States perceive Russian soft power and influence?

  • 282.
    Simons, Greg
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Centre for Societal Security, CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Projecting failure as success: Residents’ perspectives of the Christchurch earthquakes recovery2016In: Cogent Social Sciences, E-ISSN 2331-1886, article id 1126169Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In September 2010 and February 2011, the Canterbury region was rocked by a series of earthquakes. The success or otherwise, of a recovery from a crisis can be found in the perceptions of stakeholders. Many different stakeholders exist, including different levels of Government, bureaucratic institutions and state institutions, private enterprise, non-governmental organisations and the public. In this article, the public are the focus and their perception of the recovery is collected. An online survey was conducted, and it demonstrates a significant gap between the Government’s perception and the perception of residents of Christchurch. How do publics react when they feel as though they have been marginalised by the authorities charged with the crisis event recovery? The Government’s account of success is not shared by the majority of respondents, who have mobilised politically using social media platforms. There are implications for Governments and authorities that are seen to fail segments of the public in the age of social media, where crisis management and public relations meet and political mobilisation against officials and official bodies takes place.

  • 283.
    Simons, Greg
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Propaganda and the Information war Against Syria: The Latest War for Peace2012In: Государственное управление. Электронный вестник [State Management, engelsk översättning], ISSN 2070-1381, no 33, p. 1-18Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 284.
    Simons, Greg
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training). Utrikespolitiska Institutet (UI).
    Putin's International Supporters2014Report (Other academic)
  • 285.
    Simons, Greg
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training). Uppsala Centre for Russian and Eurasian Studies, Uppsala University.
    Religious Diplomacy in International and Inter-Orthodox Relations2015In: Religion, politics and nation-building in post-communist countries / [ed] Simons, Greg & Westerlund, David, Farnham, Surrey, UK: Ashgate, 2015, 1, p. 21-44Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 286.
    Simons, Greg
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training). Uppsala Centre for Russian and Eurasian Studies, Uppsala University; Turiba University, Latvia, Swedish Institute of International Affairs, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Russian media and censorship: a means or an end?2015In: Russian Journal of Communication, ISSN 1940-9419, E-ISSN 1940-9427, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 300-312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An underlying motive of the paper is to explore the question, is censorship a means or an end? The initial point is that there is a wide understanding and definition of censorship, with many various forms and means. A contradiction that emerges is by law censorship is forbidden in Russia, but there are ways and means of trying to muzzle media and journalists. Something that does emerge is the picture of the perceived importance of media in shaping the attitudes, morals and values of society. This is seen as being particularly important during times of social and political conflict, which is currently being experienced.

  • 287.
    Simons, Greg
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training). Uppsala Centre for Russian and Eurasian Studies, Uppsala University.
    Russian public diplomacy in the 21st century: Structure, means and message2014In: Public Relations Review, ISSN 0363-8111, E-ISSN 1873-4537, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 440-449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many studies have focussed upon Western countries, such as the United States and members of the European Union, and how they engage with foreign publics. There is also an increasing amount of attention being paid to non-Western countries. The debate on soft power, for instance, shows that the concept is perceived and applied in a manner that differs from Nye's vision. This present article seeks to examine and analyse how and why the Russian state engages foreign publics with different communicational means and methods. Relations and approaches are much more pragmatic in the current situation, ideology seems to have been discarded. The current foreign policy concept gives context to positioning Russia, which not only gives Russia a certain role, but one that is set in relation to other international actors. Although, not all countries are treated the same, a different approach based upon a different set of assumptions produces a different understanding as to what programmes and means are needed. This produces a difference in approach between Western countries and those countries on the territory of the Former Soviet Union. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 288.
    Simons, Greg
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Security Sector Reform and Georgia: The European Union’s Challenge in the Southern Caucasus2013In: The European Union as an Actor in Security Sector Reform: Current Practices and Challenges of Implementation / [ed] Oya Dursun-Ozkanca, Routledge, 2013Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 289.
    Simons, Greg
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Security Sector Reform and Georgia: The European Union's Challenge in the Southern Caucasus2012In: European Security, ISSN 0966-2839, E-ISSN 1746-1545, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 272-293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Security Sector Reform (SSR) holds different meanings and hence varying implications for recipients and donors. Therefore, as an initial point of departure it is necessary to offer a more precise understanding of what can the European Union (EU) offer as a donor to recipient nations in need of SSR? The empirical case of Georgia presents an interesting and challenging case for SSR. There have been a number of domestic and international conflicts in the post-Soviet era, which has left a volatile legacy. There needs to be a cautious and long-term approach that balances what Georgia needs and wants with what the EU can offer. Rather than a narrow approach to the SSR programme, a broader and more encompassing assistance needs to be undertaken in order to affect a more stable and sustainable change. This process shall require talking and offering, but also listening to what Georgian officials request and desire.

  • 290.
    Simons, Greg
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training). Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Stability and Change in Putin's Political Image During the 2000 and 2012 Presidential Elections: Putin 1.0 and Putin 2.0?2016In: Journal of Political Marketing, ISSN 1537-7857, E-ISSN 1537-7865, Vol. 15, no 2-3, p. 149-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been a lot of research done on "Western'' politicians and political systems with regard to political marketing. But what about other countries, especially those that possess a different political standard? This article seeks to address one particular Russian politician: Vladimir Putin. He rose from obscurity to become Russia's second president (after Boris Yeltsin). Two presidential elections form the focus of attention, 2000 and 2012. The aim is to discover the consistencies and breaks in the manufacturing of Putin's political image and reputation. A number of breaks and continuities were discovered in terms of how Putin is marketed. This seems to be a reflection of the changes taking places in Russia's political environment, which then needs to be taken into consideration when political marketing is conducted.

  • 291.
    Simons, Greg
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Tactics of the Crescent Moon: Militant Muslim Combat Methods2008In: CEU Political Science Journal, ISSN P-1818-7668, E-ISSN 1992-3147, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 252-257Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 292.
    Simons, Greg
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training). Uppsala Centre for Russian and Eurasian Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Taking the new public diplomacy online: Russia and China2015In: Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, ISSN 1751-8040, E-ISSN 1751-8059, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 111-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Russia and China have become significant players in terms of their activity within public diplomacy (PD), in a relatively short space of time. This article seeks to address the way these two countries manage the concept and practice of PD in an online communication environment (namely, Websites and social media). Cases will be used to illustrate how this is managed in practice. The case of the South China Seas dispute and the Ukrainian crisis will be used to demonstrate how these difficult issues are managed. There are a number of similarities between the two countries, but also some significant differences. Russia tends to express communication in terms of competing sets of norms and values, whereas the values and ideological concepts are more rigidly defined within the Chinese case.

  • 293.
    Simons, Greg
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Centre for Societal Security, CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training). Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Terrorism and Communication: A Critical Introduction2016In: Media, War & Conflict, ISSN 1750-6352, E-ISSN 1750-6360, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 344-345Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 294.
    Simons, Greg
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    The Death of the Fourth Estate: Corporate Media and News Production2013In: Izvestia: Ural Federal university Journal, ISSN 2227-2291, Vol. 3, no 118, p. 145-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The notion of the fourth estate is the ideological foundation of journalism in the West. It implies that journalism is something that fulfils and supports the public interest, and acts as an independent check and balance against the excesses of the state. However, changes in the news production cycle and process and ownership have seen the destruction of the fourth estate in practice. This paper accounts for some of the reasons why the fourth estate cannot be considered today as being a properly functioning mechanism.

  • 295.
    Simons, Greg
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training). Uppsala Centre for Russian and Eurasian Studies, Uppsala University.
    The International Crisis Group and the manufacturing and communicating of crises2014In: Third World Quarterly, ISSN 0143-6597, E-ISSN 1360-2241, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 581-597Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The International Crisis Group (ICG) has the motto 'working to prevent conflict worldwide'. As an organisation the ICG occupies a very specific niche role, which is related to crises of a political nature, specifically armed conflict. While the ICG employs a negative understanding of crisis, the academic definition of what a crisis may constitute is broader, as it can actually represent an opportunity for some actors. This article, written from a communication studies perspective, seeks to address how crises are manufactured in ICG texts. It argues that the way in which crisis events are viewed and reacted to depends on the level of information and 'knowledge' that is produced and circulating about them. The article tackles the issue of the strategic level of the ICG in terms of its means and mechanisms of attempting to project influence. It explores the different ploys and strategies used to influence policy makers, especially its communication strategy, the different values and ethics that are highlighted, and the 'causes' that are promoted.

  • 296.
    Simons, Greg
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    The Role of the Russian Orthodox Church in Russia Since 1990: Changing Dynamics of Politics and Religion2009Book (Other academic)
  • 297.
    Simons, Greg
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training). Uppsala universitet.
    Ukraine and the Question of Boundaries and Nationalities2014In: Multiethnica. Meddelande från Centrum för multietnisk forskning, Uppsala universitet, ISSN 0284-396X, no 35, p. 10-14Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 298.
    Simons, Greg
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Коммуникационный менеджмент и план гуманитарной войны [English translation - Communication Management and the Plan of the Humanitarian War]: Война с Ливией [English translation - The War with Libya]2012In: США, Сирия и Иран [English translation - US, Syra and Iran]: Ливийский сценарий повторяется [English translation - The Libyan Scenario Continues] / [ed] Андрей Викторович Манойло [Andrey Manoylo], Moscow: Горячая линия [Hot Line] , 2012Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 299.
    Simons, Greg
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training). Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kapitonenko, MykolaKyiv National Shevchenko University.Lavreyuk, ViktorUkrainian policy research NGO.Vlaeminck, ErikUniversity of Edinburgh.
    The Politics and Complexities of Crisis Management in Ukraine: A Historical Perspective2018Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 300.
    Simons, Greg
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Komleva, N.A.
    Sociology Institute, Russia.
    Strovsky, D.L.
    Sociology Institute, Russia.
    Ideological Power of Geopolitical Actor: Essence, Structure, Russian Experience2011Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
345678 251 - 300 of 353
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