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  • 251.
    Backman, Sarah
    Swedish National Defence College.
    The institutionalization of cybersecurity management at the EU-Level: 2013-20162016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    International cybersecurity is arguably one of the most serious, complex and recent security-issues of our time. The connectivity between EU member states regarding cybersecurity due to the borderless nature of cyber, together with increasing threat-levels, has made the need for a common response widely acknowledged in the EU for several years. Even so, a common EU cybersecurity response involves problems such as reluctance of member states to share information, that cybersecurity management is linked to national security and therefore touches upon sovereignty, and different levels of cybersecurity development between member states. Despite this, the Network and Information Security Directive was adopted by the European Council in May 2016, involving EU-wide binding rules on cybersecurity. This thesis examines and explains, through a neo-functionalistic approach, how and why this development towards supranational management of cybersecurity in the EU has happened. The author finds that cybersecurity management seems to have institutionalized from a nascent phase during 2013, moving towards an ascendant phase during the end of 2013 and 2014, to end up between an ascendant and a mature phase during 2015 and 2016 – which makes the adoption of the NIS-directive logical. The neo-functionalistic explanation to the development of supranational cybersecurity management in the EU highlights the role of the Commission as a ‘policy entrepreneur’ and the publication of the EU cybersecurity strategy, accompanied by the proposal for the NISdirective in 2013. These regulatory outputs sparked further institutionalization by providing many opportunities and venues for member states to interact and build networks on cybersecurity issues, by initiatives with normative impact to foster an EU ‘cybersecurity community’, by the continuous strengthening of supranational cybersecurity actors such as ENISA, and by supranational cybersecurity cooperation platforms, such as the NIS-platform and the European Private Public Partnership on cybersecurity. Between 2013 and 2016, 21 EU Member States published national cybersecurity strategies, almost all referring clearly to their commitment to EU cybersecurity initiatives. This provides an indicator of a high level of legitimacy of supranational cybersecurity management. However, the thesis also finds that the strongest supporters of EU cybersecurity management are not the most powerful member states but rather the smaller ones. While not expressing a strong commitment to EU initiatives in cyber policy documents, the most powerful member states still agreed to the NIS-directive. This supports the neo-functionalist notion about the “stickiness” of an institutionalization-process, and the possibility that powerful states might have double paths, committing to EU regulation and institutionalization while still continuing their own way.

  • 252.
    Backman, Ulf
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Distribuerade och heterogena databasers interaktion med ett militärt ledningssystem2001Student paper otherStudent thesis
  • 253.
    Backryd, Loise
    Swedish Defence University.
    Män och kvinnor, tillsammans för hållbar fred: En studie om den svenska underrättelseenhetens arbete med resolution 1325 i Förenta Nationernas Stabiliseringsinsats i Mali2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The following study aims to understand implementation of UN Security Council Resolution 1325 (SCR1325) in the Swedish international forces, with focus on the Swedish intelligence force in the UN peacekeeping mission in Mali, Africa. The intention is to understand how the Swedish national strategy regarding implementing SCR1325, is actually being successfully implemented on the tactical level of the Swedish military contribution in Mali. This is investigated with the help from 6 Swedish Mali veterans, who have served in the Swedish intelligence force in Mali. These veterans have answered a survey regarding their training and work, of how they involved women in the process of peace and security. Neither of the veterans had an officer training at the time leading to their deployment in Mali, which allowed this study to identify if the Swedish national strategy regarding SCR1325 was actually successfully implemented in the lower ranks of the military organization. Many scholars have observed the problem with implementing political decisions in military organizations, especially those with a feminist approach such as SCR1325. The material produced by the surveys is analyzed through an analytical framework consisting of these three variables: can, will and understand. These variables have previously been successfully used in studies regarding implementation in military organizations. The conclusion of this study is that the Swedish military organization doesn’t implement SCR1325 to its fullest. The Swedish military organization does not successfully reach their own, or the national, agenda regarding implementing SCR1325 on the tactical level. This problem is most likely because the variable of understanding is inadequate since the veterans had nearly any education regarding how to involve women in their work with peace and security.

  • 254.
    Baehrendtz, Ludvig
    Swedish Defence University.
    Hur används stridsflyget i Afghanistan?: Och tillämpas de lärdomar som Corum och Johnson har dragit avseende användandet av luftmakt inom irreguljära konflikter?2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den 7 oktober 2001 startade kriget i Afghanistan, en konflikt som idag har pågått i nästan 12 år. Målet med operationen var att driva den talibanska ledningen från makten, samt att tillfångata Usama bin Ladin och andra ledare inom al-Qaida och därmed få ett slut på den säkra tillflyktsort som al-Qaida och andra terroristgrupper haft i Afghanistan.

    Corum och Johnson är två militärteoretiker som har forskat inom användandet av luftmakt i irreguljära konflikter. Dessa två har i sin bok Airpower in Small Wars formulerat 11 lärdomar som de anser att man bör ha i beaktning då man använder luftmakt i irreguljära konflikter. Fem av dessa lärdomar går att applicera direkt vid en analys på stridsflygsfunktionen, medan de andra sex behandlar områden som strategi, lufttransport och utbildning.

    I analysen framkommer det att vissa av dessa fem lärdomar går till stor del att skönja i hur stridsflyget har använts i kriget i Afghanistan, medan andra har tillämpats i mindre omfattning. De två punkter där utvecklingspotentialen bedöms vara hög avseende nyttjandet av stridsflyget är inom Undvika civila offer samt Använda markmålsoperationer vid konventionell krigföring. De tre andra lärdomar som har använts i analysen; Viktig roll för tekniskt avancerade flygsystem och vapen, Väl tillämpad jointförmåga samt Irreguljära krig är underrättelseintensiva ser man användas i större utsträckning, dock med visst utrymme för förbättring även här.

  • 255.
    Baez Ullberg, Susann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Desastre, Memoria y Economía Solidaria: El caso de la Ciudad Santa Fe y sus Inundaciones2015In: Revista de Extensión Universitaria, ISSN 2250-4591, no 5, p. 90-97Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [es]

    La inundación de 2003 que afectó la ciudad de Santa Fe tuvo profundas repercusiones en la comunidad urbana. En 2005, las personas afectadas todavía estaban tratando de reconstruir sus vidas, tanto materialmente como afectivamente. Los recuerdos de los momentos previos, simultáneos y posteriores a la inundación marcaron su vida diaria. Este artículo analiza de qué manera los recuerdos de la inundación estaban intrínsecamente impregnados en la vida cotidiana y posdesastre de los barrios en el oeste de la ciudad y en particular cómo se tejían estas memorias en las relaciones de la economía solidaria de los habitantes. El estudio se basa en trabajo de campo etnográfico en dicha ciudad entre los años 2005–2011.

  • 256.
    Baez Ullberg, Susann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Desastre y Memoria Material: La Inundación 2003 en Santa Fe, Argentina2017In: Iberoamericana - Nordic Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Studies, ISSN 2002-4509, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 42-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On April 29, 2003, a catastrophic flood occurred in the Argentina city of Santa Fe de la Vera Cruz. Soon, the disaster became a political issue, as they had made serious accusations against the authorities and decision makers regarding negligence, corruption and lack of disaster preparedness. A local protest movement emerged, claiming both the allocation of responsibilities and financial compensation for the losses suffered by the victims. This article analyses the role of material memory and oblivion on the post disaster scene, more specifically, how different social actors in Santa Fe used places and objects in the contentious making of a disaster memoryscape. The analysis is based on ethnography from transtemporal translocal and field research conducted in Santa Fe between 2004 and 2011, and applies anthropological and sociological theories of memory to analyse these processes.

  • 257.
    Baez Ullberg, Susann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Editorial: La Contribución de la Antropología al Estudio de Crisis y Desastres en América Latina2017In: Iberoamericana - Nordic Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Studies, ISSN 2002-4509, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 1-5Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This special issue focuses on the phenomena of disasters and crises, and how such extraordinary and disruptive events can be understood from the perspective of social anthropology. Critical events are not unique to Latin America, yet the impact of hydro-meteorological and geological disasters have dramatically increased in the region in the last century (IDB 2010, UNISDR and Corporation OSSO 2013) and many countries have historical and recent experience of profound social, political and economic crises. They are complex challenges for societies to manage, mitigate and reduce, which is why social science has a major contribution to make in understanding both the causes and the effects, and forward sustainable solutions. This special issue presents four articles based on empirical cases from Latin America, with an emphasis on Argentina and Brazil, which demonstrate the anthropological contribution to the understanding of critical events. The authors make no claim to provide a complete view of the anthropology of disasters and crises in Latin America, but rather to account for a growing research field in the region, which is already making important contributions to multidisciplinary studies of critical events, and to the policy development of disaster risk reduction and crisis management.

  • 258.
    Baez Ullberg, Susann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training). School of Global Studies, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Forgetting Flooding?: Post-disaster economy and embedded remembrance in suburban Santa Fe, Argentina2017In: Nature and Culture, ISSN 1558-6073, E-ISSN 1558-5468, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 27-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flooding has long been a recurrent problem in the Argentinian city of Santa Fe, mainly affecting the poverty-stricken suburban outskirts. In 2003 one of the worst floods ever occurred, which also affected residents in the middle income sectors who had never been flooded before and who reacted with an extraordinary process of commemoration and protest against the government for its lax disaster management. Paradoxically, most other past disastrous floods in the city’s history seem to dwell in the shadows of social oblivion. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork in the years 2004–2011, this article analyzes how local flood memories are made through daily life practices and places in the suburban outskirts, more than through public commemorations, which has implications for vulnerability and risk.

  • 259.
    Baez Ullberg, Susann
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    La Gestión de las Inundaciones y la Lógica de Omisión en la Ciudad de Santa Fe, Argentina2015In: Riesgos al Sur: Diversidad de Riesgos de Desastres en Argentina / [ed] Jesica Viand & Fernando Briones, Buenos Aires: Imago Mundi Editores , 2015, p. 49-60Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 260.
    Baez Ullberg, Susann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    La Mémoire de la Catastrophe et des Lieux: Le Cas de la Inundación de 2003 à Santa Fe, Argentine2016In: Traces: mémoires et politiques des désastres en Amérique latine / [ed] Diego Zenobi, Susann Baez Ullberg and Silva da Camargo Telma., Paris: L'Harmattan, 2016, p. 26-46Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 261.
    Baez Ullberg, Susann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Marcas de Agua: Un Análisis Antropológico de Inundaciones Urbanas y Memoria Social en la Ciudad de Santa Fe2016In: Pensamiento social sueco sobre América Latina / [ed] Maria-Therese Gustavsson & Fredrik Uggla, Buenos Aires: CLACSO , 2016, p. 267-296Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 262.
    Baez Ullberg, Susann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Memory and methodology: Translocal and transtemporal fieldwork in post-disaster Santa Fe (Argentina)2015In: Governing disasters: beyond risk culture / [ed] Sandrine Revet & Julien Langumier, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015, p. 163-189Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 263.
    Baez Ullberg, Susann
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Underlåtandets logik i argentinsk katastrofriskreducering2016In: Katastrofriskreducering: perspektiv, praktik, potential / [ed] Susann Baez Ullberg & Per Becker, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2016, p. 241-262Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 264.
    Baez Ullberg, Susann
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Becker, Per
    Lunds universitet.
    Katastrofriskreducering: Ett mång­vetenskapligt forskningsfält och ett tvärsektoriellt politikområde2016In: Katastrofriskreducering: perspektiv, praktik, potential / [ed] Susann Baez Ullberg & Per Becker, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2016, p. 23-58Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 265.
    Baez Ullberg, Susann
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Becker, PerLunds universitet.
    Katastrofriskreducering: perspektiv, praktik, potential2016Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Varför bosätter sig människor på riskfyllda platser? Hur beter sig människor i en katastrof och vilken betydelse har religion, hushåll och försörjning för återhämtning? Lär vi oss av våra kriserfarenheter och vilken roll spelar motivation och kollektiva minnen för detta? Är kapacitetsutveckling, multisektoriell samverkan och övning en hållbar väg mot reducerad katastrofrisk? Dessa är några av de många frågor som denna bok besvarar. 

    Katastrofriskreducering är ett växande område, såväl politiskt som inom forskning och utbildning. Det handlar om att förstå de samhällsprocesser som skapar risk för katastrofer och som påverkar villkoren för organisationer och individer att hantera dem. Denna kunskap kan bidra till att minska exponering och sårbarhet för människor, egendom och miljö och utveckla samhällens, organisa­tioners och enskildas förmåga att reducera risker och hantera katastrofers konsekvenser, vad som på senare tid kallas resiliens. Katastrofriskreducering innehåller både teoretiska kapitel och empiriska fallstudier baserade på aktuell forskning om katastrofrisk­reducering.

    Boken ger läsaren en god översikt av detta mång­vetenskapliga kunskapsområde, genom att beskriva och problematisera centrala begrepp och perspektiv. Det här är en bok som vänder sig till såväl studenter och forskare som praktiskt verksamma beslutsfattare inom krisberedskap, humanitära insatser och riskhantering på myndigheter, i kommunal verksamhet och i icke-statliga organisationer.

  • 266.
    Baez Ullberg, Susann
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Skill, Karin
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    The Asamblea: Social Protest and Political Mobilization in Contemporary Argentina2017In: Meeting Ethnography : Meetings as Key Technologies of Contemporary Governance, Development, and Resistance / [ed] Jen Sandler och Renita Thedvall, London, New York: Routledge, 2017, 1, p. 69-87Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 267.
    Baez Ullberg, Susann
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Warner, Jeroen
    Wageningen Universiteit, Netherlands.
    Mjuk infrastruktur central för katastrofriskreducering2016In: Mänsklig säkerhet, no 2016-12-15Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 268.
    Baez Ullberg, Susann
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Warner, Jeroen
    Wageningen Universiteit, Nederländerna.
    The Relevance of Soft Infrastructure in Disaster Management and Risk Reduction2016In: UN Chronicle, ISSN 1564-3913, Vol. LIII (53), no 3Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 269.
    Bakardjieva Engelbrekt, Antonina
    et al.
    Stockholm universitet, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Michalski, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Sverige.
    Nilsson, Niklas
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Oxelheim, Lars
    Agder universitet, Kristianstad, Norge; Rsearch Institute of Industrial Economics, Stockholm, Sverige; Lund universitet, Lund, Sverige.
    The EU and the growing number of complex security threats2018In: The European Union: Facing the Challenge of Multiple Security Threats / [ed] Antonina Bakardjieva Engelbrekt, Anna Michalski, Niklas Nilsson, Lars Oxelheim, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2018, p. 1-17Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 270.
    Bakardjieva Engelbrekt, Antonina
    et al.
    Stockholm universitet, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Michalski, AnnaUppsala universitet, Uppsala, Sverige.Nilsson, NiklasSwedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.Oxelheim, LarsAgder universitet, Kristianstad, Norge; Rsearch Institute of Industrial Economics, Stockholm, Sverige; Lund universitet, Lund, Sverige.
    The European Union: Facing the Challenge of Multiple Security Threats2018Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book addresses the challenges presented to the EU by an increasingly complex security environment. Through the interdisciplinary approach taken, researchers in economics, law and political science identify a range of problems relating to the multiple security threats that the EU faces, and present new means to address them within their respective fields of expertise. The contributions provide accessible and policy-relevant analyses of crucial challenges to the EU’s ability to function as a political union in the years ahead. 

  • 271.
    Bakkelunn, Niklas
    Swedish Defence University.
    Blixtkrig: fortfarande tillämpbart efter andra världskriget?2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This work analyzed the German blitzkrieg in World War II to produce fourcomparison dimensions that can be said is the essence of blitzkrieg. Thesecomparative dimensions are then used in case studies to highlight the process ofblitzkrieg. I make two case studies in my work in Israel and the U.S. war in the SixDay War of 1967 and the Iraq war 2003.In World War II the Germans achieved great success in the beginning of the warbecause they used the blitzkrieg. After World War II, one can wonder whetherblitzkrieg is still feasible and the necessary conditions for this. The purpose of mystudy is to examine the key components of blitzkrieg after World War II.The method I am using in my work is qualitative text analysis, based on previousresearch on lightning war. In the analysis section, I make a comparative analysis ofmy two case studies.

  • 272.
    Balod, Erik
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Small State Influence in the European Union: The case of Sweden2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen behandlar små staters möjligheter att utöva inflytande inom EU. Detta är intressant då en större del av de europeiska medlemsstaterna består av mindre stater. Studiens empiri har varit till för att belysa det svenska nationella arbetet kring organiserad brottslighet och utformandet av Stockholmsprogrammet, då med hänsyn till att Sverige var ordförandeland i EU:s ministerråd hösten 2009. Utifrån Stockholmsprogrammet skapades sedan EU:s interna säkerhetsstrategi (ISS). Denna undersökning har ämnat belysa till vilken grad Sverige har använt sitt ordförandeskap för att utöva inflytande i skapandet av Stockholmsprogrammet och till vilken grad detta inflytande hade på EU:s interna säkerhetsstrategi som skapades under det spanska ordförandeskapet våren 2010. Studiens teoretiska anknytning har varit forskning som bedrivits kring småstaters möjlighet till att utöva inflytande i EU. Undersökningen har genomförts utifrån två metodologiska steg, det första steget har gjorts genom en explaining- outcome process-tracing för att se på det svenska arbetet fram till Stockholmsprogrammet och den andra delen av studien har genomförts genom en kvalitativ innehållsanalys, för att utröna ifall det svenska inflytandet från Stockholmsprogrammet gett några avtryck på EU:s interna säkerhetsstrategi (ISS).

    Resultatet för studien visar på att Sverige sett ordförandeskapet i EU som en essentiell plattform för att implementera nationella intressen och åsikter på den europeiska nivån. Undersökningen har sträckt sig från 2007 då Sverige startade sin nationella satsning mot grovt organiserad brottslighet till 2010 då både Stockholmsprogrammet och EU:s interna säkerhetsstrategi togs i bruk. Undersökningen tillbakavisar Diane Pankes teori att äldre småstater tenderar att inte se ordförandeskapet som ett centralt forum för att utöva inflytande, något denna studie i motsats påvisar att Sverige gjort. Studien har även visat på att det svenska inflytandet har gett vissa avtryck på den europeiska interna säkerhetsstrategin (ISS). 

  • 273.
    Banck, Daniel
    Swedish Defence University.
    För kung och fosterland?: En studie av invandrares incitament att söka sig till det militära2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Armed Forces aim to reflect Swedish society, including its ethnical composition. Despite these ambitions and the fact that non-native Swedes are overrepresented among unemployed Swedes, recruitment is over all slow. Perhaps the Swedish Armed Forces know too little about what motivates this potential group of recruits? And perhaps the recruitment process is discriminating against non-native Swedes? This essay aims to answer what attracts foreign born citizens to join the military and what makes them stay in the service. The research methodology includes interviews and surveys of immigrants. The results of these interviews and surveys are subsequently analysed and viewed through the perspective of military sociologist Fabrizio Battistellis’ theory about soldiers' incentives. According to Battistelli, three types of incentives exist: the paleomodern, the modern and the postmodern. His own study, Peacekeeping and the Postmodern Soldier, determined Italian solders primarily enlisted for postmodern incentives. Swedish scholars has found that the same pattern applies to Swedish military personnel. But how about the non-native Swedes? This study shows that predominantly modern incentives attract non-native Swedes to join the military, and mainly paleomodern incentives make them stay within it.  However, while Swedish soldiers seem to be driven by postmodern incentives, immigrants are not influenced by these in any noticeable way. Instead the study’s results indicate that there are further categories of motives affecting the non-native Swedes, namely contextual and cultural incentives.

  • 274.
    Banck, Daniel
    Swedish Defence University.
    KVINNA eller FÖRSVINNA?: En studie av kvinnors incitament till att stanna i Försvarsmakten2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Armed Forces aims to have women represent at least twenty percent of its employed military personnel.  A significant amount of effort is put into attracting and recruiting women and once employed; a large amount of money is spent on training and education. Despite these investments, the percentage of women within the Swedish Armed Forces has never reached beyond fifteen percent. Perhaps not enough is done to keep the women within the forces? This essay aims to answer what makes women stay in the service and what actions the Swedish Armed Forces could take to preserve its female resources.

    The research consists of a four step method combining both qualitative and quantitative measurements. The initial step is a meta-analysis of pre-existing surveys performed by the Swedish Armed Forces analysing notable differences between men’s and women’s incentives to stay or leave the service. In the second step, a number of women informants are interviewed to research and support a preliminary theory originating from step one. The third step correlates the first two steps to determine specific women’s incentives to staying or leaving.  In the fourth and final step, a conclusion is made and a recommendation is brought forth on what could be done in order to keep women employees within the Swedish Armed Forces.

    The results show that three factors above others tend to influence women's incentives to stay or leave the service: firstly the relationship to the closest commander, secondly; an equal opportunity work environment, and thirdly; long term personal development and career planning. 

  • 275.
    Banck, Paula
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Taktiska reglementen för Marinen: svensk taktik eller internationellt gångbart?2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 276.
    Bang, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    A Shared Epistemological View Within Military Intelligence Institutions2017In: The international journal of intelligenca and counter intelligence, ISSN 0885-0607, E-ISSN 1521-0561, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 102-116Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 277.
    Bang, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Applications Section.
    Institutional influence on assessments: the institutional analysis and development framework applied to military intelligence2018In: The International Journal of Intelligence, Security, and Public Affairs, ISSN 2380-0992, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 47-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How can we understand intelligence assessments and intelligence work? The intelligence literature offers several plausible causes of failures and the consequences of such failures. However, there is a direct lack of theories or frameworks that connect these variables, that is, there is an incomplete understanding of both how those variables interact and their underlying mechanisms. Failures as such do only give one part of the picture. Why intelligence succeed is equally if not more important to understand. The military intelligence service from an institutional perspective may help to give this understanding.

    This study connects these variables with Ostrom’s Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) framework, which yields a model to understand the mechanisms of institutional on the assessment and lays a foundation for a common terminology. The study uses the Swedish military intelligence institution active in Afghanistan between 2008 and 2012 as a case.

  • 278.
    Bang, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Applications Section.
    Military intelligence analysis: institutional influence2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Intelligence is vital for the outcome of battles. As long as humans wage war, there will be a need for decision support to military and civilian leaders regarding adversaries or potential adversaries. However, the production of intelligence is neither easy nor without pitfalls. There is a need to better understand the predicaments of intelligence analysis.

    Intelligence is bureaucratically produced as well as socially constructed and created in a distinct cultural context. The ‘institution’ captures these three aspects of influence. Therefore, with a particular focus on military intelligence, this thesis aims to deepen the understanding regarding institutional influence on intelligence assessments. The literature regarding intelligence has grown steadily over the last three decades. However, theories and frameworks aimed to understand the phenomenon are still sparse. This is even more true for literature regarding contemporary military intelligence. This thesis intends to contribute to bridging these research gaps. This is done by studying the Swedish military intelligence institution from several different perspectives: its rules-in-use, shared beliefs, and the incoming stimuli primarily related to conducting threat assessments.

    More precisely the thesis investigates the use of quantitative methods, doctrines (i.e. the formal rules), and shared beliefs connected to epistemological assumptions and threat assessments. The main contribution of this thesis is that it establishes and describes a casual link between a military intelligence institution and an assessment, by drawing upon rulesin-use and belief systems and their effect on the mental model and consequently the perception of the situation connected to a cognitive bias, and thereby its effect on a given assessment. The thesis makes an effort to render intelligence studies more generalizable, by way of adopting the Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) framework. The metatheoretical language of the IAD is a promising avenue for explaining and describing the institutional influence on intelligence assessments.

  • 279.
    Bang, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Pitfalls in Military Quantitative Intelligence Analysis: Incident Reporting in a Low Intensity Conflict2016In: Intelligence and national security, ISSN 0268-4527, E-ISSN 1743-9019, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 49-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Incidents are the key data for several of the statistical reports and analyses created within the military intelligence community. This paper discusses factors that affect the utility of quantitative methods in military intelligence analysis when used in a low intensity conflict. The first half of the paper presents the general critique of the use of quantitative methods. The second half applies this critique to the case of incident reporting in Afghanistan.

  • 280.
    Bang, Martin
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Liwång, Hans
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Influences on threat assessment in a military context2016In: Defense and Security Analysis, ISSN 1475-1798, E-ISSN 1475-1801, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 264-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The anchoring effect is a well-studied subject. This article connects the effect with the rules-in-use within a military intelligence institution. Particularly the rules-in-use that dictate that an analyst takes his or hers starting point from recently conducted assessments of the specific area or threat. The threat assessment as well as the written assessment were affected. The results show that officers have an aversion to lower a previous given threat assessment. This gives that to understand risk assessment we not only need to understand the methods used, we also need to understand the institutions in which they are used. This is especially relevant for military intelligence as the assessments are conducted in an environment of high uncertainty.

  • 281.
    Barius, Per
    Swedish Defence University.
    COPD och Uppdragstaktik2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Nato:s planeringsmodell Comprehensive Operations Planning Directive ska framgent användas för nationell militär planering. Anpassning till svenska förhållanden kommer att genomföras. Överbefälhavaren betonar redan i inledningen på ny Militärstrategisk doktrin att uppdragstaktik ska vara grunden för ledning i Försvarsmakten. Forskningen i uppsatsen fokuserar till mötet mellan planeringsmetod och betoning av att uppdragstaktik ska vara grunden för ledning.

    Syftet är att identifiera om operativ planering enligt COPD och doktrinens betoning av uppdragstaktik harmonierar. Genom det kan uppsatsen bidra med ny kunskap inom området och med ett analysverktyg för uppdragstaktik.

    För att genomföra analys av COPD har ett analysverktyg skapats, baserat på olika forskares teorier om vad som stödjer och motverkar uppdragstaktik.

    Forskningen visar att COPD i hög grad stödjer uppdragstaktik i ett filosofiskt perspektiv, men i lägre grad i praktiken. Svensk anpassning av COPD kräver ett ställningstagande om uppdragstaktik ska ses som en ledningsmetod eller filosofi.

  • 282.
    Bark, Patrik
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Stridsfordon 9040, en krigsmaskin i en internationell kontext2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During a long time the Swedish Armed Forces has performed reorganization, leaving the old structure with a defence focused at hostile invasions to become a nation performing operations abroad. A change that affects and creates new tasks for own forces. The main effort is no longer to protect the nation border. The Swedish Armed Forces has troops deployed in several locations all over the world but I want to illuminate their commitment in Afghanistan. The Swedish/Finnish contingent has been reinforced by Combat Vehicle 9040 (CV 9040), a system designed to operate in a subarctic climate.This essay wants to contribute with an idea if CV 90 conducts in the proper type of tasks in Afghanistan. The purpose is also to give a foundation for a discussion whether it is right that the system is deployed in the area of responsibility. My intention is to create an understanding of how the vehicle is constructed and what attribute it displays today. In order to do that I will describe on what grounds Sweden chose to develop and acquire the concept called the 90-family and which demands that affected its construction. After that, describe the tasks that the CV90 platoon carries out inAfghanistan and compare it with the parameters that the construction admits. This essay shows that the CV 90 is appropriate in Afghanistan, out of a technical and combattechnical perspective. Out of a construction perspective there are few limitations in the tasks that the vehicle solves today in Afghanistan.

  • 283.
    Baroutsi, Nicoletta
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Command and Control Section. Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    A Practitioners Guide for C2 Evaluations: Quantitative Measurements of Performance and Effectiveness2018In: ISCRAM 2018 Conference Proceedings: 15th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management / [ed] Boersma, Kees; Tomaszewski, Brian, Rochester, NY, USA: Rochester Institute of Technology , 2018, p. 170-189, article id 1546Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantitative evaluations are valuable in the strive for improvements and asserting quality. However, the field of Command & Control (C2) evaluations are hard to navigate, and it is difficult to find the correct measurement for a specific situation. A comprehensive Scoping Study was made concerning measurements of C2 performance and effectiveness. A lack of an existing appropriate framework for discussing C2 evaluations led to the development of the Crisis Response Management (CRM) Matrix. This is an analysis tool that assigns measurements into categories, and each category display unique strengths, weaknesses and trends. The analysis yielded results proving to be too rich for a single article, thusly, this is the first of two articles covering the results. In this article, the Practitioners Guide focus on results valuable for someone interested in evaluating C2. Each evaluation has specific requirements that, for best result, ought to be reflected in the chosen measurement.

  • 284.
    Baroutsi, Nicoletta
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Observing Sensemaking in C2: Performance Assessment in Multi-Organizational Crisis Response2016In: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management / [ed] Andrea H. Tapia, Pedro Antunes, Victor A. Bañuls, Kathleen Moore & João Porto de Albuquerque, ISCRAM, 2016, Vol. Command and Control Studies, article id 1385Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A crisis can involve multiple organizations during high pressure events, and it is up to the Command & Control (C2) unit to provide direction and coordination for the response (Brehmer, 2006). Hard as this problem is, there is still no ‘one-solution’. Dissimilar organizations with very different methods seem to be able to master the problem. This paper presents the initial development of a new evaluation method for C2 in the context of multi-organizational crisis response. The data is collected at an emergency water exercise series conducted in several cities in Sweden. Each exercise involves multiple agencies and organizations, with up to 76 participants from 15 unique organizations/units. The analysis is brief, but presents the possibility of observing Sensemaking as it unfolds, and that generic behavioral patterns can be found. The existence of generic and observable behavior patterns suggests the possibility of assessing, and maybe even quantifying, Sensemaking performance in C2.

  • 285.
    Baroutsi, Nicoletta
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division. Linköping University.
    Berggren, Peter
    FOI.
    Nählinder, Staffan
    Linköping University.
    Granlund, Rego
    Santa Anna IT Research Institute, Sweden.
    Turcotte, Isabelle
    Laval University, Canada.
    Tremblay, Sébastien
    Laval University, Canada.
    Assessing development of team training2014In: ISCRAM 2014 Conference Proceedings. Book of Papers / [ed] Starr Roxanne Hiltz, Mark S. Pfaff, Linda Plotnick, Patrick C. Shih, The Pennsylvania State University, USA , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 286.
    Baudin, Arne
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Manöverkrigföring2009In: Tankar om fälttåg: en bok om fälttåg och den gemensamma stridens komplexitet / [ed] Peter Ahlström och Ulf Högström, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan , 2009, p. 233-241Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 287.
    Baudin, Arne
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Elg, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Högström, Ulf
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Kallak, Jaak
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Sulocki, Charles
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Thunholm, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Handbok i taktikutbildning, Mark: Inklusive generella anvisningar för planering och genomförande av krigsspel, fältövningar och stabstjänstövningar2012Book (Other academic)
  • 288.
    Baudin, Arne
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Forsberg, Ronald
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Multinationella fälttåg: Ett styrkemässigt vågspel2009In: Tankar om Fälttåg: en bok om fälttåg och den gemensamma stridens komplexitet / [ed] Peter Ahlström och Ulf Högström, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan , 2009, p. 141-162Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 289.
    Bech, Björn Thore
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Fremmer frihetsgraden skrevet inn i norske brigadeordre oppdragsbasert ledelse?2001Student paper otherStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study has been to examine if a level of freedom exists in a selection of Norwegian brigade orders, that encourages a practising and execution of mission tactics/directive control. In order to give a definition of the level of freedom, a historic summary of auftragstaktik has been made. In this summary, a number of conceptions are identified as being parts of the construction of the level of freedom. The conceptions were: thrust, initiative, speed, mission based orders, delegate, decentralisation, independence, uncertainty, flexibility, allowed to make mistakes, professional behaviour and the will to take risks. All the conceptions are then analysed in order to give a description of their contribution to the level of freedom. A theoretical model for the level of freedom was created as a theoretical reference frame. The conceptions have been placed into the model, based on the conclusions from the analysis.The brigade orders that are analysed come from Brig North and Brig 6 of 6. Division and 12.Brigade, all participating in exercise “Battle Griffin 99”.In the analyses of the orders a number of factors were uncovered and put into the conceptions. By placing the results into the model for the level of freedom and after a discussion of the result, it appeared that Brig. North gave a high level of freedom to its subordinate commanders, Brig. 6 gave a medium level of freedom to its subordinate commanders and 12.Brigade gave a medium level of freedom to its subordinate. From the results I have found, I would like to maintain that the level of freedom given in the brigade orders encourages mission tactics/directive control (mission based command philosophy). 

  • 290.
    Beck, Mikael
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Ledningsfilosofi i luftvärnet: Uppdragstaktik - Från decentralisering till centralisering2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    War is nothing but a duel on an extensive scale, an act of violence to compel our opponent to fulfil our will.

    The aim of the action in war is to disarm the enemy. If our opponent is to be made to comply with our will, we must place him in a situation which is more oppressive to him than the sacrifice which we demand. Every change in this position which is produced by a continuation of the war, should therefore be a change for the worse. Many theories and doctrines are based on this truth. To succeed to place our opponent in an adverse situation one must lead the battle and do it faster than the opponent. This is also what Colonel Boyd saw in his studies of the air fights during the war in Korea. The OODA loop or Boyd’s cycle is now a basic theory of maneuver warfare. William S. Lind writes in his handbook in maneuver warfare that the purpose itself of maneuver warfare is to go through the OODA loop faster than your enemy. As remark number 1 in the guidance for succeeding with that task, Lind state that only a decentralized force can go through the cycle of decision fast. This conclusion can be found in all doctrines and handbooks in the Swedish Armed Forces (SAF). Mission type tactics with decentralized control is ordered, or recommended and described in all service doctrines. It is the base for command and control within the whole organization. In all doctrines and regulations in the SAF there are exceptions when mission type tactics with direct control is preferred or an imperative necessity.

    After closer inquiries one can see that sometimes mission type tactics are carelessly used to describe both a philosophy and a method. After several years of service within the Ground Based Air Defense troops, my experience is that mission type control is not used as much as centralized control. This entails very little space for subordinated to take any initiative in the air war. Is that desirable, inevitable or on the whole consistent with mission type tactics? Is it possible that the GBAD with its unique position in both the ground- and air troops can go through the OODA loop faster than its opponents without decentralized control, as Lind alleged as rule number 1?

    Through a elucidation of mission type tactics as both philosophy and as a method, a comparison between how airpower and maneuver theory treat mission type tactics and together with the conditions for GBAD the answer to how the GBAD can apply mission type tactics will be found. Mission type tactics is a sine qua non for the GBAD in order to be able to use centralized control and to lead through command. Detailed guidance is right now inevitable and necessary with the conditions now at hand. At the same time the ability for the GBAD to be effective in the air is founded through the mission type tactics.

  • 291.
    Beck, Mikael
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Luftvärn, defensiv luftmakt och tröskeleffekt : Luftvärnets förmåga att höja tröskeleffekten och bidra till avskräckning2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag finns inga vetenskapliga belägg huruvida luftvärn kan bidra till att avskräcka en utmanare. Bristen på kunskap kring detta kan kopplas till bristen på forskning kring defensiv luftmakt då det i luftmaktskretsar främst varit offensiva teorier om luftmakt som härskat.

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka kausala samband mellan nyttjande av luftvärn och en ökad tröskeleffekt i syfte att avskräcka en utmanare.

    Utgångspunkten är duellen mellan luftvärn och offensiva luftmaktsresurser i kampen om luftherravälde. Resultatet visar att det finns ett kausalt samband mellan luftvärnets förmåga att bestrida en utmanares luftherravälde och ökade genomförandekostnader för en utmanare vid utövandet av luftmakt, med ökad tröskeleffekt som följd. Ett kausalt samband mellan luftvärnets förmåga och en lägre grad av luftkontroll för utmanaren att genomföra luftoperationer ifrån kan inte påvisas.

    Undersökningen visar även på ett möjligt kausalt samband mellan att uppträda med kombinerade luftvärnssystem och höjda genomförandekostnader för utmanaren.

    Resultatet ger insikt i hur luftvärn kan påverka en tröskeleffekt och bidra till avskräckning samt utökar teoribasen för defensiv luftmakt med ett luftvärnsfokus.

  • 292.
    Becker, Per
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Bynander, Fredrik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training). CNDS.
    The System for Crisis Management in Sweden: Collaborative, Conformist, Contradictory2017In: Handbook of Disaster Risk Reduction and Management / [ed] Madu, Christian N.; Kuei, Chu Hua, World Scientific, 2017, 1, p. 69-95Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter introduces the system for crisis management in Sweden. Over the last century, Sweden has gone from being a poor European backwater to being among the countries with the highest human development in the world. The droughts and harsh winters that killed thousands and drove numerous Swedes to emigrate in the past are mere distractions today and the contemporary system for crisis management is designed to deal with a broader variety of crises than the ones triggered by natural hazards. The system is based on the principles of responsibility, parity and proximity, and distributes sector and area responsibility for crisis management to numerous actors. It is built to a great extent on collaboration between these actors, which is challenging but working relatively well in the cultural context of consensus-seeking and compliance to official guidelines and accepted rules of engagement. However, the system is in itself ambiguous in the sense of distributing responsibility to all kinds of actors and then focusing almost exclusively on public actors in legislation, guidelines and practice. There is also often a gap between policy and practice concerning how area responsibility is exercised, and a lack of clarity in current sector specific legislation

  • 293.
    Becker, Vincent
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Framing in the time of Swine flu: policy success and policy fiasco in media frames of the Swedish handling of H1N1 in 20092016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis concerns the notion that the terms success and fiasco are often used, but seldom put into a context. By studying the Swedish handling of the Swine flu, or H1N1-outbreak in 2009, this brings two new notions into the research surrounding policy success and fiasco, namely framing theory and specialized media. An incremental dichotomy is proposed as for measuring success and fiasco within the media, then frames, found both deductively and through a mixed approach are sought after. This was done in national Swedish media as well as what this thesis calls specialized media, i.e. media that is focused on the health care industry. This lead to results pointing to frequent use of different perspectives, or reference objects when framing either success or fiasco. Another result is that of the ubiquitous relativity of the notions of success and fiasco, a relativity that needs further addressing.

  • 294.
    Beckman, Anders
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Vad är det som krävs?: En undersökning av orsakerna till avhoppen på Försvarsmaktens aspirantutbildning2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna undersökning har med utgångspunkt ifrån två kända motivationsteorier prövat sambandetmellan aspiranters förväntningar och avbrott på Försvarsmaktens Aspirantutbildning. Detta hargenomförts genom att utifrån två motivationsteorier utveckla hypoteser som sedan har testats påstatistik över avhoppen ifrån Aspirantutbildningen 2010. Undersökningen finner tecken som pekar påatt det finns ett samband mellan förväntade fysiska krav på en utbildning och andelen frivilligaavbrott. Resultaten visar att en utbildning som förväntas vara fysiskt lätt har en större andel avhopppå egen begäran än en utbildning som förväntas vara fysiskt svår. Då jag utifrån egna erfarenhetermenar att den faktiska fysiska svårighetsnivån på samtliga inriktningar inom Aspirantutbildningen ärlikställda drar jag slutsatsen att aspiranternas förväntningar på den fysiska svårigheten är en viktigareorsak till frivilliga avhopp än den faktiska fysiska svårigheten. Min analys av detta resultat pekar påatt Försvarsmakten kan ha en möjlighet att i framtiden minska sina avhopp genom att utveckla deninformation de ger till sökande aspiranter. Att i ett tidigt stadium ge ut information som berättar mer idetalj om den specifika tjänst de söker samt vilka krav som de facto ställs på aspiranten skulle kunnabidra till att förväntningarna på den sökta utbildningen ligger närmare verkligheten och avhoppenminskar.

  • 295.
    Bekkestad, Erlend
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Effektsbaserte operasjoner under Operation Iraqi Freedom: utvikling av militærteorin ; element i ny doktrine?2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The term Effects-Based Operations is increasingly referred to in articles and publicationsas a possible operational concept for the future. However, the essence of the term is notnew in the history of the use of military power. The use of the military instrument hasalways had the aim of creating an effect on an adversary in order to influence hisbehaviour.During the last 15 years the USA has been involved in several large joint operations withinthe framework of a coalition or an alliance. The evolution in military theory and doctrinefrom Operation Desert Storm in 1991 to Operation Iraqi Freedom in 2003 has been viewedas a shift from a methodical approach to an integrated use of all means of power.Consideration of the effects of each means has become essential, rather than a focus on thedestruction of an adversary’s military capabilities.The aim of this study is to describe the term Effects-Based Operations and the elementswhich constitute the essence of the concept and, furthermore, to investigate whether thetheory was used in practice during Operation Iraqi Freedom. The findings should give anindication of the relevance and possible consequences for the Norwegian Armed Forces ofimplementing an Effects-Based concept at the joint level.To accomplish this aim, the study will answer the following questions:- How is the term Effects-Based Operations described?- Were Effects-Based Operations used in the planning for, and execution ofOperation Iraqi Freedom?- What are the relevance and possible consequences for the Norwegian ArmedForces of implementing Effects-Based Operations, in its current theoretical andpractical status?This study indicates that there is still differences in the understanding of Effects-basedOperations, but the following elements seem to be essential: a clear link between strategyand tasks, and an attack on the adversary’s will where the adversary is seen as a ComplexAdaptive System. In addition, all available means including civilian means of powershould be brought into the campaign. Bearing these characteristics in mind, Operation IraqiFreedom cannot be seen as an Effects-Based Operation; however, elements can be seenboth in the planning and execution of the operation. The study concludes that Effects-Based Operations are relevant to the Norwegian Armed Forces because of the focus on thecomplex nature of today’s battlefield. The consequences of implementing the concept,however, indicate a need to decide how the political and strategic level is willing to letcivilian agencies cooperate with the military. In addition, one has to gain knowledge, notonly of the theoretical and practical implications of effects, but also of how to approach theconcept. Effects- Based Operations or an Effects-Based Approach?

  • 296.
    Bele, Daniel
    Swedish Defence University.
    Warden i Israel: En studie av Wardens tillämpning i Israels luftkrig 2006-20092013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den amerikanske luftmaktsteoretikern John A Warden III har skrivit ett flertal artiklar och böcker om vad han anser är det bästa sättet att använda luftmakt. Warden förordar luftmaktens offensiva natur och eftersträvar ett snabbt, för egen del, fördelaktigt slut på en konflikt. Warden har bl.a. liknat fienden vid ett system, där han menar att strävan skall ligga i att slå ut fiendens ledarskikt vilket får tillföljd att dess vilja till strid upphör.

    I detta arbete ges en sammanfattning av, enligt författaren, centrala delar av Wardens teorier. Sammanfattningen mynnar ut i tre stycken parametrar som kommer att utgöra Wardens teorier i detta arbete. De tre parametrarna är "enemy as a system", "center of gravity" samt "parallell attack". Dessa parametrar ligger sedan till grund för en analys av Israels luftkampanjer i dess krig mot Hizbollah 2006, Operation Change of Direction samt dess krig mot Hamas 2008-09, Operation Cast Lead.

    Syftet med detta är att ta reda på om Israel använde sig av Wardens teorier under dessa båda operationer.

    Anledningen till valet av dessa två konflikter är att Israel bl.a. sin doktrin slagit fast att de aldrig har råd att förlora ett krig. Detta tvingar Israel att optimera sin taktisering.

    Slutsatsen blev att det tydligt går att se att Wardens teorier genomsyrade Operation Change of Direction. Det var enbart "parallell attack" som inte tydligt efterföljdes genom hela operationen. Under Operation Cast Lead däremot så följde Israel Wardens teorier i mycket mindre utsträckning. Det var enbart "center of gravity" som följdes genom hela den operationen.

  • 297.
    Belin, Alexander
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Hemvärnets utveckling: förmågor och uppgifter2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 298.
    Belin, Jean
    et al.
    Chaire Economie de défense.
    Hartley, Keith
    University of York.
    Lefeez, Sophie
    IRIS.
    Linnenkamp, Hilmar
    SWP.
    Lundmark, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Masson, Hélène
    FRS.
    Maulny, Jean-Pierre
    IRIS.
    Ungaro, Alessandro
    IAI.
    Defence industrial links between EU and US2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Commission’s initiatives in the field of armament should lead to a deeper integration of European DTIBs in the coming years. In parallel, the links between European and American DTIBs take the form of technological and armament cooperation, and of capital links between European or American companies. This report aims at analysing the links between the US DTIB and the EU DTIB, and the consequences these links carry on cooperation between European DTIBs.

    These links vary by country. France has strived to preserve its strategic autonomy when developing its DTIB. Its technological and capability-related reliance on the United States has thus remained limited. Nonetheless, cooperation is sought when it is mutually beneficial while French companies seek to invest in the US market, as do other European DTIBs.

    The German DTIB was rebuilt belatedly after World War II, partly on the basis of French-German cooperation. German industry is now privatised and the scope of the German DTIB’s partnerships has widened to other European countries and to the US. The German supply chain is now well established in American armament programmes.

    The Italian DTIB has consistently pursued a policy of active cooperation, whether with the US or with EU member states. Links with the US have notably been built in the context of NATO and through bilateral agreements. In parallel, Italy has developed partnerships with European countries. Rome’s cooperation policy is thus inclusive, and has considered diverse factors such as political links, capability requirements, the need to develop certain technologies and to preserve industrial capabilities and jobs in Italy.

    The British DTIB has historically enjoyed deeper links with US industry, as a result of the cultural closeness between the UK and the US, and of the strategic proximity that dates back to the end of World War II. The links between US and UK DTIBs thus follow a model of strategic partnership. Nevertheless, the UK’s industrial and defence policy is also pursued within a European framework. The missile manufacturer MBDA is nowadays considered as the deepest model of transnational industrial and defence integration in Europe.

    While Sweden seeks to preserve its industrial capabilities in two sectors – submarines and military aircraft – it appears to be most technologically reliant on the US among the surveyed countries. It is worth noting also that these links are long-standing, dating back to the cold war and the Soviet threat, despite Sweden not being a NATO member state.

    The links with the US are thus very different from one country to another, and carry varying implications. While the costs of acquiring American equipment can be low despite their high technological grade, there are often constraints on their use and restrictions on technologies that will not be transferred, or that will be unusable for other partnerships.

    These links are also formalised through bilateral agreements promoting armament cooperation, as is the case for UK-Italian cooperation. For its part, Sweden has signed interstate agreements with the US in the field of technological cooperation.

    DEFENCE INDUSTRIAL LINKS BETWEEN EU AND US / September 2017

    3

    Since the European Council meeting in December 2013 and in its 2016 Global Strategy, the EU has set itself the task of developing "a certain degree of strategic autonomy" supposed to encourage greater competitiveness of European DTIBs.

    In order to promote the development of this European defence industrial policy, we must seek to ensure that the links between US and EU DTIB are mutually beneficial. To do this, two conditions must be met:

    -That the rules governing relations between US and EU DTIB be based on the principle of reciprocity and on equal rules of regulation of respective DTIBs.

    -That the rules governing relations between US and EU DTIB be defined in the context of a dialogue between the European Union and the United States and not bilaterally between each European country and the United States.

    Today the multiplication of bilateral agreements between the United States and European Union member states are potential obstacles to the establishment of a level playing field governing the relations between European DTIBs;

    There is also a lack of reciprocity and equal regulation of EU and US DTIB. This concerns different areas: access to advanced capabilities, unrestricted use of exported armament, access to cooperated technologies, rules governing investment in US and European companies, rules governing property rights over technologies, rules governing export controls.

    Organizing the transatlantic relationship in the field of armaments in order to have a more balanced and profitable relationship, can be achieved in two complementary ways.

    At the European level, the European Defence Research Program (EDRP) will have strong implications for the relations between the companies of the US DTIB and the EDTIB. The rules governing access to finance and the ownership of intellectual property rights (IPR), which will be adopted for collaborative R&T projects involving European defence companies, will result in a common framework governing the relationship between these companies and the US EDTIB: the more Europeans will collaborate among themselves in the field of defence research, the more they will be able to set common and mutually beneficial rules in their relationship with the United States.

    It may also be considered that some EU States will decide to engage in enhanced cooperation in the industrial defence field which could include the following rules:

    -Obligation to achieve a level of 30% R&T in common among the members of the enhanced cooperation, which means 10% more than the target that was defined 10 years ago by the European Defence Agency and that is regularly reminded in the objectives of the European Union;

    -Obligation to inform members of enhanced cooperation of agreements on defence R&T cooperation concluded with the United States so as to ensure compatibility of these agreements with existing agreements between members of enhanced cooperation. The objective is to prevent agreements with the United States from subsequently restricting the scope of existing agreements between European countries;

    DEFENCE INDUSTRIAL LINKS BETWEEN EU AND US / September 2017

    4

     

    -Obligation to systematically consider the acquisition of military equipment manufactured by one of the member countries of enhanced cooperation. This should be accompanied by reinforced security of supply rules;

    -The need to bring the export policies of the member states of the enhanced cooperation closer together.

    These rules, complementary with, and not contradictory to, those which are being defined at European Union level, would accelerate industrial defence consolidation in Europe and make it possible to consider on a more balanced, mutually equally beneficial, basis relations between the United States and the European Union in the field of armaments. These rules would also be inspired by political principles: to strengthen the strategic autonomy of the European Union when necessary. Far from forbidding cooperation between the US and the EU DTIB, such enhanced cooperation would be facilitated because cooperation between US EDTIB and EU DTIB would not be a brake on European cooperation, as it is currently still too often the case.

  • 299.
    Bendiksen, Roy Severeide
    Swedish Defence University.
    Operasjonell ildstøtte: Potensial for 9x styrkemultiplikasjon ved bruk av digital kommunikasjon2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [no]

    Militære operasjoner er i vedvarende endring, hvor en sentral utviklingstrend er bruk av tekniske hjelpemiddel. Dette har medført nye og mer effektive samhandlingsmåter og en påfølgende økning i innslag av fellesoperasjoner. Oppgaven handler om hvordan denne utviklingstrenden påvirker den operasjonelle ildstøttens bidrag til at landmakten kjerneoppdrag – å finne, binde og ramme motstan- deren. Dette tilnærmes gjennom å undersøke hvordan innføringen av digital kommunikasjon påvir- ker det operasjonelle ildstøttesystemets potensial for å skape effekt i det militære spillerom.

    Oppgavens undersøkelse viser at digital kommunikasjon gir ytelsesforbedring gjennom kompresjon av tid, hvilket i tur muliggjør situasjonsspesifikk styrkemultiplikasjon gjennom ekspansjon av rom. Samtidig indikeres det at situasjonsspesifikke kombinasjoner operasjonell ildstøtte har potensial for 3x ytelsesbedring og opp til 9x styrkemultiplikasjon, hvilket betyr at man kan bruke mindre ressurser for å oppnå samme effekt eller de samme ressurser for å oppnå en større effekt! Realisering av potensialet for styrkemultiplikasjon setter økte krav til den metodiske målbekjempningsprosessen og da spesielt kunnskap om egne muligheter og begrensninger. Dette handler om operasjonskunst og peker på viktigheten av systemkompetanse i planlegging og utførelse av operasjoner.

    Innføring av digital kommunikasjon må ses i sammenheng med hvordan pågående utviklingstrend skyver på det operasjonelle ildstøttesystemets sosio-tekniske balanse. Forståelse av fenomenet blir derfor viktig for videre funksjon- og kapabilitetsutvikling.

  • 300.
    Bengtsson, Anders
    Swedish Defence University.
    Svensk Psyops i Afghanistan: Påverkan i en irreguljär miljö2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det har i alla tider varit eftersträvansvärt att nå framgång i krig och konflikter med så få offrade människoliv, så lite påverkan på egendom och med så lite våldsanvändning som möjligt. Denna framgång kan nås på olika sätt, bland annat genom olika former av påverkan på deltagare i konflikten.

    Sedan 2008 har Sverige haft team med speciellt utbildad personal inom psykologiska operationer på plats i Afghanistan för att uppnå just detta.

    Syftet med detta arbete är att, genom en kvalitativ textanalys samt en intervju, undersöka vilka metoder de svenska psyopsförbanden använder sig av för att påverka lokalbefolkningen i Afghanistan samt om dessa metoder är lämpliga att använda i denna miljö.

    Resultatet visar att de metoder som används är lämpliga om de väljs med omsorg och olika metoder används mot olika målgrupper. Dock så lämpar sig inte samtliga metoder att användas mot samtliga målgrupper utan där måste en analys av uppgiften samt möjligheten till effekt analyseras innan operationen påbörjas. Vidare så visar resultatet på problematiken med rotationstider samt organisationen hos psyopsförbanden.

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