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  • 251.
    Deverell, Edward
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Decision-Making and Crisis-Induced Learning at Swedish Public Sector Organizations Under Pressure2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to analyse the crisis management and learning responses of two public organizations during two sequences of failures in order to develop theory on the relationship between crisis and learning. It is found that organizations initially respond rigidly to crisis signals and that crisis-induced creativity and learning tends to be initiated in the acute crisis management phase. The findings are also discussed in relation to their implications for the nexus between crisis and organizational learning and it is found that politicization in the crisis aftermath may generate organizational learning.

  • 252.
    Deverell, Edward
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Elavbrottet i Kista den 29-31 maj 2002: organisatorisk och interorganisatorisk inlärning i kris2004Book (Other academic)
  • 253.
    Deverell, Edward
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Flexibility and Rigidity in Crisis Management and Learning at Swedish Public Organizations2010In: Public Management Review, ISSN 1471-9037, E-ISSN 1471-9045, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 679-700Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To date the relationship between crises,organizational crisis management, and learninghas been understudied. In an effort tobroaden theoretical understandings of therelation between crisis and learning, thisarticle analyses the crisis management andlearning processes of two public organizationsduring a sequence of two failures. Aframework of rigidity versus flexibility inresponse is utilized in the analysis. Thefindings are discussed in relation to theirimplications for the nexus between crisis andlearning. The study concludes by raising fourhypotheses for further research.

  • 254.
    Deverell, Edward
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Investigating the Roots of Crisis Management Studies and Outlining Future Trajectories for the Field2012In: Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, ISSN 2194-6361, E-ISSN 1547-7355, Vol. 9, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a review of some literatures that have been instrumental in forming attimes disparate scholarly thoughts on managerial and operational decision-making and behaviorduring extraordinary events into the nascent academic field known as crisis management studies.The article outlines some of the most influential literature streams, presents their main findings,reveals four significant knowledge gaps in the present literature, and calls for future crisismanagement research to direct attention to the organization as the principal level of analysis.

  • 255.
    Deverell, Edward
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Is Best Practice Always the Best?: Learning to Become Better Crisis Managers2012In: Journal of Critical Incident Analysis, ISSN 1949-1182, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 26-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article argues for a reassessment of the idea of learning from critical incidents and crises in organizations. Crisis management research looks upon crisis-induced learning as highly desirable albeit immensely challenging. This paper argues that, although learning from crisis is important for crisis management performance, the idea of crisis-induced learning holds an intrinsic contradiction, which becomes one of the main challenges to building crisis management capacities and competencies from lessons learned from previous crisis experiences. As crises are dynamic and evolving processes permeated by uncertainty and elements of surprise, learning from prior crisis experiences will not suffice for an effective future crisis response. Empirical episodes from inductive case studies are used to show that learning from crisis can lead to rigid structures and behavior hampering crisis management and organizational resilience. The study concludes by discussing conditions that need to accompany crisis-induced learning processes in organizations in order to avoid rigidity in future crisis response.

  • 256.
    Deverell, Edward
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Is best practice always the best? Learning to become better crisis managers2012In: Åre Risk Event: Att kommunicera det (o)tänkbara: Hur formar vi framtidens kriskommunikation.: Book of abstracts, 2012, p. 8-8Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper argues for a reassessment of the idea of learning from critical incidents and crises in organizations. Crisis management research looks upon crisis-induced learning as highly desirable albeit immensely challenging. This paper argues that, although learning from crisis is important for crisis management performance and resilience, the idea of crisis-induced learning holds an intrinsic contradiction, which becomes one of the main challenges to building crisis management capacities and competencies from lessons based in previous crisis experiences. As crises are dynamic and evolving processes permeated by uncertainty and elements of surprise, learning from prior crisis experiences will not suffice for an effective crisis response. Empirical episodes from deep case studies are used to show how learning from crisis can lead to rigid structures and behavior hampering crisis management and organizational resilience. The study concludes by discussing conditions that need to accompany crisis-induced learning processes in organizations in order to avoid rigidity in future crisis response. 

  • 257.
    Deverell, Edward
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Krishantering och lärande: Faktorer som påverkar myndigheters förmåga att lära2012In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, Vol. 216, no 1, p. 117-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This essay discusses new research on how public sector organizations learn from their crisis experiences. The essay aims to distill practical lessons from theoretical studies on crisis-induced learning that should offer public officials advice on how to increase the learning capacities of public sector organizations in the wake of crises. The essay concludes that for organizational crisis-induced learning to take place, it is favorable to document incidents and crises thoroughly and to refine the documentation into investigations and evaluations. Moreover, in order for organizations to reform in line with suggestions put forth in investigations and evaluations, organizational self-reflection and flexibility is required.

  • 258.
    Deverell, Edward
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Organizational learning from crisis2013In: Handbook of Research on Crisis Leadership in Organizations / [ed] Andrew J. Dubrin, Cheltenham, UK & Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2013, p. 290-310Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The chapter explores the concepts of crisis, leadership and learning. It takes a critical glance at research, opinion and advice from the interdisciplinary field of crisis management studies. Analysts using literature from the nascent field of crisis management studies as a point of departure, tend to look at a crisis as a series of interconnected challenges presented to leaders of firms, agencies or organizational units. Under conditions of uncertainty, complexity, time pressure, and threats to core values, leaders are expected to make sense of unfolding events, make and implement strategic decisions, clarify complex issues of accountability and mandates, and convey meaning to these processes in internal and external communication. When management of the crisis is approaching termination, leaders find themselves playing an important role in the return to normalcy. Apart from managing the present crisis, leaders are also expected to prevent crisis repetition. Amidst hazardous, uncertain and stressful conditions then, leaders need to notice and reflect upon lessons enabling them to prevent future crises, and at a later stage make sure that these lessons are implemented throughout their organizations. Learning from crisis experience thus becomes a core task and demanding challenge for any leader. So far the important issue of crisis-induced learning has only attracted limited attention from scholars. There are only a few studies on the topic and even fewer relate to the strategic management and leadership perspective. This chapter takes stock of this budding knowledge on the crossroads of crisis management, organizational learning and leadership. Moreover, it suggests some implications for practice and points out potential trajectories for future research. 

  • 259.
    Deverell, Edward
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Statsvetenskap med inriktning krishantering: Hur kan vi utbilda i det vid FHS?2012In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, ISSN ISSN 0023-5369, no 4, p. 109-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den statsvetenskapliga forskningen och utbildningen vid Försvarshögskolan (FHS) utmärker sig från statsvetenskap vid andra lärosäten genom sin särskilda inriktning på säkerhetspolitik och krishantering. Kurser med denna inriktning har genomförts vid FHS sedan 2000 och kommer att utgöra huvuddelen av innehållet i det civila utbildningsprogram som ska inledas hösten 2013. Medan säkerhetspolitik traditionellt sett har varit ett ämnesområde inom statsvetenskapen som har fått relativt stor uppmärksamhet även vid andra universitet och högskolor, är krishantering en yngre och mer otydligt definierad underdisciplin. Denna otydlighet ger upphov till syftet med föreliggande artikel. Först diskuteras den till synes enkla frågan vad statsvetenskap med inriktning krishantering egentligen är. Sedan förs utifrån pedagogisk litteratur en diskussion som utmynnar i ett antal konkreta förslag på hur vi kan gå tillväga för att utbilda studenter inom kunskapsfältet.

  • 260.
    Deverell, Edward
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Systems for Post-Crisis Learning: A Systemic Gap in Civil Security Governance?2015In: European Civil Security Governance: Diversity and Cooperation in Crisis and Disaster Management / [ed] Raphael Bossong & Hendrik Hegeman, Houndsmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015, p. 160-187Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing the capacity of governments to learn from harmful events, such as for instance pandemics, hurricanes, terrorist attacks or large scale accidents, is of importance for civil security and organizational safety (Stern, 1997; Deverell, 2010). A frequently used strategy by governments and public organizations in this regard is to launch a crisis investigation after an event. This chapter deals with such forms of investigations and especially the importance of organizing structures for post hoc crisis investigations. The chapter argues that a lack of structured arrangements regarding post hoc crisis investigations will have negative effects on organizational and governmental lesson drawing from crises, and thus on long term EU civil security. We depart from the premise that taking structured and deliberate steps after crisis events to restore legitimacy and to make sure that historic mistakes are not repeated is an important part of civil security governance (cf. Sulitzeanu-Kenan and Holzman-Gazit, 2013). At the same time, civil security governance can also be seen as a problem for learning. Civil security governance involves a wide variety of actors and confronts ambiguous policy problems and fuzzy boundaries. As such it tends to work against systemization and standardized organisational processes required for effective post hoc crisis investigations.

  • 261.
    Deverell, Edward
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    The 2001 Kista blackout: Corporate crisis and urban contingency2003Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The study examines the management of the blackout in Stockholm’s northwestern suburbs, most importantly in Sweden’s center for high-tech industry in Kista, on March 11, 2001. The blackout, which was a result of a cable fire, was one of Sweden’s most comprehensive power disturbances ever and its effects were dramatic for the residents, the accountable power company, and the city leadership.The crisis management displayed by the operational units, public administrations, municipal companies and private corporations is examined, and the communication between these actors is considered throughout the report. Seven decision occasions are selected and scrutinized. The case is then analyzed and compared to similar cases studied by CRiSMART researchers, most notably: the blackouts in Auckland, New Zealand (1998) and Buenos Aires, Argentina (1999), and the power outages which followed the wake of the ice storm in eastern Canada (1998). Some examples of best practices in crisis management are also presented based on the case findings.

  • 262.
    Deverell, Edward
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    What makes some organizations better than others at handling crises?: Exploring state of the art public crisis management2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport görs en populärvetenskaplig sammanfattning av det arbete som har genomförts inom det MSB-finansierade post doc-projektet "What makes some organizations better than others at handling crises? Exploring state of the art public crisis management". Projektet leddes av Fil dr Edward Deverell vid Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap vid Försvarshögskolan 2011-2013. Utgångspunkten för projektets arbete var avhandlingen "Crisis-induced learning in public sector organizations" (Deverell, 2010). Avhandlingen ramade in krishanteringsstudier som kunskapsfält och betonade vikten av att i vidare studier undersöka organisationers roll i krishantering. Vidare framhölls vikten av att mer ingående studera organisationers lärprocesser i samband med kriser eftersom mer kunskap om lärande i relation till kriser behövs för att vi ska kunna skapa mer robusta organisationer och samhällen samt för att undvika att drabbas av liknande kriser framöver. I linje med det tidigare avhandlingsprojektet ämnade post doc projektet att fördjupa studiet av krishanteringsstudier med fokus på organisationers lärprocesser i relation till kriser. Detta genom att studera krishanteringslitteratur och fallstudier av verkliga kriserfarenheter. Föreliggande rapport ger en kortfattad beskrivning av de delstudier som sammanställdes under de två år som projektet löpte.

  • 263.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Dan, HansénSwedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).Olsson, Eva-KarinSwedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Perspektiv på krishantering2015Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Du tycker att samhällsfrågor är spännande och har ett särskilt intresse för kriser och oförutsedda händelser. Vad gör egentligen de som har ansvar och förväntningar på sig att ställa saker till rätta i en krissituation? Hur fungerar mediernas granskning och hur agerar andra parter som har till uppgift att utkräva ansvar? När väl den akuta fasen är över, vad lär sig de inblandade aktörerna, och hur fungerar förändringsarbetet och införandet av nya policyer? Perspektiv på krishantering är till för dig som vill fördjupa dig i dessa frågor.

    De perspektiv som presenteras är olika sätt att närma sig och studera krishantering som fenomen. Boken är indelad i tre övergripande perspektiv: hantera, granska och förändra. Genomgående i boken presenteras fallbeskrivningar av verkliga händelser och faktiskt handlande. Men fokus ligger inte på händelserna som sådana, utan på förståelsen av dem – de teoretiska perspektiven. Även om boken är rik på perspektiv gör den inte anspråk på att vara heltäckande. Snarare inbjuder den dig som är intresserad och engagerad att själv studera krishantering och bidra till kunskapsfältet.

  • 264.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Hansén, Dan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Learning from Crises and Major Accidents: From Post-Crisis Fantasy Documents to Actual Learning in the Heat of Crisis2009In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 143-145Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 265.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Hansén, Dan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Perspektiv på krishantering: Introduktion2015In: Perspektiv på krishantering / [ed] Deverell, Edward, Hansén, Dan & Olsson, Eva-Karin, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, p. 5-18Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 266.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Culture Clash – How organizational culture affects effective crisis management2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given the importance of organizational culture in explaining organizational behavior, it is surprising that research on how organizational culture affects organizations’ ability to react to and act in times of crisis has received limited interest. In this paper we examine how specific organizational cultures affected crisis responses in three cases – the handling of the so called anthrax letters in Sweden by the Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI) in 2001, the electrical power company Birka Energy’s management of a big tunnel fire in Stockholm, Sweden in 2001 and the television broadcasting company TV 4’s response to September 11, 2001. The cases have been researched by the use of a detailed process tracing of the main decision making occasions that the organizations confronted that e.g. included interviews with key participants in the crisis management. The studies show that in the FOI case, the democratic expert advisory culture led to a crisis response that was characterized by vague leadership and lack of decision making capacity. In the case of Birka Energy, the technical engineering culture resulted in a crisis response that lacked understanding of symbolic and communicative dimensions of crisis communication, focusing solely on the technical and operational parts of the crisis. The TV 4 case on the other hand shows a flexible organizational culture that managed to handle the change in mission.

  • 267.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Hur organisationskultur påverkar strategi och anpassningsförmåga i kriser2011In: Strategisk kommunikation: forskning och praktik / [ed] Mats Heide och Jesper Falkheimer, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2011Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 268.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Learning from crisis: A framework of management, learning and implementation in response to crisis2009In: Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, ISSN 2194-6361, E-ISSN 1547-7355, Vol. 6, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 269.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Organizational culture effects on strategy and adaptability in crisis management2010In: Risk Management: An International Journal, ISSN 1460-3799, E-ISSN 1743-4637, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 116-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a typology of temporal organizational responsesto crises in public perception aimed at examining the ability of organizations torestructure in order to cope with acute crisis management challenges. The typologyis based on organizations ’ capacities to launch crisis management strategies andadapt their managerial and operational levels to deal with crises. According to thetypology, the Fully Adapting Organization manages to adapt both its strategy andits managerial and operational levels to deal with the crisis. The Semi-AdaptingOrganization changes its strategy but lacks the capacity to change managerial andoperational levels according to the new strategy. The Non-Adapting Organizationdoes not grasp the importance of strategy change in the first place. Based on threeinductive case studies the study concludes that organizational culture plays animportant role in this process where the Semi and the Non-Adapting organizationswere dominated by strong expert cultures that proved to be less inclined to change.In contrast, the Fully Adapting Organization had deliberately fostered an organizationalculture in which flexibility was a cornerstone.

  • 270.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Hellman, Maria
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Johnsson, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Understanding Public Agency Communication: the case of the Swedish Armed Forces2015In: Journal of Public Affairs, ISSN 1472-3891, E-ISSN 1479-1854, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 387-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article suggests a diagnostic framework of public communication intended to capture new communication strategies used by Armed Forces across Europe to legitimize new tasks and recruit new personnel. Three distinct communicative models that impact differently on democratic values and public support are suggested: an Old Public Administration (OPA) model influenced by bureaucratic values, a New Public Management (NPM) model fuelled by market values and a deliberative model labelled ‘New Public Service’ (NPS) that is largely influenced by proponents of ‘e-democracy’. A case study of the communication of the Swedish Armed Forces identifies a lingering bureaucratic (OPA) ideal. The market ideal (NPM) however clearly dominates. The article concludes that communication along market purposes, principles and practices risks distancing Armed Forces further from society. Yet, an embryonic deliberative ideal (NPS)—much fuelled by the use of social media such as blogs—was also identified. This growing ideal holds the potential of infusing deliberative vigor into the organization and presumably facilitates the bridging of the gap to society.

  • 271.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Stiglund, Jonatan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Crisis: Designing a method for organizational crisis investigation2015In: Organizing after crisis: the challenge of learning / [ed] Nathalie Schiffino, Laurent Taskins, Cecile Donis & Julien Raone, Brussels: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2015, p. 29-54Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 272.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Marknadiseringen av Försvarsmaktens kommunikation: ett strategiskt maktmedel i en tid av förändring2016In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 118, no 4, p. 589-622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research shows that the Swedish Armed Forces’ communication is dominatedby market communication, and that this may impact on how the organizationis anchored in society. By adopting a neo-institutional perspective to the studyof agency communication, this article aims to deepen the analysis of the ArmedForces’ communication. Our analysis, based on interviews and official documents,demonstrates both risks and opportunities with marketization of the Armed Forces’communication. On the one hand, market communication may lead to the neglectof alternative values and images of the Armed Forces. Also, the rushed changes incommunication strategies identified risk providing an image of a complex organizationthat is difficult to comprehend, which may undermine the Armed Forces’legitimacy. On the other hand, the Armed Forces’ enhanced role as an employer andcomprehensive use of social media has led to more transparency and to the fosteringof values corresponding to values in society at large. How the Armed Forces, itsleadership, management, and communicators relate to these opportunities andrisks will be crucial for the organization’s future legitimacy.

  • 273.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Örtenwall, Per
    Almgren, Ola
    Bombattentatet i köpcentrumet i Finland 20022005Book (Other academic)
  • 274.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Örtenwall, Per
    Almgren, Ola
    Bombattentatet i Myyrmanni köpcentrum 20022004Book (Other academic)
  • 275.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Örtenwall, Per
    Almgren, Ola
    Riddez, Louis
    KAMEDO Report No. 87: Bomb Attack in Finnish Shopping Center, 20022007In: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, ISSN 1049-023X, E-ISSN 1945-1938, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 86-88Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 276.
    Di Baldassarre, Giuliano
    et al.
    Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; IHE Delft Institute for Water Education, Delft, The Netherlands.
    Nohrstedt, Daniel
    4Department of Government, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mård, Johanna
    Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Burchardt, Steffi
    Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Albin, Cecilia
    Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bondesson, Sara
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Leadership. Department of Government, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Breinl, Korbinian
    Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Deegan, Frances
    Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Fuentes, Diana
    Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Girons Lopez, Marc
    Department of Geography, University of Zurich, Switzerland.
    Granberg, Mikael
    Centre for Climate and Safety, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Centre for Climate and Safety, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Rydstedt Nyman, Monika
    Centre for Climate and Safety, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Rhodes, Emma
    Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Troll, Valentin
    Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Young, Stephanie
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Walch, Colin
    5Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Political Science, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA.
    Parker, Charles F
    Department of Government, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    An integrative research framework to unravel the interplay of natural hazards and vulnerabilities2018In: Earth's Future, ISSN 1384-5160, E-ISSN 2328-4277, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 305-310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change, globalization, urbanization, social isolation, and increased interconnectednessbetween physical, human, and technological systems pose major challenges to disaster risk reduction(DRR). Subsequently, economic losses caused by natural hazards are increasing in many regions of theworld, despite scientific progress, persistent policy action, and international cooperation. We argue thatthese dramatic figures call for novel scientific approaches and new types of data collection to integratethe two main approaches that still dominate the science underpinning DRR: the hazard paradigm and thevulnerability paradigm. Building from these two approaches, here we propose a research framework thatspecifies the scope of enquiry, concepts, and general relations among phenomena. We then discuss theessential steps to advance systematic empirical research and evidence-based DRR policy action.

  • 277.
    Dinniss, Heather A. Harrison
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), International Law Centre.
    'Armed Attack' and Article 51 of the UN Charter2013In: Modern law review, ISSN 0026-7961, E-ISSN 1468-2230, Vol. 76, no 1, p. 187-190Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 278.
    Doeser, Fredrik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Finland, Sweden and Operation Unified Protector: The impact of strategic culture2016In: Comparative Strategy, ISSN 0149-5933, E-ISSN 1521-0448, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 284-297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the Swedish decision to participate in Operation Unified Protector in Libya and the Finnish decision to refrain from the same operation. It takes as its theoretical point of departure the concept of strategic culture and argues that differences in the strategic culture of the two countries contributed to the differences in behavior toward the Libya intervention. The Finnish and Swedish strategic cultures differ with respect to the core tasks of the armed forces, willingness to use force, and with respect to what types of operations and organizational frameworks Finland and Sweden find it appropriate to participate in.

  • 279.
    Doeser, Fredrik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    From Enthusiasm to Reluctance: Poland and International Military Operations2016In: European Participation in International Operations: The Role of Strategic Culture / [ed] Malena Britz, Palgrave Macmillan, 2016, p. 123-149Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 280.
    Doeser, Fredrik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Historical experiences, strategic culture, and strategic behavior: Poland in the anti-ISIS coalition2018In: Defence Studies, ISSN 1470-2436, E-ISSN 1743-9698, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 454-473Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article contributes to an explanation of why Poland, after a period of almost two years’ hesitation, decided to dispatch military forces to the United States-led coalition against the Islamic State in June 2016. The Polish case is examined by applying the concept of strategic culture, taking into account a state’s core military strategic beliefs and the historical experiences on which these beliefs are based. The case study shows that strategic culture shaped the Polish decision-making on the coalition, by predisposing the decision-makers toward a typical Polish behavior in international military operations, namely to exchange security benefits with important allies. The article also has implications for the general study of strategic culture, by specifying the relationship between historical experiences and strategic culture.

  • 281.
    Doeser, Fredrik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Strategic Culture, Domestic Politics, and Foreign Policy: Finland’s Decision To Refrain From Operation Unified Protector2017In: Foreign Policy Analysis, ISSN 1743-8586, E-ISSN 1743-8594, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 741-759Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article integrates literature on strategic culture with literature on the domestic politics of foreign policy, illustrating how the interaction of culture and domestic political calculation can influence government foreign policy on participation in international military operations. Empirically, the article investigates the decision made by the Government of Finland to refrain from participation in the military intervention in Libya in March–April 2011. The Finnish decision-making illustrates that domestic politics, in particular the factor of election timing, can strengthen the feeling among decision-makers that they should follow the country’s strategic culture. The article ends with theorization on the domestic political conditions under which decision-makers are more or less likely to deviate from strategic culture.

  • 282.
    Doeser, Fredrik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum (upphört).
    Sweden’s Libya decision: A case of humanitarian intervention2014In: International Politics, ISSN 1384-5748, E-ISSN 1740-3898, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 196-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates why Sweden decided to participate in the enforcement of the no-fly zone over Libya in 2011. The Swedish decision was the result of a combination of factors, including feelings of altruism, the legal basis for the operation, the involvement of North Atlantic Treaty Organization in the operation, the political power play in the Swedish parliament and Sweden’s availability of military resources. The case study relies on a multitude of different sources, such as government reports, speeches and remarks, parliamentary records, media coverage, blog entries, secondary sources, and interviews with high-level civil servants.

  • 283.
    Doeser, Fredrik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum (upphört).
    Sweden's Participation in Operation Unified Protector: Obligations and Interests2014In: International Peacekeeping, ISSN 1353-3312, E-ISSN 1743-906X, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 642-657Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the necessary conditions behind the decision made by the Government of Sweden to participate with fighter jets in the monitoring of the no-fly zone over Libya in March 2011. The article identifies five explanatory factors whose presence was necessary for Sweden's military contribution: a feeling of moral obligation to intervene on the part of the government; the international legal foundation for the operation; strong leadership provided by NATO; broad parliamentary support; and the availability of military capabilities.

  • 284.
    Doeser, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Eidenfalk, Joakim
    University of Wollongong, Australien.
    Ignoring public opinion: The Australian and Polish decisions to go to war in Iraq2016In: Cambridge Review of International Affairs, ISSN 0955-7571, E-ISSN 1474-449X, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 562-580Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates why the governments of Australia and Poland decided to contribute military forces to the United States led invasion of Iraq in March 2003 when a majority of Australian and Polish citizens were opposed to national involvement in the invasion. The objective of the article is to increase understanding of the conditions under which governments ignore the public in their foreign policymaking. The article examines the explanatory power of four intervening variables: issue salience, elite debate, timing of the next election and the importance assigned to international gains by the government. On the basis of the Direct Method of Agreement, the article concludes that government perceptions of international gains and the timing of the next election were potentially necessary factors for the outcomes of the cases, while issue salience and elite debate were not necessary conditions. A distant election may, thus, provide sufficient electoral protection for a government that conducts a foreign policy to which the public is opposed.

  • 285.
    Doeser, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Eidenfalk, Johan
    School of Humanities and Social Inquiry, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia.
    Using strategic culture to understand participation in expeditionary operations: Australia, Poland, and the coalition against the Islamic State2018In: Contemporary Security Policy, ISSN 1352-3260, E-ISSN 1743-8764, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 4-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates how strategic culture influenced the decision-making of Australia and Poland regarding the global coalition against the Islamic State. In the coalition, Australia has followed its tradition of active participation in United States-led operations, while Poland has embarked on a more cautious line, thereby breaking with its previous policy of active participation. The article examines how Australian and Polish responses to the coalition were shaped by five cultural elements: dominant threat perception, core task of the armed forces, strategic partners, experiences of participating in coalitions of the willing, and approach to the international legality of expeditionary operations. It finds that Australia and Poland differed on all five elements but that the major differences are found in dominant threat perception and core task of the armed forces.

  • 286.
    Doeser, Fredrik
    et al.
    Utrikespolitiska institutet.
    Petersson, MagnusInstitutt for forsvarsstudier, Oslo.Westberg, JacobSwedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum.
    Norden mellan stormakter och fredsförbund: Nordiskt säkerhetspolitiskt samarbete i det gamla och nya Europa2012Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kalla krigets slut har inneburit nya möjligheter för nordiskt försvars- och säkerhetspolitiskt samarbete. Det är dock främst de senaste åren som konkreta initiativ till ett ökat och fördjupat samarbete tagits. Stoltenbergrapporten från våren 2009, där 13 områden för ett fördjupat nordiskt samarbete pekas ut, och bildandet av Nordefco hösten samma år utgör två av de viktigaste exemplen på ett förnyat intresse för nordiskt samarbete i försvars- och säkerhetsfrågor.

    Författarna utgår från exempel på konkreta samarbetsprojekt som sträcker sig från Napoleonkrigens slut till 2000-talet. Exemplen söker svar på två huvudfrågor: I vilken utsträckning existerar det en nordisk säkerhetspolitisk modell? Vilka internationella och nationella faktorer har verkat pådrivande respektive återhållande på nordiskt försvars- coh säkerhetssamarbete.

     

  • 287.
    Dückers, Michel L. A.
    et al.
    National knowledge and advice centre for psychosocial care concerning critical incidents, Diemen, The Netherlands; NIVEL – Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Arq Psychotrauma Expert Group, Diemen, The Netherlands.
    Thormar, Sigridur B.
    Department of Psychiatry, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Juen, Barbara
    Department of Psychology, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Ajdukovic, Dean
    Department of Psychology, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Newlove-Eriksson, Lindy
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training). Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olff, Miranda
    Arq Psychotrauma Expert Group, Diemen, The Netherlands; Department of Psychiatry, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands .
    Measuring and modelling the quality of 40 post-disaster mental health and psychosocial support programmes2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 2, article id e0193285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Disasters can have an enormous impact on the health and well-being of those affected. Internationally, governments and service providers are often challenged to address complex psychosocial problems. Ideally, the potentially broad range of support activities include a coherent, high-quality mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) programme. We present a theory-driven quantitative analysis of the quality of 40 MHPSS programmes, mostly implemented in European disaster settings. The objective is to measure quality domains recognized as relevant in the literature and to empirically test associations. During the EU project “Operationalizing Psychosocial Support in Crisis” (OPSIC) an evaluation survey was designed and developed for this purpose and completed by 40 MHPSS programme coordinators involved in different mass emergencies and disasters. We analysed the survey data in two steps. Firstly, we used the data to operationalize quality domains of a MHPSS programme, tested constructs and assessed their internal consistency reliability. A total of 26 out of 44 survey items clustered into three of the four domains identified within the theoretical framework: “planning and delivery system” (Cronbach’s alpha 0.82); “general evaluation criteria” (Cronbach’s alpha 0.82); and “essential psychosocial principles” (Cronbach’s alpha 0.75). “Measures and interventions applied”, theoretically a potential fourth domain, could not be confirmed to empirically cluster together. Secondly, several models with associations between domains and measures and interventions were tested and compared. The model with the best fit suggests that in MHPSS programmes with a higher planning and delivery systems score, a larger number of measures and interventions from evidence-informed guidelines are applied. In such programmes, coordinators are more positive about general evaluation criteria and the realization of essential psychosocial principles. Moreover, the analyses showed that some measures and interventions are more likely to be applied in programmes with more evolved planning and delivery systems, yet for most measures and interventions the likelihood of being applied is not linked to planning and delivery system status, nor to coordinator perceptions concerning psychosocial principles and evaluation criteria. Further research is necessary to validate and expand the findings and to learn more about success factors and obstacles for MHPSS programme implementation.

  • 288.
    Eck, Kristine
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum. Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    In data we trust?: A comparison of UCDP GED and ACLED conflict events datasets2012In: Cooperation and Conflict, ISSN 0010-8367, E-ISSN 1460-3691, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 124-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, several large-scale data-collection projects have produced georeferenced, disaggregated events-level conflict data which can aid researchers in studying the microlevel dynamics of civil war. This article describes the differences between the two leading conflict events datasets, the Uppsala Conflict Data Program Georeferenced Events Dataset (UCDP GED) and the Armed Conflict Location Events Dataset (ACLED), including their relative strengths and weaknesses. The aim of the article is to provide readers with some guidelines as to when these datasets should be used and when they should be avoided; it finds that those interested in subnational analyses of conflict should be wary of ACLED’s data because of uneven quality-control issues which can result in biased findings if left unchecked by the researcher. The article concludes that those interested in non-violent events such as troop movements have only ACLED to choose from, since UCDP has not coded such data, but again warns researchers to be wary of the quality of the data. Finally, while the creation of these datasets is a positive development, some caveats are raised in relation to both datasets about the reliance on media sources.

  • 289.
    Edström, Håkan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum (upphört). Uppsala universitet.
    Bok om akademiseringen borde inte ha getts ut2012In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 3, p. 168-171Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 290.
    Edström, Håkan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Efter EU-medlemskapet: nya linjer i svensk utrikespolitik?2016In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 118, no 4, p. 497-527Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    After the EU Membership – New Strategies in Swedish Foreign Politics?After becoming a member of the EU in 1995 Sweden has been governed by theSocial Democrats (1995–2006) and by a Centre-Right coalition (2006–2014) led bythe Moderate Party. Has the EU-membership conserved the tradition of consensusamongst the political parties regarding the foreign policy or has it provided anew platform allowing the parties to express their different ideological preferencesalso in this field of politics? The aim of this article is to shed light on the foreignpolicy of the Social Democrats and the Moderate Party 1995–2014. By analyzing thedebates in the Swedish parliament, Riksdagen, it is concluded that the two partieshave similar strategies regarding the means and the ways of the foreign policy butdifferent approach regarding the views on the international settings and the endsof the policy. A potential explanation to the findings is the resurrection of Realismin the Moderate Party’s approach.

  • 291.
    Edström, Håkan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Förord2016In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 118, no 4, p. 407-409Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 292.
    Edström, Håkan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Försvarsberedningens dilemma: Konsekvens eller konsensus?2015In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, Vol. 2, p. 6-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, the Swedish parliamentary body responsible for conducting analysis on global developments and preparing the formulation of Swedish security and defence policy, försvarsberedningen (English: The Defence Committee), is explored. The aim of the article is to evaluate whether or not the functioning of the Committee in fulfilling these two tasks influences the political guidance of the Armed Forces in terms of strategy. The conclusion referring to the former task is that the Committee lacks a methodology and hence tends to have difficulties in predicting important events such as the Russian interventions in Georgia and Ukraine. The conclusion referring to the latter task is that the Committee has been successful in establishing a consensus amongst the political parties represented in the Swedish parliament, riksdagen. Even if this consensus has been weak, it has been broad enough to reach a parliamentary majority supporting the policy despite long periods of minority cabinets. Altogether, the performance of the Committee provides no support in directing the Armed Forces with strategies.

  • 293.
    Edström, Håkan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Gömd eller glömd?: realism i den svenska riksdagsdebatten2016In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 118, no 4, p. 529-562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hidden or Forgotten? – Realism in the Swedish Parliamentary DebateThe spoken word of politicians creates expectations for subsequent action. Thelanguage used when formulating security, foreign and defense policies can thusprovide an indication what measures the politicians are prepared to take in orderto promote their national interests. In international relations theory the use offorce is primarily associated with realism. The use of realist concepts in the politicalcommunication could thus serve as an indicator of the politicians’ views on the useof force. In this article the use of realism in the parliamentary debate in Sweden isexplored. The findings indicate differences between the political parties as well asbetween the topics of the debate.

  • 294.
    Edström, Håkan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum.
    Introduction to a strategic challenge2009In: Approaching Comprehensiveness: Two grand strategic options and some of their consequences / [ed] Håkan Edström, Oslo: Institutt for Forsvarsstudier , 2009, p. 5-18Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 295.
    Edström, Håkan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Med alla till buds stående metoder?: Strategi i den politiska styrningen av Försvarsmakten2015In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, Vol. 1, p. 15-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Members of all political parties represented in the Swedish Parliament have during the past decades repeatedly stressed the necessity of directing military activities by using strategies. When focus in now shifting from participating in international military operations far from Sweden to addressing security challenges in Sweden's neighbourhood the needs for a new military strategy is obvious. The aim of this article is to explore whether potential shortcomings in the decisionsmaking process regarding the Swedish security and defence policy can explain why the Government does not seem to guide the Armed Forces with strategies.

  • 296.
    Edström, Håkan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum.
    National interests and the use of military power2009In: Approaching Comprehensiveness: Two grand strategic options and some of their consequences / [ed] Håkan Edström, Oslo: Institutt for Forsvarsstudier , 2009, p. 41-58Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 297.
    Edström, Håkan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum.
    Other aspects of the strategic choice: an initial outlook2009In: Approaching Comprehensiveness: Two grand strategic options and some of their consequences / [ed] Håkan Edström, Oslo: Institutt for Forsvarsstudier , 2009, p. 127-136Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 298.
    Edström, Håkan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum (upphört).
    Sammanfattning och förslag till fortsättning2008In: Norsk-svenskt försvarssamarbete i en ny tid / [ed] Håkan Edström & Magnus Petersson, Oslo: Institutt for forsvarsstudier , 2008, p. 117-129Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 299.
    Edström, Håkan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum (upphört). Forsvarets høgskole, Oslo, Norway.
    Självbild, samhälleliga förväntningar eller statligt tvång?2009In: Krigerkultur i en fredsnasjon: norsk militær profesjon i endring / [ed] Håkan Edström, Nils Terje Lunde, Janne Haaland Matlary, Oslo: Abstrakt forlag, 2009, p. 72-91Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 300.
    Edström, Håkan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Slutord2016In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 118, no 4, p. 643-645Article in journal (Other academic)
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