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  • 201.
    Lundborg, Tom
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section. Utrikespolitiska institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    The Virtualization of Security: Philosophies of Capture and Resistance in Baudrillard, Agamben and Deleuze2016In: Security Dialogue, ISSN 0967-0106, E-ISSN 1460-3640, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 255-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The virtual has during the last couple of decades emerged as a forceful conceptual tool in security studies. While used primarily in order to question assumptions about an objective truth concerning the meaning and value of security and different forms of insecurity, the implications of drawing on this concept vary considerably depending on how the virtual is conceptualized, and specifically how the potentiality of the virtual is linked to the process of actualization. Turning to the philosophies of Baudrillard, Agamben and Deleuze, as well as key thinkers in contemporary security studies, this article delineates three different approaches to analysing the virtualization of security. Focusing in particular on how these approaches point to contending views of ‘capture’ and ‘resistance’, it is argued that the choice of approach has serious implications for grasping what is at stake politically in the process of virtualization. These implications relate, more precisely, to how the virtual opens up and/or closes down the spaces of resistance that the modern subject of security traditionally has relied upon. In this way, the virtualization of security is not only important for thinking about capture and resistance, but challenges the very ground on which the modern subject of security rests.

  • 202.
    Lundborg, Tom
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section. Swedish Institute of International Affairs, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Time2016In: Critical imaginations in international relations / [ed] Ní Mhurchú, Aoileann; Shindo, Reiko, London: Routledge, 2016, p. 262-276Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The discipline of international relations (IR) is traditionally concerned with the spatial dimension of politics and the territorial borders of states. This chapter focuses on a point for thinking about time and IR: the relationship between time and space. It considers the work that history does as a technique and a practice of inscribing borders in time', which are used in order to separate the past from the present and the future. The chapter explores some recent attempts to explore what these other experiences of time might refer to and how they manifest themselves in contemporary world politics. Assumptions of time play a crucial role in IR not least because they help constitute ideas about the temporality of international politics and the temporal direction in which interstate relations are heading. One prominent example of how to think the political significance of time beyond the limits of IR is James Der Derian's book Antidiplomacy.

  • 203.
    Lundborg, Tom
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section. Univ Stockholm, Sweden.
    Vaughan-Williams, Nick
    Univ Warwick, England.
    New Materialisms, Discourse Analysis, and International Relations: A Radical Intertextual Approach2015In: Review of International Studies, ISSN 0260-2105, E-ISSN 1469-9044, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 3-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the recent ‘New Materialisms’ turn in social and political thought and asks what the potential theoretical and methodological significance might be for the study of International Relations (IR). To do so we return to debates about the theoretical status of discourse in IR as it is in this context that the question of materiality – particularly as it relates to language – has featured prominently in recent years. While the concept of discourse is increasingly narrow in IR, the ‘New Materialisms’ literature emphasises the political force of materiality beyond language and representation. However, a move to reprioritise the politics of materiality over that of language and representation is equally problematic since it perpetuates rather than challenges the notion of a prior distinction between language and materiality. In response, we draw on earlier poststructural thought in order to displace this dichotomy and articulate an extended understanding of what analysing ‘discourse’ might mean in the study of IR.

  • 204.
    Lundqvist, Stefan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Joint Operations Section.
    Engelbrekt, Kjell
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section, Sektionen för säkerhet.
    Reintroducing the Great Power Gaze: The Case for a Baltic-Arctic Security Complex2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Baltic Sea and the Arctic have once again become scenes for geostrategic great power competition, influencing regional economic, military and environmental security. Here, international relationships span a spectrum from friendship to fear. We observe that a host of different units of analysis currently compete for our attention in this part of Europe. But while “Scandinavia”, “the Nordic area”, “the Baltic Sea region”, “the High North” and “the Arctic” help focus strategic analysis on important and sometimes overlapping components of this area, security complex theory prescribes that we must adopt a broader, multi-layered view in order to understand how great and small power interests play out in this part of the world today. Such analysis must consider China’s global role, NATO’s increasingly elaborate military planning and the Russian Federation’s perception of vulnerabilities and opportunities, in an area that stretches from the Suwalki gap in East-Central Europe to the Barents Sea. In addition, security complex analysis benefits from including the perspectives of small states that control key territories – such as resource-rich continental shelves and exclusive economic zones – and from taking relevant international bodies into account as enabling and constraining factors. As part of a larger project, this paper reviews several sets of open source documents indicative of the incentive structure of such key players, published over the past five years. We delve into the political, economic and military dimensions of aims and actions by three categories of actors, namely: i) China, Russia, the United States; ii) Denmark, Norway; Sweden, Finland, Iceland, Canada; and iii) the EU, NATO and the Arctic Council. We conclude that, while smaller units of analysis still make sense for limited research purposes, the concept of a Baltic-Arctic security complex is necessary for meaningful strategic analysis.

  • 205.
    Newlove-Eriksson, Lindy
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section, Sektionen för krishantering och internationell samverkan. KTH, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Giacomellob, Giampiero
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Södertörns University, Sweden.
    The Invisible Hand?: Critical Information Infrastructures, Commercialisation and National Security2018In: The International Spectator: Italian Journal of International Affairs, ISSN 0393-2729, E-ISSN 1751-9721, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 124-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Corporatisation of critical information infrastructure (CII) is rooted in the ‘privatisation wave’ of the 1980s-90s, when the ground was laid for outsourcing public utilities. Despite well-known risks relating to reliability, resilience, and accountability, commitment to efficiency imperatives have driven governments to outsource key public services and infrastructures. A recent illustrative case with enormous implications is the 2017 Swedish ICT scandal, where outsourcing of CII caused major security breaches. With the transfer of the Swedish Transport Agency’s ICT system to IBM and subcontractors, classified data and protected identities were made accessible to non-vetted foreign private employees – sensitive data could thus now be in anyone’s hands. This case clearly demonstrates accountability gaps that can arise in public-private governance of CII.

  • 206.
    Nygren, Bertil
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Political Science Section.
    Normative and Ideological Frictions between Russia and Europe: issues of Security, Economic Integration, Democracy and Human Rights2009In: A Resurgent Russia and the West: the European Union, NATO and Beyond / [ed] Roger E. Kanet, Hague: Dordrecht , 2009, p. 113-134Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 207.
    Nygren, Bertil
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Political Science Section.
    Putin's attempt to subjugate Georgia: from sabre-rattling to the power of the purse2007In: Russia: Re-emerging Great Power / [ed] Roger E. Kanet, ndmills, Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007, p. 107-123Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 208.
    Nygren, Bertil
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Putin’s Use of Natural Gas to Reintegrate the CIS region2008In: Problems of Post-Communism, ISSN 1075-8216, E-ISSN 1557-783X, Vol. 55, no 4, p. 3-15Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 209.
    Nygren, Bertil
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Russia and Georgia: from confrontation to war. what is next?2010In: Russian Foreign Policy in the 21st Century / [ed] Roger E. Kanet, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010, p. 101-120Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 210.
    Nygren, Bertil
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Russia in the CIS Region: The Russian Regional Security Complex2010In: Key Players and Regional Dynamics in Eurasia: the return of the 'great game' / [ed] Maria Raquel Freire och Roger E. Kanet, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010, p. 13-28Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 211.
    Nygren, Bertil
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Political Science Section.
    Russia on our minds: Russian security policy and Northern Europe2009Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 212.
    Nygren, Bertil
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Russian Resource Policies Towards the CIS Countries2012In: Russia and its Near Neighbours / [ed] Maria Raquel Freire and Roger E. Kanet, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012, p. 223-245Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 213.
    Nygren, Bertil
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Political Science Section.
    Russia's Relations with Belarus and Ukraine2005In: The New Security Environment:  The Impact on Russia, Central and Eastern Europe / [ed] Roger E. Kanet, Aldershot: Ashgate , 2005, p. 149-164Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 214.
    Nygren, Bertil
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Political Science Section.
    Russia's Relations with Georgia2005In: Russia as a great power: dimensions of security under Putin / [ed] Jakob Hedenskog, Vilhelm Konnander, Ingmar Oldberg, Christer Pursuainen, Bertil Nygren, London and New York: Routledge , 2005, p. 156-181Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 215.
    Nygren, Bertil
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Rysslands relationer med OSS-länderna2009In: Ryssland: politik, samhälle och ekonomi / [ed] Anna Jonsson och Carolina Vendil Pallin, Stockholm: SNS förlag, 2009, p. 270-296Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 216.
    Nygren, Bertil
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Sovjetunionen och dess världsbild – utrikespolitiska doktriner under kalla kriget2012In: Kalla kriget: Sverige - en stormakt utan vapen? / [ed] Kurt Almqvist, Kristian Gerner, Stockholm: Axel och Margaret Ax:son Johnson stiftelse , 2012, p. 145-155Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 217.
    Nygren, Bertil
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    The 2012 Presidential Problem: Reset once again in Russian-US Relations?2012In: Competing for Influence:: The EU and Russia in Post-Soviet Eurasia / [ed] Maria Raquel Freire and Roger E. Kanet, Dordrecht: True Republic of Letters , 2012, p. 179-204Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 218.
    Nygren, Bertil
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Political Science Section.
    The EU Democratic norm project for Eurasia2008In: The European Union and strategy: an emerging actor / [ed] Kjell Engelbrekt and Jan Hallenberg, London and New York: Routledge , 2008, p. 111-130Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 219.
    Nygren, Bertil
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Political Science Section.
    The implications for Putin's policy toward Ukraine and Belarus of NATO and EU expansion2006In: Changing Transatlantic Security relations: do the US, the EU and Russia form a new strategic triangle? / [ed] Jan Hallenberg and Håkan Karlsson, London, New York: Routledge , 2006Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 220.
    Nygren, Bertil
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Political Science Section.
    The Rebuilding of Greater Russia: Putin's foreign policy towards the CIS countries2008Book (Refereed)
  • 221.
    Nygren, Bertil
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Political Science Section.
    Unilateral endeavours challenging governance in the energy sector: Russia, China, and the U.S2009In: European security governance: the European Union in a Westphalian world / [ed] Charlotte Wagnsson, James A. Sperling & Jan Hallenberg, Routledge, 2009, p. 94-113Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 222.
    Nygren, Bertil
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Using the neo-classical realism paradigm to predict Russian foreign policy behaviour as a complement to using resources2012In: International Politics, ISSN 1384-5748, E-ISSN 1740-3898, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 517-529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This essay presents the argument that analysts, crystal ball readers and general future-tellers generally should to a much higher extent rely on claimed interests of great powers than on resources alone in predictions of future behaviour of great powers. Analysts should analyse what states want to do given what they could do, as much as analyse what states could do based on their resources, or analysts should analyse state policy intentions as much as state policy resources.

  • 223.
    Nygren, Kristofer
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Effektivitet på stridsfältet: En fallstudie av andra Libanonkriget2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    This thesis sets out from Jim Storr’s theories about the human paradigm in contemporarywars. The outline is to consider combat as a fundamentally human activity, and the purpose isthus to provide an alternative perspective on how victory could be perceived on the battlefield.The Israeli warfare during the Second Lebanon war will be analyzed through the theories of theHuman Paradigm.The thesis concludes that the human paradigm does indeed provide a viable framework forhow tactics should be understood in its political context and provides valuable insights as to howto fighting organizations could be rendered more efficient.

  • 224.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Deverell, Edward
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Hellman, Maria
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    EU, armed forces and social media: convergence or divergence?2016In: Defence Studies, ISSN 1470-2436, E-ISSN 1743-9698, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 97-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores how armed forces in EU member states work with and view social media in national and international settings, and what the patterns of convergence/divergence are on these issues. To that end, a questionnaire targeted at EU armed forces was constructed. An index of qualitative variation was calculated to explore the relative convergence among respondents (n = 25) on issues of risks and opportunities with using social media nationally and internationally. Consistent with previous research on European armed forces, we found higher levels of divergence than convergence. Contrary to our expectations that similar challenges, joint international standards, and membership in international organizations would foster convergence with regard to social media use in areas of deployment, we found that convergence appeared foremost pertaining to the domestic level. Policy divergence was strongest in areas of deployment.

  • 225.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section, Sektionen för krishantering och internationell samverkan.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section, Sektionen för säkerhetspolitik och strategi.
    Hammargård, Kajsa
    Department of Economic History, Stockholm University.
    The use of political communication by international organizations: the case of EU and NATO2019In: Countering online propaganda and violent extremism: the dark side of digital diplomacy / [ed] Bjola, Corneliu; Pamment, James, London: Routledge, 2019, 1, p. 66-80Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 226.
    Ridolfi, Elena
    et al.
    Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden; Centre of Natural Hazards and Disaster Science (CNDS), Sweden.
    Albrecht, Frederike
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section, Sektionen för krishantering och internationell samverkan. Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden; Centre of Natural Hazards and Disaster Science (CNDS), Sweden.
    Di Baldassarre, Giuliano
    Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden; Centre of Natural Hazards and Disaster Science (CNDS), Sweden.
    Exploring the role of risk perception in influencing flood losses over time2020In: Hydrological Sciences Journal, ISSN 0262-6667, E-ISSN 2150-3435, Vol. 65, no 1, p. 12-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What implications do societies’ risk perceptions have for flood losses? This study uses a stylized, socio-hydrological model to simulate the mutual feedbacks between human societies and flood events. It integrates hydrological modelling with cultural theory and proposes four ideal types of society that reflect existing dominant risk perception and management: risk neglecting, risk monitoring, risk downplaying and risk controlling societies. We explore the consequent trajectories of flood risk generated by the interactions between floods and people for these ideal types of society over time. The results suggest that flood losses are substantially reduced when awareness-raising attitudes are promoted through inclusive, participatory approaches in the community. In contrast, societies that rely on top-down hierarchies and structural measures to protect settlements on floodplains may still suffer significant losses during extreme events. This study illustrates how predictions formed through social science theories can be applied and tested in hydrological modelling.

  • 227.
    Riegert, Kristina
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Good Europeans?: Euro-themes in Swedish, Danish and British TV Newsduring a November Week2008In: Nordicom Review, ISSN 1403-1108, E-ISSN 2001-5119, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 29-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Television news narratives are sites where national and transnational identities are cultivated and mobilised. The question is not whether Swedish, Danish or British news stories about Europe are domesticated to fit national news bulletins, but how events are domesticated and how of all European stories between 15-21 November 1999 in three national public service news bulletins indicate that viewers are offered different images of Europe during this week, and that journalists play active roles in constructing ‘themes’ which link together different types of news stories into narratives about ‘us’ and ‘them’. From these there emerged a Swedish ‘moralising global villager’, slightly superior but willing to adapt to changing international realities, an anxious and conscientious Danish ‘we’, trying to do its share despite its self-imposed limitations on EU cooperation, and an engaged humanitarian British ‘we’, who is global in scope but prefers to keep a distance from time consuming Euro-squabbles.

    ‘we’ are made European by the programmes’ producers. The analysis

  • 228.
    Riegert, Kristina
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    "Same Same but Different": New Twists on Old Problems2009In: Television and New Media, ISSN 1552-8316, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 133-135Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 229.
    Schmidt-Felzmann, Anke
    et al.
    General Jonas Žemaitis Military Academy of Lithuania, Vilnius, Lithuania.
    Engelbrekt, Kjell
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section, Sektionen för säkerhet.
    Challenges in the Baltic Sea region: geopolitics, insecurity and identity2018In: Global Affairs, ISSN 2334-0460, E-ISSN 2334-0479, Vol. 4, no 4-5, p. 445-466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses the changing security environment in the Baltic Sea region and reviews the patterns of cooperation and conflict since the end of the Cold War. The exploration starts from the concerns voiced by analysts since 2014 that the Baltic Sea could become the scene for a military confrontation with Russia. The article reviews the scholarly debates and examines the insights gained from past developments in the region. It underlines the utility of cooperation to address emerging security challenges and highlights the drivers of insecurity and threat perceptions, revealing the importance of changes in the sense ofidentity and belonging across the region. The article situates the contributions to the Forum -- The Return of Geopolitics to the Baltic Sea Region -- in the context of the lessons that can be drawn from the shifts and changes that have taken place in the region in the last three decades.

  • 230.
    Simonsson, Thomas
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    States’ defense policy formation: A study of Sweden in front of the election 2014 from a rational choice perspective2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses variables derived from Rational Choice Theory to examine the theory’s predicted covariancebetween public opinion and the parties’ policies. The collection of material has been guided by three arenas: the parliamentarian, the media and the voter’s. It has categorized the analysis based on the strategy concept, using ends, means and ways. It asks how the Moderate Party and the Social Democratic Party changed their strategy within the period of 31 May 2013 and 14 September 2014, and how this can be understood from a rational choice perspective. The purpose of the study is to examine the assumptions of Rational Choice Theory in the Swedish context in front of the election in 2014, and to understand this from the perspective of the theory. This can help in our understanding of defense policy formation and to our understanding of states’ relations on the international arena. The results show that there has been a more ambitious change in defense policy which covariates with the indicated positive change in public opinion on defense issues, but this did not make defense issues one of the 2014 election’s most important questions for the voters in choice of party to vote for. This can be understood as rational, seen from a RCT-perspective, since the other issues renders more support, a circumstance that is in line with the history of Swedish elections. 

  • 231.
    Svantesson, Monica
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section. Stockholms universitet.
    Threat Construction inside Bureaucracy: A Bourdieusian Study of the European Commission and the Framing of Irregular Immigration 1974-20092014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation examines how we construct security threats. Theoretically, it contributes to the literature on securitization and threat construction, which has hitherto overlooked how influential bureaucracies that – in contrast to the police and the military – have little to gain from widened threat perceptions, may still contribute to threat construction.

    The dissertation studies the European Commission and the issue of irregular immigration. By using frame analysis, it firstly explores what constructions of irregular immigration that the Commission generates and to what extent these contribute to threat construction. Using the Bourdieusian concepts of field, capital and habitus, it secondly analyzes how certain constructions of irregular immigration are authorized at the expense of others, due to the inner bureaucratic logic of the Commission.

    The empirical result reveals that the Commission mostly defines irregular immigrants as victims, yet simultaneously favors policy solutions that mainly seek to avert immigration. The Commission thus contributes to threat construction primarily through its policy solutions. Studying the inner logic of the Commission field highlights how informal routines and tacit power relations between Commission departments authorize certain frames over others. Importantly, the analysis shows how the naming of irregular immigrants as victims tends not to cost the officials anything in terms of symbolic capital, whereas the suggesting of less restrictive solutions tends to do so. Definitions and policy solutions thus follow different bureaucratic logics, which enables a mismatch between them. Moreover, the threat construction appears not because Commission officials believe that restrictive measures are the only way to solve problems linked to irregular immigration. On the contrary, officials believe that a multitude of solutions are needed. Instead, the threat construction is an unintended consequence of the logic of the field.

  • 232.
    Torell Sjölander, Matilda
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Hotet från cyberrymden: regeringens formulering av informations- och cybersäkerhet - vad är problemet?2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines the Swedish Government Cyber Security Strategy laid out for the years 2016-2022 using Carol Bacchi’s discourse method and theory concept “What’s the problem represented to be” (WPR). The theoretical framework of the thesis also builds on critical theories on security- and threat perception following the concept of “exceptionalist securitising” and “diffusing insecurities”. The study suggests that the government has a national security focus that stresses “high politics” cyber threats rather than risks related to individuals and the Swedish society. Potential enemies are presented as located outside of the national boarders indicating a more traditional security perspective and enemy construction coming from other states. The study also disclosed that the strategy strives to stress the necessity of raising the awareness on cyber security as well as uniting the authorities working on cyber security while neglecting the democratic limits that political actions such as state-monitoring and data surveillance implicates.

     

  • 233.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Beyond the RtoP: Responsibility as Doing, Being and Sharing2015In: International Politics Reviews, ISSN 2050-2982, E-ISSN 2046-9292, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 50-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review article exposes that the scholarly interest in the notion of ‘responsibility’ in the field of security studies goes far beyond the ‘Responsibility to Protect’ and the debate on emerging ‘responsible stakeholders’ in Asia. It is argued that the significant scholarly attention to ‘responsibility’ reflects political concerns with transnational threats and humanitarian issues, but it also mirrors a quest for status and power in a post-hegemonic security milieu as well as a need to distribute responsibilities among powers in an effective way. The article reviews approximately 160 peer-reviewed articles to expose strengths and weaknesses in the scholarly production of knowledge on responsibility in the field of security studies. The article suggests a new way to categorize works on responsibility in terms of ‘doing’, ‘being’ or ‘sharing’; focusing on one or several of these three aspects is an effective way to capture key contemporary problems in international security.

  • 234.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Divided power Europe: normative divergences among the EU 'big three'2010In: Journal of European Public Policy, ISSN 1350-1763, E-ISSN 1466-4429, Vol. 17, no 8, p. 1089-1105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article challenges Ian Manners's 'Normative Power Europe' thesis by arguing that although the European Union (EU) promotes norms in the international arena, it is not different from other powers. Drawing on a large set of empirical data and making use of a new institutionalist framework, it discerns how major European powers - Russia, France, Germany, Britain and the EU - have worked to gain acceptance for their individual favoured normative yardstick in the realm of security. The article concludes that as a consequence of diverging logics of appropriateness in Europe, the EU should rather be regarded as a divided than as a strong normative power. As long as both the EU and its major member states hold strong individual normative ambitions, the Union risks becoming hampered from acting rapidly and concertedly in international crises.

  • 235.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Europa - ta ditt ansvar!2016In: EU och de nya säkerhetshoten / [ed] Antonina Bakardjieva Engelbrekt, Anna Michalski & Lars Oxelheim, Stockholm: Santérus Förlag, 2016, p. 251-279Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 236.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Europe: take on your responsibilities2018In: The European Union: Facing the Challenge of Multiple Security Threats / [ed] Bakardjieva Engelbrekt, Antonina; Michalski, Anne; Nilsson, Niklas; Oxelheim, Lars, Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2018, p. 212-234Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 237.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    NATO’s role in the Strategic Concept Debate: Watchdog, fire-fighter, neighbour or seminar leader?2011In: Cooperation and Conflict, ISSN 0010-8367, E-ISSN 1460-3691, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 482-501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article argues that traditional Westphalian powers are increasingly pressured to move beyond Westphalia, towards institutionalization of security co-operation and a broader definition of referent-objects of security. Focusing on the case of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), it notes that the Alliance is severely torn between traditional constructions of ‘the self’ and a need for change. Exploring how NATO handles this dilemma, the article examines how the Alliance articulated its constitutive story during the Strategic concept process of 2009-2010. Four roles crystallised from the reading of the narrative: the fire-fighter, the watchdog, the good neighbour and the seminar leader. It is argued that NATO will be able to meet the exigencies of the post-Westphalian world more or less effectively depending on how it develops in each of these roles. The article concludes that NATO largely remains Westphalian in its four roles, but the launching of the seminar leader role indicates that it may be preparing a farewell toWestphalia. NATO is a composite actor and tensions between academic, global reformist and traditionalist regional story-lines will prevail. Nevertheless, the globalised threat environment is likely to eventually force NATO to fully recognise the need for a more post-Westphalian approach to security.

  • 238.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Security in a Greater Europe : The Possibility of a Pan-European Approach2008Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Can Russia, the European Union and the three major EU member states adopt a unified policy line in the global arena? Charlotte Wagnsson investigates the cohesiveness of ‘greater Europe’ through the detailed scrutiny of policy statements by the leadership elites in the UK, France, Germany, Russia and the EU in connection with three defining events in international security: the crisis in Kosovo of 1999; the terrorist attacks of 9/11 and the Iraq crisis of 2003. This extensive empirical enquiry results in a critical constructivist response to neorealist understandings of European security. 

    The book contrasts the EU’s new way of ‘doing security’ with the established, competitive bilateral interplay in the European security sphere and provides a clue to the kind of security politics that will prevail in Europe. A joint Moscow Brussels approach would improve the chances of both increasing their relative strength vis-à-vis the USA, but serious cleavages threaten to undermine such a ‘greater European’ common view on security. Wagnsson considers the extent to which the major European players pursue similar objectives, and assesses the possible implications for and the chances of greater Europe emerging as a cohesive global actor. This meticulously researched book will interest scholars and students with an interest in international security, the EU’s international role, European international relations and Russian security.  

  • 239.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section, Sektionen för säkerhet.
    Barzanje, Costan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section, Sektionen för krishantering och internationell samverkan.
    A framework for analysing antagonistic narrative strategies: A Russian tale of Swedish decline2019In: Media, War & Conflict, ISSN 1750-6352, E-ISSN 1750-6360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New information technologies and media consumption patterns have enabled aggressive practices that are qualitatively different from old-style propaganda. Actors no longer rely on secrecy, but can openly make use of social media and media outlets in foreign languages to destabilize other states and societies from within. Strategic narratives have become a key means in this endeavour. To expose the discursive (harmful) capacity of strategic narratives, the article suggests detailed analysis based on a narrative ontology. The analytical framework is applied in an exploratory case study of the Russian state-sponsored broadcasting company Sputnik’s strategic narrative about Sweden from 2014 to 2018. In addition to unmasking Sputnik’s strategic narrative, the article fills a gap in previous research in particular by exposing three antagonistic narrative strategies labelled ‘suppression’, ‘destruction’ and ‘direction’. These strategies reflect general driving forces in the security sphere and can inspire and structure future research into antagonistic strategic narration.

  • 240.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Hallenberg, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Conclusion: farewell Westphalia?: the prospects of EU security governance2009In: European Security Governance: the European Union in a Westphalian World / [ed] Charlotte Wagnsson, James A. Sperling, Jan Hallenberg, Routledge, 2009, p. 127-140Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 241.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section, Sektionen för säkerhetspolitik och strategi.
    Hellman, Maria
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Normative Power Europe Caving In?: EU under Pressure of Russian Information Warfare2018In: Journal of Common Market Studies, ISSN 0021-9886, E-ISSN 1468-5965, Vol. 56, no 5, p. 1161-1177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scholars have characterized the EU as a normative power whose greatest asset is to be able to shape conceptions of what is ‘normal’ in international affairs. Scholars have argued that a normative power has to meet certain discursive standards; representing others in a non‐antagonistic, humble way. We question whether the EU can live up to this ideal when defending itself against Russian strategic communication. The empirical enquiry establishes that while the EU High Commissioner communicates in line with the stipulated standards, the newly established East Stratcom Taskforce and its publication ‘Disinformation Digest’ diverges from this ideal. The establishment of the Taskforce has led to the EU losing reflexivity and normative power. The article concludes that while Diez’ and Manners’ standards are utopian in the contemporary communicative climate, they remain useful as guiding rules that can help normative powers ‘watch their language’ and avoid doing unnecessary harm.

  • 242.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Holmberg, Arita
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Conflict Management2014In: Handbook of Governance and Security / [ed] James Sperling, Northampton: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2014, p. 324-342Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 243.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Political Science Section.
    Holmberg, Arita
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Political Science Section.
    Hellman, Maria
    Stockholms Universitet, Institutionen för Journalistik, Medier och Kommunikation.
    The Centrality of Non-traditional Groups for Security in the Globalized Era: The Case of Children2010In: International Political Sociology, ISSN 1749-5679, E-ISSN 1749-5687, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The globalized security situation characterized by transnational threats and international interventionism in ‘‘new wars,’’ connect non traditional local actors and traditional global actors to one another in unprecedented ways. We argue that children in particular need to be highlighted because they are highly pertinent to the globalized security situation, yet they make up one of the few agents that have remained non-politicized in the eyes of the scholarly community. The article suggests a framework of analysis that can generate analyses on security of traditional as well as non-traditional agents. Placing non-traditional groups in the center of attention serves to mirror the complexities of the current security situation better.

  • 244.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Political Science Section.
    Sperling, JamesUniversity of Akron, Ohio, USA.Hallenberg, JanSwedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Political Science Section.
    European Security Governance: The European Union in a Westphalian World2009Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book focuses on problems of, and prospects for, strengthening the global system of security governance in a manner consistent with the aspirations and practices of the EU. The Eu approach to security governance has been successful in its immediate neighbourhood: it has successfully exported its preferred norms and principles to applicant countries, thereby 'pacifying' its immediate neighbourhood and making all of Europe more secure. This edited volume addresses both the practical and political aspects of security governance and the barriers to the globalization of the EU system of security governance, particularly in teh multipolar post-Cold War era. This book will be of great interest to students of security governance, EU politics, European Security and IR in general.

  • 245.
    Watts, John
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Ledberg, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Engelbrekt, Kjell
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Brothers in Arms, Yet Again?: Twenty-first Century Sino-Russian Strategic Collaboration in the Realm of Defence and Security2016In: Defence Studies, ISSN 1470-2436, E-ISSN 1743-9698, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 427-449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    2014-2015 were years of turmoil for strategic relations, with Sino-Russian relations emerging as a particularly interesting set of ties to observe. This article asks whether recurrent Sino-Russian exhortations of friendship are mirrored by their strategic alignment in the defence and security realm, half a century after the end of the Sino-Soviet pact during the communist era. We examine the arms trade between the two countries and with regional partners, but also the recent pattern of bilateral and multilateral military exercises, as a combined test of the security and defence relationship.  We are able to show that the image of friendship that both Moscow and Beijing like to promote, while apparent at the UN Security Council and within the BRICS group, remains constrained by rivalry in high-tech segments of the arms industry and by lingering concerns about the prospects of peer interference in their shared regional vicinity.

  • 246.
    Weibull, Louise
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för arbetsvetenskap.
    Emotion matters: Emotion management in Swedish Peace Support Operations2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 247.
    Weibull, Louise
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Post-Deployment Disorientation: The emotional remains of uneventful peace support operations2012In: Res militaris, ISSN 2265-6294, Vol. 2, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely recognized that participation in high-intensity military missions abroad can result in discomforts, serious health conditions, and psychological consequences for the individual. This article, however, focuses on soldiers' experiences after service in two relatively calm mission areas. It aims to contribute to a discussion of the emotional price soldiers pay even when participating under these circumstances. It argues that although the general view among soldiers is that service abroad is a unique, rewarding and cherished experience, we should further recognize it as an accomplishment that also has other transformative properties. This is often manifested in what is here named 'Post-Deployment Disorientation' (PDD), invoking a different outlook on life and navigation in the social world. This article explores the soldiers' sense-making of this change by adopting an emotion-focused sociological perspective. Confirmation of assumptions made is presented through reference to interviews with 24 Swedish soldiers before, during and after their deployments to Kosovo and Liberia.

  • 248.
    Weibull, Louise
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section. Karlstad universitet.
    Karlsson, Jan Christer
    Karlstads universitet.
    "Don't fight the blue elephant": Humorous Signs as Protests and Conductors of Negotiations in Swedish Peace Support Operations2013In: Res Militaris, E-ISSN 2265-6294, ISSN 2265-6294, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses upon the role of humour among Swedish soldiers deployed on peace supportoperations, and more specifically on ‘applied' workplace humour (Mulkay, 1988). Applied humour makes certain points about situations, social groups or phenomena beyond pure entertainment. Data refers first and foremost to workplace signs encountered at military compounds in Liberia, Kosovo, Afghanistan, and interviews with 26 Swedish soldiers before, during and after their deployments. The findings suggest that humorous exchanges in missions abroad are omnipresent and serve many purposes: humour is a space for release from various stresses involved in a strictly hierarchical organization as well as in subordination to rules, policies and designed roles - but also where barbed ideas inappropriate for serious communication are vented (Fine, 1988). It is further argued that differences in the nature of operations (i.e. threat level and work tasks) is reflected in the messages' content. Even if the overall purpose of the humorous discourse seems to be more of a safety valve and ‘cathartic-ritual' than making a claim for change, this might in turn depend on the conviction that there is no alternative. Overall, the paper adds to the literature a description of humorous exchanges in a highly structured organizational setting where the need for sense-making is ever present. 

  • 249.
    Weissmann, Mikael
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark). Utrikespolitiska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hagström, Linus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section. Utrikespolitiska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Sanctions Reconsidered: the Path Forward with North Korea2016In: The Washington quarterly, ISSN 0163-660X, E-ISSN 1530-9177, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 61-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There have been regular predictions of North Korea’s imminent collapse. Yet, by adapting to changing circumstances, and finding new supply lines and revenue streams, the state has managed to bypass an increasingly strict sanctions regime aimed at rolling back its nuclear program. This article details the economic flows that continue to keep North Korea alive, against all odds, but argued that these areas are difficult to target as even “smart sanctions” are highly likely to have a range of adverse effects on the wider population. That said, this article recommends continued monitoring of the arms trade, and measures to squeeze the court economy and to target remittances from exported laborers. Yet such efforts have to be combined with a smarter diplomacy built on engagement.

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