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  • 201.
    Carlsson, Matilda
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Conflict-Related Sexual Violence: A Cross-National Comparison of Circumstances Related to State Forces’ Use of Sexual Violence in Armed Conflicts2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sexual violence is a well-known phenomenon in armed conflicts. The international attention from scholars and policymakers has substantially expanded during the last decades, but until today a comprehensive understanding of the circumstances that generate this violence is absent. This causes difficulties in the policy rhetoric of the issue, as well as in the development of effective measures to prevent and combat conflict-related sexual violence in current conflicts.

    This study aims to explore and identify circumstances related to the use of sexual violence by armed groups, and by state forces in particular. The overall purpose is to contribute to an understanding of why state forces commit sexual violence in some armed conflicts and not in others. An analytical framework is created based on existing theoretical concepts and explanations to the varying frequency of sexual violence. Based on this, five hypotheses of possible correlated conditions are created. These conditional factors are: 1) Rule of Law, 2) Other Violence, 3) Ethnic Conflict, 4) Gender Equality, and 5) International Support. The hypotheses are translated into macro-level variables that are systematically applied and compared between ten cases of armed conflicts, five of which have high levels of sexual violence committed by state forces, respectively five with no reports of sexual violence committed by state forces. This is done by a cross-national comparison using descriptive statistics. Four hypotheses are to a varying degree strengthened by this study and the result suggests that sexual violence committed by state forces is more likely to occur; in conflicts with low levels of rule of law; in ethnic conflicts; in conflicts with high levels of other violence, and; in absence of international support. The anticipation is that the results of this study will provide a platform for further conclusive research of casual factors to conflict-related sexual violence. 

  • 202. Castenfors, K.
    et al.
    Svedin, Lina
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Crisis communication: learning from the 1998 LPG near miss in Stockholm2001In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 88, no 2-3, p. 235-254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors examine current trends in urban risks and resilience in relation to hazardous material transports in general, and crisis communication and the Stockholm liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) near miss in 1998 in particular The article discusses how current dynamics affecting urban areas, such as the decay in terms of increased condensation and limited expansion alternatives combined with industry site contamination and transports of hazardous materials on old worn-out physical infrastructure, work together to produce high-risk factors and increase urban vulnerability in large parts of the world today. Crisis communication takes a particularly pronounced role in the article as challenges in communication and confidence maintenance under conditions of information uncertainty and limited information control are explored. The LPG near miss case illustrates a Swedish case of urban risk and the tight coupling to hazardous material transports. The case also serves as a current example of Swedish resilience and lack of preparedness in urban crises, with particular observations and lessons learned in regards to crisis communication.

  • 203.
    Castenfors, Kerstin
    et al.
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Deverell, Edward
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Anthrax Letters in Sweden?: Analysis of how FOI’s Division of NBC-Protection managed the ”Anthrax Letters” during the fall of 2001 – from a Crisis Management Perspective2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When the so-called anthrax letters began to appear in the U.S.A. in early October 2001, FOI(the Swedish National Defense Research Agency), prepared to put its personnel and its expertknowledge at society's disposal, in case Sweden should be subjected to similar incidents.When the first parcel1 with suspect contents appeared in Sweden in the middle of October,FOI-NBC-Protection (the Division of Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Protection, in thenorthern city of Umeå), abbrev. FOI-NBC, undertook the task of analyzing its contents. Atthe request of the Swedish National Police Board (RPS), FOI also agreed to test the contentsof any further such parcels that might turn up. FOI is traditionally a research and advisoryorganization, not a day-to-day operative organization. Thus, NBC-Protection had to make anumber of quick decisions concerning management and re-organization, in order to meet thedemands of the situation.Since the term "crisis" is central to this report, a short explanation of what the authors meanby this term is justified. A crisis is a situation and a process in which decision makersperceive2 all of the following:

    • a threat to fundamental values• severe time pressure• uncertainly

    Such situations can have their origins both in internal organizational factors and in externalfactors (Sundelius, Stern & Bynander, 1997).This report presents an analysis of interviews and testimonies given by staff of FOI-NBC, inconnection with the so-called anthrax crisis. The situation/process which arose at that timewas experienced not only as fundamentally threatening to society, but also to FOI-NBC'scredibility as an organization. It also involved intense time pressure and a great deal of dayto-day uncertainly.However, crises not only involve threats, but also present new opportunities. Morespecifically, if FOI NBC-Protection could successfully master the situation, this could onlylead to an increase in its credibility as a (expert) knowledge organization.In the aftermath of the “anthrax crisis”, FOI-NBC was – naturally – interested in finding out ifits staff had been given adequate means to do a proper job, if delegated responsibilities wereaccepted, how assigned tasks were carried out and if the decision making process wasemployed in a competent manner. In short, how well did the organization actually functionwhen, during that short, intense period in the fall of 2001, it was forced to transform itselffrom an "advisory" organization to an "operative" one?Thus, in the spring of 2002, FOI's Division of Defense Analysis in Stockholm was given thetask of studying how FOI-NBC in Umeå handled the events of 2001.

  • 204.
    Castenfors, Kerstin
    et al.
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Deverell, Edward
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Mjältbrandsbrev i Sverige?: Analys av FOI Avdelningen för NBC-skydds hantering av de så kallade mjältbrandsbreven under hösten 2001 utifrån ett krishanteringsperspektiv2003Book (Other academic)
  • 205. Chaturvedi, Sankarp
    et al.
    Zyphur, Michael J.
    Arvey, Richard
    Avolio, Bruce J.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    The heritability of emergent leadership: age and gender as moderating factors2012In: Leadership Quarterly, ISSN 1048-9843, E-ISSN 1873-3409, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 219-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we examined the moderating influences of gender and age with respect to testing the heritability of leadership emergence. A large data base of 12,112 twins from Sweden was used in the current study to decompose the variance of emergentleadership into an unobservable genetic component and environmental components that are either common or unshared among twin pairs. Consistent with prior leadership research on genetics, we found that a genetic factor is able to explain a significant proportion of the variation across individuals in predicting how twins perceive their emergentleadership behavior (about 44% for women and 37% for men). Furthermore, we also found that the magnitude of genetic influence on emergentleadership varied with age, but only for women with the heritability estimate being highest for the mid-age women versus lowest for the older women. Implications for advancing research on the genetic and environmental influences on leadership emergence are discussed.

  • 206.
    Christiansson, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Strategy Section.
    Danmark2009Report (Other academic)
  • 207.
    Christiansson, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Defense planning beyond rationalism: the third offset strategy as a case of metagovernance2018In: Defence Studies, ISSN 1470-2436, E-ISSN 1743-9698, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 262-278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes U.S. defense planning, and more specifically the public administration of the third offset strategy. The U.S. defense bureaucracy is rooted in a tradition of rational planning, which assumes a process of consistent, value-maximizing choices within specified constrains. The cornerstone in this tradition is the program budgeting system, once created to connect plans with budgets according to preferences. The third offset strategy, aimed at dealing with the challenges of geopolitical competition and budget austerity, is influenced by a different public administration philosophy described as metagovernance. Metagovernance is a challenge to rational planning as it entails an indirect approach of organizing arenas for networks, in which start-up companies and civilian corporations get to interact with government officials in order to identify incrementally suitable acquisition projects. Furthermore, the article contextualizes this tendency in reflexive modernity, in which rationality breaks down due to the pace of societal changes and planning processes constantly become subject to feedback.

  • 208.
    Christiansson, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Strategy Section.
    Drömmen om samfällighet1998In: Politik & samhälle, ISSN 1402-9170, no 2, p. 102Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 209.
    Christiansson, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Strategy Section.
    Eight Essays in Contemporary War Studies2007Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 210.
    Christiansson, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Strategy Section.
    Far Away, So Close: Comparing Danish and Swedish Security and Defence Policies2009In: Militært tidsskrift, ISSN 0026-3850, no 3, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 211.
    Christiansson, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum.
    Fjärran, så nära: en jämförelse mellan dansk och svensk försvars- och säkerhetspolitik2012In: Norden mellan stormakter och fredsförbund: Nordiskt säkerhetspolitiskt samarbete i det gamla och nya Europa / [ed] Fredrik Doeser, Magnus Petersson, Jacob Westberg, Stockholm: Santérus Academic Press Sweden, 2012Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 212.
    Christiansson, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    Hur kan Sverige bli medlem i Nato?2011In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no Nr 4, p. 132-137Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 213.
    Christiansson, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    Lejonet, räven och björnen2008In: Vårt försvar, ISSN 0042–2800, no 4, p. 12-15Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 214.
    Christiansson, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum (upphört).
    Pooling, Sharing and Specializing: NATO and International Defence Cooperation2013In: NATO beyond 9/11: The Transformation of the Atlantic Alliance / [ed] Ellen Hallams, Luca Ratti and Benjamin Zyla, Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013, p. 178-197Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article has mapped and analyzed internationaldefence cooperation with an emphasis on developments in NATO. In the mapping ofthe processes of defence cooperation initiatives in NATO after the Cold War and9/11, we concluded that there has been a steady stream of capabilitycatalogues, coordination measures and creation of joint ventures. In theanalysis we noted the different types of defence cooperation initiatives(sharing of capabilities, pooling of capabilities, role- and task sharing,co-development, and pooling of acquisitions), the character of the process(sequential and repetitive), and the dynamic and conditions (trade off dynamicsinfluenced by perceived gains, degree of solidarity, strategic similarities,degree of common understanding of political investment, and geographicproximity). The final part of the text elaborated on the potential consequencesof international defence cooperation; in this part we concluded that the threecategories, that might well mirror the future of the transatlantic securityarchitecture, are minimal defence cooperation, flexible defence cooperation orregional defence integration.

  • 215.
    Christiansson, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    Solidarity and Sovereignty: The Two-Dimensional Game of Swedish Security Policy2011In: Connections - The Quarterly Journal, ISSN 1812-1098, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 1-23Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 216.
    Christiansson, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    Solidarity and Sovereignty: The Two-Dimensional Game of Swedish Security Policy2010In: Baltic Security and Defence Review, ISSN 1736-3772, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 26-49Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 217.
    Christiansson, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Strategy Section.
    Säkerhetspolitisk teori2004 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 218.
    Christiansson, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    The Military Balance in the Baltic Sea Region: Notes on a Defunct Concept2011In: Nordic Cooperation in the Far North / [ed] Laura Salmela, Helsingfors: National Defence University, Department of Strategic and Defence Studies , 2011, p. 59-79Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 219.
    Christiansson, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    The Military Balance in the Baltic Sea Region: Notes on a Defunct Concept2012In: Power in the 21st Century: International Security and International Political Economy in a Changing World / [ed] Enrico Fels, Jan-Frederik Kremer & Katharina Kronenberg, Springer, 2012, 1, p. 117-136Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 220.
    Christiansson, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    The NATO question in Sweden under the Trump presidency: Military non-alignment between power politics and feminist foreign policy2017In: Finland, Sweden & NATO: Did Trump Change Everything? / [ed] Jaan Siitonen, Helsingfors: Svenska Bildningsförbundet , 2017, p. 39-56Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 221.
    Christiansson, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum.
    The Partnerfication of NATO: From Wall-building to Bridge-building?2014In: Cooperative Security: NATO's Partnership Policy in a Changing World / [ed] Trine Flockhart, Copenhagen: Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS) , 2014, p. 60-73Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter tries to supplement some of the early efforts to interpret the development of NATO’s partnership policy, as well as to widen it somewhat into a military operational perspective. Three official speeches on the executive level in the US are analyzed, including their references to military doctrines, in order to find the strategic rationale that underpins the new globalized partnership agenda. Two operational frameworks can be identified for the US: networking and access. Networking is centered on the decapitation of enemies and is being pursued in an on-going global or transnational shadow war. Access is centered on deterrence in Asia. Both frameworks rest on the concept of partnerships, and this is a contributory factor for their growing importance in the Alliance. This ‘partnerfication’ of NATO will certainly contribute to flexibility, but there is a clear risk that it will not be in the interests of all European states, members or partners alike.

  • 222.
    Christiansson, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Strategy Section.
    "Till minne av ett Europa vi aldrig mer vill se"2010In: Svensk Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-677X, Vol. 8 oktoberArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 223.
    Christiansson, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Strategy Section.
    USA and Europe in the International System - Four American Perspectives2005In: NATO vs. EU? Security Strategies for Europe / [ed] Bernhard May & May-Britt Stumbaum (eds.), Berlin: DGAP , 2005Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 224.
    Christiansson, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Strategy Section.
    Utgångspunkter2009Report (Other academic)
  • 225.
    Christiansson, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    Vägen från Zulu: bilder av en kolonialoperation2008In: Krigsvetenskaplig årsbok 2007 / [ed] Dan Öberg, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan , 2008, p. 43-60Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 226.
    Cilluffo, Frank J
    et al.
    George Washington University.
    Cozzens, Jeffrey B
    Ranstorp, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), CATS (Center for Asymmetric Threat Studies).
    Foreign Fighters: Trends, Trajectories and Conflict Zones2010Report (Other academic)
  • 227. Cozzens, Jeff
    et al.
    Ranstorp, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CATS (Center for Asymmetric Threat Studies).
    Does al Qaeda continue to pose a serious international threat?: YES: The Enduring al-Qa’ida Threat: A Network Perspective2012In: Contemporary Debates on Terrorism / [ed] Richard Jackson and Justin Sinclair, London: Routledge, 2012, p. 90-96Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 228.
    Daléus, Pär
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Democracy's Blameless Leaders: From Dresden to Abu Ghraib, How Leaders Evade Accountability for Abuse, Atrocity and Killing2015In: Political Psychology, ISSN 0162-895X, E-ISSN 1467-9221, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 133-137Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 229.
    Daléus, Pär
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Flodvågskatastrofen: massmedias och myndigheters framställningar av hanteringen2005Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 230.
    Daléus, Pär
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Follow the Leader?: How Voters Respond to Politicians' Policies and Performance2015In: Political Psychology, ISSN 0162-895X, E-ISSN 1467-9221, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 133-137Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 231.
    Daléus, Pär
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Politisk ledarskapsstil: Om interaktionen mellan personlighet och institutioner i utövandet av det svenska statsministerämbetet2012Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 232.
    Daléus, Pär
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Politiskt ledarskap2015In: Perspektiv på krishantering / [ed] Deverell, Edward; Hansén, Dan; Olsson, Eva-Karin, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, 1, p. 21-44Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 233.
    Daléus, Pär
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Transformative Political Leadership: Making a Difference in the Developing World2015In: Political Psychology, ISSN 0162-895X, E-ISSN 1467-9221, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 133-137Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 234.
    Daléus, Pär
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Understanding Prime Ministerial Performance: Comparative Perspectives2015In: Political Psychology, ISSN 0162-895X, E-ISSN 1467-9221, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 133-137Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 235.
    Daléus, Pär
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Bynander, Fredrik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Swedish Coalition Governments and the Quest for Re-election2017In: The Politics of Leadership Index: A New Perspective on Political Leadership / [ed] Bennister, Mark, ’t Hart, Paul, Worthy, Ben, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017, 1Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 236.
    Daléus, Pär
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Hansén, Dan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Inherent Ethical Challenges in Bureaucratic Crisis Management: The Swedish Experience with the 2004 Tsunami Disaster2011In: Ethics and Crisis Management / [ed] Svedin, Lina, Charlotte: Information Age Publishing, 2011Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 237.
    Daléus, Pär
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Sundelius, Bengt
    Från territorialförsvar i krig till samhällssäkerhet i fred: Analyser av förändrade säkerhetspolitiska synsätt och verkligheter i de nordiska länderna efter den 11 september och Madridattentatet2004Conference proceedings (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 238.
    Danielsson, Erna
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Alvinius, Aida
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    From common operating picture to situational awareness2014In: International Journal of Emergency Management, ISSN 1471-4825, E-ISSN 1741-5071, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 28-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate what influences the formation of a common operating picture and situational awareness during collaborative efforts to deal with complex disasters. Particular focus is given to the relationship between the operating picture and situational awareness. The study was conducted using qualitative interviews and a grounded theory approach, and is based on interview data from three crisis events. The results show that the operating picture is influenced by information coming together from different sources and forming a snapshot of the event, a portrait which changes and is updated over time, while organisational belonging, role and occupationally specific knowledge provide a framework for and influence situational awareness. The results also show that the operating picture forms the basis for an occupationally specific and role-based situational awareness and its subsequent decision-making. Further studies on the relation between common operating picture, sense making and situational awareness are discussed.

  • 239.
    David, Eric
    et al.
    Université Libre de Bruxelles.
    Engdahl, Ola
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum (upphört).
    How does the involvement of a multinational peacekeeping force affect the classification of a situation?2013In: International Review of the Red Cross, ISSN 1816-3831, E-ISSN 1607-5889, Vol. 95, no 891/892, p. 659-666Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ‘debate’ section of the Review aims at contributing to the reflection on current ethical, legal, or practical controversies around humanitarian issues.

    In this issue of the Review, we invited two experts in international humanitarian law (IHL) and multinational peace operations – Professor Eric David and Professor Ola Engdahl – to debate on the way in which the involvement of a multinational force may affect the classification of a situation. This question is particularly relevant to establishing whether the situation amounts to an armed conflict or not and, if so, whether the conflict is international or non-international in nature. This in turn will determine the rights and obligations of each party, especially in a context in which multinational forces are increasingly likely to participate in the hostilities.

  • 240.
    De Koning, Ruben
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    Soldiers and traders in war and peace: the resilience and diversity of conflict resources trade in Africa2009Report (Other academic)
  • 241.
    de Wet, Erika
    et al.
    Institute for International and Comparative Law in Africa, Faculty of Law, University of Pretoria, South Africa.
    Kleffner, Jann KSwedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum.
    Convergence and Conflicts of Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law in Military Operations2014Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 242. Dekker, Sander
    et al.
    Hansén, Dan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Learning under Pressure: The Effects of Politicization on Organizational Learning in Public Bureaucracies2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 243.
    Dekker, Sander
    et al.
    Leiden University.
    Hansén, Dan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Learning under Pressure: The Effects of Politicization on Organizational Learning in Public Bureaucracies2004In: Journal of public administration research and theory, ISSN 1053-1858, E-ISSN 1477-9803, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 211-230Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 244.
    Deverell, Edward
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    An Analytical Memoir of the WHO Operation in China2011In: SARS from East to West / [ed] Eva-Karin Olsson and Lan Xue, New York City: Lexington Books , 2011Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 245.
    Deverell, Edward
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section, Sektionen för krishantering och internationell samverkan.
    Att identifiera och motstå informationspåverkan: En jämförande studie av hur de nordiska länderna organiserar arbetet2019In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 1, p. 31-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Authoritarian states and democracies have long used propaganda and disinformation to manipulate target audiences. Recently interest in this issue has increased, especially as active pro-Kremlin disinformation measures have targeted the Nordic countries. So far, research on disinformation measures in a Nordic context is limited and focuses mainly on how individual countries have been exposed, or how disinformation in regard to a particular and debated issue have affected the debate in individual countries, while research is lacking on how Nordic countries organize themselves and work to identify and counter such threats ina comparative perspective. This comparative case study uses qualitative analysis of literature, policy documents and interviews with expert practitioners to show that Sweden and Finland have established and tested organizations and networks to identify and counter disinformation campaigns. Similar institutionalization is now underway in Denmark and Norway. The states inspire each other and participate in international collaboration. But how the countries participate in such collaboration varies and, moreover, has bearing on their vulnerability in facing the threat.

  • 246.
    Deverell, Edward
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Att lära av kriserfarenheter2015In: Perspektiv på krishantering / [ed] Deverell, Edward, Hansén, Dan & Olsson, Eva-Karin, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, p. 195-217Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 247.
    Deverell, Edward
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Crises as learning agents: Developing and exploring a conceptual framework of crisis induced learning and testing its practical applicability2008In: Proceedings of the first Young Researchers' Seminar, Malmö, 2008, p. 23-34Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to contribute to the debate on organizational learning from crisis by shedding light on the phenomena of crises as learning agents. It suggests a conceptual framework based on conceptual categories and answers to four fundamental questions: what lessons are learned (single- or double-loop)?; what is the focus of the lessons (prevention or response)?; when are lessons learned (intra- or intercrisis)?; is learning carried out or blocked from implementation (distilled or implemented)? The practical applicability of the framework is explored in a case study of two consecutive crises that provoked lessons from two organizations with public task orientations. In the final sections of the study four propositions on crisis-induced learning are posed for future research.

  • 248.
    Deverell, Edward
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Crises as Learning Triggers: exploring a Conceptual Framework of Crisis-Induced Learning2009In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 179-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article contributes to the debate on organizational learning from crisis by shedding light on the phenomenon of crises as learning triggers. To unveil theoretical patterns of how organizational crisis-induced learning may appear and develop, I suggest a conceptual framework based on concept categories and answers to four fundamental questions: what lessons are learned (single- or double-loop)?; what is the focus of the lessons (prevention or response)?; when are lessons learned (intra- or intercrisis)?; is learning blocked from implementation or carried out (distilled or implemented)? The framework's applicability is explored in a study of how a Swedish utility and the city of Stockholm responded to two large-scale blackouts in Stockholm. The final sections suggest four propositions for further research.

  • 249.
    Deverell, Edward
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Crisis induced learning: Swedish public sector organizations’ learning after crises2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning from major failures and crisis experiences is essential for creating robust, safe, and reliable organizations and societies as well as for preventing a repeat of the crisis. Hence, it is of great importance to increase knowledge about why some individuals and organizations learn from crisis experiences and others do not. Studying how organizations learn from crisis episodes raises a number of issues pertaining to the difficulties of applying the concept of organizational learning empirically. This article discusses the problems of defining, disaggregating, and categorizing the organizational learning concept along with the effects of timing on organizational learning and why we should expect that crises are stimulants to learning in the first place. The concluding section presents an empirical application of the organizational learning concept that acknowledges the learning cycle as a fourfold process involving knowledge gathering, acting on knowledge, knowledge dissemination, and maintaining/reconsidering knowledge.

  • 250.
    Deverell, Edward
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Crisis-induced learning in public sector organizations2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How do public organizations manage crises? How do public organizations learnfrom crises? These seemingly basic questions still pose virtual puzzles for crisismanagement researchers. Yet, the interest of the academic and practitionerrealms in crisis management has grown in recent years. In this doctoral dissertationEdward Deverell sheds light on the problems regarding the lack ofknowledge on how public organizations manage and learn from crises, with anumber of critical knowledge gaps in contemporary crisis management as thestarting point. 

    In the last few decades the interest in crisis management as a scholarly fieldhas grown. This developing field is composed of an increasing number of looselyconnected social science scholars concerned with issues of extraordinary events,their repercussions and the way in which they are managed by authorities,organizations, policy makers and other key actors. However, there are severallacunae to be dealt with in the emerging field of crisis management research.This dissertation sets the spotlight on four of these limitations of the crisis managementliterature to date. 

    First, influential scholars within the field call for increased structuration andfeasible models to help us understand and explain various important factorsinfluencing the crisis management process. In this dissertation I try to bridgethis gap by developing theory on crisis response and learning. Crisis responsesignifies organized activities undertaken by a stakeholder when a community ofpeople – an organization, a town, or a nation – perceives an urgent threat to corevalues which must be dealt with under conditions of uncertainty. Crisis-inducedlearning refers to purposeful efforts, triggered by a crisis event and carried out bymembers of an organization working within a community of inquiry, that leadto new understanding and behavior on the basis of that understanding. 

    Second, organizations play a key role in crisis management. Surprisinglyenough, however, crisis management research have only occasionally built theoryon how organizations respond to crisis. So far, the literature tells us moreabout crises as events than on how these events are actually managed. One reasonis the focus within crisis management research on highly unusual, big catastrophicevents and industrial accidents. Therefore, this dissertation explorescrisis episodes that affect specific organizations rather than entire communitiesor national governments. In addition, the dissertation brings together debateson crisis management and crisis-induced learning from a public managementand organizational perspective. 

    Third, crisis management researchers have to date dealt mostly with acutecrisis response and issues of preparedness, while the issues of crisis aftermathsand crisis-induced learning are still relatively unknown. However, althoughthis study recognizes the importance of crisis planning and sense-making, thisshould not lead to a relative neglect of the issue of learning from crisis. Crisisinducedlearning is important as crises are rare events with huge repercussions.Thus crises are opportunities to draw lessons in order to improve future managementand crisis response, and to mitigate the risk of future crises. 

    Fourth, the relatively few studies that have dealt with crisis-induced learninghave focused on learning after the crisis (intercrisis learning), while theoryon learning during crisis (intracrisis learning) is not as developed. My interestin both inter- and intracrisis learning obligates me to study crisis response andcrisis learning in conjunction. This means studying how organizations respondto crises and how they learn during and from these episodes. By focusing onprocesses of crisis response and learning under pressure – rather than pre-crisisplanning, threat perception, risk management and preparedness – the dissertationlooks into how organizations and their members manage the challenge ofcrises and how they take on, make use of and implement lessons learned fromone crisis to the next. 

    The lacunae outlined above are theoretical points of departure for this dissertation’sinterest in the extent to which public organizations learn from crises.Accordingly, the overall objective of the dissertation is to increase understandingof crisis response and crisis learning in public organizations. In doing so, Iconduct an abductive study of how public organizations respond to crises andhow they learn during and after these events. The term ‘abductive’ refers toa research strategy which is characterized by continuous movement back andforth between theory and empirical data. 

    The first step of the research process was grounded in the empirical world.The empirical contribution is a careful process tracing and case reconstructionof six cases involving Swedish public sector organizations. In the methodologychapter (Chapter 3) I describe the basis of the empirically bounded case study approach and case reconstruction and process tracing method. Six case studiesof organizational crisis management and learning were selected for furtheranalysis. The case studies were based on a variety of sources including posthoc accident investigations, articles, organizational documents and 129 extensivesemi-structured interviews with key crisis managers. The process tracingand reconstruction efforts led to case narratives, which were then dissected byidentifying dilemmas and critical decision-making occasions that were studiedin more detail. The following cases are explored in the dissertation: TheSwedish energy utility Birka Energi’s management of two cable fires that causedlarge-scale blackouts in Stockholm in March 2001 and May 2002; The cityof Stockholm’s management of the 2001 blackout and the repeated incidentin 2002; The Swedish Defence Research Agency’s (FOI) management of hoaxanthrax letters in 2001; and three Swedish media organizations’ (the Swedishpublic service radio Sveriges Radio, the Swedish private TV station with publicservice tasks TV4, and the Swedish public service TV station Sveriges Television)management of news work and broadcasting challenges on 11 September 2001(and to some extent following the murder of the Swedish Foreign MinisterAnna Lindh in September 2003). 

    As the case selection reveals, all organizations under study are not puregovernment organizations. Rather three organizations (Birka Energi, SverigesRadio and Sveriges Television) are publically owned corporations, while one(TV4) is a privately owned media organization. Accordingly, this dissertationclaims that ownership is not the only measure of ‘publicness’. Media organizations,for instance, are of great importance for democratic societies. The term‘public organization’ is thus in this dissertation not used in the sense of equatingto government, but rather in reference to the degree of which political authorityand influence impacts on the organization. 

    The theory generating approach that this dissertation takes on impliesthat the case studies are ‘heuristic’ case studies. The dissertation aims to promotenew hypotheses for further research rather than to produce generalizedknowledge. To this end the case studies are further analyzed by specific theoreticalapproaches suggested by prior research. This second step of the researchprocess is dealt with in some detail in the literature review. The literature reviewin Chapter 2 aims to bring an injection of organizational studies into the fieldof crisis management research. The review presents relevant studies from thefields of crisis management studies, organization studies (with special attentiongiven to organizational learning theory) and public administration and management.The review puts forth a twofold argument: There is a need of increasedknowledge not only about crises and how they develop, but also about how theyare actually managed by public organizations. However, prior crisis managementresearch with bearing on public management organizations are mostly based on either political executive foreign policy decision making or on veryspecific high reliability organizations operating in the pre-crisis phase. Hence,organization studies and public management studies should play a greater partin crisis management research. 

    The review also provides an overview frame for the study by highlightingrelevant research. The chapter discusses the problems of defining, categorizingand operationalizing key concepts such as crisis, crisis management and organizationallearning. 

    In the third step of the research process, the case studies are further analyzedusing theoretical approaches aimed at proposing propositions on how publicsector organizations may respond to crises, and how they may learn from theircrisis experiences. These analyses have been carried out with an aim to producestand-alone articles aimed for publication in international scholarly journals.Thus this dissertation differs somewhat from the typical public administrationdissertation as it is comprised of an analysis of several articles, as opposed to amonograph. The journal articles are published or accepted for publication inthe Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, the Journal of HomelandSecurity and Emergency Management, Public Management Review, and RiskManagement. The articles are reprinted in four empirical chapters (Chapters4-7), which make up the core of the dissertation. Introductory and concludingchapters aimed at bringing the discussion together have then been added.I present the first empirical analysis in Chapter 4. It looks into how organizationalculture affects strategy and adaptability in crisis management. The keyresearch question is: What mechanisms affect organizations’ ability to restructurein order to cope with acute crisis management challenges? In the study I propose atypology of temporal organizational responses to crises in public perception. Thetypology is based on organizations’ abilities to change strategy and adapt theirmanagerial and operational levels to deal with crises. The empirical data used toconstruct the typology covers three organizational crisis responses: 1) The utilityBirka Energi’s response to a cable fire that caused a thirty-seven hour blackoutin Stockholm in 2001; 2) The TV station TV4’s response in terms of how toreorganize and broadcast during the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks; 3)FOI, the Swedish National Defence Research Agency’s response to the anthraxletter scare of 2001 and 2002. The different organizational outcomes featuredby the typology reveal distinct aspects of organizational crisis management.According to the typology, the Fully Adapting Organization (TV4) managesto adapt both its strategy and its managerial and operational levels to deal withthe crisis. The Semi-Adapting Organization (FOI) changes its strategy but lacksthe capacity to change managerial and operational levels according to the newstrategy. The Non-Adapting Organization (Birka Energi) does not grasp theimportance of strategy change in the first place. Based on three inductive case studies, the study concludes that organizational culture plays an important rolein this process where the Semi-Adapting Organization and the Non-AdaptingOrganization were dominated by strong expert cultures which proved to be lessinclined to change. In contrast, the Fully Adapting organization had deliberatelyfostered an organizational culture in which flexibility – understood as thecapacity to readily adapt to changing demands – was a cornerstone. 

    The second empirical analysis is presented in Chapter 5. It deals with theissue of flexibility and rigidity in crisis response and crisis learning at two Swedishpublic organizations. The point of departure for the study is that the relationshipbetween crises, organizational crisis management response and learning hasto date been understudied. In an effort to broaden theoretical knowledge on therelation between crisis and learning, the study analyzes the crisis responses oftwo public organizations during a sequence of two failures. The empirical datais grounded in thorough process tracing and case reconstruction analyses ofhow the utility Birka Energi and the city of Stockholm managed two comprehensiveblackouts in March 2001 and in May 2002. The key research questionis: How does organizational rigidity and flexibility affect public organizations’ crisisresponse and crisis learning? A framework of rigidity versus flexibility in responseis utilized in the analysis. The findings are then discussed in relation to theirimplications for the nexus between crisis and learning. The study concludes byraising four propositions for further research. 

    The third empirical analysis is presented in Chapter 6. This study aims tocontribute to the debate on organizational learning from crisis by sheddinglight on the phenomenon of crises as learning triggers. In the study I pose thefollowing key research question: How can we analyze organizational learningduring and after crisis and what criteria should be part of the analysis? In an effortto unveil patterns of how organizational crisis-induced learning may appearand develop, I suggest a conceptual framework based on conceptual categoriesand answers to four fundamental questions: what lessons are learned (single- ordouble-loop)?; what is the focus of the lessons (prevention or response)?; whenare lessons learned (intra- or intercrisis)?; is learning carried out or blocked fromimplementation (distilled or implemented)? In the analysis section I explorethe practical applicability of the framework by using the same empirical casestudies as in Chapter 5. The final section suggests four propositions for furtherresearch. 

    The last empirical study is presented in Chapter 7. There I construct aframework of management, learning and implementation in response to crisis.My point of departure is a proposition from previous crisis managementresearch which posits that previous experience can shape crisis response as away of repeating former routines or as a precondition for improvisation. Thekey research question is: How do organizational management structures affect crisis response, learning and implementation? In the study I argue that flexibilityis closely connected to the way organizations learn – in behavioral or cognitivemodes. Moreover, these learning modes are connected to the role of managerialgroups, where I differentiate between centralized and decentralized top managerialgroups. In addition, two case studies of how two bureaucratic media organizations(Sveriges Radio and SVT) managed and learned from extraordinarynews events – most notably 9/11 and the assassination of the Swedish ForeignMinister Anna Lindh – are conducted. The findings show how the decentralizedmanagerial group learned in a behavioral fashion, by creating new formalpolicies and structures, while organizational members in the centralized managerialgroup relied on individual cognitive structures as a way of ‘storing’ lessonslearned. The study ends by discussing the findings from a crisis managementperspective, where I propose that the two modes of learning profoundly affectthe crucial issue of flexibility in organizational crisis response.The concluding Chapter 8 discusses and contrasts the findings and propositionsgenerated from the four separate empirical analyses. Here the role oforganizational structure and culture are highlighted by revisiting specific organizationalfactors that seem to impact on organizational crisis management andlearning processes, such as previous experience, flexibility and rigidity in crisisresponse and learning, and centralization and decentralization. These factorswere also outlined in the literature review. Further empirical evidence of howthe factors affect crisis response and crisis learning in organizations was foundin the four empirical analyses. 

    In addition, findings from the empirical studies also related to different types of learning processes such as intra- and intercrisis learning and singleand double-loop learning. Consequently these concepts are also deliberated upon in the concluding sections of the dissertation. As a final attempt to bring the propositions and arguments together, a framework of the crisis management and learning process is proposed. In regard to this venture, it is important to acknowledge the limitations of the framework, and of the dissertation as a whole. As it is only based on data from six cases of Swedish public organizational responses to crisis, the framework is merely a visual schematic of a number of propositions to be further tested and validated by further research. However, the framework also has a few virtues. It is an attempt to approach the ambiguous nature of crises and crisis management processes. The framework may also assist in providing more sensible and practical conceptualizations, and thus bring us closer to definitions that remain close to everyday operations of practitioners involved in crisis management. This dissertation thus makes an effort to bridge the gap between crisis management scholars and practitioners. This is also an overall goal guiding research activities at the National Center for Crisis Management Studies (CRISMART) at the Swedish National Defence College, where the research behind this dissertation has been conducted.

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