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  • 201.
    Heydarian Pashakhanlou, Arash
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Air Operations Section.
    Berenskotter, Felix
    SOAS University of London, Politics and International Studies, London, (GBR).
    Friends in war: Sweden between solidarity and self-help, 1939-19452021In: Cooperation and Conflict, ISSN 0010-8367, E-ISSN 1460-3691, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 83-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article scrutinizes the assumption that friends support each other in times of war. Picking up the notion that solidarity, or 'other-help', is a key feature of friendship between states, the article explores how states behave when a friend is attacked by an overwhelming enemy. It directs attention to the trade-off between solidarity and self-help that governments face in such a situation and makes the novel argument that the decision about whether and how to support the friend is significantly influenced by assessments of the distribution of material capabilities and the relationship the state has with the aggressor. This proposition is supported empirically in an examination of Sweden's response to its Nordic friends' need for help during the Second World War - to Finland during the 1939-1940 'Winter War' with the Soviet Union, and to Norway following the invasion of Germany from 1940 to 1945.

  • 202.
    Hjelm, Markus
    Swedish Defence University.
    Från Krigsman Till Tjänsteman: Det svenska soldatyrkets professionalisering och dess process 1967–2019 sett utifrån soldatinstruktionen Svensk soldat2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 203.
    Hjelm, Markus
    Swedish Defence University.
    Under Rosen: IB: Nationell säkerhetstjänst, Politisk polis eller Stat i staten?2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Civilian control over military forces is a prerequisite within democracies in the study of civil-military relations. This requirement extends to military intelligence, as they are a part of the military. However, this relationship needs to balance secrecy with transparency concerns, a relationship which can prove difficult. In Sweden during the 1970’s, this discussion came to a fore when the intelligence organisation IB was revealed to the public. This sparked an ongoing debate within the academic community regarding the limits of intelligence organisations authority, their need for secrecy and the government’s ability to control them.

    This thesis aims to investigate IB and the government’s control over it during 1965-1973, the years it operated as the sole military intelligence organisation in Sweden. With perspectives derived from Peter Gills thoughts on intelligence control and oversight, this thesis examines the mechanism of intelligence control and inquiry that were present in Sweden during the relevant timeframe. The findings are then judged with Gill’s concepts as a framework, in order to evaluate IB´s role as an intelligence organisation within a liberal democracy. These findings will thereafter be compared with the image of IB as presented by leading contemporary politicians and intelligence commanders, in order to give nuance to the findings.

    The thesis will show, with support of the theory and methodology, that IB can’t be described as a national intelligence agency, but as a political police. Its lack of transparency, secret existence and politicly motivated goals are the main reasons for this result. The absence of key mechanism of control as described by Gill, made it impossible for the organisation to be controlled, with some reservations for the ruling party’s ability to do so. It also contextualises these findings with the presented opinions of the contemporary actors.

    These results shed new light on intelligence accountability during the cold war in Sweden. It also reaffirms previous findings on IB with the use of new perspectives. The Thesis provides another lens to view Swedish intelligence history through and contributes to that field of history.

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  • 204.
    Hjorth, Hanna
    Swedish Defence University.
    Nordkoreas plats i världen: En undersökning om Nordkoreas uppfattning av sig själv och fienden 1968-19762021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 205.
    Holtsmark, Sven G.
    et al.
    Norwegian Institute for Defence Studies, Oslo, Norway, (NOR).
    Åselius, Gunnar
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Military History Division.
    Occupied Norway 1940-1945: A Brief Background to Hostage2023In: Honest Errors? Combat Decision-Making 75 Years After the Hostage Case / [ed] Nobuo Hayashi; Carola Lingaas, The Hague: T.M.C. Asser Press, 2023, p. 25-45Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter gives background and context to the events that provide the material for this anthology—the systematic devastation of Finnmark and parts of Troms and the concomitant forced evacuation of the civilian population from October 1944 to February 1945. Although Rendulic issued the 29 October 1944 order in his capacity as Commander of German forces in Northern Norway, he was not alone responsible for that fateful order. The chapter therefore includes but also goes beyond the 29 October order’s immediate military background. It discusses the dramatic developments in the 20th Mountain Army’s area of operation in Northern Norway, Finland, and the Soviet Union in the summer and autumn of 1944. The chapter starts with an outline of the occupation regime in Norway and the role of key decision-makers behind the events that led to Rendulic’s indictment at the US military tribunal. Afterwards follow some remarks on Norway’s—and Northern Norway’s in particular—role in the war, as well as a presentation of the political and military events that preceded the return of the 20th Mountain Army to Norway and Rendulic’s order of 29 October 1944. The chapter ends with a brief note on German and English-language literature about this fragment of Germany’s Second World War military history and Norwegian occupation experience, as well as references to selected Norwegian and Russian-language texts.

  • 206.
    Hugemark, Bo
    Swedish Defence University. Militärhistoriska avdelningen (MHA) Försvarsmakten.
    Militärhistorisk Tidskrift 19851985Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]
    • Michael H Clemmesen, Danmarks forsvar fra omkring 1890 til 1918, En skitse med fynskt perspektiv, Indtil 1894, 1894-1909, 1909 til 1. Verdenskrig,
    • Thomas Bring, Arbetskompaniernas förhistoria, Den försvarsfientliga verksamheten, Syfte omfattning resultat, Förslag till motåtgärder, 1935 års betänkande, Politikernas roll, 
    • Mauno Jokipii, De tyska planerna på att erövra Hangö i juni 1941, Tysk rekognoscering, Den taktiska planen, Division Engelbrecht och midsommarkrisen, Projektet går om intet, Hangös senare öden, 
    • Ingegerd Bauder, Militarismen i Nigeria och Etiopien, Den koloniala bakgrunden, Studiens syfte, Ländernas historia, Civil-militära relationer, Konfliktlösningar, Fortsatt krig, 
    • Klaus-Richard Böhme, Svensk flygindustri, Dröm och uppvaknande, Bakgrund och sen industrialisering, Svenska Aero AB, Nohab Flygmotorfabriker AB , Junkers bulvaner, Svenska Aeroplan AB, 
    • Göran Andolf, Den svenska officerskårens ursprung under 1900-talet, Fädernas yrken geografisk härkomst skolgång, Fördelning på samhällsgrupper, Näringsgrenar, Egenrekrytering, Anknytning till staten och till officersyrket, geografisk rekrytering, Hemortsbegreppet, Skolgång, 
    • Gunnar Artéus, An introduction to three papers on 20th century Scandinavian research in military history, 
    • Eero Elfvengren, Översikt över nyare finsk krigshistorisk forskning, Finlands krig 1939-1945, Översikt över verk: allmänna speciella Vinterkriget Fortsättningskriget Lappland, Biografier, 
    • Terje Harald Holm, Norsk militärhistorisk forskning i det 20. århundre, Hva er skrevet?, Dansketiden, Svensketiden, 1905-1945, Etterkrigstid, 
    • Gunnar Artéus, Svensk militärhistorisk forskning under 1900-talet, Om betingelserna för militärhistorisk forskning, Vetenskap-politik, Den militärhistoriska renässansen, 

     

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  • 207.
    Hugemark, Bo
    Swedish Defence University. Militärhistoriska avdelningen (MHA) Försvarsmakten.
    Militärhistorisk tidskrift 19861986Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]
    • Robert Dalsjö, Nordisk balans – en fiktiv illusion?, En studie av argument för och emot, Beskrivande politisk balans, Förespråkarna och kritik mot tolkningen, Beskrivande militär balans, Förespråkarnas och kritikernas tolkning, 
    • Tage Boström, Okänd soldat och kända soldater, Beteenden och attityder i Väinö Linnas krigsroman, Allmänna attityder, ”Herrarna”, Gruppen, 
    • Kent Zetterberg, Teknik i tiden, En studie i den tekniska officersutbildningen och dess organisation i det svenska försvaret med tonvikt på perioden 1900-1960, Kraven på teknisk kunskap och ”tekniska officerare” inom försvaret, Professionalisering i det svenska försvaret, Krigsteknisk utveckling, Knappa resurser och sänkta ambitioner, Olika kårer, Massflykt av ingenjörer, Internationell utblick, 
    • Ronnie Larsson, Införande av fältflygarkategorin, Militärflyg före 1936, Rekrytering, Expansion 1936-1947, Ekonomiska faktorer, Nya kategoribildningar, Riksdagsbeslut, 
    • Ny militärhistorisk litteratur
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  • 208.
    Hugemark, Bo
    Swedish Defence University. Militärhistoriska avdelningen (MHA) Försvarsmakten.
    Militärhistorisk Tidskrift 19871987Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]
    • Michael H Clemmensen, Udviklingen i Danmarks forsvarsdoktrin fra 1945 til 1969, Rapport til det XX nordiske historikemøde i Reykjavik 1987, Begreberne, Freden og Påskekrisen, Værnenes forslag 1948, Alliancetankerne opstår, Lissabon-målene, Bidragsforsvaret, Det videre arbejde, MC-70, Et symbolsk eksistensforsvar, Hærens protest, Mod enhedskommandoen,  
    • Stellan Bojerud, Introduction of steam in the Royal Swedish Navy, Paper presented at the international Colloquium on Naval History in Athens 25 August 1987, The situation of 1809, The experimental period 1815-1835, Paddle steamers, Wooden screw steamships, Armour enters 1865
    • Lars Ericson, Forskning kring det yngre militära indelningsverket igår idag imorgon, Bakgrunden och beslutet om införande, Det praktiska genomförandet i olika landsändar, Bedömningar av dess funktionalitet och flexibilitet, Livet på roten ur olika aspekter
    • Robert Dalsjö, Tungt vägande kritik?, En granskning av kritik mot teorin om nordisk balans, Teorin om nordisk balans, Kritiken mot teorin, Maktbalans och allianser främjar inte fred
    • Ny militärhistorisk litteratur
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  • 209.
    Hugemark, Bo
    Swedish Defence University. Militärhistoriska avdelningen (MHA) Försvarsmakten.
    Militärhistorisk Tidskrift 19891989Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]
    • Förord, Två revolutioner och två krig, 
    • Mieczyslaw Lidert, Militär och politik i Polen, Den militära traditionens politiska öden i Folkrepubliken, Det polska militära etablissemanget, Polens Folkarmé, Repoloniseringen efter polska Oktobern, Förberedelser till konfrontation, Normaliseringens huvudmekanismer, KOK, 
    • Bo Hugemark, The Swedish system of universal conscription, Foreign models and domestic tradition, Insufficient resources, A modest reform, The sovereign´s view, Concurrent conditions, 
    • Bo Kjellander, Med taxibil till slaget vid Marne, ” Eh bien, voila au moins qui n’est pas banal!”, Försvar av Paris ”till det yttersta”, Den förfuskade Schlieffenplanen, Von Kluck svänger, Maunourys brokiga armé går mot Ourcq, General Boëlles transportproblem, 200 taxibilar söker passagerare, Fett flygmål men mager kost, Nattlig anmarch i taxi, 14 hästkrafters Renault,  
    • Frank Årman, Sjöfart och sjöförsvar under neutralitet, Samarbete och samverkanssvårigheter under första världskriget, Översiktlig återblick, Kristidskommisioner, Örlogs- handels- och fiskeflottan, Neutralitet och folkrätt, Sjöfart och fiske i krigets skugga, Kriget kring svenska farvatten, Samverkan inom ledningsorganisationen, Örlogsflotta – Handelsflotta, Örlogsflotta – Fiskeflotta, Samverkan inom personal och materialsektorn, 
    • Hakon Leche, Den inrikespolitiska krisen och krigsmakten under första världskriget, Krisens orsaker och bakgrund, Händelserna 1917 – 1918, Den försvarsfientliga propagandan, Krigsmaktens åtgärder, 
    • Klaus-Richard Böhme, Kontakter med en tänkbar angripare, Flygvapnet och ”Luftwaffe” 1935-1939, Torsten Friis besök, Tyska bulvanföretag i Sverige, Flyggeneral Göring, Junkers 86K, Besök på ”Tag der Wehrmacht”, Milch i Sverige, 
    • Ola Castenvall, Churchills Balkanplaner under andra världskriget, planer och idéer, Huvudaktörer, Andra betydande aktörer, Målsättning och relationer, Förutsättningar resurser och villkor, Psykologiska faktorer, 
    • Militärlitteratur från MHA 

     

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  • 210.
    Hugemark, Bo
    Swedish Defence University. Militärhistoriska avdelningen (MHA) Försvarsmakten.
    Militärhistorisk Tidskrift 19901990Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]
    • Gunnar Åselius, Militärattachéerna i S:t Petersburg, En undersökning av det svenska underrättelseväsendets professionalisering 1885-1917, Generalstabens roll, Ryska språkets ställning hos militären, Studieresor till Ryssland, Specialisering av personal, Intern kommunikation, 
    • Hakon Leche, Krigshoten mot Sverige under första världskriget, Krigsutbrott och neutralitetsförsäkringar, Krigshot, Spänningstillstånd, Aktivismen, Påtryckningar utifrån, Smärre orosmoln,
    • Anders Brännström, Pansar och pansarvärn 1921-1942, Intryck från första världskriget, Före 1921, Lugnt efter första stormen, Kvalitet kontra kvantitet, Lugnet före andra stormen, Hotbild och försvarsdebatt, 1936 års försvarsbeslut, 1939-1942: uppvaknande,
    • Mats Persson, Sjöfart och sjöförsvar under neutralitet, Samarbete och samverkanssvårigheter under andra världskriget, Sjölagar och konventioner 1918-1939, Kommissioner i Sverige, Örlogs- handels- fiskeflottan 1939, Sjökriget runt Sveriges kuster, Samverkan inom personalsektorn ledningsorganisationen materialsektorn, Samverkan till sjöss,
    • Klaus-Richard Böhme, The problem of airspace violations in modern Swedish history, The situation until the end of the Second World War, Violations, Landings, After the war,
    • Anders Berge, Urholkad frivillighet, Sveriges repatriering av sovjetryska  f d krigsfångar 1944-1945, Tvångspolitiken, En okänd sida av Sveriges flyktingpolitik, Rysslägren, Repatrieringen, Ingermanländarna,
    • Ingegerd Bauder, Irak mellan två krig, Den ekonomiska sektorn, Den politiska sektorn, Arvet efter kolonialismen
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  • 211.
    Hugemark, Bo
    Swedish Defence University. Militärhistoriska avdelningen (MHA) Försvarsmakten.
    Militärhistorisk Tidskrift 19911991Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]
    • Ingegerd Bauder, Iran från vapenstilleståndet 1988 till hösten 1991, Krigskostnader, Intern maktkamp, ”Satansverserna”, Khomeinis testamente, Revolutionens utveckling, I skuggan av Kuwaitkrisen,
    • Klaus-Richard Böhme, A small nation looking for finding and changing its air defence doctrine, The case of Sweden 1910-1980, Quarrels between the Army and the Navy, Strengthening of the air defence, In the Army and the Navy again,
    • K-G Sundvall, Helikopterkrigföringen I Vietnam och Sveriges försvar, Helikopterns utveckling, Helikoptrar i Vietnam och för Sverige, Stridssituationer, Avslutande prov, Konkurrerande intressen,
    • Olaf Groehler, The Sovjet long-range airforces in the Great Patriotic War of the USSR (1941-1945), Sovjet raids on Berlin, The gap between official reports and reality, Khripins demands, Douhet discarded, The targets for bombing, A disappointing start, ADD,
    • Gunnar Åselius, “The unskilled Fencer”, Swedish assessements of the Sovjet navy 1921-1928, Swedish naval intelligence in the 20’s, Ships, Training, Discipline,
    • Peter Mårdell, Det självständiga kavalleriet 1901-1925, Fälthären vid seklets början, Fördelningen, Dess krigsuppgifter, Utbildning 1901-1925, Avvecklingen av kavallerifördelningen,

     

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  • 212. Hugemark, Bo
    Möta, hejda, slå- så skulle Sverige försvaras2019Book (Other academic)
  • 213. Hugemark Malmström, Louise
    Garderad neutralitet: förberedelser för svesnktg västsamarbete i krig2014Book (Other academic)
  • 214.
    Hugemark-Malmström, Louise
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, The Military History Division.
    Garderad neutralitet:förberedelser för svenskt västsamarbete i krig: En kommenterad forskningsöversikt2014Book (Other academic)
  • 215.
    Huldt, Bo
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, The Military History Division.
    Militärhistorisk Tidskrift 19941994Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]
    • Bjørn Westerbeek Dahl, Carl heinrich von der Osten og Pufendorfværkets plancher af Slaget ved Nyborg 1659, Erik Dahlberg, Karl X Gustav, Bavnegård, Theatrum Europaæum, Gorries von Gorgas
    • Gunnar Artéus, Clausewitz och forskningen om Karl XII:s fälttåg, Föredrag på Militärhögskolan den 8 november 1991, Fälttågsplan, Lewenhaupt, Poltava, Som fältherre
    • Gunnar Åselius, Clausewitzreceptionen i Sverige intill första världskriget, Föredrag på Militärhögskolan den 8 november 1991, Genomslag i Sverige, Politikens betydelse, Moltkes åsikt, Johan Peter Lefrén, Carl Otto Nordensvan
    • Ali Pylkkänen, Petsamo- den finska ”koloniseringsgarnisonen”, Organisationen av gränsbevakningen, Bevakningen, Statsförvaltningen i Petsamo
    • Erik Falkehed, The U.S. Military Attaché´s reporting from the Baltic States 1939-40, The military attaché system, Historical background, Major Huthsteiner, The treaties of “Mutual Assistance”, Reports up to January 1940, Closing Riga station in August 1940
    • Knut-Olav Drivenes, Den norska truppförbandsutbildningen I Sverige 1943-1945, ”Helseplanen”, Rikspoliti og Reservpoliti, Utrustning, Mål/oppgaver
    • Henrik Nerpin, Militärteknologiskt samarbete och köp från utlandet, Importerade och gemensamma projekt, Studium av vissa projekt, Aspekter på samarbete med utlandet
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  • 216.
    Huldt, Bo
    Swedish Defence University. Militärhistoriska avdelningen (MHA) Försvarsmakten.
    Militärhistorisk Tidskrift 19971997Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]
    • Irving B Holley, What is doctrine? Why do we need it?, The case of field artillery, Technology evolves the doctrine doesn’t it, Colonel Percin
    • Bengt Wallroth, Minister i Berlin, Einar af Wirséns rapportering från Hitlertyskland åren 1933-1936, Den diplomatiska rapporteringen, Weimarrepublikens fall, Nationalsocialismen, Ledarna, De säkerhetspolitiska förhållandena
    • Per Iko, För ordning och säkerhet, Om uppsättandet av en svensk fältpolis under beredskapstiden, Studier i Sverige, Krigspolisorganisationen, Utredning om uppskov,  Fältpolisutbildning, Krigsförband, Försvarsberedskap, Efter 1945
    • Hans Zettermark, Farande i västerled, Svenska militärers studieresor till utlandet 1945-1949, Återblick före1945, Norden, Västeuropa, Tyskland, Sovjetunionen, USA, Kompletterande perspektiv, Utländska besök i Sverige
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  • 217.
    Huldt, Bo
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University. Militärhistoriska avdelningen (MHA) Försvarsmakten.
    Böhme, Klaus-RSwedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, The Military History Division.
    Militärhistorisk Tidskrift 19981998Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]
    • Magnus Julihn, Svenska frivilliga till det vita Finlands hjälp, Stabsofficerare och Svenska brigaden, Finland före inbördeskriget, Efter kriget, I Sverige vid krigsutbrottet, Ålandsexpeditionen, Föreningen Finlands vänner, Svenska stabsofficerare på den vita sidan, Svenska brigaden
    • Cay Holmberg, Ubåtsteknik från Tyskland, Teknikutveckling, Skrov, Snorkel/periskop, Maskineri, Radar, Vapen
    • Gabriella Theiler, ”Snygg gosse”, En ÖB:s syn på en försvarsminister, Helge Jung, Allan Vougt, Carl August Ehrensvärd, Nils Swedlund, Jungs kritik av Vougt, Jungs egen politik
    • Henrik Sjövall, Atomvapnet och lantkrigsföringen i Sverige 1945-1949, Svensk kunskap, Samtida debatt, Studier och överväganden

     

     

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  • 218.
    Huldt, Bo
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University. Militärhistoriska avdelningen (MHA) Försvarsmakten.
    Böhme, Klaus-RSwedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, The Military History Division.
    Militärhistorisk tidskrift 19991999Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]
    • Jan Nordin, Den svensk-danska alliansfrågan 1863, Svensk säkerhetspolitik i samband med den dansk-tyska krisen, Det strategiska läget, Storpolitiken, Utrikespolitiken, Skandinavismen, Inrikespolitiken, Ekonomiska och militära faktorer
    • Rune Svensson, Sveriges hemliga vapen?, C-byråns verksamhet under andra världskriget, En analys av mål medel organisation och verksamhet i stort, Kan man vara rättvis, Före 1939, Gränssektionen, Från en man till tusen, Kapten Ternberg,  Underrättelseverksamhetens former och innehåll, Hemligheter
    • Jan Wangenfors, Wennerströmaffären, Uppväxt och karriär, Moskva 1949-1952, Washington 1952-1957, Stockholm 1957-1963, Sammanvägning av hela perioden
    • Lars Ericson, Solidaritet eller Försvar?, Den svenska militären och de fredsbevarande operationerna 1956-1996, Mellersta östern 1956, Kongo 1960, Cypern 1964, Mellersta östern 1973, Det f d Jugoslavien 1993
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  • 219.
    Huldt, Bo
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University. Militärhistoriska avdelningen (MHA) Försvarsmakten.
    Böhme, Klaus-RSwedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, The Military History Division.
    Militärhistorisk Tidskrift 20002000Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]
    • Jan-Olof Olofsson, Utskrivningar och andra pålagor, En studie i stormaktstidens bördor, Utskrivningar, Ständernas särart och roll, Riksdagarna 1627-1641, Förmyndarregeringen, Riksdagarna 1642-1653 och 1654-1679
    • Sam Nilsson, Gärna förvarning men först en rejäl brunnskur…, Från Sarajevo till krigsutbrott, En studie i förvarning 1914, Rapportörerna, Sverige 1914, Från mord till ultimatum, Mot stormaktskrig
    • Christer Erixon, Flygvapnets doktrin och krigsplanläggning 1945-1960, Andra världskrigets slut, Hotbilden, Försvarsbeslut 1948 och 1958, Flygstridskrafternas utveckling, Försvaret av Göteborg, Invasionsförsvaret, Krigsplanläggning
    • Claes Henrikson, The only war they had, Defining leadership, The country and the people, The war/unit/enemy, Strategy and tactics, Lanning´s tour in Vietnam
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  • 220.
    Häggkvist, Daniel
    Swedish Defence University.
    Växande underrättelsebehov mot väst grund till central utveckling: En studie om svensk militär underrättelseverksamhets professionalisering och organisatoriska förändring mellan 1905 och 19182023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to investigate and report on the origins and evolution of the Swedish intelligence organisation during the period 1905 to 1918. The study trail starts at the Swedish/Norwegian union crisis. According to Harald L. Wilensky's theories about intelligence organisations' ability to succeed primarily through professionalisation and centralisation, the security-policy situation during that crisis can be seen as a catalyst for the Swedish intelligence organisation's evolution. The study uses a qualitative text analysis with a hermeneutic approach. Through this method, an analysis of already written texts as well as new empirical data in the Swedish war archive in Stockholm has been made.The used material has been confronted to how the Swedish intelligence organisation has developed its interest and focus regarding information gathering and reporting, in order to meet its needs from Norway between the years 1905 to 1918.By addressing this issue, the study will show how collected image material evolved from being simply acquired material, to own produced photographs with detailed information, and that the initial deficit of mapping material of Norway was complemented and brought together with that same collected image material.The theoretical approach is confirmed through the reorganisation that takes place in 1908. When the Swedish intelligence agency is formed, the centralisation and professionalisation are, according to Wilensky, key to a successful intelligence organisation. This change, however, also comes with a great impact on how the Swedish military attachés report back to Sweden. Through the period 1905 to 1918, the Swedish military attaché reports are reshaped and over time, go from their bureaucratic structure towards the so-called handbrev[1]. This made it possible for the attachés to communicate in a more efficient and informal way with the Swedish foreign department at the General Staff, without the potentially wrong people gaining access to the material.This study has therefore broadened the previously existing perspective which is clearly Russia-oriented, to highlighting and accounting for how the Western threat from Norway made Sweden aware of the lack of intelligence that prevailed. The study shows that it was this growing need towards the West that caused the key evolution of intelligence. It thus clarifies a military-historical void within the Swedish intelligence organisation's emergence and evolution.

     [1] In English called Hand letters

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  • 221.
    Håkansson, Erik
    Swedish Defence University.
    Nyttjande av manöverkrigföringens element – avgörande för utgången av slaget om Goose Green?: En studie av slaget vid Goose Green under Falklandskriget 19822012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Slaget vid Goose Green var det första slaget att äga rum på land under Falklandskriget. Slaget ägde rum under ett par dagar i slutet av maj 1982 mellan brittiska 2 Para och argentinska Task force Mercedes och slutade med en argentinsk kapitulation. Slaget är spektakulärt i flera avseenden –  bland annat för att britterna lyckades slå en numerärt jämbördig försvarsgrupperad argentinsk motståndare, det var nästan enbart infanteriförband som stred och att befälhavaren för 2 Para stupade. Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka om nyttjandet av manöverkrigföring på de bägge sidorna kan ha varit avgörande för utgången av slaget. Utifrån beskrivningar av slaget skrivna av brittiska författare beskrivs slaget i fyra delar i uppsatsen. Efter varje del sker en analys med hjälp av element ur William S. Linds manöverteori. Det sammanvägda resultatet ur denna analys visar att britterna nyttjade element ur Linds manöverteori betydligt fler gånger än argentinarna under slaget och att det kan ha varit avgörande för utgången av slaget.

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  • 222.
    Hårleman, Cornelia
    Swedish Defence University.
    Neutralitet: Ideal eller verklighet? En kvalitativ textanalys av Svenska Röda korset humanitära hjälpaktioner 1935-19442024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Red Cross (SRK) has worked for over a century to improve Swedishsociety and at the same time been involved in aid operations for several internationalhumanitarian disasters and crises. SRK is meant to be a stateless and neutralorganization, but has at the same time since its inception in 1864 SRK had a closecollaboration with the Swedish government. This essay aims to understand how thiscooperation has affected SRK's aid actions in war and if it has affected their neutralityin choosing sides in the wars. The essay's investigation deals with three areas thatwere affected by war and where SRK chose to carry out aid operations. The sourcematerial has been analyzed based on the qualitative text analysis method where thesource material is selected according to the three areas; Abyssinia, Finland andGreece. Furthermore, the empirical evidence has been analyzed based on Joseph S.Nye Jr. Theory of interdependence to better and at a deeper level understandcooperation. The analysis is based on the four concepts that Nye Jr. built his theorybased on: sources, benefits, relative costs, and symmetries. The study shows that therewas a mutual need for a collaboration between SRK and the Swedish state, whichaffected SRK's neutrality into whom and where the aid actions should be sent.

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  • 223.
    Iko, Per
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies.
    Den okända transittrafiken: Tysk SS-bataljon korsade Sverige2015In: Militär Historia, ISSN 2000-3471, no 11, p. 18-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I oktober 1940, åtta månader före transiteringen av division Engelbrecht som höll på att skapa en regeringskris, tilläts närmare tusen tyska soldater att med järnväg transporteras från Luleå till Riksgränsen (Narvik). Det tyska förbandet tillhörde Waffen-SS och fortsatte sedan till Kirkenes i Nordnorge.

  • 224.
    Iko, Per
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, The Military History Division.
    Fiat G.50 genom Sverige2015In: Svensk flyghistorisk tidskrift, ISSN 1100-9837, no 2, p. 44-46Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Av de nära 200 flygplan som för finsk räkning monterades eller mellanlandade i Sverige under vinterkriget, var 35 stycken italienska Fiat G.50. Efter att regeringen kringgått exportförbudet av krigsmateriel, monterades dessa flygplan av ABA i Malmö, SAAB i Trollhättan och Götaverken i Göteborg. De innebar också en unik möjlighet för piloter ur svenska flygvapnet att provflyga ett modernt jaktplan.

  • 225.
    Iko, Per
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, The Military History Division.
    From non-alignment into alliance: Sweden’s unofficial participation in the United Nations Command2012In: Past through Present: Thoughts on Military History at the Strategic, Operational and Tactical Levels of War / [ed] Raugh, Harold E., Wien, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 226.
    Iko, Per
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, The Military History Division.
    Not Neutral, But Rather Close to War: Sweden in the 19th Century2014In: Nations at War: Why do Nations Participate in Wars, and Why Not?: 13th Annual Conference of the PfPC Conflict Studies Working Group / [ed] Dr. Harold E. Raugh, Jr.; Dr. Jordan Baev, Sofia: G.S. Rakovski National Defense Academy , 2014, p. 1-8Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 227.
    Iko, Per
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, The Military History Division.
    Slaget vid Helsingborg den 28 februari 1710: Bilden av slaget: när – var – hur?2011In: Militärhistorisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0283-8400, Vol. 2009-2010, p. 107-118Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 228.
    Iko, Per
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, The Military History Division.
    Sveriges hemliga hjälp till Finland2015In: Militär Historia, ISSN 2000-3471, no 4, p. 30-33Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Nära 200 flygplan för finsk räkning monterades eller mellanlandade i Sverige under vinterkriget. Operationerna skedde i hemlighet och innebar att den svenska regeringen kringgick exportförbudet för krigsmateriel.

  • 229.
    Jakobsson, Håkan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Military History Division.
    Sidenkramhandelns utveckling, 1700-17402023In: Shopping i Stockholm: Sociala praktiker på gatunivå, 1700-1850 / [ed] My Hellsing; Johanna Ilmakunnas, Stockholm: Stockholmia förlag, 2023, p. 187-232Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 230.
    Jansson, Henrik
    Swedish Defence University.
    'Allå, 'allå, Sveriges 'emliga specialförband: Hur Sveriges hemliga specialförband gestaltas i dagspressen2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden's special forces were introduced to the public in 1997 and have since been involved in international operations such as those in Afghanistan, Congo, and Mali. This study aims to analyze the Swedish newspaper’s interest in and portrayal of Swedish special forces over a 25-year period. A quantitative method was used to gather data from the four largest newspapers in Sweden to find out the newspaper's interests. Subsequently, qualitative text analysis, supported by the framing theory, examined how the newspapers portrayed the special forces.

    The newspaper’s portrayal of Sweden's special forces has undergone significant changes over the past 25 years, often in distinct phases. Initially, the special forces were frequently likened to fictional characters such as Carl Hamilton. Key events, including fatalities in 2005 and scandals in 2008, prompted a shift in newspaper coverage, resulting in a more humanized depiction of the special forces. While they are still perceived as enigmatic, they are now portrayed as essential to Sweden's defense and interests. Newspaper’s interest intensified during critical periods, presenting a more nuanced view of the special forces. The prior emphasis on their secretive operations and associations with fictional figures shifted towards a more human representation.

    This evolution in the newspaper’s portrayal highlights changes in perceptions of the special forces and their role in Sweden's operations. The study aims to deepen understanding of these shifting representations and their impact on the public perception of Sweden's special forces.

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  • 231.
    Jensfelt de Cloux, Martin
    Swedish Defence University.
    Gestaltningen av det spansk–amerikanska kriget 1898: En kvalitativ studie av den svenska pressdiskussionen kring det spansk–amerikanska kriget 18982024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The American press has been given a significant amount of attention regarding their

    role in enabling the Spanish–American war. Even though there is a debate regarding

    how much the so called yellow press contributed to the causes of war, a significant

    amount of research points to how the American press was filled with speculations and

    propaganda which certainly added fuel to the fire. The press played an important part

    in shaping the opinion of the American and Spanish public regarding the war and US–

    Spanish diplomatic relations. Most of the studies have been about the American and

    the Spanish press. A study of the Swedish newspapers reports about the war contributes

    to military history as it can highlight how a neutral European state regarded the war. It

    also gives a better understanding of how the press in Sweden during the 1890s operated,

    in a time when it was still taking its modern shape.

    The purpose of this bachelor thesis is to cover what the Swedish press wrote about the

    Spanish–American war and how they framed it. To better understand how the

    newspapers wrote about the war I used the so-called Framing theory as a tool to dissect

    the coverage of the war. I analyzed the news coverage by using a qualitative text

    analysis and found that the Swedish newspapers framed the war as an American

    military success that came with a heavy price as their occupation of the former Spanish

    colonies raised questions regarding international law and most importantly, morality.

    The conclusion of the study shows that Spain’s defeat was attributed to the fact that

    Spain was faltering, not just in terms of their great power status, according to the

    Swedish newspapers the whole of Spanish society had been decaying since the 16th

    century. The Swedish newspapers framed the Spanish defeat with sympathetic

    comments served together with some patronizing undertones.

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  • 232.
    Jobbágy, Zoltán
    et al.
    National University of Public Service, Hungary, (HUN).
    Andaházi Szeghy, ViktorMinistry of Defence, Hungary, (HUN).Eriksson, FredrikSwedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Military History Section.Kiss, Peter AHDF Scientific Research Centre, Hungary, (HUN).
    The Role of Territorial Defense Forces in Peace and War: Proceedings of the 19th Annual Conference of the Partnership for Peace Consortium Euro-Atlantic Conflict Studies Working Group, Budapest, Hungary, 27-31 May 20192020Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 233.
    Johansson, Bertil
    Swedish Defence University. Militärhistoriska avdelningen (MHA) Försvarsmakten.
    Militärhistorik Tidskrift 1982: Meddelanden från militärhistoriska avdelningen vid kungl. militärhögskolan 19821982Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]
    • Birgitta Genberg Härner, Soldaterna i Dalupproret, Ett bidrag till den indelte soldatens levnadsförhållanden under 1700-talet, 
    • Gunnar Artéus, The military leadership of Gustavus III, The Russo-Swedish war 1788-1790, The Swedish monarch, 
    • Knud J V Jespersen, Recovery from disaster, The reconstruction of the Danish army after the Dano-Prussian war of 1864, The state of Danish security after 1864, Impact on the military system, 
    • Don Schurman, Mahan revisited, Alfred Mahans works, Purpose, View and reality of the British, 
    • Leif Törnquist, Kvinnornas uppbåd 1914-1921, En samverkansorganisation I frivilligförsvarets tidigare år, kvinnorna och samhället, Uppbådet, Ändamål och uppgifter, Verksamheten, De ledande kvinnorna, 
    • Arvid Cronenberg, Neutralitetsvakt eller självständighetsförsvar?, Till frågan om de säkerhetspolitiska och strategiska föreställningar som knöts till 1925 års härordningsbeslut, Skulden?, Jämkningar, Riskprincipen, Det ryska hotet, Neutralitetsförsvar, NF, Säkerhetsvakt, 
    • Gerke Teitler, Some aspects of Dutch naval-strategic thinking 1945-1955, From the East-Indies to NATO, Army versus Navy, The russian threat, 
    • Ingegerd Bauder, Militarismen i Latinamerika, Landbeskrivning, Spanskt och portugisiskt välde, Frihetskrigen, Caudillos, Militarismen, Diktaturer, USAs roll
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  • 234.
    Johansson, Bertil
    Swedish Defence University. Militärhistoriska avdelningen (MHA) Försvarsmakten.
    Militärhistorisk Tidskrift 1979: Meddelanden från militärhistoriska avdelningen vid kungl. militärhögskolan 19791979Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]
    • Mats Bergquist, Vad kan säkerhetspolitike(r)n lära av krigshistorien?, Varför började krigen, Krigens förlopp och varaktighet, Krigföring teknologi och logistik, Lokalisering, Faktorer, Konsekvenser, 
    • Jürgen Förster, Hitler´s war aims against the Sovjet Union and the German military leaders, The fixed intention to attack, The means end stratagem, Lebensraum, Partial identity of aims, 
    • Bo Huldt, The armed forces and decolonization, Some observations, The role of the metropolitan armed forces, International forces, Postcolonial development, 
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  • 235.
    Johansson, Bertil
    Swedish Defence University. Militärhistoriska avdelningen (MHA) Försvarsmakten.
    Militärhistorisk Tidskrift 1980: Meddelanden från militärhistoriska avdelningen vid kungl. militärhögskolan 19801980Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]
    • Lars Tersmeden, Carl X Gustafs strategi i kriget mot Polen 1655, Det militärpolitiska läget, Livland-Litauen, Operation Preussen, Operation Kraków, 
    • Klaus-Richard Böhme, AB Aerotransport Junkers och flygvapnet, Carl Florman, Svenska lufttrafikaktiebolaget, Planerade och fungerade rutter, Junkers ekonomiska inflytande, Civila plan i krigstid, 
    • Hans Holmén, Teknisk triumf – strategiskt misslyckande, Historiska och skönlitterära framställningar om jakten på slagskeppet Bismarck den 18-27 maj 1941, Händelseförloppet, Historiska och strategiska utgångspunkter, Den tyska eskadern lokaliseras, Sänkningen av Hood, Roderskadan, Mot Frankrike,
    • John E Jessup, Genesis of involvement, The Vietnam model, 1873, Viet Mihn, Dien Bien Phu, The Republic of Vietnam, Diems death and the Kennedy assassination, 
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  • 236.
    Johansson, Bertil
    Swedish Defence University. Militärhistoriska avdelningen (MHA) Försvarsmakten.
    Militärhistorisk Tidskrift 1981: Meddelanden från militärhistoriska avdelningen vid kungl. militärhögskolan 19811981Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]
    • Knud J V Jespersen, Det 16. århundredes militære revolution og det danske adelsrytteri, En sammenlignende analyse, Den militaære udvikling ved overgangen mellem middelalder og nyere tid, Rostjenesteorganisationen, Samfunds og magtstruktur, 
    • Göran Göransson, Speglar den indelte knektens förhållanden omvandlingen i 1800-talets svenska samhälle, Agrarsamhällets omvandling, Livkompaniet, Familjeförhållanden, Soldaten i samhället, 
    • Leif Stjerna, Utvecklingen av ubåtsvapen och ubåtskrigföring i Tyskland 1935-1939, Öppet men begränsat ubåtsbyggande, Överenskommelserna med England, Z-planen, Politisk militärteoretisk organisatorisk psykologisk utveckling, 
    • Sven Scheiderbauer, Uppbyggnaden av flyvapnets första radarsystem 1944-1953, Radarns historia, Tysk Engelsk Amerikansk utveckling, ER3, Spaningsradar, Konsekvenser, Motmedel, 
    • Jussi T Lappalainen, Varför led Röda Gardet i Finland nederlag, Trupper och försörjning, Organisation, Krigskonst, 
    • Gunnar Arteus, Ulf Olsson, Kerstin Strömberg-Back, The influence of the armed forces on the transformations of society in Sweden 1600-1945, State organization, Guns and small arms, Urbanization and social mobility, 
    • Olav Riste, Politics in the armed forces, A contemporary problem in historical perspective
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  • 237.
    Johansson, Bertil
    Swedish Defence University. Militärhistoriska avdelningen (MHA) Försvarsmakten.
    Militärhistorisk Tidskrift 1983: Rapport från militärhistorisk konferens vid militärhögskolan i juni 19831983Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]
    • Participants at the conference, 
    • Manfred Messerschmidt, German staff officer’s education since the beginning the 19th century, Innovations and traditions, Gerhard von Scharnhorst, Allgemeine kriegsschule, Kriegsakademie, Helmut von Moltke, Reichswehr, Weltanschauung, 
    • Gunnar Artéus, The value of advanced theoretical education, Some observations concerning the training and selection of military elites in 20th century Sweden, The military colleges of Sweden, The data, Interpreting the statistics, 
    • Brian Bond, Educational changes at R.M.A. Sandhurst 1966-1982, The Howard-English report, An academic year, CAROT, 
    • Robin Higham, Education and technology, Some considerations of the background of U.S. commanders in World War II, No lost generation, Importance of engineering, 
    • Jussi T Lappalainen, Responses to the need for trained military staff in Finland 1918-1939, The military committee, White volunteers, Deployment, Plan for training, 
    • Donald M Schurman, The navy at the British royal united services institution 1890-1896,
    • Gerke Teitler, Colonial defence and the challenge of naval technology, The case of the Dutch submarine, In search of a naval policy, Closing the ranks, Submarines again, A most reluctant navy, 
    • Anders Berge, The Swedish navy in the inter-war period, Strategic thinking at the crossroads, The armoured ship, The Sweden class, Coast defence ships, Challenge from the Air Force, 
    • Brian Bond, The mechanization of the British army in the1930s, The impact of technical innovation on a conservative institution, 
    • Knud J V Jespersen, New technology versus conscription, Some reflections on trends in Danish army organization during the first twenty-five years of NATO membership, Army structure 1950-70, The restrictive budget, Technological modernization, Conscription, 
    • Robin Higham, Technology in American aviation, Patterns in innovation procurement and use, 
    • Klaus-Richard Böhme, The establishment of a new service, The experience of the Swedish air force, The defence resolution 1925, Carl Florman, Ny Militär Tidskrift, SAAB, Discussions, Sessions I to VI, 
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  • 238.
    Johansson, Carl
    Swedish Defence University.
    Vem vann slaget vid Ia Drang: En teorikonsumerande fallstudie om slaget vid Ia Drang 19652021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 239.
    Karlsson, Axel
    Swedish Defence University.
    Mellan land himmel och hav: En studie av Sveriges försvarsgrensinteraktion under kalla kriget 1965-19752023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The research problem that has been identified for this study is that earlier research has heavily depended on strained financial situations in military organizations in order to explain why interservice rivalry occurs. This study seeks to complement this by looking at other possible factors as to why interservice rivalry emerges. 

    The purpose of the study is to look at interservice rivalry within the Swedish military between 1965 and 1975 and to establish what kind of interservice interactions can be identified in this time period in which the Swedish military also suffered from downsizing. However, a different approach will be used to study this case. The study will utilize Major Nicholas J. Clemens's theory on interservice rivalry which is explained in his report Fighting to get along, 1993. In his theory, Clemens established two main causes as to why interservice rivalry occurs. These are uncommon doctrine and resource allocation between the different services within the military. These factors can be combined to establish four possible interaction types between the different service branches. 

    With this in mind the main research question of the study has been established; What does Clemens’ theory contribute to our understanding of Swedish interservice rivalry during the Cold War?

    The study uses a theory-consuming approach with its foundation in Clemens’ theory. The method used is a qualitative text analysis with a hermeneutic approach. The material used is military journals produced either specifically for a given branch of the military or an all-encompassing military journal. 

    Ultimately, the study concludes that the army and airforce had a hostile interaction and that the same is true between the army and navy. However the airforce and navy had a cooperative interaction.

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  • 240.
    Karlsson, Birgit
    FOKK.
    Svensk försvarsindustri 1945-19922015Book (Other academic)
  • 241.
    Kim, Tae Hoon
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military History, Military History Division.
    The ICT Revolution, 21st Century Warfare, and Honest Errors2023In: Honest Errors? Combat Decision-Making 75 Years After the Hostage Case / [ed] Nobuo Hayashi; Carola Lingaas, The Hague: T.M.C. Asser Press, 2023, p. 217-231Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 1990s, proponents of a so-called revolution in military affairs (RMA) have argued that the tremendous development in information communications technology (ICT) would revolutionise warfare through enhanced intelligence capabilities. This would reduce the scope of battlefield uncertainty of the kind in which Rendulic had claimed to have found himself in late 1944. The difficulty of gaining accurate intelligence of the battlefield at the time of the evacuation and destruction of Finnmark was one of the reasons why Rendulic’s action was considered an honest error. This chapter examines whether the ICT revolution has reduced battlefield uncertainty and honest errors in 21st-century warfare by examining two case studies: the US invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq, and Russia’s invasion of Ukraine. The chapter shows that the relationship between ICT, intelligence, uncertainty, and honest errors is far more complex than argued by RMA advocates and is influenced by several factors. In particular, this chapter argues that the ICT revolution has not reduced the sense of uncertainty, fear, and other psychological constraints of combatants.

  • 242.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    A Conventional War: Escalation in the War in Donbas, Ukraine2021In: Journal of Slavic Military Studies, ISSN 1351-8046, E-ISSN 1556-3006, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 24-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The War in Donbas was in its early phases largely fought between non-state volunteer battalions and separatist forces. Yet unlike the expected theories of non-state actors, the war witnessed limited and symmetrical acts of escalation and rather conventional warfare. Building on primary Ukrainian sources, I argue that this limited escalation stems in part from shared cultural and military norms — a common normative framework — possessed by the belligerents. The contribution of this article is an empirical chronology of the War in Donbas, as well as a discussion of the influence of culture and norms in escalatory dynamics and use of force.

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  • 243.
    Lasén, Sebastian
    Swedish Defence University.
    För Fädernesland, eller för Konung? En undersökning av motiven hos adliga officerare som anslöt sig till 1772-års Revolution2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to determine what motivated the noble officers of the Swedish military to participate in Gustav III:s 1772 Revolution. This investigation will be utilizing material written by participating noble officers between 1771 - 1773, originating from Gustavianska or Sprengtportenska samlingen, or from the biographies of Johan Christopher Toll and Jakob Magnus Sprengtporten. In order to fulfill the stated purpose of this investigation, three questions, one primary and two secondary, are formulated and answered in separate chapters. In addition, the investigation will be applying a qualitative text analytical method along with an deductive theoretical approach. This method, thanks to its hermeneutic utility, allows a comprehensive analysis of the motives stated in the material, and how the findings reflect on the military’s societal and political culture. The chosen theoretical framework which is applied deductively in the analysis, is Samuel Finers ‘military intervention’ theory. More specifically concepts from the section that covers military officers' motivations for intervening in politics. The final conclusions made in this investigation is that the officers were primarily motivated to join the coup to pursue the ‘national interest’. The noble officers had a longstanding hatred for the country’s political system, based on the conception that it was unable to adequately protect what they viewed as the nation's interests. The officers, who viewed themselves as the fatherlands protectors, joined the revolt in order to install a political system that they felt could protect the nation's continued existence. The officers were also motivated on the basis of ‘ideology’, as the conspiracy provided a opportunity to enforce Royalist political doctrine. Lastly, a further motive was the pursuit of ‘sectional interests’. The protection of ‘group interests’, in the form of protecting the nobility's political and financial privileges, as well as ‘individual interests’, where financial rewards and promotions were requested in exchange for allegiance, were also present.

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  • 244.
    Lausevic, Vladan
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Den svenska generalstaben som lärande organisation: kunskapsutvecklingen avseende strid om befästa ställningar under första världskriget2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The intention of this essay is to study the Swedish General Staff as a learning organisation during the period of 1914-1918 based on the theoretical work developed by the philosopher Bertil Rolf. Previous international research on the Prussian/German General Staff has shown that it is considered to be the first learning organisation in history. The Swedish General Staff was based on the German General Staff model and the focus of this study is to compare the development the tactics in Germany and Sweden regarding defence and attack in trench warfare. The questions are: How were the possibilities for gathering and analysing informa-tion affected by the war? Which conclusions were made for trench warfare in Swedish conditions? What experiences from the war and exercises in Swedish army were implemented in manuals and training?The conclusion of the study is that the Swedish General Staff was functioning as a learning organisation during the WWI through the ability to follow the international development, mainly in the Central Powers, and by modifying the experiences to the prevailing Swedish strategic and tactical conditions. During the war the German experiences, mainly from the eastern front, were used as a model combining movement and trench warfare. The main reasons were that the conditions on the western front with the concentration of artillery and troops were considered as an anomaly.The learning was created by processing the war experiences and experiences from the annual field exercises in several studies. One additional condition for the learning process was the demanding selection process for the employment of new General Staff officers, a process which meant that only a very small number of officers annually were appointed to general staff officers.

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  • 245.
    Levihn, Viktor
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Olika glasögon för orsakerna till andra världskriget2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The causes of the Second World War are well analyzed and are described in several literatures. In this study two classical theories, realism and liberalism, are applied on the causes of war described in Stephan Van Everas book “Causes of War”. This essay aims to examine, if possible, which one of the above mentioned theories that best describes what caused the Second World War.

      Presentation of the problem: What are the causes of war from a realistic and liberal perspective, and how can the theories explain the causes of the Second World War?

    In order to answer these questions I use a qualitative text analysis. In the essay this method has two purposes. The first is to find out what realism and liberalism describes as causes of war. The second purpose is to find out, on basis of Stephen Van Everas “Causes of War”, what caused the wars during the Second World War.

      My conclusion is that states act on a basis of realism when they justify an act of war. This conclusion corresponds with former studies. However, there are also conclusions based on liberalism that describes causes of war between countries. These conclusions constitute collective security and failure of international agreements between states. According to the realist theory, the security of the state versus other states is a possible cause of war.

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  • 246.
    Lindberg, Alexander
    Swedish Defence University.
    Munckska kåren: En fascistisk frikår?2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 247.
    Lindberg, Filippa
    Swedish Defence University.
    Motivation bland svenska officerare under finska kriget 1808–1809: En brevstudie om major Sten Sture2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 248.
    Lindgren, Tobias
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Stingereffekten: Stingerrobotens inverkan på det sovjetiska arméflygets taktik under Sovjet-Afghanistan kriget 2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna undersökning är att undersöka vilken inverkan Stinger hade på sovjetiska styrkors taktik och nyttjande av arméflygets helikoptrar i Afghanistan.

    Undersökningen har genomförts som en kvalitativ litteraturstudie. Sovjetiska styrkors och Mujahedins taktiker samt införandet av Stinger har studerats. Två forskningsfrågor har formulerats för att undersöka Sovjets och Mujahedins taktik under kriget; "Hur såg det sovjetiska arméflygets taktik ut vad beträffar nyttjande av helikoptrar innan respektive efter 1986 i Sovjet-Afghanistan kriget". Samt "Hur såg Mujahedins taktik ut innan respektive efter 1986 i Sovjet-Afghanistan kriget."

    För analys används de grundläggande förmågorna samt taktikanpassning och taktikutveckling som teoretiskt ramverk för att precisera skillnader i de taktiska förändringar som skedde under kriget. Taktiska förändringar i anslutning till införandet av Stinger har diskuterats för att möjligen se om vapnet legat till grund för dessa.

    Tre slutsatser har dragits av undersökningen: 1) Stinger kan ha krävt att det sovjetiska arméflyget avdelade mer resurser för planering och genomförande av operationer. 2) Stinger reducerade det sovjetiska arméflygets flygningar med helikoptrar under dagtid. 3) Stinger kan ha tvingat sovjetiska helikoptrar att flyga mycket lågt vid flygning i dagsljus.

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  • 249.
    Lindhé von Ehren, Viktor
    Swedish Defence University.
    Fredsbevarande utan fred att bevara: Ulf Henricssons och Nordbat 2:s påverkan på Tuzlaområdets aktörer under BA 01 i Bosnien2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The UNPROFOR mission in Bosnia is often seen as problem ridden, if not ill-fated,and the limited success the international mission did see, came mostly after thehandover to IFOR and NATO in 1995. The Nordic battalion Nordbat 2, primarilyconsisting of Swedish units, and particularly its first rotation BA 01, can be seen as ananomaly; this battalion was characterised by its application of mission command. It canreasonably be stated that its first commanding officer, Ulf Henricsson, madecontroversial interpretations of the Rules of Engagement, and frequently emphasised tothe parties to the conflict that Nordbat 2 would not be bureaucratically bullied like manyother UN-units. This study maps out the Area of Responsibility of Nordbat 2, Tuzla,through Bordieuan field theory, and uses an iteration of the same theory developed byHåkan Gunneriusson for use in international military missions to analyse the effects ofHenricsson’s actions, and those of BA 01 as a whole, in respect to the field and its rules.Through qualitative analysis of Henricssons memoir, certain battalion documents andICTY protocols, the study finds that Henricsson, in satisfactory accordance with thechecklist put forward by Gunneriusson, identified the rules, illusio, of the field andincentivised the parties to the conflict to, in certain cases, abandon violent methods formore benign ones through a carrot and stick approach. When this, for different reasons,was impossible, Henricsson’s direct involvement and the subculture of the battalionmade clear that Nordbat 2 was not to be taken lightly and managed to uncover themassacre in Stupni Do through aggressive and unconventional means. 

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  • 250.
    Lofthammar, Edvin
    Swedish Defence University.
    Stridssätt: Samtliga: Hur och varför Sverige valde AK 4 och 7.62x512023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study concerns the development and trials of assault rifles/battle rifles in Sweden during 1959-1964, which led to the adoption of Automatkarbin 4(Automatic Carbine 4) chambered in 7.62x51. The purpose of the study was to gauge the trials and the factors influencing the choice of weapons platform andcaliber through the theory Social Shaping of Technology. The research questions were: “Why and how did Sweden pick Automatkarbin 4?” and “Why and how did Sweden pick the 7.62x51 caliber?”. The method used is qualitative text analysis.The conclusions are that Sweden picked Automatkarbin 4 and 7.62x51 because they were the optimal weapons platform and caliber respectively that conformed to the social constructs of what was categorized as desirable traits, motivated by a relatively short trials period of only 5 years and the need to select an internationally widespread caliber.

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