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  • 201.
    Englundh, Jessica
    Swedish Defence University.
    Wardens femringsmodell, ett teoretiskt underverk? : En teoriutvecklande och teoriprövande studie på femringsmodellen anpassad mot upprorsbekämpande luftmakt2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines how Wardens five-ring model can be altered to counterinsurgency center of gravity, to allow a more specific theory for airpower in counterinsurgency operations. The study has been undertaken since research regarding air power in counterinsurgency operations shows an absence for specified theory. Previous research tends to apply traditional airpower theories without taking into account the great differences in center of gravities of different warfare’s.

    A previous study has been made to adapt Wardens five-ring model to counterinsurgency warfare, where the theory development of this study continues from. The developed theory is strengthened by further theoretical arguments and literature to give it more scientific basis. The developed theory is examined by a single-case study of the second Lebanon war in 2006. 

    Results of the analysis reveal that Wardens five-ring model successfully can adapt to counterinsurgency center of gravities. Conclusions can be drawn to the possibilities and preferences of a more adaptable theory towards what war that is fought, rather than an all-embracing theory for all warfare’s. The study contributes to existing research by providing a scientifically improved model to analyze the use of air power in counterinsurgency.

  • 202.
    Engström, Jonas
    Swedish Defence University.
    Hybridkrigsföring -  Ett förvirrande begrepp2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The term hybrid warfare is both controversial and debated. Those who favor the use of the term usually use widely different definitions of it. This makes the term problematic to use in an official and academic context, which may contribute to unjustified policy decisions. My thesis aims at using three existing theoretical definitions to identify a more sustainable definition of the hybrid warfare concept. And at the same time contribute to the debate about the usefulness of the concept.   

    The thesis analyzes three theoretical perspectives of the hybrid warfare concept, by adopting a conceptual study approach founded in Giovanis Sartori's theoretical framework. The result shows that a more sustainable definition of hybrid warfare primarily comprises the coordination of funds and methods for achieving political purposes. Based on this result can hybrid warfare primarily be understood as a management perspective.  

  • 203.
    Erdeniz, Robert
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för operationskonst (KV Opkonst).
    Approaches to Operational Art Revisited: Theoretical and Practical Implications of Methodology2016In: 21st International Command and Control Reserach and Technology Symposium (ICCRTS): C2 in a Complex Connected Battlespace, International Command and Control Institute , 2016, Vol. Topic 5, p. 1-32, article id 47Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    U.S. doctrines have introduced a third approach within Operational Art, called the design approach, which has evoked military professional and academic debate as well as influenced NATO doctrines. Allied Joint Doctrine for Operational-level Planning (AJP 5) states that a Force Commander should choose one out of three approaches when conducting Operational Art and conducting operational planning: a traditional (causalist), a systemic or a design approach. The difference between the causalist- and the systemic- approach concerns the clash between reductionism and holism, but the difference between the design- and the systemic- approach is methodologically vague. Hence the following question concerning methodology and Operational Art arises:

    What methodological implications could constitute an argument for choosing the design approach when conducting Operational Art within a battlespace?

    Neither NATO doctrine, planning framework nor previous research offer any explicit methodological argument for choosing, or preferring, the design- over the systemic- approach. This article concludes that one possible argument for preferring a design approach is adherence to value-focused thinking, but this requires that the Force Commander can and is willing to focus on stakeholders’ values within the battlespace. This conclusion is implied by two methodological implications identified and discussed in this article. If the design approach is to be a relevant option, then further conceptual development, experimentation and education is required. To conclude, NATO should review the description of their approaches within Operational Art since the argument for preferring one approach over another is lacking and this could hamper the Force Commander’s management of the battlespace.

  • 204.
    Ericson Wolke, Lars
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, The Military History Division.
    Erfarenheter av den väpnade striden2018In: Uppdrag militär: perspektiv på militärt yrkeskunnande / [ed] Victor Tillberg, Lotta, Stockholm: Centrum för Studier av Militär och Samhälle (CSMS) , 2018, p. 101-115Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 205.
    Ericsson, Petter
    Swedish Defence University.
    Special Reconnaissance: En teoriprövande fallstudie av patrullen bravo två noll, Gulfkriget 19912018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the new era of hybrid warfare information is key. But information by itself is not enough, decisionmakers want information that is certain and has quality. One method of obtaining this information is special reconnaissance.

    However, the field of special reconnaissance is slim and hasn’t been researched extensively enough. In the field of special reconnaissance only a single theory exists. That theory is Anders Westbergs theory of special reconnaissance. Westbergs theory states that there is a term called relative certainty. Which is the threshold where there is sufficient actionable intelligence on the opponent or target. To achieve relative certainty there are a certain set of principles which should be fulfilled, these principles are coordination, review, cover, reporting and exploitation. Westbergs theory however is still not tested by an outsider. This study therefore seeks to investigate if Westbergs theory is valid when tested through a qualitative case study on a case that is not only a failure and more modern, but also untested against the theory. The chosen case is the patrol Bravo Two Zero in the Persian Gulf War, 1991.

    The result shows that Westbergs theory can be used to explain the failure of Bravo Two Zeros mission. Some principles such as reporting shows significant value to the explanation.

  • 206.
    Eriksson, Birgitta
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Avdelningen för arbetsvetenskap.
    Bergqvist, Tuula
    Karlstads universitet, Avdelningen för arbetsvetenskap.
    Hobbins, Jennifer
    Karlstads universitet, Avdelningen för arbetsvetenskap.
    YOUNEX WP3 National Report Sweden2011Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 207.
    Eriksson, Ivar
    Swedish Defence University.
    Uppror och Irreguljär Krigföring i Efterkolonial Kontext - Rhodesia och Kongo2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The struggle to usurp the reign over nations amongst local africans in the post-colonial era was affecting countries all over the continent. Some times the transfer of power were conducted in the absence of war. In some countries the end of colonialism brought with it bloody conflicts that would battere the stability for a nation in years to come. Some countries fought the colonial empire for independence and other was granted the freedom. Some european settlers hade made their colony their home and a source of income, and though the empire that onces conquer the land no longer had means to rule it, some of its settlers did. Whilst in other cases, tribes native to the once colonized land created unrest due to their lack of believe in the new regim and had a wish for governance over their own lands. Noriyuki Katagiri’s theory on how insurgents win wars against a state is based mainly on studies conducted on conflicts between colonial empires and insurgents. This study aims to examine wether Katagiris theory is applicable in conflicts between previous colonies which gained independence but still is ruled by an unpopular government rather than the local natives. The results of this study will perhaps bring new understandings of the outcome of conflicts by examining the rebellion in the region Katanga in Congo in the early 1960s aswell as the conflict in Rhodesia between 1965 and 1979.

  • 208.
    Eriksson, Marcus
    Swedish Defence University.
    Martin van Creveld: En bortglömd teori om manöverkrigföring?2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Maneuver warfare is a multifaceted subject in debates and discussions. However, there is a lack of scientific studies on the subject. Martin van Creveld is one of the theorists who have produced a theory for maneuver warfare, without being questioned either in debates or scienetific research.  

    The purpose of this paper is therefore to contribute to the research of Martin van Creveld's theory, by testing his theory and warfare principles on two empirical cases. Through this, conclusions can be drawn wether his theory could contribute with an explaination to the outcome of the cases. 

    The result has shown that the theory could explain the outcome of one of the cases, while the second case achieved the desired outcome by using only three of the total six principles. It is also shown that this study is too insufficient to falsify Martin van Creveld's theory and principles of maneuver warfare. More studies are required on more empirical cases in order to draw such conclusions. Though, this study has contributed to a new subject within the studies of war and maneuver warfare.

  • 209.
    Felldén, Daniel
    Swedish Defence University.
    Det moderna kalifatets strategi – en fallstudie om ISIS2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In four years, ISIS managed to conquer vast areas in both Iraq and Syria and have proven themselves capable of conducting sophisticated military operations. Using terrorism, they have also shocked the world numerous times, most recently in Sri Lanka during the spring of 2019, in an attack leaving more than 250 people dead. Even today there seems to be a discrepancy in how this organization should be defined. Therefore, this thesis examines ISIS through the years of 2010-2015. The ambition is to explain how this organization can be understood through the contrasting theories of hybrid warfare and insurgency from Frank G. Hoffman and David Galula respectively. This thesis concludes that while ISIS’s initial progression bore strong resemblance to the historically typical insurgent, like gaining publicity through terror and using guerilla warfare to acquire supplies and grow, they became something more. They evolved into a hybrid organization capable of mixing conventional combined arms warfare with the deadly effectiveness of irregular methods, essentially converging terrorism with their conventional units. Using modern technology, they managed to turn both social media and commercial products alike, into effective tools of war. This spectacular metamorphosis that is ISIS, illuminates the requirement for development of new theories, or at the very least, to expand on those present today.

  • 210.
    Ferneborg, Daniel
    Swedish National Defence College.
    SIS och Info Ops: varför finns det vissa likheter?2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats är en jämförelse mellan den verksamhet som Statens Informationsstyrelse (SIS) bedrev under andra världskriget och den verksamhet som idag bedrivs inom ramen för Informationsoperationer (Info Ops). Uppsatsen syftar till att undersöka om likheterna mellan SIS och Info Ops har en koppling till konfliktens (krigets) natur.

    Huvudfrågorna i uppsatsen är:

    1. Vilka likheter finns mellan den statliga informationsverksamheten som bedrevs av Statens Informationsstyrelse under andra världskriget och den verksamhet som idag bedrivs inom ramen för informationsoperationer?
    2. Kan likheterna kopplas till konfliktens (krigets) natur och i så fall hur?

    För att besvara mina frågor har jag använt mig av följande tillvägagångssätt:

    För min inledande del av uppsatsen har jag valt Deskription. Metodiken jag använt är arkiv- och litteraturstudier, vilket vanligen och även i mitt fall föregåtts av en litteratursökning. För den avslutande delen av uppsatsen har jag använt mig av komparation i syfte att finna likheter mellan SIS och Info Ops. För min slutledning har jag använt mig av deduktion.

    Det centrala i likheterna mellan SIS och Info Ops är att båda använde/använder data och information för att påverka ett agerande hos människor. Genom att påverka agerandet hos människorna i konflikten (kriget), kan man påverka utgången av konflikten (kriget).

  • 211.
    Fiala, Otto C.
    Special Operations Command-Europe (SOCEUR), USA.
    Resistance Operating Concept2019 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 212.
    Finlan, Alastair
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Joint Operations Section.
    Special Forces: Leadership, Processes and the British Special Air Service (SAS)2017In: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Special Operations Forces / [ed] Gitte Højstrup Christensen, Copenhagen: Royal Danish Defence College Publishing House, 2017, 1, p. 74-87Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the research question of what kind of leadership, processes, and work climate best support employee-driven/bottom-up innovation in SOF. It starts with the suggestion that the term, Special Operations Forces (SOF), needs to be intellectually unpacked and its diverse elements (of which Special Forces are just one part) disaggregated in order to elicit definitional clarity. From this conceptual starting point, it becomes immediately clear that Special Forces represent the ‘special’ component in the SOF designation. This research contends they are a new type of soldier (and a product of modern warfare) that is defined by differentness in relation to conventional forces and activities within a battlespace, working in traditionally restricted areas. David Stirling, one of the founders of the famed British Special Air Service (SAS), is highlighted as an exemplar of the sort of leadership that provoked rare operational level effects. The paper also suggests that unorthodox forces operating in a unique operational environment demand unusual personality types and atypical command/control processes encapsulated by the so-called ‘Chinese Parliament’ that emerged in the SAS.

  • 213.
    Finlan, Alastair
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Joint Operations Section.
    Special Operations in Contemporary Warfare: Challenges and Opportunities2017In: Tidskrift i Sjöväsendet, ISSN 0040-6945, no 2, p. 168-174Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study suggests that the world is now in a third age of Special Forces and one that in all likelihood will witness an increasing utility of these unusual military units in orthodox and unorthodox warfare in international relations.

  • 214.
    Fjaervoll, Emil
    Swedish Defence University.
    Japan is back: Japans säkerhetsstrategi ur liberalismen och realismen perspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Japan is a major power in international society and has a major influence on the region in east Asia but also the entire world. Japan states that the security environment surrounding Japan is severe and this has had an impact on the Japanese security strategy. Since Shinzo Abes’ return to power in 2012, the Japanese security strategy has changed. There is an absence of research with multiple theories regarding Japanese security strategy since 2012. The purpose of this thesis is to provide a deeper understanding for the Japanese security strategy applying two theories from international relations: liberalism and realism. With a one-case study with the method of qualitative text analysing focus on three different documents presented by the Japanese government that represents the Japanese security strategy. With the use of Westberg analysing dimensions on security strategies creates a framework for an operationalization of the liberalism and realism. Results of the study show that Japanese security strategy cannot be explained by only one theory. Both realism and liberalism arguments influence security strategy and its complexity shows that both theories are necessary to gain a more comprehensive view. 

  • 215. Fornesten, Charlie
    SVERIGES OCH NATO:S MILITÄRA INTEROPERABILITET PÅ OPERATIV NIVÅ2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Armed Forces had until relatively recently the alignment to act as an international peace keeping force by supporting other actors when promoting peace and freedom. Then the focus was to strive for military interoperability in that context. Now the alignment has shifted to the focus on defense of the national territory. A task that have been given the Swedish Armed Forces is to be able to do so together with other military forces including members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. This analysis seeks to answer how the military interoperability between the Swedish Armed Forces and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization is today in the context of joint multinational operations with the purpose to defend the national territory of Sweden. The result of this analysis shows that the Swedish Armed Forces and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization have achieved military interoperability in some respects but there is an absence of this in other respects. One of the prime conclusions of this analysis is that more research should be done in this area to get a clearer apprehension about how the military interoperability look between these actors and how it can be improved in the context of joint multinational operations with the purpose to defend the national territory of Sweden.

  • 216.
    Fors Brandebo, Maria
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Destructive leadership in crisis management: behaviors and coping strategies2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 217.
    Fors Brandebo, Maria
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Destruktivt ledarskap vid krishantering2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det övergripande syftet med studien var att öka kunskapen om destruktivt ledarskap i krishanteringsorganisationer. En intervjustudie genomfördes med 21 informanter från länsstyrelser, kommuner, kommunal räddningstjänst och polisen. Resultaten visar att destruktivt ledarskap kan förstås som en process som börjar med att individen tolkar ledarens beteenden som destruktiva. Det påverkar individens förmåga och motivation att utföra sitt arbete. Intensiteten i konsekvenserna av dessa upplevda destruktiva beteenden påverkas av de upplevda orsakerna till beteendet, individens coping-strategier och det stöd organisationen ger. De olika delarna i denna process diskuteras mer utförligt i rapporten i relation till krishanteringskontexten. Som exempel kan nämnas att ledare kan vara konstruktiva när det gäller lösandet av uppgiften (krisen) men destruktiva i sin relation till medarbetarna/samarbetsaktörer. I rapporten diskuteras även hur ledarskapsideal kan leda till utövandet av destruktivt ledarskap.

  • 218.
    Fors Brandebo, Maria
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Destruktivt ledarskap vid krishantering: Ledarskapets påverkan på tillit, hälsa och prestation2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det övergripande syftet med studien var att studera destruktivt ledarskap vid krishantering. Mer specifikt att studera samband mellan destruktiva ledarbeteenden i vardagen och destruktiva ledarbeteenden under insatser vid olyckor och kriser samt samband mellan destruktiva ledarbeteenden och underställdas tillit, hälsa och prestationer.

    Utifrån en tidigare kvalitativ studie formulerades åtta hypoteser som undersöktes med hjälp av en enkätundersökning. Enkäten besvarades av 337 individer med erfarenhet av krishantering från kommun, länsstyrelse, polis och räddningstjänst. Resultaten visar att det framför allt är uppgiftsrelaterade, passiva destruktiva ledarskapsbeteenden som har starkast negativt samband med tillit, hälsa och prestation. Det visar på betydelsen av ledare som vågar fatta beslut och klarar av att vara handlingskraftiga både i vardagen och under osäkra och stressfylda förhållanden. Resultaten belyser också att destruktiva ledare har en negativ inverkan på underställdas förutsättningar att hantera kriser och olyckor.

  • 219.
    Fors Brandebo, Maria
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Alvinius, AidaSwedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Dark Sides of Organizational Behavior and Leadership2019Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, scholars have focused more on the "dark sides of leadership." Both the negative and positive aspects of the relationship between leaders and followers are considered. But the relationship between leaders and followers is also influenced by the context in which the relationship occurs. Organizational aspects such as culture and structures are studied in relation to how negative leadership develops. Organizations, just like humans, are able to develop justifications for their actions, to self-aggrandize by claiming their exclusivity. In this book, the dark sides of organizational behaviors and leadership are considered from different aspects and contexts. The book contributes knowledge of how negative leadership develops, what part organizational structures play, and what the consequences are for the leader, the subordinates and the organization.

  • 220.
    Fors Brandebo, Maria
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Alvinius, Aida
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Introductory chapter: Dark sides of organizations and leadership – an integrative approach and definitions2019In: Dark Sides of Organizational Behavior and Leadership / [ed] Fors Brandebo Maria and Alvinius Aida, London: INTECH, 2019Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 221.
    Fors Brandebo, Maria
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Klockare, Ellinor
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Återanställning i Försvarsmakten: en intervjustudie med återanställda soldater2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the motive-structure of soldiers who has re-enlisted with the Swedish Armed forces. The following research questions were formulated: (1) Which factors influenced the decision to leave the armed forces, and (2) which factors influenced the decision to re-enlist with the armed forces. Eleven re-enlisted soldiers, from three different units, were interviewed. The interviews were analyzed according to a grounded theory-approach. A theoretical model describing the re-enlistment process from an individual perspective was developed.The theoretical model shows that in order to understand re-enlisted soldiers motive-structure in relation to re-enlistment we need to consider the following aspects: (a) the soldiers´ individual work approach, (b) their experiences of employment, (c) factors influencing their decision to leave the armed forces, (d) their reflection process that develops as a result of a contrast between the civilian and the military employment, and (e) their motives and thoughts in relation to the decision to re-enlist with the armed forces. In the report, we discuss the importance of goal attainment, commanders’ attitude towards re-enlisted soldiers and commitment and interest in the armed forces as a result of the reflection process.

  • 222.
    Fors Brandebo, Maria
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Trust and destructive leadership during international military operations: A longitudinal study2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 223.
    Fors Brandebo, Maria
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Lundell, Emil
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Därför lämnade de Försvarsmaken: en kvantitativ studie om tidigare anställda soldater och sjömäns motivstruktur2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att studera potentiell återanställningsbarhet och motivationsstruktur hos individer som lämnat Försvarsmakten. Följande frågeställningar avsågs att besvaras: (1) Vilka faktorer påverkade individernas beslut att lämna Försvarsmakten? och (2) Vilka faktorer påverkar huruvida individen vill ta återanställning i Försvarsmakten eller ej?

    Med hjälp av en enkät besvarade 786 tidigare kontinuerligt tjänstgörande gruppbefäl, soldater och sjömän frågor om varför de lämnade Försvarsmakten och om deras attityd till att ta återanställning. Resultaten visar att de flesta trivdes bra under sin anställning. Vanligaste orsakerna till att lämna var brist på utveckling, missnöje över lönen, och för att  påbörja civila studier/arbete. Brist på utveckling är den faktor som bäst predicerar om tidigare kontinuerligt tjänstgörande personal vill ta återanställning i Försvarsmakten eller ej.

  • 224.
    Fors Brandebo, Maria
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Destruktivt ledarskap: Hur uppkommer det? Vilka effekter får det? Vad kan man göra åt det?2018Book (Other academic)
  • 225.
    Fors Brandebo, Maria
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum. Department of Public Health, Hedmark University College, Elverum, Norway.
    Leadership: Is bad stronger than good?2016In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 690-710Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    – The purpose of this paper is to investigate if the thesis “bad is stronger than good” also holds true for a number of leadership issues, more specifically: trust in the immediate leader, emotional exhaustion, work atmosphere and propensity to leave.

    Design/methodology/approach

    – Questionnaire responses were obtained from military personnel in Estonia, Sweden, Switzerland and the Netherlands (n=625).

    Findings

    – Multiple regression analyses revealed a certain pattern. Constructive leadership behaviours showed stronger positive associations with trust in the immediate supervisor and work atmosphere, than destructive leadership behaviours showed negative associations. On the other hand, destructive leadership behaviours showed stronger positive associations with emotional exhaustion and propensity to leave, than constructive leadership behaviours showed negative associations. This suggests that constructive leadership behaviours possibly have a greater impact on positive phenomenon and/or phenomenon associated with work-related relationships. On the other hand, destructive leadership behaviours appear to have a greater impact on negative phenomena with a stronger personal meaning. The results also show that the passive forms of destructive leadership are the behaviours that had the strongest impact on the investigated dependent variables.

    Research limitations/implications

    – Limitations related to item construction, common method variance, response set tendencies, translation of the instruments, and lack of response rate are discussed.

    Practical implications

    – The results emphasize the importance of focusing on both constructive and destructive leadership at the selection stage, as well as during training of military leaders. Focusing on them separately obstructs optimal leader development and prevents leaders from gaining authentic self-knowledge. The results also point at the importance of including both aspects of leadership in leader evaluation processes.

    Originality/value

    – The use of both constructive and destructive leadership behaviours with respondents from multiple nations in the same analysis.

  • 226.
    Fors Brandebo, Maria
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Measuring destructive leadership behaviours2016In: Negative leadership: international perspectives / [ed] Daniel Watola & ave Woycheshin, Kingston, Kanada: Canadian Defence Academy Press , 2016, p. 75-85Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 227.
    Fors Brandebo, Maria
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Wolgers, Gerhard
    HR Center, Swedish Armed Forces.
    Towards a Definition of Integrity in the Military2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 228.
    Fors Brandebo, Maria
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Österberg, Johan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Berglund, Anna Karin
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Militära ledares förmåga att öka eller bibehålla anställdas arbetstillfredsställelse: Praktiska handlingsstrategier2014Report (Other academic)
  • 229.
    Fors Brandebo, Maria
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Österberg, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Berglund, Anna Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    The impact of constructive and destructive leadership on soldier's job satisfaction2019In: Psychological Reports, ISSN 0033-2941, E-ISSN 1558-691X, Vol. 122, no 3, p. 1068-1086Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether constructive or destructive leadership behaviors are the best predictors of soldiers’ experienced meaningfulness of work and general job satisfaction. Data were collected among 300 employed soldiers using a questionnaire. The questionnaire contained questions about the immediate leader’s constructive and destructive leadership, meaningfulness of work and general job satisfaction. The results show that the constructive leadership factor inspiration and motivation was the best predictor of both experienced meaningfulness of work and general job satisfaction. None of the destructive leadership factors gave a significant contribution to the models although both the passive and active forms of destructive leadership showed a weak to moderate significant, negative correlation with experienced meaningfulness of work and general job satisfaction.

  • 230.
    Fors, Fredrik
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    The Routine Activity Robber: Learnings from a total study of cash-in-transit robberies and opportunity structures2015In: The Stockholm Criminology Symposium: Program & Abstracts 2015 / [ed] Brottsförebyggande rådet, Stockhom, 2015, p. 162-162Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With this total study it is shown how opportunity structures influence criminals in the case of cash-in-transit (CIT) robberies. Sweden was one of the countries hit hardest by robberies of CITs in the early 2000s, in relationship to the population. Robbers, often armed with automatic weapons and explosives, could get away with lots of money, with the justice system initially unable to stabilize the situation.

    Likely offenders saw suitable targets and the lack of capable guardians, as discussed by the Routine Activity Theory. This applies to the situation in Sweden in the late 1990s when robbers moved away from bank robberies and chose CITs for their relatively lower safety (lack of capable guardians) and the higher amount of money available (suitable targets). It also explains how the target hardening processes strengthened the security of banks and CITS, respectively, hence making them less suitable targets. This displacement effect once again showed in 2007-2008, with a brief spike of bank robberies, when the robbers moved away from the CITs.

    The total study provides an overview of every CIT/cash depot robbery in Sweden since the late 1990s. By mapping out these aggravated robberies, it offers knowledge about how such robberies actually look like: the number of perpetrators, their level of organization, their armament and methods, and often their “success” rate. A total study is a rare opportunity for criminologists to study a subject without having to deal with the usual restrictions of selection bias. If the crime studied at the same time is rare, compared to every day crime, but not rare enough to be statistically problematic, then the researcher should be able to come up with a solid description of opportunity structures influence the development of crime.

     

  • 231.
    Forslund, David
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Smygteknik och smygtaktik : om smygteknikens påverkan på sjötaktiken2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how stealth technology affects Swedish tactics in the naval arena. Could stealth technology improve the chances of successful naval warfare? This puts focus on three underlying questions: how stealth technology affects your odds, in a duel, in deceptive action, and during reconnaissance/information gathering?

    This requires a description of stealth technology, benefits and disadvantages, and a thorough picture of Swedish naval tactics. With this in mind, an analysis is conducted where the benefits of stealth technology are compared with Swedish naval tactics. The main results of this study shows that, firstly, the subject needs more careful research, secondly that stealth technology gives, if properly used, a tactical advantage.

  • 232.
    Forsmark, Jonas
    Swedish Defence University.
    Svensk-finsk samverkan för maritim säkerhet i Östersjön2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Globalisering, digitalisering och miljöförstöring är faktorer som bidragit till dagens komplexa säkerhetssituation, i synnerhet på den maritima arenan. Forskning inom maritim säkerhet pekar entydigt på att nyckeln till framgång är samverkan mellan alla aktörer, såväl civila som militära. Sverige och Finlands försörjning är beroende av säkra sjötransporter varför maritim säkerhet i Östersjön är viktig för ländernas utveckling. Sverige och Finlands fördjupade militära samarbete har varit fokus för flera studier men förutsättningarna för myndighetssamverkan i det bredare perspektivet maritim säkerhet har inte studerats i samma omfattning.

    Denna studie undersöker genom kvalitativ textanalys hur de båda länderna ser på myndighetssamverkan och vilka förutsättningar som finns för samverkan i kontexten maritim säkerhet. Analysen genomförs med stöd av teorier kring samverkan – hur begreppet tolkas och vilka faktorer som påverkar effektiv samverkan mellan myndigheter.

    Slutsatsen är att det finns stora likheter i hur de båda länderna organiserar sig inom det maritima området och förutsättningarna för samverkan är goda ur ett organisatoriskt perspektiv. Det finns dock kulturella skillnader mellan de olika myndigheterna vilka behöver beaktas.

    I båda länderna finns sedan tidigare flera etablerade samverkansnätverk vilka kan användas för att utveckla ett fördjupat samarbetet inom maritim säkerhet, ett område där båda länderna redan har kommit långt. Utifrån aktuell forskning krävs dock ännu mer ifråga om myndighetssamverkan och politisk vilja. Denna uppsats visar att förutsättningarna för detta finns.

  • 233.
    Frank, Anders
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division, Sektionen för krigsspel.
    Achieving Game Goals at All Costs?: The Effect of Reward Structures on Tactics Employed in Educational Military Wargaming2014In: FRONTIERS IN GAMING SIMULATION, 2014, p. 13-20Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A key motive in using gaming for educational purposes is to enhance user motivation and involvement to the subject matter. Within military education, games have always been utilized as a means to think clearly about military operations. However, some research results have shown that gaming, regardless of what the game is supposed to portray, is a meaningful activity in itself, and this can distract the learner away from the educational objective. Playing the game, then, becomes similar to competition, such as in sports where the objective is to only win the game. The player directs actions to achieving game goals even though some actions are inappropriate from a learning perspective. To shed light on the discrepancy between playing a game to win and playing a game to learn, we conducted an experiment on cadets playing an educational wargame. By varying the conditions of the game, playing with or without points, while still in line with the learning objective, we were interested to see what impact it had on the tactics employed by cadets. The results showed that adding reward structures, such as points, changed the outcome of the game, that is, groups playing with points played the game more aggressively and utilized the military units more extensively. These findings suggest that changes in the game design, although educationally relevant, may distract learners to be more oriented towards a lusory attitude, in which achieving the game goals becomes players' biggest concern.

  • 234.
    Fransson, Bengt
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies.
    Hur kan effektivitet inom underrättelsetjänst värderas?2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Införandet av Grundsyn Underrättelsetjänst (Grundsyn Und08) beskrivs som en stor utmaning för underrättelsetjänsten i så motto att nya metoder och processer skall utvecklas som gör att man på ett effektivare sätt möter olika beslutsfattares framtida krav.

    Inom verksamhetsfältet underrättelsetjänst saknas en allmänt erkänd effektivitetsdefinition varvid ordets betydelse och användning ligger öppet för bedömning och tolkning. Man kan därför på goda grunder anta att det inom professionen finns en mängd olika uppfattningar om hur begreppet effektivitet bör värderas.

    Detta är inte tillfredsställande om man beaktar hur värdeladdat effektivitetsbegreppet är i de sammanhang det används. Avsaknad av en effektivitetsdefinition innebär ur en teoretisk synvinkel att effektivitetsbegreppets räckvidd därmed blir oklar. Det behövs därför en gemensam förståelse av hur effektivitetsbegreppet kan tolkas och förstås. De tankar som här läggs fram skall i detta sammanhang förhoppningsvis utgöra ett bidrag som ökar förståelse för användandet av effektivitetsbegreppet inom underrättelsetjänsten.

  • 235.
    Fredriksson, Elena
    Swedish Defence University.
    Kvinnan och karriären: En kvantitativ studie i kvinnors karriärmöjligheter i försvarsmakten2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Women in the Armed Forces all over the world are in minority in general. In the Swedish Armed Forces only 7% of the officers are female and for every hierarchal step the percentage decreases. The aim of this study is to increase the knowledge of genderrelations in maledominated organizations where a pressure exists to change these relations. The study focuses on how these relations influence women´s oppertunitys in making a career.

    The study is conducted through a survey where women and men are asked questions designed after Joan Acker´s theory of “Doing gender” and Rosabeth Moss Kanter´s theory of empowerment. 

    The result of this study shows that women and men choose to make a career for mostly the same reasons but have different opinions of the possibilities for men and women. According to Kanter´s theory of empowerment this can be explained by the social networks that men have but women are excluded from. Also the opinions of equal presuppositions diverse between men and women and through the lens of Acker´s theory of gendered organizations this is due to the day-to-day practices where women are deviant from the male norm and also from being absent from work when having children.

  • 236.
    Fredriksson, Malin
    et al.
    Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier, Karlstad univeristet, Sverige.
    Alvinius, Aida
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Organisationskultur och ledarskap i ljuset av #metoo2019In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 28-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna kvalitativa studie var att studera hanteringen avsexuella trakasserier ur ett ledarskaps- och ett organisationsperspektivsåsom det framställs i vittnesmål genom #metoo. Till grund för analysenligger upprop från tre mansdominerade organisationer: Försvarsmakten(#givaktochbitihop), polisen (#nödvärn) och räddningstjänsten(#larmetgår). Analysen av datamaterialet visar förekomst av fyra olikaorganisationskulturer: macho-, tystnads-, bestraffnings- och motståndskultur somi sin tur påverkar de ledarstrategier som används i hanteringen av sexuellatrakasserier. De identifierade ledarstrategierna beskrivs som antingen positivaeller negativa ur ett individ- och ett organisationsperspektiv. Resultatetdiskuteras teoretiskt och praktiskt med förslag på framtida forskning.

  • 237.
    Friis, Karsten
    et al.
    Norska utrikespolitiska institutet.
    Rehman, Sanaa
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Mustonen, Jari
    Stepputat, Finn
    Grönberg, Göran
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Strategy Section.
    Nordic Approaches to Whole-of-Government: in Afghanistan and beyond2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Comprehensive Approach (CA) and Whole-of-Government Approach (WGA) are rather new concepts within the field of security studies. They can be described as approaches based on the assumption that greater integration, coherence and coordination will result in more effective peacekeeping operations. The concept of CA has been adopted by different international organizations and WGA by several countries which in different ways have realted to the concept in propositions and steering documents. Sweden, Finland, Norway and Denmark have also realized the importance of CA/WGA, not least as regards the ongoing operation in Afghanistan where all the Nordic countries are involved and where the operation is characterized by a range of actors working in different missions withing the same field. What do these Nordic national strategies towards CA/WGA look like? Might we speak of a common Nordic CA/WGA model?

  • 238.
    Frisk, Robert
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Joint Operations Section. Division of Philosophy, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansson, Linda
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section. Division of Philosophy, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Military operations planning and goal-management: a philosophical perspective: thoughts on how decision theory and ethics can help improve military goal-management2019In: Journal of Military and Strategic Studies, ISSN 1488-559X, E-ISSN 1488-559X, Vol. 19, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses and reviews some previous research concerning what we denote as ‘goal-management’, in other words how to set, apply and evaluate goals when conducting military operations planning. We aim to explain and answer the following question:

    • In what way could a review of previous philosophical thoughts on goal-management, decision theory and ethics improve contemporary military operations planning concerning goal-management?

    We suggest a guideline (a planning tool) for how to conduct goal-management when planning military operations and exemplify our guideline with two fictive examples concerning the development of an Operational advice and Appreciation of Rules of Engagement. The paper concludes that the application of decision theory and ethics, i.e. important parts of philosophy, can contribute to military operations planning by focusing on three perspectives: an axiomatic, an ethical and a deliberative perspective.

  • 239.
    Fritzon, Jacob
    Swedish Defence University.
    Manöverkrigföring - nyckeln till framgång?: en studie om bekämpning av hybrida aktörer2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The war in Ukraine set focus on hybrid warfare which is often described as a new era in warfighting. Most countries in the western world train their armies to fight against a regular or an irregular opponent. One of the warfighting concepts that has been adopted by armies around the world is maneuver warfare. The concept of hybrid warfare leads some researchers to argue that maneuver warfare as a concept is a part of the past and that new theories should replace this concept. However, previous research about how to counter such an op-ponent is limited. This case study therefore strives to find examples of historical cases where maneuver war-fare has been conducted against a hybrid opponent. By doing this the study therefore contributes to military science by filling a knowledge gap that exists in how we understand warfare against a hybrid opponent. The conclusion of the study is that maneuver warfare was conducted on both an operational level as well as on a tactical level against Hamas during Operation Cast Lead but not against Hezbollah during the second Lebanon war. These cases demonstrate that maneuver warfare as a concept is also relevant against a hybrid opponent.

     

  • 240.
    Fritzson, Terese
    Swedish Defence University.
    Logistikfunktionens tekniska och taktiska utveckling: En fallstudie av 1.Pansardivisons utveckling mellan år 1935 till 19452018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines the development of technology and of tactics in the logistics branch. Previous studies discuss a wide range of theories that investigates technology and tactical development for combat units, but it is still unknown how the development of logistics units can be explained. The ambition with this bachelor thesis is to develop a theory that clarifies if the development of the logistics branch’s technology and tactics can be explained with the same theories as for the combat units, or if the process depends on the combat units new requirements that arise from their development.

    This research is based on a one-case study of the German 1.Panzer division’s combat unit and logistics branch during its active years 1935 to 1945. The analysis is based on Lautenschlägers theory regarding development of technology and tactics. The results comfirm that Lautenschlägers theory explicates the development in the combat units but not in the logistics branch. The results of the analysis instead comfirm that tha logistics brach’s technology and tactics development depends on the combat units and that an independent developing process is absent.

  • 241.
    Furugård, Alf
    Swedish Defence University.
    Principen om överraskning – en daterad tanke i modern marin krigföring?2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The principles of war are appreciated as guidelines in doctrines and theorist Robert R. Leonhard states that surprise is more vital than ever in combat, but criticism is equally distributed. The principles might not even be valid since they lack examination systematically and empirically. 

    The purpose of this study is to examine the principle of surprise through a case study based upon naval operations during the Yom Kippur and Falklands War. 

    This tentative study is based on the thoughts of classical theorists. These thoughts are operationalized and subsequently investigated in literature in order to evaluate the validity. 

    The results show that the principle of surprise is valid to some extent in modern combat, but the factors validity may vary. The principle of surprise also becomes more nuanced in this study, as indicators and examples became connected to the principle. 

    It can be concluded that the study identifies a need for further empirical research as well as investigation on whether new factors can be discovered in modern combat. 

  • 242.
    Furuseth, Ole
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Har man i tilstrekkelig grad ivaretatt den mennesklige faktoren i utviklingen av NNEC ML?2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis have been to evaluate to what extend the ongoing development of Nato Network Enabling Capabilities Maturity levels, ( NNEC ML) have incorporated the human factor, or if the development is focusing to much on the technological aspects. As a background I have described the NNEC Maturity levels and to central elements; Defence lines of development and NNEC Value chain. In my thesis I point out different areas where the human factor is not taken enough into consideration, and I argue for a shift in focus from technology to the human factor. My conclusion is that it is necessary to shift focus from technology to the human factor in the following development if we shall succeed in bringing NATO and the different nations to the highest maturity level, Coherent. There is no doubt that technology is important, but it seems like the word networked is interpreted to be only a matter of technology. Concerning aspects like cultural understanding and the western linear way of thinking, it is necessary to broaden the meaning of the word networked to include the human factor in a greater sense. NNEC ML 5, Coherent means a maturity level where it is unnatural to operate in any other way than networked. A prerequisite to achieve this maturity level is that the people in the network feel familiar with the system they are operating, and trust their coalition partners. If we shall succeed in bringing the NATO coalition and the different nations to the highest maturity level it is essential that the human factor is prioritized in the following development. For the time being, the human factor is not emphasized enough.

  • 243. Fåhraeus, Tonie
    et al.
    Rydmark, Joacim
    The need for information in future wars1998In: Proceedings of the 4th International Command and Control Research & Technology Symposium, 1998Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 244.
    Gabert, Antoine
    Swedish National Defence College. University of Defence, Brno.
    The similarities and differences in the national security strategies of Sweden, Russia and the Czech Republic2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is a comparative study of the national security strategies of Sweden, Russia and the Czech Republic. The analysis investigates the contextual analysis made by each country and the identified security threats. To compare and find out the similarities and differences two theoretical approaches are used: realism and liberalism. To compare and identify the threats a five factor model is used, originating of general military threat assessment.

  • 245.
    Gailan, Mohammed
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL).
    National Security Concerns And The Kurdistan Region In A New Middle East: From Rebellion To Statehood: The Influences Of Power, Threat Enviornment And Opportunity Structures On The Choice Of Becoming An Independent State2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Under which conditions do some nations and de facto state actors with relative power assert their statehood and independence? What factors should we focus on when we assess such cases? How much can we relate a nation’s choice and path to statehood and independence to its national security concerns? The aim of this case study has been to answer the questions asked above and explain why nations during some periods do not choose to declare independence and form their own state and during other periods they aim to do so. The case of the Kurdistan region of Iraq has been selected and studied both due the drastic regional changes in the Middle East since Saddam Hussein’s fall and the rise Islamic State in Iraq and Syria. During 2003-2005, the US invaded Iraq, toppled Saddam Hussein and destroyed the Iraqi army. Unlike the expectations that the Kurds would declare independence, they did not do so. However, 14 years after the fall of Saddam Hussein and establishment of the new Iraq, the Kurds aim to declare independence and form their own state. Hence, the puzzle is why not then and 14 years later? Inspired by realism, nationalist movement theory and rational strategic actor, three interrelated hypotheses have been tested and verified, which lay ground for a theoretical and explanatory model for this and similar cases within the fields of security studies and international relations. Process tracing has been used as an additional analytical tool in order to detect critical junctures and the chain of events that have produced the two different outcomes. The empirical material is mainly based on a fieldwork conducted in the Kurdistan region followed up by 12 individual qualitative interviews with a number of highly ranked Kurdish political and military officials including the President of the Kurdistan region, the Foreign Minister of the Kurdistan region, a senior Foreign and Security Advisor, three Peshmerga Generals and six members of both Kurdistan and Iraqi Parliaments. Building on the previous research, the findings of this study suggest that the choice and decision for becoming an independent and sovereign de jure state is closely related to a nation’s national security concerns and it is the same factors that causes a nation to declare/not declare independence during different periods of time. They are: (1) changes in power relations and access to a certain degree of indirect/direct external support and cooperation, (2) the existence/non-existence of national security threats and threat environments and (3) the rise of opportunity structures, strategic thinking and the ability to mobilize resources.

  • 246.
    Garström, Martin
    Swedish Defence University.
    Wayne p. Hughes och Geoffrey till: en teoriprövande fallstudie på Yom Kippur-kriget 19732019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the current research, the factors of success and foundational principles of war are vaguely described; this is in spite of their prominent occurrence in military doctrines. There seems to be a lack of empirical evidence underpinning the theories of Wayne P. Hughes (2000) and Geoffrey Till (2014) and also few or none precursor studies that apply these frameworks to the analysis of modern sea battles, which reduces their theoretical validity. This paper aims to address the gap in empirical research in the field by applying the theories of Hughes and Till to a case-study examination of the Yom-Kippur war 1973 and to determine their utility and relevance for analysing modern naval warfare. The findings of the case-study indicate that Hughes’ theory in particular can contribute to the theoretical analysis of modern naval warfare since all factors of success were fulfilled. Nine of the eleven factors of Till's theory were identified in the analysis, and these nine are regarded as having high explanatory power. The remaining two factors partly identified in the analysis are regarded as having less relevance as factors of success for modern naval warfare. More empirical studies have to be researched to allow generalization of this papers results.

  • 247.
    Gertsson, Jonas
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Försvarsmaktens befälssystemsreform: Från Ny Befälsordning till Tvåbefälssystemet2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this thesis is to analyse the present and the previous officer systems. Thefocus of the study is to discern what in the application of the new officer system will differfrom the old one, namely what its new features will be. The author intends to critically revisehow the two systems differ from each other and what pros and cons they each have.In 1983 the One-level Command System was introduced in Sweden. It did not have anyequivalent in other armed forces around the world. This system has been debated andcriticized immensely and in January 2006 the decision was made to reintroduce a consolidatedofficer system in the shape of an “all rank system”. This thesis intends to show the alterationswhich have been made as well as to examine the pros and cons of the two systems.This study has been carried out with the help and use of a qualitative method and mainly theuse of official documents and inquiries.The study shows that there are several benefits and disadvantages in both systems. Byintroducing the “all rank system” the Swedish National Defence has made an attempt toremedy the shortcomings of the one-level command system as well as to keep a portion of thelegacy from the earlier systems.

  • 248.
    Giannakopoulos, Andreas
    Swedish Defence University.
    The European Union’s Military Cooperation in the Face of International Terrorism: A Constructivist Institutionalist Analysis of the British Case2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper sets out to answer the research question “Has the post-September 11 ‘war on terror’changed the way in which the EU approaches military cooperation, despite the unwillingness ofmember states to cooperate on the matter and to surrender national sovereignty over themilitary? If so, how?” in order to test the theoretical framework of constructivist institutionalismin the setting of counterterrorist military centralisation and cooperation within the EU.Constructivist institutionalism predicts the drive towards institutional communitarisation bymember-states, in terms of discourse, norms, ideas, and practices. In order to test this, the case ofthe United Kingdom is chosen, as the least likely case of a drive towards militarycommunitarisation. In particular, the British discourse, norms, ideas, and practices following the2005 London Bombings and 2015 Paris attacks are examined. However, the progress towardscommunitarisation is not observed in these cases, as there is no mention of EU militarycooperation. These results are not what the theory predicts, and indeed, EU militarycommunitarisation is currently taking place, at least discursively. This reveals a shortcoming ofthe theory, as it assumes the underlying institutionalist norms of itself to be shared by anymember-states as well. The conclusion arrived upon is that whilst constructivist institutionalismis a thorough and holistic theory, it must be further developed in order to be usable in theanalysis of not only institutions, but also their member-states and their behaviour.

  • 249.
    Granberg, Staffan
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division, Sektionen för krigsspel.
    Hulterström, Patrik
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Ecological Psychology: A Framework for Wargame Design2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 250.
    Granåsen, Magdalena
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    Barius, Per
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Command and Control Section.
    Hallberg, Niklas
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    Josefsson, Anders
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Command and Control Section.
    Exploring Mission Command in a Concept for Future Command and Control2018In: 23rd International Command and Control Research & Technology Symposium (ICCRTS): Multi-Domain C2 / [ed] Alberts, David, International Command and Control Institute , 2018, Vol. Topic 3, article id 22Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Future Command and Control (C2) need to be both agile and resilient to cope with unpredictable operational environments and to make use of the technological advances. The Swedish Armed Forces develops a concept for future C2 of military operations. The objective of this paper is to explore the utilization of mission command in a future C2 concept. Sweden has a solid tradition of mission command, promoted by the Swedish culture of participation and empowerment. However, the future operational environment demands a need for organizational agility, thus changing the prerequisites for mission command. The future C2 concept, which is under development, encompasses centralized and decentralized command in fixed and temporary organizations. Centralized approaches may be preferred when it comes to prioritization of technologically advanced exclusive resources. On the other hand, dynamic situations demand rapid decision making and seizing the opportunity given in the moment. The future operational environment includes hybrid warfare and gray zone issues, demanding thorough analysis in order to foresee the political consequences of decisions. Sensor and communication technologies enable enhanced situation awareness; however, the infrastructure is vulnerable. The current paper analyses the application of mission command in the future operational environment, and further mission command in relation to organizational agility. The conclusion is that mission command is still relevant in the complex future operational environment. However, the increasingly complex operational environment demands continuous development of the C2 function.

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