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  • 151.
    Hansén, Dan
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet och strategi (ISS), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Inte lätt att lära av krisen2003Inngår i: Framsyn, ISSN 1650-2671, nr 4, s. 26-27Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 152.
    Hansén, Dan
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet och strategi (ISS), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Krisen, polisen och politiken2003Inngår i: Det utfordrende politiarbeidet: Om krisehåndtering og utradisjonelle etterforskningsmetoder / [ed] Myklebust &Thomassen, Oslo: Politihøgskolen , 2003, s. 25-49Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 153.
    Hansén, Dan
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Kriser och policyförändring2015Inngår i: Perspektiv på krishantering / [ed] Deverell, Edward; Hansén, Dan; Olsson, Eva-Karin, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, 1, s. 171-194Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 154.
    Hansén, Dan
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet och strategi (ISS), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    The 1975 Stockholm embassy seizure: crisis and the absence of reform2008Inngår i: Governing after crisis: the politics of investigation, accountability and learning / [ed] Boin, Arjen & Mcconnell, Allan & 't Hart, Paul, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press , 2008, s. 183-207Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 155.
    Hansén, Dan
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    The Crisis Management of the Murder of Olof Palme: A Cognitive-Institutional Analysis2000Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 156.
    Hansén, Dan
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet och strategi (ISS), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    The policy process and the impact of crisis: The evolution of Swedish counter terrorism policies2005Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 157.
    Hansén, Dan
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet och strategi (ISS), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Hagström, Ahn-Za
    I krisen prövas ordningsmakten: sex fallstudier av extraordinära händelser där det svenska rättssamhället har satts på prov2004Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 158.
    Hansén, Dan
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet och strategi (ISS), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Leijonhielm, Jan
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet och strategi (ISS), CATS (Centrum för Asymmetriska Hot- och Terrorismstudier).
    Policyförändringar efter den 11 september i förhållandet mellan underrättelseorganisationer och säkerhetstjänster: Danmark, Schweiz, Storbritannien och Tyskland i jämförelse2008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 159.
    Hansén, Dan
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet och strategi (ISS), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Narby, Petter
    Nohrstedt, Daniel
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet och strategi (ISS), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Krisbeslutsfattande i Regeringskansliet: en kartläggning av kritiska beslutssituationer2007Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 160.
    Hansén, Dan
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet och strategi (ISS), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Nordqvist, Jens
    En fantastisk idé: Operation Cobra2007Bok (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 161.
    Hansén, Dan
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet och strategi (ISS), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Nordqvist, Jens
    Kommando Holger Meins: Dramat på den västtyska ambassaden och Operation Leo2005Bok (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 162.
    Hansén, Dan
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Centrum för totalförsvar och samhällets säkerhet, CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Ranstorp, MagnusFörsvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Centrum för totalförsvar och samhällets säkerhet, CATS (Centrum för Asymmetriska Hot- och Terrorismstudier).
    Cooperating Against Terrorism: EU-US Relations Post September 112007Konferanseproceedings (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 163.
    Hansén, Dan
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet och strategi (ISS), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Stern, EricFörsvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet och strategi (ISS), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Crisis Management in a Transitional Society: The Latvian Experience2000Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 164.
    Hansén, Dan
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet och strategi (ISS), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Stern, Eric
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet och strategi (ISS), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    From Crisis to Trauma: The Palme Assassination Case2001Inngår i: Managing Crises: Threats, Dilemmas, Opportunities / [ed] Rosenthal, Boin and Comfort, Springfield: Charles C. Thomas , 2001, s. 177-199Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 165.
    Hansén, Dan
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Stern, Eric
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    I skuggan av ett statsrådsmord2003Inngår i: Framsyn, ISSN 1650-2671, nr 4, s. 9-11Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 166.
    Helena, Hermansson
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Disaster Response in Turkey: Conditions Promoting Cross-Sectoral Collaboration and Implications for Effectiveness2017Inngår i: Administration & Society, ISSN 0095-3997, E-ISSN 1552-3039Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Local and civil society can play decisive roles in disaster response. Yet, the disaster management literature is unclear regarding the conditions that enable cross-sectoral collaboration. Using a collaborative governance framework and 44 semi-structured interviews, this study investigates how trust, pre-existing relations, interdependence, knowledge, and resources affect cross-sectoral collaboration during disaster response in Turkey. The results illustrate how these factors interact with system context factors, like political compatibility, to facilitate or hinder cross-sectoral collaboration. The study concludes that cross-sectoral collaboration is no panacea for successful disaster response but empirical examples suggest that cross-sectoral collaboration can contribute to reducing suboptimal disaster response.

  • 167.
    Hellman, Maria
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Statsvetenskapliga avdelningen.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Statsvetenskapliga avdelningen.
    EU Armed Forces’ use of social media in areas of deployment2016Inngår i: Media and Communication, ISSN 2083-5701, E-ISSN 2183-2439, Vol. 4, nr 1, s. 51-62Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The advent of social media can be seen both as a risk and an opportunity by armed forces. Previous research has primarily examined whether or not the use of social media endangers or strengthens armed forces’ strategic narrative. We examine armed forces’ perceptions of risks and opportunities on a broad basis, with a particular focus on areas of deployment. The article is based on a survey of perceptions of social media amongst the armed forces of EU member states, thus adding to previous research through its comparative perspective. Whereas previous research has mainly focused on larger powers, such as the US and the UK, this article includes the views of the armed forces of 26 EU states, including several smaller nations. In analyzing the results we asked whether or not risk and opportunity perceptions were related to national ICT maturity and the existence of a social media strategy. The analysis shows that perceptions of opportunities outweigh perceptions of risks, with marketing and two-way communication as the two most prominent opportunities offered by the use of social media. Also, armed forces in countries with a moderate to high ICT maturity emphasize social media as a good way for marketing purposes.

  • 168.
    Hermansson, Helena
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier). Statsvetenskapliga institutionen, Uppsala universitet.
    Centralized Disaster Management Collaboration in Turkey2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Following unprecedented earthquakes in 1999, highly centralized Turkey initiated reforms that aimed to improve disaster management collaboration and to empower local authorities. In 2011, two earthquakes hit the country anew affecting the city of Van and town of Erciş in Turkey’s southeast.

    In attempts to reduce disaster risk, global disaster risk reduction frameworks and disaster scholars and practitioners advocate collaborative and decentralized disaster management strategies. This thesis investigates how such strategies are received in a centralized and hierarchical national political-administrative system that largely is the anti-thesis of the prescribed solutions. More specifically, this research investigates the barriers and prerequisites for disaster management collaboration between both public and civil society actors in Turkey (during preparedness, response, and recovery) as well as how Turkey’s political-administrative system affects disaster management collaboration and its outcomes. The challenges to decentralization of disaster management are also investigated.

    Based on forty-four interviews with actors ranging from national to village level and NGOs, the findings suggest that the political-administrative system can alter the relative importance, validity, and applicability of previously established enabling or constraining conditions for collaboration. This may in turn challenge previous theoretical assumptions regarding collaboration.

    By adopting a mode of collaboration that fit the wider political-administrative system, collaborative disaster management progress was achieved in Turkey’s national level activities. Although there were exceptions, collaboration spanning sectors and/or administrative levels were generally less forthcoming, partly due to the disjoint character of the political-administrative system. Political divergence between local and central actors made central-local collaboration difficult but these barriers were partly trumped by other prerequisites enabling collaboration like interdependence and pre-existing relations. The findings suggest that the specific attributes of disasters may both help and hinder disaster management collaboration. Such collaboration generally improved disaster response. The findings also indicate that the decentralization attempts may have been premature as the conditions for ensuring a functional decentralization of disaster management are presently lacking. Decentralization attempts are commonly suggested to increase local capacity and local participation but the findings of this dissertation suggest that in Turkey, these commodities may currently have better chances of being increased by refraining from decentralization.

  • 169.
    Hermansson, Helena
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier). Statsvetenskapliga institutionen, Uppsala universitet.
    Challenges to Decentralization of Disaster Management in Turkey: The Role of Political-Administrative Context2018Inngår i: International Journal of Public Administration, ISSN 0190-0692, E-ISSN 1532-4265Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Global disaster policy frameworks promote decentralization as a prerequisite of good disaster governance. Using 44 interviews, this study contributes to the literature that focuses on disasters and decentralization by investigating three systemic mechanisms that seemingly challenge decentralization of disaster management in Turkey: introduction of oversight systems, resource-allocation failure, and central–local collaboration. The results indicate that these mechanisms are enabled by a combination of political-administrative system characteristics and disaster-induced processes. To better understand how to secure the benefits of decentralization, we should engage with a wide range of disaster management actor perspectives, and integrate research on political-administrative systems and collaborative governance.

  • 170.
    Hermansson, Helena
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Disaster Management Collaboration in Turkey: Assessing Progress and Challenges of Hybrid Network Governance2016Inngår i: Public Administration, ISSN 0033-3298, E-ISSN 1467-9299, Vol. 94, nr 2, s. 333-349Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Managing disasters generally demands multiorganizational collaboration and collaborative skills. In Turkey, observed shortcomings in disaster management collaboration prompted a reorganization of the disaster management system that led to the emergence of a centralized hybrid network. The network governance literature generally heralds decentralized organization and shared network governance, which facilitate collaboration by maximizing trust and legitimacy and minimizing power imbalances. Through the use of 24 semi-structured interviews, this article's objective is to assess the applicability of prior theoretical assumptions regarding interorganizational collaboration in a political-administrative context different from that in which they were originally developed. The study contributes to the theoretical discussion about how political-administrative system attributes might influence interorganizational disaster management collaboration. The results suggest that ‘tailor-fitting’ interorganizational network designs to the political-administrative culture can be beneficial for collaborative disaster management. Furthermore, results suggest that more effort should be devoted to examining cases where actors manage to overcome barriers to collaboration despite challenging institutional and political-administrative landscapes.

  • 171.
    Hollis, Simon
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Bridging International Relations with Disaster Studies: The case of disaster-conflict scholarship2018Inngår i: Disasters. The Journal of Disaster Studies, Policy and Management, ISSN 0361-3666, E-ISSN 1467-7717, Vol. 42, nr 1, s. 19-40Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    International relations and disaster studies have much to gain by thinking critically about their respective theoretical and epistemological assumptions. Yet, few studies to date have sought to assess the potential value of linking these two disciplines. This paper begins to address this short-fall by examining the relationship between disasters and conflict as a research sphere that intersects international relations and disaster studies. Through an analysis of whether or not disasters contribute to intranational and international conflict, this paper not only provides a review of the state of the art, but also serves to invite scholars to reflect on related concepts from other fields to strengthen their own approaches to the study of disasters in an international setting. An evaluation of the conceptual and theoretical contributions of each subject area provides useful heuristics for the development of disaster–conflict scholarship and encourages alternative modes of knowledge production through interdisciplinarity.

  • 172.
    Hollis, Simon
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Competing and Complimentary Discourses in Global Disaster Risk Management2014Inngår i: Risk, Hazards & Crisis in Public Policy, ISSN 1944-4079, E-ISSN 1944-4079, Vol. 5, nr 3, s. 342-363Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses the underlying structures that contribute to the boundaries of appropriate behavior in global Disaster Risk Management (DRM). Understood as a policy field committed to mitigating the effects of natural hazards and assisting states in responding to disasters, international dimensions of DRM have received increased attention by academics and practitioners. Yet, little reflection has been made on the ideational structures that define this field. Based on a discourse analysis on key texts, this study argues that three dominant categories—a humanitarian ethics of care, scientific rationality and sovereignty—demarcate the boundaries of cooperation on DRM. Understanding the relationship between these categories is considered vital for reflecting on the current and future trajectory of this important policy field.

  • 173.
    Hollis, Simon
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Disaster Risk Reduction in the Caribbean: Opportunities and Challenges for Achieving Greater Resilience2014Inngår i: Caribbean Journal of International Relationships & Diplomacy, Vol. 2, nr 4, s. 121-132Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The Caribbean experience of natural hazards and disasters has continued to increase over the last half-century. The intensity and number of weather-related disasters combined with existing social, political and economic vulnerabilities form a complex arrangement that threatens the livelihoods of individuals and communities. Global attention to at-risk regions, such as the Caribbean and the Pacific, has intensified in the last decade as an array of international and regional actors have advocated a set of prescriptive action points based on the Hyogo Framework Programme for Action (HFA). As the decade of HFA draws to a close, and as the international community prepare to negotiate the post-HFA in March 2015, it is timely to ask whether the HFA has reached the societal level as its targeted audience. Based on extensive interviews with members of the international community, local disaster managers and intellectuals in the Caribbean region, this paper emphasises the limited success of the HFA and the importance of culture as a long-term strategy for ensuring a safer future.

  • 174.
    Hollis, Simon
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Global and local re-presentations of resilience in the Caribbean: the role of art in the construction of the self2018Inngår i: Resilience - International Policies, Practices and Discourses, ISSN 2169-3293, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 35-53Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The global diffusion and reification of resilience – as the innate acceptance of vulnerability and suffering – has become an increasingly common feature in global development and humanitarian discourses. The advocacy of Disaster Risk Reduction represents a central technique of this global ontology of resilience that aims to influence the individual, the society and the state. This article explores how this global worldview of resilience is received by local rationalities of resilience in the Caribbean. This is achieved by examining Caribbean art as a re-presentational form of identity that shapes distinct ontological understandings of insecurity and vulnerability, which subsequently affects the possibilities of subjectivisation which lead towards local creative resistance or a global consent of suffering.

  • 175.
    Hollis, Simon
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier). Geneva School of Governance.
    Preventing Disasters in Europe: Challenges and Opportunities for Translating Global Visions into Local Practices2015Inngår i: European Civil Security Governance: Diversity and Cooperation in Crisis and Disaster Management / [ed] Bossong, Raphael & Hegemann, Hendrik, Palgrave Macmillan, 2015, 1, s. 117-137Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 176.
    Hollis, Simon
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    The Global Construction of EU Development Policy2014Inngår i: Journal of European Integration, ISSN 0703-6337, E-ISSN 1477-2280, Vol. 36, nr 6, s. 567-583Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    At the turn of the twentieth century, 191 countries agreed to realize the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The European Union (EU) has incorporated many of these goals into its development policies. However, the effect of the MDGs on the construction of EU development policy has not been achieved through a homogenous diffusion of global development norms, but through a heterogeneous process: some MDGs have had a greater impact on EU policy formation than others. By reconceptualizing the EU as a receiver of norms, this paper aims to locate the scope conditions of global norm convergence in EU development policy through a comparison of disaster risk reduction and urban development in slum dwellings. Informed through world society theory, the findings point to the importance of norm ‘theorization’ in explaining the scope conditions of norm diffusion.

  • 177.
    Hollis, Simon
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    The Role of Regional Organizations in Disaster Risk Management: A Strategy for Global Resilience2015Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 178.
    Hollis, Simon
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Ekengren, Magnus
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Statsvetenskapliga avdelningen.
    Country Study: Norway2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The Norwegian state has a long-standing tradition of protecting its citizens from a range of threats from natural disasters, infectious diseases, industrial accidents, critical infrastructure failure, to terrorist attacks. This case study provides a broad and detailed description on the main features of the modern Norwegian civil security system. It explains how it functions, it describes the system’s political and cultural context, and it addresses the changes that have occurred since the Oslo bombing and the Utøya shootings in 2011 July 22. The coordination of human and material resources to prevent, prepare, respond to, and recover from, various crises is constructed along three guiding principles of responsibility, decentralization, and conformity. This not only means that responsibility for crisis management should be at the lowest possible level, but that the state and its society must also operate under normal standards, regardless of the type or extent of a particular crisis. As this study shows, most areas of the civil security system are infused with these defining principles. This can be seen, for example, in the discussion on the cultural elements that inform Norwegian society, the production of legislation, or in operational procedures used in responding to crises. In addition to these areas, this study also provides detailed descriptions on Norway’s administrative and legal traditions, its external cooperative endeavours, as well as the way in which the private sector and citizens interact with civil security system. In order to further understand the system, this study investigates three quality measures based on the extent to which the system is effective, efficient, and legitimate. An annex is also included that depicts the principal descriptive features of the study, as well as a case study on the H1N1 virus. Set within the dark shadows of the events that took place on July 22 – that could have been avoided through existing security measures according to Norwegian state authorities – this study concludes by highlighting the need for an increase in vigilance and efficiency of the Norwegian civil security system.

  • 179.
    Hollis, Simon
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Ekengren, Magnus
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Statsvetenskapliga avdelningen.
    Regional Organization Study: Barents Euro-Arctic Region2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This case study provides a comprehensive description of cooperation in the Barents Euro Arctic Region (BEAR). Regional cooperation in this area includes two inter-related organizations. The first is the Barents Euro-Arctic Regional Council (BEAC), which is as an intergovernmental forum that consists of Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Finland, and the Russian Federation. The second is the Barents Regional Council (BRC), which is an interregional forum that consists of 13 counties or provinces from northern Norway, Sweden and Finland and northwestern Russia. In the last 20 years this unique institutional framework has expanded to include cooperation not only on economic and social development, but also in the area of civil security. Building on and complementing existing cooperative endeavours in the field – such as cooperation in maritime and aeronautical search and rescue, existing bilateral agreements on emergency cooperation, and the 1986 Convention on Assistance in Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency – the members of the BEAC and the BRC institutionalized emergency management cooperation in 2008. This includes inter alia notification of emergencies, the establishment of a joint manual, simulation exercises, the exchange of personal, and training. While still young, this form of cooperation shows much promise in an increasingly important region of the world. This study describes civil security cooperation within the BEAR. In particular, it provides an overview of the regional organizations’ cultural, legal and institutional design and it describes the relationships between BEAR and its member states, citizens and stakeholder. The final section of this article also assesses the current state of play by analyzing the effectiveness, efficiency and legitimacy of BEAR in relation to its civil security activities.

  • 180.
    Hollis, Simon
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Ekengren, Magnus
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Statsvetenskapliga avdelningen.
    Regional Organization Study: Council of the Baltic Sea States2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes the current state of play and historical context of intergovernmental cooperation through the Council of the Baltic Sea States (CBSS) and its engagement with civil security. It addresses the organizational, institutional, and cultural frameworks of the CBSS, as well as the international context within which it is embedded. This provides an important backdrop for describing the civil security system, which the CBSS has fostered for over 20 years. Beginning with the establishment of an expert group on nuclear and radiological safety in 1992, the CBSS now participates in a wide range of cooperative endeavours, such as information exchange on forest firefighting and environmental pollution. This study also assesses CBSS civil security along three indicators that highlight the extent to which the system is effective, efficient and legitimate. It is argued that the CBSS is a regional organization that finds its strength as a platform for facilitating and encouraging cooperation on civil security; however, its actual capacity as an actor in civil security area remains low.

  • 181.
    Holmberg, Martin
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Ledningsvetenskapliga avdelningen (LVA).
    Hansén, Dan
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Uhr, Christian
    Lunds universitet.
    Situational Awareness and its Impact on Crisis-Induced Action: the Norwegian 22/7 Case2015Inngår i: Armed Forces for 2020 and beyond: Roles | Tasks | Expectations / [ed] Walter Feichtinger, Benedikt Hensellek, Wien: Federal Ministry of Defence and Sports, Austria , 2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 182.
    Holmberg, Martin
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Ledningsvetenskapliga avdelningen (LVA).
    Larsson, Gerry
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Bynander, Fredrik
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    A multidisciplinary approach to studying a societal crisis2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 183.
    Johansson, Anders
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Härenstam, Malin
    Swedish National Veterinary Institute (SVA), Uppsala.
    Knowledge Communication: A Key to Successful Crisis Management2013Inngår i: Biosecurity and bioterrorism, ISSN 1538-7135, E-ISSN 1557-850X, Vol. 11, nr Supplement 1, s. S260-S263Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A winning concept of crisis management can be summarized in 2 words: knowledge communication. If decision makers, communicators, experts, and the public understand what the crisis is about and share their knowledge, the process of handling it will be optimized. Effective crisis communication implies the necessity of an unhindered but purposeful exchange of information within and between authorities, organizations, media, involved individuals, and groups before, during, and after a crisis. This article focuses on the importance of the before, or prevention, part of a crisis since it holds a rich possibility to enhance the chances for successful crisis management of a bioterrorism incident. An extended perspective on crisis communication efficiently links to a more thorough understanding of risk perception with various stakeholders and the public, which also will be helpful for situational awareness. Furthermore, the grounded baseline for the dialogue type of crisis communication suitable in modern society and to modern social media is achieved by linking to those risk communication efforts that are made. The link between risk and crisis should be afforded more attention since, especially in biosecurity, there would be no crisis without risk negligence and poor or malfunctioning preventive efforts.

  • 184.
    Karlsson, Christer
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Parker, Charles
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Att leda eller inte leda?: USA och den globala klimatpolitiken2009Inngår i: Internationella studier, ISSN 0020-952X, nr 1, s. 25-31Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 185.
    Karlsson, Christer
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet och strategi (ISS).
    Parker, Charles
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Unionens kamp för klimatet: en obekväm sanning2008Inngår i: EU och den globala klimatfrågan: Europaperspektiv 2008 / [ed] Cramér, Per & Gustavsson, Sverker & Oxelheim, Lars, Santérus , 2008, s. 21-50Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 186.
    Karpenko, Anna
    et al.
    Information Office, Nordic Council of Ministers, Kaliningrad, Russia.
    Krasnov, Eugene
    Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Kaliningrad, Russia.
    Simons, Greg
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Conclusion2014Inngår i: Crisis Management Challenges in Kaliningrad / [ed] Karpenko, Anna; Krasnov, Eugene V; Simons, Greg, Ashgate, 2014, s. 189-208Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 187.
    Karpenko, Anna
    et al.
    Information Office, Nordic Council of Ministers, Kaliningrad, Russia.
    Krasnov, Eugene
    Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Kaliningrad, Russia.
    Simons, Greg
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier). Uppsala Centre for Russian and Eurasian Studies, Uppsala University.
    Introduction: Kaliningrad - Managing Evolving Crisis Challenges2014Inngår i: Crisis Management Challenges in Kaliningrad / [ed] Karpenko, Anna; Krasnov, Eugene V; Simons, Greg, Ashgate Publishing Group , 2014, s. 1-18Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 188.
    Konow Lund, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Journalism and Media Studies, Oslo, Norway; Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Bech, Isabel
    Department of Journalism and Media Studies, Oslo, Norway; Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Work First, Feel Later: How News Workers Reflect on Subjective Choices During a Terror Attack2017Inngår i: Putting a Face on It: Individual Exposure and Subjectivity in Journalism / [ed] Birgitte Kjos Fonn, Harald Hornmoen, Nathalie Hyde-Clarke and Yngve Benestad Hågvar, Cappelen Damm Akademisk / NOASP , 2017, s. 309-327Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In journalism studies, the discussion of objectivity as a strategic ritual is long stand-ing, while the impact of subjectivity and emotion upon journalism has received much less attention. During terror events, journalists’ notion of objectivity as a strategy is likely to be challenged due to unexpected autonomy. In order to explore how this unfolds, we have interviewed 24 journalists in three different news organ-isations shortly after the Norwegian terror attack in 2011, where 77 people were killed. Studies of what journalists experience during a terror attack, and how they reflect upon their experiences, are scarce. The present study addresses this gap, and in particular looks at how news workers deal with dilemmas where their percep-tions of professionalism are challenged.

  • 189.
    Konow Lund, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Journalism and Media Studies, Oslo, Norway; Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    News Frames and Global Terrorism Coverage in the UK and Norway: Context and Consequences for Humanitarian Issues2017Inngår i: The Routledge Companion To Media and Humanitarian Action / [ed] Robin Andersen and Purnaka L. de Silva, Routledge, 2017, 1, s. 221-230Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the potential of history for framing acts of terrorism, such as the July 5, 2005 British and the July 22,2011 Norwegian attacks, in the aftermath of September 11, 2011. It focuses in particular on the impact of historical analogies for creating meaning and framing new reporting at both local and global levels. In both caseslocal frames of reference and meaning addressed citizens’ emotional and communal needs, such as solace, a sense of historical legacy, and identity concerns. The global frame of reference differed. In the British case, historical analogies were foremost means of connecting that terror event to the broader “war on terror frame,” which facilitated the identification of motives and policy responses. In the Norwegian case, no such analogies existed, which meant that history was unable to provide a contextual understanding. In short, historical analogies can serve to bring order to chaos but also limit other explanations and arguments and, as such, hamper knowledge crucial in creating informed publics. Yet, to a large extent analogies are nationally contextualized. In order for journalistic accounts to create meaning and comfort for global audiences, stronger efforts should be made to communicate such values by using inclusive, comprehensible and relevant global analogies.

  • 190.
    Konow Lund, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Journalism and Media Studies, Oslo, Norway; Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Social Media’s Challenge to Journalistic Norms and Values during a Terror Attack2017Inngår i: Digital Journalism, ISSN 2167-0811, E-ISSN 2167-082X, Vol. 5, nr 9, s. 1192-1204Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past decade, the frequency of terror attacks around the world has increased. In the context of the 22 July 2011 terror attacks in Norway, social media use by citizens, and even victims, became an essential feature of reporting. Social media confronted the legacy media's way of covering crisis events. It raised questions about traditional journalism's ability to handle audience's as, not only news consumers, but also producers. In the present article, we look at the ways in which the professional norms and values of traditional journalism are specifically challenged by social media use in times of terror, using the 22 July 2011 attacks as a case study. We find that Norwegian journalists initially held to their professional roles, and to the classic self-representational principles of journalism, including objectivity, autonomy and immediacy. When they integrated social media into their traditional platforms and modes of coverage, they framed it as a "source" of sorts. As the 22 July 2011 event coverage became more focused on the collective grief felt by the nation, in turn, the traditional journalistic principles of objectivity and autonomy became less relevant, enabling yet more audience participation and social media use in relation to the attack.

  • 191.
    Konow Lund, Maria
    et al.
    Høgskolen i Oslo og Akershus, Norge.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Centrum för totalförsvar och samhällets säkerhet, CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    When Routines are Not Enough: Journalists' crisis management during the 22/7 domestic terror attack in Norway2016Inngår i: Journalism Practice, ISSN 1751-2786, E-ISSN 1751-2794, Vol. 10, nr 3, s. 358-372Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Interest in crisis management among journalism scholars grew in the wake of the terror attacks of September 11, 2001. Yet, few studies explore journalists and their organizations from a newsroom and organizational crisis management perspective. In this study, we study journalists’ ability to conduct news work when faced with a frame-breaking news event—in this case, the July 22, 2011 attacks in Norway. Dividing the journalistic response to these events into three stages, each with its own particular challenges, we have been able to unpack how these Norwegian journalists were capable of reporting on the events despite the chaos and uncertainty that followed in their wake, including the fact that the newsroom itself suffered severe damage from the bomb blast. This study shows that coping mechanisms in times of organizational stress will range from the expected (routine, habit) to the unexpected (improvisation, bricolage). The individual must pick up where the organization leaves off, relying upon experience and professionalism as well as face-to-face interaction and the assistance of whatever technology survive

  • 192.
    Konow-Lund, Maria
    et al.
    Høgskolen i Oslo.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Crisis management in media organizations: when routines are not enough2014Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 193.
    Koraeus, Mats
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Finding Expertise: General Problems and Best Practices in the Use of External Expertise in Crises2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 194.
    Koraeus, Mats
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Stressing Knowledge: Organisational closed-ness and knowledge acquisition under pressure2017Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Organisations have been analytically conceptualised as being somewhat analogous to individuals for a long time. They have culture; they can learn; and they can behave in various odd ways. But how far can the simile be stretched? What other types of organisational cognition can we imagine? And what benefits can we gain by introducing new perspectives of this kind? 

    This study shows that organisations can exhibit familiar symptoms of stress, such as closing themselves to the outside world and becoming unreceptive to external stimuli and input. They retreat to what is familiar and safe and put on blinders to hide anything that does not already fit with how they feel things should be, often in situations where they would be best served by being as open to and perceptive of these external stimuli as possible. Using a model of organisational behaviour that connects external pressure to an internal mode of operation and to specific knowledge-seeking behaviours, the study examines two case pairs—two success stories and two catastrophic failures—to examine patterns of organisational cognition. By comparing and contrasting the failure of the FBI during the 1993 Waco siege with its subsequent success during the 1996 Montana Freemen standoff, and doing the same with the Swedish Foreign Ministry’s handling of the 2004 Southeast Asian tsunami and the 2006 evacuation from the war in Lebanon, a pattern emerges where certain types of knowledge proved to be the key to staying as open-minded, responsive, and dynamic as these crises demanded. This knowledge can be used both during a crisis to resolve some of the confusion and time pressure that is endemic to such situations, as well as before a crisis to mitigate or even stave off the approaching chaos.

  • 195.
    Koraeus, Mats
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Who knows?: The use of knowledge management in crisis2008Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 196.
    Koraeus, Mats
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier). Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Stern, Eric
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Exploring the Crisis Management/Knowledge Management Nexus2013Inngår i: Strategic Intelligence Management: National Security Imperatives and Information and Communications / [ed] Simeon Yates & Babak Akghar, Oxford, UK: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2013, s. 134-149Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Crises are becoming a ubiquitous phenomenon and are—like the example of Hurricane Isaac—typically surrounded by complex social and technical factors beyond the competence of generalist leaders. By their very nature, crises are associated with considerable uncertainty. Knowing this, crisis managers frequently call upon experts to provide relevant information on specific subject matter. During the past decade and a half, a theoretical and methodological field of study has emerged addressing this issue: how to find missing knowledge, transfer it to where it is most needed, and institutionalize it for future use. This subject is called “knowledge management” and is rooted in older theories on organizational knowledge and organizational learning. In fact, these very same organizational learning theories form the foundation for the post-crisis learning perspectives, which are increasingly prominent in the field of crisis management. Hence, one may question why these two management subdisciplines have not been more systematically combined and integrated. In crisis management, learning is often seen as a process that takes place after a crisis has been resolved, in preparation for the next crisis. Yet, knowledge management considers knowledge creation and learning to be a constant process. Ideally, combining these two perspectives could stimulate some kind of “instant learning” during an actual crisis, so that relevant lessons are learned and implemented for the current crisis as well as for future crises.

    A potential problem with combining crisis management and knowledge management is the difference in typical time frames associated with the two management subfields. By definition, crises involve a strong element of urgency and thus require immediate action. Knowledge management, however, was born out of attempts to improve consumer product innovation cycles, which can run several months or even years. The possibility of tapping into the knowledge management techniques for finding and accessing new or unfamiliar knowledge (e.g., calling in experts) is very alluring, but the question is if such techniques can fit into the tight timeframe associated with crises.

  • 197.
    Krasnov, Eugene
    et al.
    Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Russia.
    Karpenko, AnnaInformation Office of the Nordic Council of Ministers, Russia.Simons, GregFörsvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier). Uppsala University.
    Crisis Management Challenges in Kaliningrad2014Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Crisis Management Challenges in Kaliningrad captures the evolving nature of the types of crises faced by a society as it transforms and evolves. Once the westernmost bastion of the Soviet Union and now the westernmost part of the Russian Federation, the Kaliningrad Oblast remains cut off from direct land communication with mainland Russia and provides a condensed, real-life laboratory in which to observe changing political, technological and economic priorities in Post-Soviet society. Expert contributors from the region chart the tensions, problems and opportunities created by the collapse of the Soviet Union in December 1991 and examine the change in status and situation of the Kaliningrad Oblast. By looking at a selection of economic, environmental and social crises a historical link between the Soviet and Post-Soviet eras is formed and rigorously examined.

  • 198.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Bynander, Fredrik
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Schyberg, Erik
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Holmberg, Martin
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Ledningsvetenskapliga avdelningen (LVA).
    Crisis management at the government offices: a Swedish case study2015Inngår i: Disaster Prevention and Management, ISSN 0965-3562, E-ISSN 1758-6100, Vol. 24, nr 5, s. 542-552Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to gain a deeper understanding of crisis management at the Swedish Government office level in an international crisis by using a multiperspective approach, and paying particular attention to factors contributing favorably to the management process.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The Eyjafjallajökull volcano eruption on Iceland in 2010 was accompanied by an ash cloud that caused serious air traffic problems in large parts of Europe. Interviews were conducted with seven high-level informants at the Swedish Government offices and two informants at the Swedish Aviation Authority. An interview guide inspired by governance, command and control, and leadership perspectives was used.

    Findings

    A Crisis Coordination Secretariat, organizationally placed directly under the prime minister, coordinated the operation. A combination of mandate (hard power) and social smoothness (soft power) on part of the Crisis Coordination Secretariat contributed to confidence building and a collaboration norm between the ministries, and between the ministries and their underlying agencies. Preparatory training, exercises and a high level of system knowledge on part of the Crisis Coordination Secretariat – contextual intelligence – also contributed to a favorable crisis management.

    Research limitations/implications

    The study relies on retrospective self-report data only from a limited group of informants making generalizations difficult.Practical implications– The organizational positioning of the Crisis Coordination Secretariat directly under the prime minister gave its members formal authority. These members in turn skillfully used social flexibility to build confidence and a will to collaborate. This combination of hard and soft power is recommended.

    Originality/value

    The multiperspective approach used when designing the interview guide and when interpreting the responses was new as well as the focus on factors contributing to crisis management success.

  • 199.
    Lindberg, Helena
    et al.
    Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap, MSB.
    Sundelius, Bengt
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Whole-of-Society Disaster Resilience: The Swedish Way2013Inngår i: The McGraw-Hill Homeland Security Handbook (2nd Edition) / [ed] David Kamien, New York: McGraw-Hill, 2013, 2, s. 1295-1319Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 200.
    Lindholm, Kristina
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet och strategi (ISS), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Jämställdhet i verksamhetsutveckling2011 (oppl. 1)Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
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