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  • 151.
    Ries, Tomas
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    The Case for Forward Resilience in the Baltic States2016In: Forward Resilience: Protecting Society in an Interconnected World / [ed] Hamilton, Daniel S., Washington DC: Center for Transatlantic Relations , 2016, p. 85-90Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 152.
    Ries, Tomas
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Uncertainty, Analysis and Intuition2017In: The Bridge Builder: essays in Honor of Professor Bengt Sundelius / [ed] Ulrika Mörth, Charles Parker and Fredrik Bynander, Stockholm: Crismart , 2017, 1st, p. 133-152Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 153.
    Rietjens, Sebastiaan
    et al.
    Netherlands Defence Academy, The Netherlands (NLD).
    Ruffa, Chiara
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy. Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Understanding Coherence in UN Peacekeeping: A Conceptual Framework2019In: International Peacekeeping, ISSN 1353-3312, E-ISSN 1743-906X, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 383-407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coherence is a core objective in most multinational interventions and seems of particular relevance to UN peacekeeping missions with their increasing complexity and multidimensionality. Yet, coherence has rarely been studied empirically. We borrow the concept of ‘fit’ from organizational theory and use it to develop a conceptual framework to study coherence in peacekeeping operations. Fit is the degree of match between what is required by the mandate, on the one hand, and an institutional set-up and the implemented practices, on the other. We identify three relevant dimensions of fit to study coherence: strategic and organizational, cultural and human and operational fit. Our empirical material focuses on the UN mission in Mali (MINUSMA) and in particular on the interplay between the intelligence components and the rest of the mission. We draw upon a large empirical dataset containing over 120 semi-structured interviews, field observations and participation in pre-deployment exercises and evaluation sessions. Our empirical analysis suggests that low level of fit across several dimensions leads to inertial and widespread frictions in the practice of peacekeeping and could potentially undermine peacekeeping effectiveness. Building on existing scholarship on micro-level approaches to peacekeeping, we hope to further the debate on organizational dynamics within peace operations.

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  • 154.
    Ruffa, Chiara
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy. Department of Peace and Conflict Research at Uppsala University.
    Case study methods: case selection and case analysis2020In: The SAGE Handbook of Research Methods in Political Science and International Relations / [ed] Luigi Curini & Robert Franzese, Sage Publications, 2020, p. 1133-1147Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 155.
    Ruffa, Chiara
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Cohesion, Political Motivation and Military Performance in the Italian Alpini2015In: Frontline: Combat and Cohesion in Iraq and Afghanistan / [ed] Anthony King, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015, p. 250-268Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 156.
    Ruffa, Chiara
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Designing and Conducting the Comparative Case Study Method2019Other (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This case is about the comparative case study method and discusses the opportunities and challenges of designing and conducting it in practice. It draws on my research about military organizations in peace operations. In my research, I argue that military organizational cultures influence the way in which soldiers behave while deployed in a peace mission and, ultimately, their ability to keep peace. I complement this argument with an explanation for why those domestic national military cultures look the way they do. To answer my questions, I combine most similar system with most different system designs and compare French and Italian units deployed in the UN mission in Lebanon and the NATO mission in Afghanistan, respectively. I collected my data combining in-depth qualitative interviews, semi-structured questionnaires, focus groups, and observations between 2007 and 2014.

  • 157.
    Ruffa, Chiara
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    'Just deploy and always call it peacekeeping!': Italian strategic culture and international military operations2016In: European Participation in International Operations: the role of Strategic Culture / [ed] Malena Britz, Palgrave Macmillan, 2016, p. 101-122Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 158.
    Ruffa, Chiara
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy. Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Military culture and the challenge of ambidexterity in complex operations2021In: The Yin-Yang Military: Ambidextrous Perspectives on Change in Military Organizations / [ed] Jacqueline Heeren-Bogers, Rene Moelker, Esmeralda Kleinreesink, Jan van der Meulen, Sjo Soeters, and Robert Beeres, Cham: Springer, 2021, p. 101-109Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 159.
    Ruffa, Chiara
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Military Cultures and Force Employment in Peace Operations2017In: Security Studies, ISSN 0963-6412, E-ISSN 1556-1852, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 391-422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although hundreds of thousands of soldiers from different national contingents are deployed every year in multinational peace operations, no previous study has examined differences in peacekeeping practices along national lines. This paper first documents systematically differences in the way national contingents behave during peace operations in their respective area of operation. In a second step, it argues that these differences in behavior are largely consistent with the most important traits of each army's military culture. Based on extensive fieldwork conducted between 2007 and 2014 in Lebanon and Afghanistan, the paper shows how, within each mission, Italian soldiers prioritized humanitarian activities, while the French engaged in more patrolling activities, despite being both contingents deployed under similar conditions. These variations in behavior are consistent with the way French and Italian soldiers perceive the mission and context in which they deployed. And both the differences in behavior and perception are in line with the respective armies' military cultures. This paper contributes to the debate on the role of ideational factors in international politics and in particular to the ongoing discussion on strategic and military cultures.

  • 160.
    Ruffa, Chiara
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Military Cultures in Peace and Stability Operations: Afghanistan and Lebanon2018 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
  • 161.
    Ruffa, Chiara
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Peacekeeping operations2015In: Encyclopedia of Public Administration and Public Policy / [ed] Domonic A. Bearfield, Melvin J. Dubnick, London: CRC Press, 2015, 3, p. 2362-2369Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 162.
    Ruffa, Chiara
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy. Uppsala University.
    Review of Howard, Lise Morjé, Power in Peacekeeping2020In: H-Diplo, H-Net Reviews, ISSN 1538-0661Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 163.
    Ruffa, Chiara
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy. Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden..
    The Soul of Armies: Counterinsurgency Doctrine and Military Culture in the US and UK.2019In: Perspectives on Politics, ISSN 1537-5927, E-ISSN 1541-0986, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 946-948Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 164.
    Ruffa, Chiara
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy. Uppsala University.
    Eck, Kristine
    Uppsala University, (SWE).
    In A Pandemic, Should The Experts Or The Politicians Be In Charge?2020Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 165.
    Ruffa, Chiara
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy. Uppsala Univ, Dept Peace & Conflict Res, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Evangelista, Matthew
    Cornell Univ, Dept Govt, Ithaca, NY, (USA).
    Searching for a middle ground?: A spectrum of views of causality in qualitative research2021In: Rivista Italiana di Scienza Politica, ISSN 0048-8402, Vol. 51, no 2, SI, p. 164-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Qualitative scholars exhibit a wide range of views on and approaches to causality. While some approaches reject causality from the outset, a large strand of qualitative research in political science and international relations does, however, pursue causal explanation. Qualitative scholars nevertheless disagree about what causality means. Our paper reviews what causality means within different strands of qualitative research and how qualitative scholars engage in causal explanations. We focus particular attention on the fertile middle ground between qualitative research that seeks to mimic the statistical model and research that rejects causality entirely. In broad strokes, we understand views of causality as lying on a spectrum and partly overlapping. Along the spectrum, we identify three main clusters: ‘positivist leaning,’ ‘postpositivist leaning,’ and ‘Interpretivist leaning.’ Within each cluster, we identify the main traits and provide illustrative examples. We find merit in each of these three clusters of approaches and in the ongoing dialogue among qualitative scholars of different orientations. Understanding similarities and differences in the way various scholars address causality might encourage some to take steps along the spectrum and expand their repertoires to embrace elements of other approaches. By making these distinctions more explicit, we hope to be able to enhance our understanding of different views of causality and the extent to which they overlap and provide the potential for collaboration.

  • 166.
    Ruffa, Chiara
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Portela, Clara
    Singapore Management University.
    The Politics of Coercion: Assessing the EU:s Use of Military and Economic Instruments2015In: Sage Handbook of European Foreign Policy / [ed] Knud Erik Jorgensen, Aasne Kalland Aarstad,Edith Drieskens, Katie Laatikainen, Ben Tonra, London: Sage Publications, 2015, p. 545-558Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 167.
    Ruffa, Chiara
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Sundberg, Ralph
    Uppsala, University, Sweden.
    Breaking the Frame: Frame disputes of war and peace2018In: Acta Sociologica, ISSN 0001-6993, E-ISSN 1502-3869, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 317-332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Frames guide the way in which organizations and individuals interpret their surrounding contexts and shape avenues for thought, action, and behavior. This paper tests the individuallevel effects of experiencing ‘frame disputes’: the state of holding individual-level frames that are at odds with dominant organizational frames. We hypothesize that on the individual level a frame dispute will be associated with negative effects on outcomes important for an organization’s functioning. The hypothesis is tested using a survey of a battalion of Italian soldiers. Our results demonstrate that, on average, soldiers who experienced frame disputes in that they perceived their mission differently from the dominant organizational frame displayed significantly lower levels of perceived cohesion, performance, and legitimacy. Frame disputes are likely to be widespread phenomena among organizations and social movements, and understanding their effects has theoretical, empirical, and policy relevance beyond the military case under study.

  • 168.
    Ruffa, Chiara
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy. Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University.
    Wibben, Annick T.R.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Initiation Rituals Within the Military: Time for a Change2021Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 169. Salter, Mark B.
    et al.
    Cohn, Carol
    University of Massachusetts, Boston, (USA).
    Neal, Andrew W.
    University of Edinburgh, (GBR).
    Wibben, Annick T.R.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Burgess, J. Peter
    École Normale Supérieure, (FRA) / University of Copenhagen, Denmark (DNK).
    Elbe, Stephan
    University of Sussex, (GBR).
    Austin, Jonathan Luke
    Graduate School of International and Development Studies, Geneva, Switzerland (CHE).
    Huysmans, Jef
    Queen Mary University of London, (GBR).
    Walker, R. B. J. (Rob)
    University of Victoria, BC, (CAN); Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (BRA).
    Waever, Ole
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark (DNK).
    Williams, Michael C.
    University of Ottawa, (CAN).
    Gilbert, Emily
    University of Toronto, (CAN).
    Frowd, Philippe M.
    University of Ottawa, Canada, (CAN).
    Rosenow, Doerthe
    Oxford Brookes University, (GBR).
    Martins, Bruno Oliveira
    Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO), (NOR) / Malmö University, (SWE).
    Jabri, Vivienne
    King’s College London, (GBR).
    Aradau, Claudia
    King’s College London, (GBR).
    Leander, Anna
    Graduate School of International and Development Studies, Geneva, Switzerland (CHE).
    Bousquet, Antoine
    Birkbeck, University of London, (GBR).
    Stavrianakis, Anna
    University of Sussex, (GBR).
    Stern, Maria
    University of Gothenburg, (SWE).
    Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora
    University of Oslo; Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO), (NOR).
    Lobo-Guerrero, Luis
    University of Groningen, the Netherlands (NLD).
    de Goede, Marieke
    University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands (NLD).
    Bellanova, Rocco
    University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands (NLD).
    Gusterson, Hugh
    George Washington University, (USA).
    Epstein, Charlotte
    University of Sydney, Australia (AUS).
    Mustapha, Jennifer
    Huron University College, Western University, Canada (CAN).
    Lidén, Kristoffer
    Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO), (NOR).
    Hansen, Lene
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark (DNK).
    Horizon Scan: Critical security studies for the next 50 years2019In: Security Dialogue, ISSN 0967-0106, E-ISSN 1460-3640, Vol. 50, no 4S, p. 9-37Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 170.
    Stachowitsch, Saskia
    et al.
    Universität Wien, (AUT).
    Wibben, Annick T.R.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Wisotzki, Simone
    Hessische Stiftung Friedens- und Konfliktforschung, (DEU).
    Mageza-Barthel, Rirhandu
    Universität Kassel, (DEU).
    “Geschlechter- und Sicherheitsstudien heute”: Vier Wissenschaftlicher*innen im Gespräch2021In: Gewalt, Krieg und Flucht: Feministische Perspektiven auf Sicherheit / [ed] Daniel, A, Mageza-Barthel, R, Richter-Montpetit, M. & Scheiterbauer, T. (Eds.), Verlag Barbara Budrich, 2021, p. 29-40Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 171.
    Sundberg, Ralph
    et al.
    Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University, (SWE).
    Ruffa, Chiara
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy. Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Measurements for the institutional cohesion dimension of the standard model of military group cohesion2021In: Military Psychology, ISSN 0899-5605, E-ISSN 1532-7876, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 92-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Notwithstanding the prominence of the so-called Standard Model of Military Group Cohesion (SMMGC), important parts of the model are understudied: both conceptually and empirically. In this article we, first, synthesize previous research to conceptualize and measure the overlooked institutional cohesion dimension. Second, we test the validity of the proposed full four-dimensional SMMGC model using a survey of an Italian Alpini battalion, and more rigorous methods than in previous research. Results are supportive of our proposed measurements and the validity of the four-dimensional model. We thus make a methodological and an empirical contribution to further the ongoing debate on military cohesion.

  • 172.
    Tappe, Jonathan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University.
    Doeser, Fredrik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    A machine learning approach to the study of German strategic culture2021In: Contemporary Security Policy, ISSN 1352-3260, E-ISSN 1743-8764, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 450-474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article introduces supervised machine learning to the study of German strategic culture, analyzing both how German strategic culture has changed and the impact of strategic culture on Germany’s military engagement between 1990 and 2017. In contrast with previous qualitative research on strategic culture, supervised machine learning can yield measurable and empirical insights into strategic culture and its effects at any given point in time over a very long period, based on the reproduction of human coding of a very extensive set of security policy documents. The article shows that German strategic culture has changed slowly and in a nonlinear way after the Cold War, and that strategic culture, when controlling for confounding variables and the temporal order, has a measurable impact on Germany’s military engagement. The article demonstrates the analytical value of machine learning for future studies of strategic culture.

  • 173.
    Themnér, Anders
    et al.
    Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University (SWE).
    Karlén, Niklas
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Building a Safety Net: Explaining the Strength of Ex-Military Networks2020In: Security Studies, ISSN 0963-6412, E-ISSN 1556-1852, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 268-300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration of excombatants has become an integral part of peacebuilding. Although the main purpose of such interventions is to dissolve the military structures of armed groups, there is growing evidence that ex-combatant networks often remain intact. We investigate why such structures continue to thrive. We argue that ex-military networks are stronger when ex-commanders have weak links to elite patronage systems. Ex-combatants who are unable to rely on their former superiors for economic assistance must instead build denser ties to each other to gain access to a social safety net. To assess our argument, we conduct a comparative social network analysis (SNA) of two ex-military networks in Liberia. This innovative approach helps us uncover previously overlooked, but central, dynamics related to ex-combatant groups. We thereby show that SNA provides a range of underutilized tools and exact definitions that can increase our understanding of ex-military networks.

  • 174.
    Watts, John
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Ledberg, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Engelbrekt, Kjell
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Brothers in Arms, Yet Again?: Twenty-first Century Sino-Russian Strategic Collaboration in the Realm of Defence and Security2016In: Defence Studies, ISSN 1470-2436, E-ISSN 1743-9698, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 427-449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    2014-2015 were years of turmoil for strategic relations, with Sino-Russian relations emerging as a particularly interesting set of ties to observe. This article asks whether recurrent Sino-Russian exhortations of friendship are mirrored by their strategic alignment in the defence and security realm, half a century after the end of the Sino-Soviet pact during the communist era. We examine the arms trade between the two countries and with regional partners, but also the recent pattern of bilateral and multilateral military exercises, as a combined test of the security and defence relationship.  We are able to show that the image of friendship that both Moscow and Beijing like to promote, while apparent at the UN Security Council and within the BRICS group, remains constrained by rivalry in high-tech segments of the arms industry and by lingering concerns about the prospects of peer interference in their shared regional vicinity.

  • 175.
    Westberg, Jacob
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Det glömda arvet från svensk allianspolitik2016In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 3, p. 23-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Title:

    The forgotten legacy of Sweden´s policies of alignment

    Abstract:

    This article aims to contribute to the present debate on Sweden’s security policy orientation by introducing an analytical framework for explaining and evaluating different choices of grand strategy. The usefulness of the analytical framework is illustrated with reference to Sweden’s previous experiences from perusing policies of military alignment and participation in cooperative security efforts aiming for collective security. A further aim of the article is to remind the readers of these largely forgotten Swedish experiences of policies of alignment. This second aim is related to the mistaken but common view that Sweden during the last 200 years has pursued a consistent policy of non-alignment. In the conclusion of this article six alternative strategies to reduce the present gap between Sweden’s security goals and political and military means are analysed.

  • 176.
    Westberg, Jacob
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Det nordiska försvarssamarbetets drivkrafter och utvecklingsmöjligheter2015In: Svensk säkerhet i Europa och världen / [ed] Kjell Engelbrekt, Arita Holmberg, Jan Ångström, Stockholm: Norstedts Juridik AB, 2015, 2 [utök.] uppl., p. 89-116Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 177.
    Westberg, Jacob
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Försvarssamarbetet: en ny väg till fördjupat nordiskt samarbete?2017In: Norden sett inifrån: Det fjärde spårbytet / [ed] Bengt Sundelius & Claaes Wiklund, Stockholm: Santérus Förlag, 2017, 1, p. 41-55Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 178.
    Westberg, Jacob
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Svenska säkerhetsstrategier: 1810-20142015 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En nationell säkerhetsstrategi handlar ytterst om hur den politiska ledningen inriktar, utvecklar och utnyttjar olika former av maktmedel för att uppnå landets övergripande säkerhetspolitiska mål.

    I denna bok presenteras en sammanhållen analys av de olika säkerhetsstrategier som Sverige tillämpat under den 200-åriga fredsperioden sedan Napoleonkrigens slut. Bland dessa säkerhetsstrategier återfinns exempel på såväl olika former av neutralitetspolitik som olika former av allianspolitik samt strategier syftande till kollektiv säkerhet. De svenska vägvalen analyseras och förklaras med hjälp av teorier om säkerhetspolitiska strategier och internationell politik. Boken avslutas med en analys av dagens svenska försvarspolitik.

    Boken Svenska säkerhetsstrategier är främst avsedd att användas i utbildning på högskolenivå, men den avser också att lämna ett bidrag till forskning och debatt om svensk säkerhetspolitik.

  • 179.
    Westberg, Jacob
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Svenska säkerhetsstrategier: Teori och praktik2021 (ed. Andra upplagan)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    En nationell säkerhetsstrategi handlar ytterst om hur den politiska ledningen inriktar, utvecklar och utnyttjar olika former av maktmedel för att uppnå landets övergripande säkerhetspolitiska intressen. I boken presenteras en sammanhållen analys av de olika säkerhets­strategier som Sverige tillämpat efter förlusten av Finland 1809. Bland dessa strategier återfinns olika former av neutralitetspolitik, allianser med andra småstater och stormakter samt strategier syftande till kollektiv säkerhet. De svenska vägvalen analyseras och förklaras med hjälp av ett analysramverk som förenar forskning om strategi och internationell politik med ett särskilt fokus på småstaters speciella utmaningar. Boken avslutas med en analys av 2000-talets försvarssamarbeten och säkerhetspolitiska vägval. Denna kompletterade upplaga innehåller en vidareutveckling av bokens teoretiska ramverk och en nyskriven jämförelse mellan svensk försvars- och säkerhetspolitik under 2000-talets första och andra decennium. Övriga delar av boken har uppdaterats med hänsyn till det utvecklade analysramverket och händelser efter första upplagans utgivning. Boken vänder sig främst till universitetsstuderande, men den avser också att lämna ett bidrag till forskning och debatt om svensk säkerhetspolitik.

  • 180.
    Westberg, Jacob
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Säkerhet utan alliansfrihet: svenska alliansstrategiers teori och praktik2016In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 118, no 4, p. 411-444Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to contribute to the present debate on Sweden’s security policy orientation by introducing some general theoretical propositions and concepts related to research on alliance formation and alignment strategies of small states. A further aim of the article is to challenge the mistaken but common view that Sweden ever since  has pursued a consistent policy of non-military alignment.

    The usefulness of these propositions and concepts is firstly illustrated with an analysis of Sweden’s previous experiences of military alignment and participation in cooperative security efforts aiming for collective security. Secondly, insights from Sweden’s previous experiences and general research on alliance behaviour of great and small powers are used to discuss potential benefits and costs related to three possible future alignment strategies: (i) a small state military alliance between Finland and Sweden, (ii) a bilateral military alliance between Sweden the US and (iii) a Swedish membership in NATO. Finally, the question of continuity and change in Sweden’s policy of non-alignment is addressed. In answering this question the concepts of critical junctions, path dependency and external shocks are introduced as analytical tools to analyse causes of both continuity and change. I relation to these concepts Sweden’s security strategies have been characterised by far less consistency than theories of critical junctions or external shocks would lead us to expect. It is also argued that the policy of non-alignment since the end of the Cold War has lost most of its practical relevance and that the deteriorating security situation in Europe has created a need for a new coherent Swedish security strategy.

  • 181.
    Wibben, Annick T.R.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    911+20 and the questions remain the same2021In: Critical Studies on Terrorism, ISSN 1753-9153, E-ISSN 1753-9161, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 434-437Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 182.
    Wibben, Annick T.R.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Everyday Security, Feminism, and the Continuum of Violence2020In: Journal of Global Security Studies, ISSN 2057-3170, E-ISSN 2057-3189, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 115-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article returns to the original forum question “What is Global Security Studies?,” looking at it in relation to the theme of inclusion and exclusion to point out that security studies scholars exclude feminist scholarship on (everyday) security at their own peril. Showcasing the increasing body of feminist security studies scholarship, the article then highlights not only what scholarship might be included in a truly global security studies, but also the important insights (e.g., about the continuum of violence that spans peace- and wartime) that are missed without it. The article ends with a reflection on the need to also include a wider range of approaches as eminently valuable to global security studies.

  • 183.
    Wibben, Annick T.R.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Genealogies of Feminist Peace Research: Themes, Thinkers and Turns2021In: Handbook of Feminist Peace Research / [ed] Tarja Väyrynen, Swati Parashar, Élise Féron, Catia Cecilia Confortini, London: Routledge, 2021, p. 17-27Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 184.
    Wibben, Annick T.R.
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Donahoe, Amanda E.
    Centenary College of Louisiana, Shreveport, (USA).
    Feminist Peace Research2020In: The Palgrave Encyclopedia of Peace and Conflict Studies / [ed] O. Richmond, G. Visoka (eds), Palgrave Macmillan, 2020Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 185.
    Wibben, Annick T.R.
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Donahoe, Amanda E.Centenary College of Louisiana, (USA).
    Teaching Peace and War: Pedagogy and Curricula2020Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 186.
    Wikman, Lars
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy. Department of Government, Uppsala University, Sweden; SCANCOR, Stanford University, USA.
    War with the Terrorists or Rebuilding a Nation in Need?: Dutch Public Opinion on Afghanistan : The Theory of the Principal Policy Objective Revisited2016In: Res Militaris, E-ISSN 2265-6294, Vol. ERGOMAS, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article points to the need for a more complex understanding of the public's perception of the Principal Policy Objective (PPO) when it comes to citizens' attitudes toward foreign military interventions. In contrast to previous research, where one PPO has been linked to support either by experimental standards or survey practicality, this article uses a survey and a method which allow the analysis to account for conflicting PPOs and leaves the interpretation of the PPO to the individual respondent, increasing the validity of the results. This is done using a dataset based on a monthly survey, conducted during the Dutch military involvement in the Afghan province of Uruzgan (2006-2010), in which questions on support and perceptions of two PPO are separated in the questionnaire permitting a separation of two different PPO measurements on each value of public support. In the Dutch case two PPOs stand out as dominating the public discourse : War on Terror and the Reconstruction of Afghanistan. Both are included in the survey. Based on an OLS regression analysis, this article draws the conclusion that there is a significant relationship between each of the PPOs separately and public support, even when controlled for each other. Previous research has pointed to a dominating PPO that guides attitude behaviour ; however, this article finds instead that several PPOs could be driving support simultaneously and that each has a significant relationship to public support independent of one another. This article offers some possible theoretical insights as to how but additional research is necessary to further investigate how several perceptions of PPO relate to each other during the formation of attitudes amongst the citizenry.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Wikman 2016 War with the Terrorists
  • 187.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Contribution Warfare: Sweden's Lessons of the War in Afghanistan2020In: Parameters, ISSN 0031-1723, E-ISSN 2158-2106, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 61-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contribution warfare removed the influence of Sweden's politics from the Afghanistan War (2001-14) and created learning conditions favoring case-specific, tactical lessons over the strategic ones. This article applies the concept of "contribution warfare" to analyze the lessons from Sweden's involvement in the war. The inconsistent application of this knowledge resulted largely from the political and operational realities of a small nation contributing to an alliance dominated by a single actor.

  • 188.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Escalation, Emulation, and the Failure of Hybrid Warfare in Afghanistan2017In: Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, ISSN 1057-610X, E-ISSN 1521-0731, Vol. 40, no 10, p. 838-856Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, I argue that hybridization is a contingent result of the dynamics of some conflicts but not others. In particular, faced with opponents with great power, weaker powers seek a situation of asymmetry to gain victory. Drawing on within-case analysis of the conduct of war during the past thirty years in Afghanistan, I demonstrate that what we now consider to be "hybrid" represents an important continuity and strategic option in Afghan warfare. Still, the analysis also demonstrates that choosing "hybrid" has not been a strategy that has worked. Hezb-i-Islami's rather limited attempt for conventionalization of the war against the forces of Dostum and Massoud in 1992 failed and the Taliban's more far-reaching attempt for conventionalization has so far also failed to reap strategic success. This suggests that the threat of hybrid war is inflated.

  • 189.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Försvarsmaktens internationella insatser: i den svenska säkerhetens eller identitetens tjänst?2015In: Svensk säkerhetspolitik i Europa och världen / [ed] Kjell Engelbrekt, Arita Holmberg & Jan Ångström, Stockholm: Norstedts Juridik AB, 2015, 2, p. 233-264Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 190.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy. Uppsala universitet.
    Försvarsmaktens internationella insatser: I den svenska säkerhetens eller identitetens tjänst?2010In: Svensk säkerhetspolitik i Europa och världen / [ed] Kjell Engelbrekt & Jan Ångström, Norstedts Juridik AB, 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 191.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Seger: ett begrepp i behov av nyansering2018In: Minnet av Narva: om troféer, parader och historiebruk / [ed] Klas Kronberg, Anna-Maria Forssberg, Lund: Nordic Academic Press, 2018, p. 213-234Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 192.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    The US perspective on future war: why the US relies upon Ares rather than Athena2018In: Defence Studies, ISSN 1470-2436, E-ISSN 1743-9698, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 318-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses why the US in its military operations tends to focus on only one dimension in war – the military narrowly understood. More precisely, in the US case, its armed forces tend to be preoccupied with platforms and understand military capabilities as those that deliver death and destruction. I explain this one-sided understanding of the military dimension in war with how the US armed forces think about future war. How the US understands future war is, in turn, a reflection of how it organizes its long-term defense planning procedures. In particular, by approaching the concept of future as by and large structurally determined, a focus on platforms becomes natural. Investments in weapons systems, too, are more easily motivated to Congress since it is easier to attach a price to developing, for example, a new submarine than it is to attach a price to the cost of developing a military organization that is adaptive, learning and anticipating. The understanding of the future as something that happens whether you like it or not is particularly odd in the US context where of course a central tenet of the American dream is that the individual creates her own future.

  • 193.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Transformation into Nature: Swedish Army Ranger Rites of Passage2016In: Transforming Warriors: The Ritual Organization of Military Force / [ed] Peter Halden & Peter Jackson, London: Routledge, 2016, p. 144-162Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 194.
    Ångström, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Haldén, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    The poverty of power in military power: how collective power could benefit strategic studies2019In: Defense and Security Analysis, ISSN 1475-1798, E-ISSN 1475-1801, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 170-189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Strategic studies deals intimately with the topic of power. Most scholars in the discipline work with a concept of power as an adversarial zero-sum competition. This is natural and necessary. However, other conceptions of power developed within political science and sociology could enrich strategic studies. Approaching two typical, traditional tasks of strategy – alliance building and war-fighting – this article demonstrates the heuristic mileage of theories of collective power. In particular, we can shed new light on the post-Cold War transformation of NATO as well as state-building as a strategy in counter-insurgencies with new ideas of power. Broadening the palette of theories of power is thus valuable if strategic studies is to prosper as an independent field of study.

  • 195.
    Ångström, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Ledberg, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    "Civil and military” as a constitutive categorization of the study of war and politics2021In: Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics, Oxford University Press, 2021Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The existence of a clear-cut division between “civil and military” is in many ways a foundation for international law and diplomacy. It is also a given starting point in many studies on current issues relating to war and peace, as well as in historical interpretations of past conflicts. Yet the civil–military dichotomy is not always a useful way of approaching complex matters, and by adopting such a starting point, some issues risk being overlooked. There are numerous historical examples, from the American Civil War, to wars of national liberation ending colonialization, to insurrections shaking political status quo such as the Marxist–Leninist revolutions; all illustrate that neither the agents of war nor the victims fit neatly into one of two clear categories. In a contemporary setting, non-traditional forms of warfare that make use of cyber space or autonomous systems further serves not only to undermine ideas of internal–external security but also to blur the distinction between civil and military. In the everyday making and implementation of policy, these concepts are indeed fluid and the borders between them highly variable, continuously contested, and renegotiated. As concepts, they can be seen as co-constitutive in the everyday usage. Civil and military are therefore best understood as norms, whose contents and interrelationship are contextually determined. At the same time, civil and military are organizational principles of the state, and as such the distinction is, arguably, too important, too deep-seated within the modern state- system, and too engrained in how legal and political order are understood to disappear in the near future.

  • 196.
    Ångström, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Noreen, Erik
    Uppsala universitet.
    Swedish strategy and the Afghan experience: from neutrality to ambiguity2017In: The Swedish presence in Afghanistan: security and defence transformation / [ed] Arita Holmberg & Jan Hallenberg, London: Routledge, 2017, p. 31-54Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 197.
    Ångström, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Petersson, Magnus
    Norwegian Institute for Defence Studies, (NOR).
    Weak Party Escalation: An Underestimated Strategy for Small States2019In: Journal of Strategic Studies, ISSN 0140-2390, E-ISSN 1743-937X, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 282-300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we develop the strategic rationale behind weak party escalation against stronger adversaries. There are, we suggest, four main strategies: to provoke a desired over-reaction from the stronger adversary; to compartmentalize conflict within a domain in which the weak party has advantages; to carve a niche with a stronger ally, and to forge a reputation of not yielding lightly. Spelling out these different logics contributes to the literature on small state strategies and escalation. It also suggests, contrary to much of the existing literature, that it can be rational for weak parties to escalate against great powers.

  • 198.
    Ångström, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Widen, Jerker
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Contemporary military theory: the dynamics of war2015Book (Refereed)
  • 199.
    Ångström, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Widén, Jerker
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Religion or reason?: exploring alternative ways to measure the quality of doctrine2016In: Journal of Strategic Studies, ISSN 0140-2390, E-ISSN 1743-937X, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 198-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we address the often ignored issue of quality standards for doctrine. In doing so, we contribute to the existing literature on military doctrine, since much of previous research has focused on outlining the effects of doctrine or the causes of particular doctrinal content, rather than how we should measure its quality. The predominant way of understanding quality of doctrine is based on the rationalist understanding of doctrine as a force multiplier. However, rationalist aims do not necessarily tell us anything about the contents of doctrine. Hence, a doctrine can be seemingly of high quality, but ultimately impede or lead armed forces astray. Rather than focusing on the utilitarian side of doctrine, we suggest that doctrine should mainly be understood as articles of faith or a belief system. And thus the quality of doctrine becomes inextricably linked to military norms and military identity. Writing doctrine thus becomes part of ritual, rather than reason.

  • 200.
    Ångström, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Widén, Jerker
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section.
    軍事理論の教科書: 戦争のダイナミクスを学ぶ2021Book (Refereed)
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