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  • 151.
    Andersson, Per-Olov
    Swedish National Defence College.
    UAV/UCAV i fredens tjänst: UAV/UCAV och dess operativa betydelse i framtida Peace Support Operations2001Student paper otherStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Luftstridskrafter har spelat en betydande roll i senare tiders Peace Support Operations (PSO). Obemannade flygande system har varit en del av dessa insatser, hur kommer rollfördelningen att vara i framtiden? Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka och göra en bedömning avseende hur obemannade flygsystem kan utnyttjas och ha en roll i framtida Peace Suport Operations. Litteratur- och dokumentstudier, föreläsningar och intervjuer ligger som faktabakgrund för bedömningen av hur en framtida PSO kan se ut samt vilken roll obemannade flygsystem kan ha i en framtida Peace Suport Operation. Jämförelse har skett mellan bemannade och obemannade flygande system varvid fördelar och nackdelar har belysts. Resultatet av studien är att obemannade flygande system bör kunna få en betydande roll i framtida Peace Suport Operations främst avseende underrättelseinhämtning och uppgifter där vapenleverans inte är huvuduppgiften. Obemannade flygande farkoster med stridsuppgift (UCAV) har däremot betydande hinder som måste övervinnas innan dessa kan få en viktig roll i framtida PSO. Det är inte uteslutet att UCAV efter en tids utveckling kan få en viktig roll i en framtida PSO främst inom uppgifter som karaktäriseras av stor risktagning, krav på lång uthållighet eller uppträdande i ohälsosam miljö.

  • 152.
    Andersson, Rasmus
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Principer i sabotaget mot Vemork: Krigföringens grundprinciper provade mot historien2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is written as a study in four parts. The first part consists of statements of purpose, methodology and source materials, and how I created the analysis tools used at work. The second section highlights the basic principles of warfare as defined in the literature. This also presents the factors that will be used for identification. The third part of my study starts out a historical review, which I am recounting the events that take place in Norway during 1942-1943. This case, which is the basis for my study is one of WWII's most famous Special Operations, who, despite its fame, very few have deeper information. These operations are marked by misfortune and death, but above all the determination and eagerness. By using my analysis tool of this case I want to see whether all of the basic principles of warfare can be identified. The conclusions that are drawn are that all of the basic principles of warfare can be identified by the factors I used.

  • 153.
    Andersson, Sara
    Swedish Defence University.
    The United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security in the Armed Forces and in Peace Keeping Operations – Implementation Progress in Sweden and Austria and a comparison of the two countries and their National Action Plans2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores the National Action Plans of Sweden and Austria concerning the UN adopted Resolution 1325 about Women, Peace and Security.

    The increase of the number of women in the armed forces has for a long time been a prioritised topic for the Swedish Armed Forces. This thesis investigates how the Swedish and the Austrian NAPs are dealing with this question.

    The NAPs are written with the purpose of making the implementation of Resolution 1325 easier and faster, in a national context. In this thesis, the parts concerning increasing the number of women in the armed forces and in peacekeeping operations are the ones investigated. A qualitative methodology is used in the thesis and a comparison is conducted between the National Action Plans to see what Sweden and Austria can learn from each other.

    The results show that the Austrian National Action Plan does not consist of any particular part that concerns how to make more women work in the armed forces. However, there is a section concerning the importance of raising the number of women in peacekeeping operations. This section is within the Swedish National Action Plan as is the part which is concerned with having more women employed in the Swedish Armed Forces.

    The Austrian National Action Plan would benefit if how to get a higher per cent of women in the armed forces was included. It is a prioritised topic in Austria, as well as in Sweden, to increase the number of women in the armed forces. This is also an issue that goes hand in hand with the implementation of Resolution 1325, which makes it an important element in the NAP.

    Key words: Resolution 1325, National Action Plan, Sweden, Austria, Gender, Implementing Resolution 1325, Swedish Armed Forces, Austrian Armed Forces, Peacekeeping Operations, increasing women in armed forces.

     

  • 154.
    Andersson, Tobias
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Elhybridteknik i bandvagnssystemet: Den militära nyttan i logistikfunktionen2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fossil fuels are finite resources and in a report from 2013, the Swedish Defence Material Administration encourages the Swedish Armed Forces to start planning for the transition to alternative propulsion systems to reduce its dependency of fossil fuels. The most promising technology to bridge the gap between pure electric propulsion and today’s internal combustion engine is hybrid electric technology. This essay examines the implications a series hybrid solution would have on military logistics. The method used includes analysis of both scientific reports and of survey answers from personnel in the SAF with several years of experience working with the tracked vehicle Bandvagn 309. The analysis of the survey answers is completed with interviews with these people and others working at BAE Systems who contributes with technical expertise. The essay will conclude that a series hybrid solution would have a positive impact on military logistics even though it is hard to specify how great the effect would be due to technical uncertainties and the fact that the technology is yet to be tested in combat.

  • 155.
    Andersson, Tom
    Swedish Defence University.
    Har Rysslands nyttjande av informationskrigföring förändrats mellan 1999-2014?2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The absence of previous research regarding Russia´s use of information warfare has not been able to show if there has been a new way of adapting information warfare alongside the development in the warfare in general. The previous research has established a development in warfare by the means of information technology. This is important to understand as it constitutes an equalizer between small states and great powers in the global arena. At the same time, it is even more important to understand that the development of Russian behavior has implications on warfare in a global perspective. The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to the conclusions of previous research which predicted a transformation in the warfare and give a new view of the transformation by inspecting Russia´s use of information warfare in modern warfare and probe if there has been a change. Additional purpose of this study is to understand Russia´s way of conduct in modern conflicts and have a better ability of control in forthcoming conflicts. The method used reflects the qualitative case and is constructed as a one-case study with variation in time, using three different conflicts. The analysis is conducted by the means of operational indicators extracted from Libickis theory. The result of the study shows that Russia have changed their way of using information warfare in between all of the three conflicts, and it is not that easy to say that the use of information warfare has changed. It might depend on the situation or the opposite side and how the individual conflict occur. There is no clear answer on that question, but this essay gives a deeper view in the use of information warfare by Russia in modern conflicts.

  • 156.
    Andersson, Torbjörn
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Signalsökande robotar vs sensorer - en duell på liv och död, eller?2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 157.
    Andersson Vilhelmsson, Mark
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Sverige och Finland i en osäker värld2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här uppsatsen använder teorin om säkerhetsgemenskap för att se hur långt Sverige och Finland har kommit med sina försvars- och säkerhetspolitiska samarbeten, under perioden 1998-2014. Den försöker dessutom belysa en förändring med båda staternas samarbete med försvarsalliansen Nato under samma period. Till sist försöker studien belysa hur Rysslands militära intervention i Georgien 2008 och Ukraina 2014 har påverkat dessa samarbeten. Den viktigaste slutsatsen är att Sverige och Finland är i en hårt morgen sammankopplad säkerhetsgemenskap, utifrån försvars- och säkerhetspolitiska aspekter.

  • 158.
    Andersson, Åke
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Kollektivt försvar i förändring2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this academic essay is to increase the underlying understanding of the meaning of the article V of the North Atlantic Treaty. Article V is the formalisation of the collective defence within NATO, often referred as the security guarantee. Since the ratification of the treaty in 1949 has the actual meaning of the article V varied with reference to observer, context and actual period in time. The wordings of the fifth article have however always remained unchanged. The text of the treaty is particularly general worded which represents the essence of the issue; How has the meaning of article V changed from 1949 to 2009?

    In order to answer the question above, three theoretical perspectives are introduced in detail to improve the understanding and to analyse the history. The three selected perspectives are; the internal security guarantee, the external deterrence and the instrument of foreign policy. The empiric is thereafter processed to isolate the change of the meaning of the fifth article to the actors; the alliance, the member countries and the ones outside of the alliance.

    A coherent line of change for the meaning of the article V to the alliance is found where the starting point is the security guarantee. In the early 1950’s the meaning turns to deterrence and remains unchanged during the cold war until the end of bipolarity, thereafter followed by a more diffuse and uncertain meaning. More recently, however, two diverging lines are discovered. The first line of more recent members, in most cases border states, strive for the meaning of security guarantee covering the geographical area of the member states territories. The second line consists of more powerful member states where the instrument of foreign policy seems to be the desired meaning, and this to promote the alliance as an global security provider.

    The analysis also uncovers a repetitive pattern of behaviour in respect to the meaning of article V for new member states. This pattern of preference changing seems to be constant irrespective of time interval of the examined empiric.

  • 159.
    Andreasson, Emelie
    Swedish Defence University.
    All in the name of security: A qualitative content analysis regarding the concept of security in the movie Zero Dark Thirty2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores how the concept of security is presented in current American action movies.This study will use the movie Zero Dark Thirty as an illustrative example to examine the concept ofsecurity during the ’War on Terror’-era. The study will use qualitative content analysis in order toexamine the concept of security.

  • 160.
    Andren, Dan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division. Theresianische Militärakademie, Österrike.
    Sweden´s and Austria´s contribution to realising the EU Battlegroup Concept2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since the Helsinki Headline goals of 1999 the European Union has been trying to increase its military capability to conduct military operations abroad. The EU led operation Artemis in the Congo inspired the creation of the Battlegroup concept. The concept is intended to conduct military operations up to a distance of 6000 km from Brussels at short notice. The development of the Battlegroup differs between different member states, which have chosen different organisations. Bigger nations have better possibilities to contribute to the Battlegroup. Research indicates some nations prioritise the military aspect of the Battlegroup and other nations focus on the integration effect of cooperation. The new security challenges after the Cold War require new solutions by the old militaries and an answer to this problem is closer cooperation between European states.

    The purpose of this thesis is to compare Sweden´s and Austria´s contributions to realising the European Battlegroup Concept. These two countries represent two similar countries in regards to size and historic traditions and research surrounding these two countries has not been conducted earlier.

    The conclusion of the thesis shows big contributions from both countries since the start of the Battlegroup Concept in 2007. Austria began contributing to the Battlegroup later, but has developed its contribution during recent years. Sweden contributed early on to the development of the Battlegroup concept as a Framework Nation to the Nordic Battlegroup. Because of early work and bigger contributions Sweden has contributed more to realise the European Battlegroup Concept.

  • 161.
    Andrén, Alexander
    Swedish Defence University.
    Telekrig mot bandspridningsteknik2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay examines two spread-spectrum technologies and what their effects are on the electronic warfare ability. The essay seeks to answer this question:

    What are the possibilities for signals intelligence and communications jamming against radio communications using one of the two spread-spectrum technologies frequency-hopping and direct sequence?

    The essay initially describes a model for how electronic warfare against radio communication is conducted, “telekrigcykeln”. It then describes the principles of a radio system as well as the two spread-spectrum technologies frequency-hopping and direct sequence. Using the model “telekrigcykeln” the essay finally analyses and discusses the impact of the spread-spectrum technologies.

    The essay finds that it is possible to conduct signals intelligence towards both signals, however direct sequence pose bigger problems than frequency-hopping. Both signals are easiest to jam using a jammer in close proximity to the radio receiver. However, close-proximity jammers are harder to place close to the opponent’s receiver.

  • 162.
    Andrén, Rasmus
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Organisatoriskt lärande efter kris: Socialstyrelsens lärdomar av svininfluensan 20092016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The following study seeks to explain why the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare (Socialstyrelsen) learnt particular leassons concerning flexibel planning, following the swin flue pandemic in 2009. By using George P. Huber’s teory of organizational learning the study finds that coherent cognitiv maps between coworkers and experience-based learning curves functioned as a selection mechanism between options presented by a formal investigations. With the aim of explaining the empirical case, limitations were also found in the theoretical framework concerning the relationship between old knowledge and the construction of the new knowledge.

  • 163.
    Andrén, Rasmus
    Swedish Defence University.
    The African Union and its Behaviour During the Ebola Outbreak 2014-2016: Steps Towards Understanding Actorness and Effectiveness2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The following thesis seeks to test Brattberg and Rhinard’s hypothesized correlation between actorness and behaviour (assumed to facilitate effectiveness) during disasters. Its goal is to test it on the African Union during the Ebola outbreak and thereby investigate if there is a positive relation between degrees of actorness and behaviour. The test shows, broadly speaking, a positive result, but it does suggest that certain expectancies in behaviour need to be conceived in broader terms.

  • 164.
    Antonson, Mats
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies.
    Comprehensive Approach: Civil-militär filosofi eller allsidigt strategiskt koncept?2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Erfarenheter från de senaste årens komplexa konflikter har bidragit till insikten att separata militära insatser ofta är otillräckliga för att skapa fred. Comprehensive Approach ses av många som ett koncept med målsättningen att skapa en integrerad civil-militär ansats för konfliktlösning. Konceptets innebörd är emellertid oklar. Dessutom är det problematiskt att empiriskt belägga att användandet av konceptet leder till framgång, vilket medför svårigheter att granska dess värde.

    Uppsatsen utnyttjar Michael Howards teori om strategins dimensioner för att analysera Storbritanniens syn på Comprehensive Approach som strategiskt koncept. Som metod används en kvalitativ textanalys av systematiserande typ. Utifrån analysen identifieras styrkor och svagheter med konceptet, vilket medför att huvudfrågan vad Storbritanniens syn på Comprehensive Approach innebär och vilket värde Comprehensive Approach har som strategiskt koncept besvaras. Svaret bidrar till ökad kunskap och förståelse för Comprehensive Approach, vilket är uppsatsens syfte.

    Resultatet visar att Storbritannien ser Comprehensive Approach som ett strategiskt koncept som kräver integrerade civil-militära strukturer för att fungera på ett bra sätt. Samtliga Howards dimensioner återfinns, och att ingen dimension överfokuseras är utifrån teorin en styrka. Värdet på Comprehensive Approach som strategiskt koncept kan samtidigt ifrågasättas främst på grund av att det mestadels uttrycks vad som bör uppnås, men däremot sällan beskrivs hur det ska genomföras. Uppsatsen påvisar även svårigheterna att samordna och koordinera aktörer mot ett gemensamt mål i en multinationell miljö, när incitament för samordning saknas.

  • 165.
    Antonér, Sebastian
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Så blir ett reglemente till: En studie om arbetsprocessen kring Taktikreglemente för marinstridskrafterna2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The paper covers the development of TRM (Taktikreglemente för marinstridskrafterna). By using Dr. Geoffrey Till’s and James J. Tritten’s theories about doctrine development and development processes attempts to understand why the process with TRM looked like it did and why the content is the way it is.

    The purpose is to make this a minor contribution to any future and further development of doctrine development processes.

    The theory is based on Tritten’s theory of different concepts which affect a doctrine and a model of a cyclical doctrine development process created by Till.

    The creation and development of TRM has been explained, based on interviews with persons involved with the project. Subsequently, an attempt to explain and understand the process is made by using the two theories.

    The result shows that the process with TRM was not at all time a simple one. During the process a lot of focus has been on trying to harmonize Swedish operations and procedures with those of NATO. The knowledge about the document should be good hence the “bottom up” perspective in which it was written. Even though the writers did not use any specific theory, is it possible to show that the development of TRM may be a part of a cyclic process and that it largely was influenced by certain concepts.

  • 166.
    Apel, Erik
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL).
    Guns n' roses: The Swedish Social Democratic Party and the Saudi agreement2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study I examine the decisions to sign and later terminate the so called Saudi agreement, a military memorandum of understanding (MoU) between Sweden and Saudi Arabia, understood as a gateway agreement for future arms deals as well as exchange of defense technology knowledge. Comparing statements from the Social Democratic Party (SAP), who held government both in 2005 when the agreement was signed as well as in 2015 when it was terminated unilaterally by Sweden, I examine the ideological preferences of Swedish foreign policy. Could the shift in policy be explained by ideology?

  • 167.
    Apelgren, Håkan
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Går Sveriges militära alliansfrihet att förena med ett EU-medlemskap?2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 168.
    Appelkvist, Per
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Faktorer som påverkar en militär exit2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 169.
    Appelkvist, Per
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Gav modern COIN-doktrin framgång redan vid försvenskandet av Skånelandskapen?2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom ramen för ISAF genomförs nu en massiv utbildningsinsats i counterinsurgency, detta för att den nya strategin som tillämpas skall få stort genomslag. Den doktrin som används vid utbildning och vid genomförande är den amerikanska FM 3-24. Den bygger på flera andra doktriner, men är som egen helhet ny och relativt oprövad.

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka om faktorer i doktrinens operationslinjer bidrar till framgång. Detta görs genom att besvara frågan: I vilken utsträckning var det faktorer som framgår av FM 3-24 ”logiska operationslinjer” som gav framgång vid försvenskningen av Skånelandskapen?

    Designen för undersökningen är en fallstudie, där operationslinjerna i doktrinen har översatts och operationaliserats och sedan jämförts med ett urval av litteratur om försvenskningen av Skånelandskapen.

    Resultatet stödjer att utifrån detta enskilda fall leder användandet av FM 3-24 operationslinjer till ökad sannolikhet för framgång. Vilket ger en ökad legitimitet i doktrinens nyttjande. Uppsatsen har även ett underliggande syfte, att påvisa att det finns svenskt nationellt exempel på COIN.

  • 170.
    Arasimowicz, Fredrik
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Stridstross: en metod att lösa understödet2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 171.
    Arby, Nathaniel
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Hur utvecklas den svenska minröjningsfunktionen inom marinen?2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose with this essay is to examine the development of the Swedish mine warfare branch both tactical and technical and how these two components are combined to maximize the effect. The essay also analyses the midlife upgrade of the MCMV Landsort class towards the MCMV Koster class.

    This essay will describe on the basis of the Swedish doctrines and mine warfare textbooks how the naval tactics and technology function as a foundation for development of new means in the duel against the sea mine.

    The sea mine is a weapon system that has been used during several centuries and has sunk more tonnage than all other weapon systems together. As long as there have been sea mines, there has also existed its counterpart, the mine counter measures.

    The Swedish MCMV’s technological and tactical developments strive towards fulfilling the six mandatory functions in warfare, command, effect, protection, mobility, intelligence and endurance. The modern MCMV develops toward a more secure and efficient unit.

  • 172.
    Ardin, Mattias
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Krigsspel i beslutsprocessen2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the Swedish Armed Forces’ and the Swedish National DefenceCollege’s interest in war-gaming has increased due to the adoption of NATO Guidelines ofOperational Planning. The purpose of this essay has been to investigate how to use war gamesas a tool for developing and testing military plans. The other purpose of this essay has been tofind some general rules on how to conduct those games.Initially three hypotheses were drawn from a literature survey. These hypotheses were thentested against two different case studies.This study found that the planning process needs two types of war games. The first type is agame that is fast, easy and encourages the players’ creativity. The second type is a game thathas the ability to test the plan and the details in it before the operation is launched.The general rules for war gaming can be summarised as follows:• Clear goals and purpose of the war game• Play a series of war games. The first one is an overall game that will help to find the rightquestions. After that you have to play detailed games to illuminate the questionspresented.• The players in the game need to have a common analysis tool to work with. One such toolcould be the military base functions. They will probably give a broad review of thesubject.• Finally, tne of the most important parts of these kinds of war games is the time factor. Asuccessful game must be capable of showing the impact of the time factor on theoperation.

  • 173.
    Arding, Mikael
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Är uppdragstaktik och utvecklande ledarskap förenligt med utvecklandet av anpassningsbara officerare?2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The human ability to adapt to a changing environment and a never ending technological development, can be observed by counting the many times a new invented weapon result in a new kind of defence. Today’s military personnel must not only adapt to technological, tactical and environmental changes, but also to new kind of objectives. Missions, conducted under the authorization of the UN, consist not only of combat missions, but also of considerable amount of civil-military cooperation (CIMIC). If adaptability is part of what has taken us this far, it’s reasonable to assume that adaptability will be as important in the future to come. Hence, an armed force with a high level of adaptability is likely to be advantageous over a less adaptable enemy.

    This paper was written with the sole purpose of finding out whether the Swedish Armed Forces’ (SAF) command & control-method (Auftragstaktik) and the provided leadership model (Developmental leadership) were consistent with the development of adaptable officers. A describing comparison indicated numerous similarities between all three concepts, thus it would seem

    auftragstaktik and developmental leadership has in-born support for the development of adaptability.

  • 174.
    Arfvén, Gustav
    Swedish Defence University.
    Europol & the Creation of the European Counter Terrorism Centre2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    While the limited number of scholars in the field of EU intelligence cooperation tend to have a rather state-centric view and focus on the normative (trust) or the functional (efficieny) dimension of intelligence cooperation, this study contributes to the field by focusing solely on the institutional structure of Europol.

    The purpose of this study is to examine why the Europol established the European Counter Terrorism Centre and why it is not addressing the interconnectedness between terrorism and organized crime. In order to address these questions, the theoretical framework of historical institutionalism has been applied and the notion of path dependency plays a vital role. 

    The study rests on a qualitative single case study design and the disciplined configurative-model is used to fulfill the research objective. The researcher traces the process in a historically chronological order and uses pre-existing materials in order to uncover explanatory findings.

    The study concludes that the theoretical framework of historical institutionalism and the notion of path dependency can explain the research problem and the research questions. The findings prove that Europol is a highly reactive institution in terms of its counter-terrorism arrangements and that historical perceptions play a significant role and inevitable leads the institution onto a path dependent track. 

  • 175.
    Arin, Nils
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Ingenjörpluton: Kung på en sak eller klåpare på tusen?2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay is about the engineer platoon. The engineer platoon has many different tasks and from my own experience sometimes too many. The platoon is able to build bridges, clear mines and to perform all kinds of construction work in rural or in urban terrain.

    In this case study I compare goals/demands for the battalion to goal’s set up for the company and finally what effects this has on the engineer platoons abilities. The main question is, if the engineer platoon really can solve all tasks given to them in the document TOEM? Abilities such as effect, protection and movement are the bearing parts of the case study.

    The materials I have analyzed are mostly from documents published by The Swedish Armed Forces. The most important document is TOEM, where all demands are presented for the Combat-Support engineer battalion 2009. The essay also discusses why different priorities are made and what effects will be the result in the long term. After reading this essay you will come to find out that engineers sometimes have too many tasks to solve.

  • 176.
    Aringer, Martin
    Swedish Defence University.
    Hybridkrigföring, en militärteoretisk revolution?: En granskning av den begreppsteoretiska diskussionen och fallet Rysslands intervention i Ukraina och på Krim2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The previous definitions of war have become outdated and several theories claim their place  in the theoretical debate of the future wars. One of them, Hybrid Warfare have had a great impact   and are now being incorporated into doctrine by several nations and military organizations, even though the theory is criticized. This thesis aims to clarify the discussion surrounding this theory and at the same time make a contribution to the theoretical debate. By extracting key signatures of Hybrid Warfare and testing them on the Russian intervention in the Ukraine and the Crimea the thesis seeks to answer if this conflict really is a case of Hybrid Warfare, as it is portrayed.  The theoretical debate is the main focus of the thesis and the case study of the Ukraine concludes     that evidence within the conflict categorizes it as a case of Hoffman´s Hybrid Warfare. The later chapters argue that these findings strengthen the debate in favour of Hoffman´s theory and ads another empirical factor to the discussion of the understanding of future conflict. Ended by thoughts of how the results can affect the future of the military profession. 

  • 177.
    Arnell, Krister
    Swedish National Defence College.
    NBF: en självsynkroniserande myt eller ett organiserat paradis?2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During my career in the Royal Swedish Air Force I have served in several different positions,amongst them I can mention the ones as weapons controller and fighter allocater.During the recent years, I have through the reading of different books and discussionswith my colleagues, encountered the opinion that self-synchronised organisationswould be the ultimate goal when organising Network Centric Warfare. My own experiencewas that this was the last option used after everything else had failed. In Swedishlitterateur regarding Network Centric Warfare, you can see the expression of a will to beable to change command philosophy from centralised command to a decentralised anddelegated (Auftragstaktik) command. In this essay I have examined the effectiveness oftwo different organisations, the first one more like a classic hierarchic organisationcomplemented with rules regarding responsibilities for each participant. The participantsin the second organisation only got a role and then had to fulfil this role drawingon their previous experience from working in the Air Force. The participants were allAir Force officers and each one of them could only participate in one of the organisations.The organisations were then tasked to carry out counter air operations in a simulator.Their only mission during the simulations was to protect the city of Stockholm. Inthe simulation the participants met a pre-recorded adversary, for the elimination of atarget the organisations were awarded points. The target heading towards Stockholmearned each organisation more points then other targets. The accumulated points thengave a rating for their effectiveness. The result was then analysed with the help of theoriesregarding what is needed for organisational success and theories regarding networkorganisations. The conclusions clearly state that the organisation with the rules achieveda better result, especially when the technical conditions degenerated. This organisationeven succeeded to improve their result with degraded technical conditions, the otherorganisation got a lower result during the same circumstances. One of the main reasonsthe organisation who had to rely on their previous experience from the Air Force nevergot up to the same standard as the other organisation, was due to the fact that they hadto spend more time to get them selves organised. Furthermore my examination showsthat networks are very complex and hard to overlook for an individual person. Thisleads to problems when you want to communicate in the network and also severe problemswhen it comes to optimizing the efficiency of the network.

  • 178.
    Arnesson, Emanuel
    Swedish Defence University.
    Kraftsamling vid ubåtsattacker: En teoriprövande fallstudie på ubåtsattacker under andra världskriget2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many theorists have discussed the question of the fundamental principles of warfare. But the importance of the principle of concentration of force for warfare is controversial and the theories about the principle are too general to say something about the reality. So what is required to achieve success with a concentration of force?

    In order to answer this question, this essay deals with the basic principle of warfare on the concentration of force from recognized theorist, Carl von Clausewitz, Sir B.H. Liddell Hart, John M. Collins and Milan Vego, in the context of submarine attacks. The study has a deductible theoretical research effort and the purpose is to identify and describe which variables that contribute to success in implementing a concentration of force and how they affect submarine attacks.

    To create a coherent image of the principle, the principle is measurable by identifying variables to achieve success with concentration of force. From the theories, the author identifies five variables: aggregate strength, spread, opponent knowledge, mobility and misleading. To investigate the principle, the variables are tested against two submarine attacks during World War II, which are known to be cases where the concentration of force was used.

    The result shows that during the two attacks only two variables, combined strength and spread were identified. During the attack on the HX 229/SC 122 convoys, which from the attacking party are considered a successful concentration of force, all variables were identified. However, the attack on the SC 130 convoy was considered as a failed concentration of force, since only two variables were identified. 

  • 179.
    Arneving, Joakim
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Utan samband ingen seger: sambandsmedel för Jägar- och spaningsförband2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 180.
    Aronsson, Patrik
    Swedish National Defence College.
    EU:s och Sveriges säkerhetsstrategier: studier av EU-ledda svenska insatser i Afrika 2006-20092009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay examines how The EU Security Strategy affected the objectives of Swedish foreign politics before launching military operations in The Democratic Republic of Congo 2006, Chad/Central African Republic 2008 and in Somalia 2009. The intentions and goals of foreign politics determine Governmental bills and the objectives for the military operations that are sent overseas. These objectives are to serve as guidelines for the realization of the operations.

    This was the basis of the overall problem for my study which asks: How have security policies based on EU reasoning of Security Strategies affected the Swedish national motives for military operations commanded by the EU in Africa 2006-2009? Can they be identified and explained in the Governmental bills from the same era?

    The document, A secure Europe in a better world ­ European Security Strategy, (2003) is used in the case study to identify the objectives and to compare how these have been implemented in the Swedish governmental bills before the initiation of the EU commanded military operations. This was achieved by using qualitative text analysis and a deductive method to analyse foreign policies with an analysis tool, divided into security, welfare of the state and ideological objectives.

    The outcome of the study identified that the motives for the Governmental bills were permeated by EU’s overall objectives. In the Governmental bills, it was identified that there was generally a lack of the sharpness that the EU policy stands for, regarding being active, preventive and resolute. In order to achieve more effectiveness in the welfare of the state objectives, the EU considers this objective ought to be integrated into all resources as well as into civil and military integration. Additionally, this integration was not emphasized in explicit terms in the examined bills. The main and most prioritised outcome was to consider Human Rights, which resulted in high ranking publicity for the EU and Sweden in the outcome of the operations, both regionally and strategically.

  • 181.
    Aronsson, Sofia
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Varm klimatutbildning för blivande officerare2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Armed Forces have taken part and participated in several countries in the world, both in extreme cold and heat. To succeed in solving challenging tasks requires both knowledge and experience. The purpose of this paper is to find out if the the Military Academy Karlberg should train their cadets in hot weather, so they have the knowledge before they start working within their units. The aim has been divided into the following questions. Main Issue: Should the Military Academy cadets be trained in hot weather? A secondary purpose with the analysis is to answer following issues: Define hot weather? How does heat affect the human body, and what are the risks? What training does the Swedish Armed Forces conduct regarding warm weather today? Why does the Swedish Armed forces not train their cadets in The Military Academy Karlberg on hot weather? I have used the method induction, which means that I have done empirical observations by interviews and through literature search and then drawn conclusions from them.

    Essay main conclusions are: Training in cold weather is a good basis, but is not sufficient to master a warm climate. A additional training in hot weather should be sought in the officer program. The training is conducted at the Survival School and is called SERE B

  • 182.
    Arrenäs, Rickard
    Swedish Defence University.
    Helikopters överlevnad mot en kvalificerad motståndare2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study has been to investigate, from a military technical survival perspective, the effectiveness of helicopter 16 during a transport mission, in a national effort where the threat consists of a qualified opponent. The study has been conducted as a qualitative study with a certain quantitative element and based on data and facts obtained from open literature as well as interviews by mission specialists with experience and knowledge from door gunnery. As a help, the method tool A'WOT analysis have been used, which is a hybrid to the SWOT analysis. The purpose of the A'WOT analysis is to distinguish important factors for the effect from helicopter 16 against a defined opponent. The overall result and summary of the study is that helicopter 16 action ability needs a proper upgrade if assignments as a tactical unit can be carried out in a hot environment dictated by a qualified opponent.

  • 183.
    Artman, Kristian
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Westman, Anders
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Lärobok i Militärteknik vol. 2: Sensorteknik2007 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 184. Artéus, Gunnar
    et al.
    Zetterberg, KentSwedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, The Military History Division.
    Högsta ledningen: förhållandet mellan regeringen och överbefälhavaren under det kalla kriget2010Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 185.
    Arve, Sten
    Swedish National Defence College.
    De nya krigens strategiska karaktärsdrag2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis deals with the new kind of war and it´s strategic context and characteristics. Theapproach is to create a “strategic footprint” from literature concerning the issue and then makea comparison between Swedish and British military strategic doctrine.The objective is to conclude to what extent the new kind of war can be seen as a basis forSwedish doctrine. It is also to see what similarities and differences it is possible to identifybetween Swedish and British doctrine. In order to do this, strategic theory is used astheoretical framework.The thesis concludes that there is a great deal of correspondence between the “strategicfootprint” and the both doctrines. However, the Swedish doctrine can be seen as moregeneric, while the British is more precise and to the point.An overarching conclusion is that the new strategic context cannot be approached by militarystrategy and military means alone, but needs a national strategy and a comprehensive view.

  • 186. Arvey, R. A.
    et al.
    Chaturvedi, S.
    Zyphur, M.
    Avolio, B.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Lichstenstein, P.
    Heritability of leadership as a function of age and gender2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 187. Arvey, Richard D.
    et al.
    Chaturvedi, Sankalp
    Zyphur, Michael
    Avolio, Bruce
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Lichenstein, Paul
    Heritability of leadership emergence as a function of age and gender2010In: Behavior Genetics, ISSN 0001-8244, E-ISSN 1573-3297, Vol. 40, no 6, p. 785-785Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 188. Arvey, Richard D.
    et al.
    Song, Zhaoli
    Li, Wen-Dong
    Zhang, Zhen
    Wang, Nan
    Zyphur, Michael
    Chaturvedi, Sandkalp
    Avolio, Bruce
    Ilies, Remus
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Lichenstein, Paul
    Disentangling gene-environment interplay on work-related outcomes: evidence from behavioral and molecular genetic studies2010In: Behavior Genetics, ISSN 0001-8244, E-ISSN 1573-3297, Vol. 40, no 6, p. 784-785Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 189.
    Arvidsson, Filip
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Befolkningen som tyngdpunkt i uppror - en komparativ studie av Trinquier och Galulas upprorsbekämpningsteorier.2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Armed conflicts that are ongoing today are characterized by insurgency conditions, and therefore includes the importance of the populace support. The military forces which have been involved in counterinsurgency operations is working on the basis of doctrines which have been influenced by both Trinquier and Galula.                   

    This thesis compares Trinquier and Galulas counterinsurgency theories regarding how they relate to the population. Although these two military theories have had great space in the scientific debate, there is no previous research that demonstrates how the methods they highlight affects the population.                   

    Populace support is regarded as the center of gravity in counterinsurgency, and therefore, the aim of this thesis is to investigate two military theories similarities and differences regarding short- and long-term goals and their approach to the population.                   

    The results of this thesis indicate that Galulas theory relates to the long-term objectives to a greater extent than Trinquiers do. It also means that Galulas theory relate to the population to a greater extent, indicating that his theory has a better chance of success in a counterinsurgency operation on the basis that the population is the center of gravity.

  • 190.
    Arvidsson, Robin
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Förändrad urvalsprocess: En uppsats om varför urvalsprocessen för stridspiloter ser ut som den gör2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this essay raises the question about the driving forces behind the change in the selection process for fighter pilots during the 70s is raised. 1970 there was a reform of the fighter pilot selection system where it went from a characterological selection to “stegvist urval”. The characterological selectionwas based mostly on psychological interviews while “stegvist urval” was a range of tests directed against certain specific areas of flying. Even in the “stegvist urval” interviews by psychologists are used, but is no longer the main source of information for UTK. The work is structured as a hypothesis which the researcher has set four different hypotheses for what was the driving force behind change in the selection process. The different hypotheses test if it is the changes in training, flight safety factors, technological development or the graduating of pilots that isthe main driving force. The researcher arrived at the conclusion that the main driving force behind the change in the selection process is effectivity. The work of developing a new selection process has been in purpose to reduce the number of drop-offs from the flight training. That has been achieved by introducing the DMT method in the selection process and a new way of conducting the flight training at flight school. By carefully testing and interpreting test results, UTK now can assume that every student that passes the selection process has the necessary pre requisites to complete basic flight training, which is an important part of today's effective flight training.

  • 191.
    Arvidsson, Sebastian
    Swedish Defence University.
    RMA och det fasta kustartilleriet: En analys av diskussioner kring RMA och det fasta kustartilleriet.2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the 1990´s the liquidation of coastal fortifications accelerated. During the same period of time the concept of Revolution in Military Affairs is being implemented in Sweden, military technology is rapidly evolving and Swedish Armed Forces is transforming its organization from a large quantity - long mobilization, to a small mission-based armed force with high response. The purpose of the study is to analyze the relation between RMA and the liquidation of the coastal fortifications, through argumentative analysis and qualitative text analysis, by studying the publications of the Royal Swedish Academy of War Sciences. The result shows that costal fortifications are important even in a world characterized by RMA and modern technology. The costal fortifications were replaced by mobile units. They got liquidated before there time as well.

  • 192.
    Ask Olsson, Simon
    Swedish Defence University.
    Psykisk ohälsa och hantering av drabbad personal: En studie om kadetters upplevda kunskap och förmåga2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En ökad mängd svensk personal hemvändande från internationella insatser har uppdagats lida av psykologiska problem, vilket har lett till en ökad satsning från Försvarsmakten inom området psykisk ohälsa. Försvarsmakten ser bland annat utbildning som ett sätt att arbeta preventivt mot psykisk ohälsa, vilket även styrks av tidigare forskning och studier inom ämnet.

    Härav är det intressant att undersöka i vilken utsträckning utbildning, inom psykisk ohälsa och metoder för hantering av drabbad personal, som sker under officersprogrammet. Syftet med studien är att belysa kadetternas upplevda kunskap inom ämnet och genom tidigare forskning samt teori inom lärande, åskådliggöra vikten av utbildning i ett tidigt skede.

    Metoden som använts för att införskaffa studiens empiri har varit en webbaserad enkätundersökning. Enkäten skickades ut via e-post till de tre för närvarande studerande kurserna på Militärhögskolan Karlberg.

    De viktigaste slutsatserna av denna studie lyder;

    -          Majoriten av kadetterna upplever sig inte erhållit en tillräcklig utbildning i psykisk ohälsa, psykologiska reaktioner och i hur man hanterar personer med dessa reaktioner.

    -          Försvarsmakten har att vinna på att utbildning sker i ett tidigt skede, exempelvis under Officersprogrammet. Dels genom de krav på övning som lärandeteorin påvisat, det tidskrav som övningar ställer på utbildning samt genom den allmänna kunskapsökning och attitydförändring som utbildning i ett tidigt skede kan medföra till organisationen.

  • 193.
    Askervall, Karl
    Swedish Defence University.
    Talibanerna som organisation: En studie av strukturen på styret av talibanernas organisation 20092012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since the attack on The United States of America September 11 2001 numerous reports hasbeen written about the Taleban to provide information to the forces fighting them. Thepurpose of my thesis is to try to illustrate a structure on the rule of the Taliban organisation2009 and explain why they had this structure on their rule based on religious education. Andby this contribute to the current research about the Taliban. To fulfil this purpose I willanswers the following question in the thesis: What structure did the Taliban have on the ruleof their organisation in 2009 and why did the rule have this structure? This main questionwill be answered through two sub questions: Question 1 – Can the structure of the rule of theTaliban organisation 2009 be described by using a structural theory about organisations?Question 2 – Can the religious education be an explanation to this structure of their rule?With the help of one structural theory about organisations and two sociological theory’sthat concerns why people and groups act the way they do based of their background I will tryto fulfil the purpose of the thesis and describe the structure of the rule of the Talibanorganisation 2009 and explain why the rule had this structure.The thesis uses a qualitative method and divisionaliserad organisation, habitus and thehidden curriculum as theories. In the first analyse that answers to the first question I make acase study on a document that describes rules and regulations for the Taliban’s under MullahOmar using Henry Mintzbergs theory of divisionaliserad organisation. Thereafter to answerthe second question I first analyse the Taliban habitus based on their religious education.Then I continue the analysis using Pierre Bourdieus theory of habitus and Donald Broadysthe hidden curriculum.The result of the two analyses shows that the structure of the rule of the Talibanorganisation 2009 can be described fairly well using the theory of divisionaliseradorganisation. It also shows that the theory of habitus with the support of the hiddencurriculum can give an explanation to why their rule had this structure 2009 based on theindividual’s religious education in southern Afghanistan and Pakistan.

  • 194.
    Aslaksen, Tord
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Kampfly på byen?: Konseptuelt grunnlag for bruk av norske kampfly i urbane operasjoner2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s demographic trends point towards increased urbanization. This has an effect onthe challenges of security policy and western military forces are reluctantly drawn intoan urban area characterized by the marginalization of conventional military power. TheNorwegian Armed Forces have recently transformed into an expeditionary force and, asa result, have been engaged in warfighting in increasingly remote areas. So far fighteraircraft have been used on three war-related missions, and will probably be involved inmore. This being the case, consideration should be given to the warfighting capabilitiesof fighter aircraft. Warfighting capability consists of moral, physical and conceptualfactors. The aim of this paper has been to analyse the conceptual basis for the use ofNorwegian fighter aircraft in urban operations (UO). As such, the paper can be seen as acontribution to an evaluation of the warfighting capabilities of Norwegian fighter aircraftin urban operations.Analysis of this conceptual basis is based on five factors distinctive to UO: physicalconditions, consideration of the civilian population, own losses, three-block war and thestrategic corporal. By way of introduction, the challenges and requirements arising fromthese five common factors are identified. The results are then used as a basis for analysisof the Norwegian strategic concept, doctrine, thinking and experience – which togetherform the overall Norwegian conceptual basis.Ideally, this basis should have been holistic and disseminated in such a way that allpersonnel in the armed forces had a common understanding of UO. This analysis hascome to the conclusion that this is not the case in Norway. The Norwegian conceptualbasis for UO is fragmented. However, the analysis has shown that the conceptual basisencompasses all the challenges and requirements of UOs, from the tactical to thestrategic level. Furthermore, in cooperation with ground forces, Norwegian fighter pilotsare currently establishing an experience-based foundation, which, to a large extent,reflects the challenges and requirements of UOs.In summary, the analysis concludes that the Norwegian conceptual basis for the use offighter aircraft in UO is sufficient.

  • 195.
    Asp, Anders
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Förhållandet mellan insatsberedda styrkor och insatstider: en studie av FN:s fredsfrämjande operationer 1948-20002003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since 1948, the UN has initiated 55 peacekeeping operations out of which 15are still in progress. During virtually the same period there have beendiscussions on the feasibility of maintaining units with a high degree ofreadiness for UN operations. The discussion has covered standing forces aswell as rapid-reaction units in the form of force registers. There are currentlyforce registers in existence with the purpose of reducing reaction periodsthereby reducing deployment delays. What effect, then, have these forceregisters? The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the size of theseregisters justifies the reaction periods and thereby reduces delays. With thispurpose in mind, the main hypothesis of this paper is: “the larger the numberof rapid- reaction peacekeeping units, the smaller the delay for peacekeepingoperations.” This hypothesis, together with competing explanations, is testedwith linear regression analysis. The dataset includes the UN’s all peacekeepingoperations during 1948-2000. This study contributes to previous research bystatistically testing an empirical proposition, and for that purpose generates anew dataset.The study finds that the occurrence of force registers and rapid-reaction unitshas not affected deployment delays on UN’s peacekeeping operations 1948-2000. Consequently, there is no support for the common assertion that rapidreactionunits have a general importance for UN’s ability to deploypeacekeeping operations on authorized time. A possible explanation to theresult is that the UN doesn’t have direct access to the rapid-reaction units.Additional possible explanations are also recorded in this study. The study alsofinds that neither the size of authorized units nor the occurrence of alreadydeployed missions, or units, in the area has any impact on deployment delays.Despite the fact that the statistical analysis finds no relationship between thesize of the rapid reaction units and deployment delays, the result should not beinterpreted as indicating that the UN’s efforts towards a rapid-reaction forcehave been fruitless. In individual cases, deployment may have been able to takeplace more rapidly, enabling the achievement of positive effects, especiallyfrom a humanitarian point of view.The study concludes by suggesting a series of possible avenues for futureresearch.

  • 196.
    Asp, Viktoria
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Enskildas ansvar och agerande: Offentliga aktörers bedömningar2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten ger en bild av hur offentliga aktörer ser på gränsdragningarna mellan det offentligas och den enskildas ansvar vid kriser och vilka förväntningar aktörerna har på enskildas krisberedskapsförmåga. Till grund ligger en enkät skickad till beredskapssamordnare eller motsvarande i samtliga kommuner, landsting och länsstyrelser samt en fokusgrupp med representanter för centrala myndigheter.

    Överlag är offentliga aktörer överens om hur enskilda bör ta ansvar. Under tre dygn börenskilda kunna täcka det egna hushållets behov av vatten, mat, värme och information. Det finns en stark samsyn i att enskilda bör ta ansvar genom att hjälpa varandra vid kriser,exempelvis genom att dela med sig av förnödenheter. Vidare bör enskilda medborgare ta ansvar genom att ha kunskap om risker och följa råd från offentliga aktörer.

    Det finns områden där offentliga aktörer är oeniga om på vilka sätt enskilda bör ta ansvar. Områdena innefattar om enskilda ska fungera som en resurs till det offentligas krishanteringsarbete, tillsammans ansvara för att det är ordning och säkerhet i samhället under ett längre elavbrott, följa myndigheters råd om att vaccinera sig vid smittoutbrott, ha en packad väska och en plan för att snabbt kunna evakuera sin bostad, kunskap om hot ochrisker i närområdet samt om enskilda har ansvar för att förmedla viktig information vid ettförmodat terrorattentat.

    Ansvarsynen skiljer sig mellan lokal och regional nivå. Personer som arbetar på länsstyrelser ser mer långtgående på enskildas ansvar än vad beredskapssamordnare i kommuner och landsting gör.

    Hur tror offentliga aktörer att enskilda agerar och förbereder sig för kriser? Förväntningarna på enskildas krisberedskapsförmåga är låga. De flesta bedömer att enskilda kan klara självförsörjning under högst ett dygn. Bara drygt hälften tror att enskilda är medvetna om att samhällsfunktioner kan sluta fungera normalt vid en kris. Likaså är förväntningarna på i vilken utsträckning människor hjälper varandra ganska låga. Bara drygt 40 procent av de offentliga aktörerna tror att människor hjälper varandravid kriser.

    Ett fåtal människor tros under en kris begå brott, antingen för att få tillgång tillförnödenheter till det egna hushållet eller för att sälja vidare. Enligt forskning är det en vanlig myt att kriser leder till att människor blir överdrivet själviska med plundring eller annan brottslighet som följd. Tvärtom brukar människor vid kriser vara solidariska, hjälpa varandra och dela på de knappa resurser som finns.

    De flesta offentliga aktörer menar att enskildas ansvar bör förtydligas. Det skulle underlätta vid kunskapshöjande informationssatsningar och ge beredskapssamordnarna stöd i arbetet med att öka enskildas krisberedskapsförmåga. För att enskildas krisberedskap ska öka är det dock avgörande med vilja och intresse från allmänhet,politiker och myndigheter.

  • 197.
    Asp, Viktoria
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Frivilligresurser under flyktingsituationen: Frivilliga försvarsorganisationer och trossamfunds förmåga att möta samhällets behov hösten 20152017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Flyktingsituationen hösten 2015 innebar stora påfrestningar för det svenska samhället. Samtidigt fanns ett sällan skådat engagemang och vilja bland allmänheten till att bidra. Det civila samhället gjorde stora insatser för människorna på flykt.

    Studiens vägledande fråga har varit hur frivilliga kan fungera som resurs för att möta samhällets behov vid kriser. Utgångpunkten har varit flyktingsituationen men jämförelser görs med skogsbranden i Västmanland 2014, som också involverade stora mängder frivilliga.

    Frivilligheten är spretig och uppdelad. Skillnader finns i organisering och synen på organisationens roll i krisberedskapen. Det saknas en arena där frivilliga försvarsorganisationer, trossamfund och andra delar av det civila samhället träffas. Dessutom finns det konkurrens och prestige mellan organisationerna, vilket offentliga aktörer upplevde försvårade deras samverkan med frivilliga. Även frivilligorganisationerna har identifierat prestige som något som försvårade arbetet under hösten 2015. En tydlig skiljelinje i frivilligheten är frågan kring anställning och synen på organisationens oberoende gentemot det offentliga.

    Alla intervjuade offentliga aktörer har haft behov av personella förstärkningsresurser. Det är dock bara Migrationsverket och Umeå kommun som i någon mån har använt frivilliga som personella förstärkningsresurser. Migrationsverket bedömer att de hade behov av ungefär dubbelt så många frivilliga. Matchningen uteblev dock eftersom Migrationsverket saknade förberedda processer kring ersättning, anställning och integrering av frivilliga samtidigt som frivilliga försvarsorganisationer och samarbetskommittén FOS saknade rutiner för att snabbt få frivilliga på plats.

    Förutsättningarna för fungerande samverkan med frivilligorganisationer var inte optimala. Den egna myndigheten var mitt uppe i en kris vilket ledde till ospecificerade förfrågningar och låga krav på frivilligas kompetens och kvalitetssäkring. Situationen gjorde att både offentliga aktörer och frivilliga blev tvungna att testa nya arbetssätt och frångå de vanliga rutinerna.

    Offentliga aktörer förefaller vara som mest nöjda när frivilliga har organiserat sig själva, lyckats lösa alla möjliga problem, och sett behov som de offentliga inte själva har kunnat förutse. Graden av detaljstyrning, som anställning skulle kunna innebära, måste vägas mot graden av frihet för att inte riskera att förlora kärnan i frivilligheten: Drivkraften att göra skillnad.

    Rapporten bygger i första hand på intervjuer med representanter för några kommuner, länsstyrelser, centrala myndigheter, frivilliga försvarsorganisationer, trossamfund och andra delar av det civila samhället. Rapporten innehåller många exempel men ger ingen heltäckande bild över vilken roll frivilliga spelade under hösten 2015. Studien har genomförts på uppdrag av Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap.

  • 198.
    Asp, Viktoria
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Norbergs kommun: Utvärdering av krishanteringen under skogsbranden i Västmanland 20142015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Skogsbranden i Västmanland sommaren 2014 ledde till en omfattande räddningsinsats och blev den största samverkansinsatsen på svensk mark sedan det nuvarande krisberedskapssystemet infördes. Syftet med rapporten är att, utifrån ett krisberedskapsperspektiv, dra lärdomar och ta tillvara erfarenheter från händelsen genom en systematisk undersökning. Utvärderingen är skriven av Försvarshögskolan/Crismart på uppdrag av Norbergs kommun, genom Länsstyrelsen i Västmanlands län. Utvärderingen har främst baserats på skriftlig och muntlig information från Norbergs kommun som har erhållits genom processledning, intervjuer och dokumentanalys. Huvudfrågan har varit hur kommunen kan lära och utvecklas av händelsen och utvärderingen ger exempel på inom vilka områden kommunen bör utveckla sin verksamhet samt inom vilka områden det finns goda exempel på beslutsfattande och agerande.

    Måndagen den 4 augusti 2014 nådde skogsbranden, som då hade pågått i fem dagar, Norbergs kommun. Situationen blev snabbt akut. Kommunen påbörjade krishanteringsarbetet på måndagskvällen samtidigt som räddningsledningen övervägde att evakuera stora delar av kommunen. Kommunalrådet aktiverade krisledningsnämnden och nämnden, krisledningsgruppen och krisinformationsgruppen hade möten tillsammans. Det sågs som den lilla kommunens styrka att grupperna kunde arbeta nära varandra. Ingen annan av kommunerna som drabbades av skogsbranden stod inför en lika allvarlig situation som Norberg gjorde under måndagen. Krisledningsnämnden gjorde att beslutsvägarna blev korta och kommunala medel vid behov snabbt kunde omfördelas. I Norbergs fall var det lämpligt att aktivera krisledningsnämnden eftersom det gav kommunen ytterligare verktyg för att hantera krisen.

    Det finns några områden där Norbergs kommun kan lära och utvecklas av skogsbranden. Ingen av de skogsbrandsdrabbade kommunerna skulle ha haft tillräckligt med personal om krisen hade dragit ut på tiden. Uthållighetsaspekten blir särskilt bekymmersam för en liten kommun. För att minska sårbarheten bör kommunen bibehålla kontakter med andra aktörer i närområdet och bli aktiv i de regionala nätverk som finns för krisberedskapsfrågor.

    Samverkan kräver resurser och även det blir därför svårare för en mindre kommun. Samverkansstaben i Ramnäs önskade ytterligare representanter från Norberg, något som kommunen inte menade var möjligt. Norberg är den minsta av de drabbade kommunerna. Den personal som fanns behövde arbeta i kommunen. Norberg och Fagersta delar på en tjänst som beredskapssamordnare. Vid händelser som involverar båda kommunerna blir det en sårbarhet.

    Vid skogsbranden ansvarade länsstyrelsen för att samordna information från olika myndigheter. Trots länsstyrelsens samordning och övertagande av räddningstjänst har kommunerna fortfarande informationsansvar gentemot de egna medborgarna. Norberg tycks knappt ha informerat allmänheten om vilka insatser kommunen själv gjorde med anledning av skogsbranden. Kommunen bör därför fundera på hur förmågan att kommunicera vilka åtgärder kommunen vidtar under en kris kan stärkas.

  • 199.
    Asp, Viktoria
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Bynander, Fredrik
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Daléus, Pär
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Deschamps-Berger, Jenny
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Sandberg, Daniel
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Schyberg, Erik
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Bara skog som brinner?: Utvärdering av krishanteringen under skogsbranden i Västmanland 20142015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Skogbranden i Västmanland 2014 är ur flera aspekter intressant och viktig att dra lärdomar från. Händelsen ledde till en omfattade insats – den största i Sverige i modern tid och innebar att svensk krisberedskap prövades på samtliga nivåer; Staten tog över ledningen av kommunal räddningstjänst, en samverkansstab organiserades, krisledningsnämnder aktiverades, evakuering av medborgare och djur genomfördes, ett stort antal kommunala, statliga och privata aktörer bistod de ansvariga aktörerna under händelsen och Sverige begärde stöd från EU. Ett stort antal frivilligorganisationer och spontanfrivilliga hjälpte till och 69 olika räddningstjänster deltog i arbetet.

    Syftet med denna utvärdering är att, utifrån ett krisberedskapsperspektiv, dra lärdomar och ta tillvara erfarenheter från händelsen genom en systematisk undersökning. Målet är att Länsstyrelsen i Västmanland, Fagersta kommun, Norbergs kommun, Sala kommun och Surahammars kommun ska få ett underlag som bidrar till implementering av lärdomar och fortsatt utveckling av krisberedskapsförmågan. Underlaget ska också vara till nytta och komma till användning för utvecklingen av hela det svenska samhällets krisberedskap.

    Slutsatserna i rapporten visar på flera brister i kopplingen mellan å ena sidan lagstiftning och systemprinciper, och å den andra centrala aktörers förmåga och beredskap att utföra sina uppdrag. Författarna konstaterar att båda sidor av denna ekvation måste utvecklas för att det svenska krisberedskapssystemet inte bara ska stå rustat för nästa svåra skogsbrand utan också för andra, och potentiellt mycket värre, händelser som framtiden kan erbjuda. Vi anser att det vore mer ändamålsenligt att sluta använda ansvarsprincipen och istället säga att svensk krisberedskap bygger på ordinarie förvaltningsstrukturer, på vissa aktörers särskilda ansvar för krisberedskap och på ett geografiskt områdesansvar. Det geografiska områdesansvaret på regional och lokal nivå bör ses över, de krav som idag åligger aktörerna är inte rimliga i förhållande till den kapacitet/förmåga som finns.

    Inom svensk krisberedskap är samverkan en förutsättning för en lyckad krishantering – inte en del av krishanteringen. Begreppet samverkan måste dock sättas i ett sammanhang för att bli meningsfullt och leda till ett resultat. Vi menar att det generellt läggs för mycket kraft och tid på samverkansformer, och för lite på resultatet. Samverkan är inget eget område, det är en förutsättning för att nå resultat – en metod. En metod som måste utvecklas inom samhällsskydd och beredskap. Samverkan är inte viktig i sig, det är resultatet av samverkan som är viktigt.

    MSB bör utveckla sitt expertstöd (framför allt juridiskt operativt stöd), till aktörer under en händelse. Nationella stödresurser bör utformas utifrån grundliga behovsinventeringar och bli föremål för informationsinsatser i syfte att de skall kunna göra nytta i svåra händelser.

    Det finns anledning att fundera över om inte LEH kan förtydligas avseende vem eller vilken funktion i kommunerna (och landstingen) som har mandat att besluta om att man befinner sig i en extraordinär händelse.

    Kriser ställer ganska skilda krav på en organisation beroende på art, allvar och tidsutdräkt. Många beredskapsrelaterade tjänster är undanskymda i organisationsmatrisen och integreras inte på ledningsnivå när något händer. Funktionerna för Tjänsteman i beredskap och liknande beredskaps- och larmfunktioner måste brygga över organisationens alla relevanta kompetensområden. TiB:en måste förstå och veta vem i organisationen som kan vad och hur de kan aktiveras, precis som hen ska känna till när externa aktörer ska informeras. Detta är ett organisatoriskt utvecklingsarbete man inte blir färdig med och som man bör vara beredd att investera i.

    Utvärderingen visar att U-sam bör utvecklas för att kunna uppnå sitt syfte – att utgöra den främsta regionala samverkansfunktion i U-län. U-Sam bör ses över, dels avseende representationen av de ingående aktörerna, kombinerbarhet med särskilda staber/insatsorganisationer, och dels avseende förankring både på myndighetschefsnivå och på politisk nivå. Länsstyrelsens särskilda krishanteringsorganisation gjorde dock ett gediget efterarbete, och organisationen använde sig dessutom på ett bra sätt av erfarenheter och lärdomar från efterarbetet i tidigare händelser. Vi anser att organisationens arbete med fördel kan användas av andra aktörer inom svensk krisberedskap – som en utgångspunkt i efterarbetet av framtida händelser som drabbar många drabbade aktörer och medborgare. En betydande del av den särskilda krishanteringsorganisationen arbete hade dock inte kunnat genomföras, om inte extra medel hade tillskjutits.

    Vi anser också, mot bakgrund av Försvarsmaktens betydande roll vid civila samhällskriser, och mot bakgrund av att regeringen nu anser att det finns behov av att analysera och förtydliga Försvarsmaktens roll iii inom samhällets krisberedskap, att det finns all anledning att i större utsträckning uppmärksamma det stöd Försvarsmakten gett och ger vid samhällskriser.

    Slutligen föreslås en fokusförflyttning inom området Samhällskydd och beredskap – Scenarier och typhändelser är relevanta för att komma underfund med sårbarheter och brister, men det bör inte vara primärt fokus för övningar och utbildningar. Istället bör tyngdpunkten tydligare läggas på de funktioner/förmågor som behövs för att en kris ska kunna hanteras och avslutas.

    Vi anser att de faktorer som hade störst betydelse för hanteringen av skogsbranden i Västmanland i augusti 2014 var lika delar engagemang, mod, erfarenhet och personliga kontakter. I svåra händelser tenderar de som sätts att hantera dem att fokusera på att lösa uppgiften och skala bort formella krav och upplevt irrelevanta kommunikations- och samverkansvägar. Det finns mycket utvecklingsarbete kvar för att hela det regelverk som omger krishanteringsinsatser naturligt ska stödja och komplettera en sådan mentalitet och stärka den samlade insatsen, snarare än att sätta upplevda käppar i hjulet för dessa vanligen mycket pressade individer.

  • 200.
    Asp, Viktoria
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Helena, Hermansson
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Sara, Sjölund
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Utvärdering av grundkurs för Räddningsinsats: Måluppfyllelse och målrelevans2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Över 60 procent av brandmännen i Sverige är anställda som räddningstjänstpersonal i beredskap och arbetar deltid inom kommunal räddningstjänst. Deras huvudsakliga utbildning är grundkurs för Räddningsinsats som årligen genomförs på ett flertal platser i landet med MSB som huvudman.

    Utvärderingen visar att grundkurs för Räddningsinsats är en uppskattad utbildning, både av studerande och avnämare, som i hög grad uppfyller räddningstjänsternas behov. Trots detta finns det många förslag på förbättringar av utbildningen. Många synpunkter handlar om att anpassa utbildningen till förändringar som skett inom räddningstjänsterna. Kunskapsområdet Prehospitalt akut omhändertagande bör utökas med suicidkunskap, anhörigstöd och socialt omhändertagande samt hjärt-lungräddning för att anpassa kunskapsområdet till nya behov. För att öka studerandenas förståelse för samtliga kunskapsområdens relevans bör en stor del av undervisningen och övningarna vara ämnesövergripande. Övningarna bör också genomföras med en flexibel syn på insatsorganisation och med ett jämnt fokus på olika släckmetoder.

    Många respondenter har efterfrågat en anpassning av grundkurs för Räddningsinsats till lokala förhållanden. Eftersom skillnaderna mellan landets räddningstjänster vad gäller organisering, riskbilder och stationernas behov, är stora bör en sådan anpassning göras under preparandkursen och inte under grundkursen.

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