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  • 151.
    Edlund, Johannes
    Swedish Defence University.
    Manöverkrigföringens misslyckande: en fallstudie om manöverkrigföringens utnyttjande i andra Libanonkriget och första slaget om Fallujah2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Israel has been successful in the majority of the conflicts they participated in, but after the second Lebanon war against Hezbollah, the outcome was a loss. The United States Marine Corps have achieved many victories throughout history. However, during operation "Vigilant Resolve" in Fallujah, Iraq, the result was a loss when the Marine Corps failed to seize the city.

    How can regular armed forces have such difficulties to achieve military success against irregular armed forces, despite its technological and numerical superiority? The aim in this paper is to see if another possible explanation to the difficulties lies in insufficient use of manoeuvre warfare.

    The paper examines two negative cases. The examination takes place with the analysis of open written documents of a mainly descriptive nature. 

    Both Israel and the United States Marine Corps used manoeuvre warfare, but inadequately. With that said, it is not clear that the loss of operations can be explained entirely by insufficient use of manoeuvre warfare. It is close to the assertion that inadequate use of manoeuvre warfare can to some extent explain the loss.

  • 152.
    Edström, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Westberg, Jacob
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Between the Eagle and the Bear: Explaining the Alignment Strategies of the Nordic Countries in the 21th Century2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 153.
    Edström, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Westberg, Jacob
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    The Defence Strategies of Middle Powers: Competing for security, influence and status in an era of unipolar demise2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 154.
    Edén, Sebastian
    Swedish Defence University.
    Theater Air Power In Non-Conventional Wars2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The majority of researchers in air power theory up to this date have studied the use of airpower inconventional wars. This is also the case with the well renowned air power theorist Robert A. Pape.In his academic work Bombing to Win, Pape seeks to find the circumstances for when coercive powersucceeds or fail. After an empirical study, presented in the book, he explains that the extensive useof denial strategies will lead to victory and every other strategy is basically a waste of time. Heclaims that his theory can predict the outcome of 33 air operations during the twentieth century withan accuracy of 93 percent.This study seeks to determine if his claims are true in a non-conventional conflict against an insurgencyor a guerilla. To examine this Pape’s theory is tried against two conflicts in which the oppositionconsisted of irregular forces. Operation Enduring Freedom, when the Americans fought theTaliban and al Qaeda and the South African Border War when the South Africans were in combatagainst a rebellious guerilla.The theory testing case-study shows that Pape’s assumptions to great extent can explain the outcomeof the two conflicts. The denial strategy that Pape advocates where showed to contribute to the greatestmilitary effects.

  • 155.
    Egnell, Robert
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Strategy Section.
    Framtida konfliktyper: En modell för kategorisering av krig och konflikter (S14)2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att kategorisera och namnge möjliga framtida konflikter syftar till att mentalt förbereda sig på olika alternativ och därmed ge organisationen möjlighet att anpassa sin förmåga att hantera de olika utmaningar som dessa konfliktkategorier kan tänkas medföra. Begrepp, eller teoretiska koncept, är viktiga då de har dubbla roller. Dels är de analytiska instrument för att förenkla, strukturera och förstå verkligheten. Överförenklade begrepp och kategorier riskerar däremot att fördärva vår verklighetsuppfattning och angripa de ”verkliga” problemen på ett effektivt sätt. Begrepp är dock inte bara analytiska avbilder av verkligheten, de har även en konstruktivistisk roll – de formar vår verklighetsuppfattning. Detta innebär att de definitioner och begrepp vi använder på insatser kommer att forma vår uppfattning och förståelse av insatsen. Det senaste utkastet till Militärstrategisk doktrin 2012 gör vikten av förståelse av konflikters karaktär mycket tydlig:

    All personal i Försvarsmakten måste förstå och kunna hantera krigets skiftande karaktär. Det ligger i krigets natur att dess karaktär ständigt skiftar och aldrig upprepar sig. Ingen kan styra krigets karaktär. Vi måste därför i vart fall noga bedöma den specifika konfliktens karaktär och anpassa medel och metoder därefter.

    Syftet med studien är därför att assistera Försvarsmakten i strävan efter denna förståelse genom att skapa en tydlig kategorisering av möjliga framtida konflikter. Denna kategorisering utgår från centrala parametrar och begrepp som anses tongivande för att förstå olika typer av framtida konflikter. Beskrivna konflikttyper skall sedan användas för att ta fram övergripande beskrivningar av möjliga framtida försvarsmaktsprofiler, så kallade idébilder, samt för utveckling av Försvarsmaktens befintliga strategiska typscenarier.

     

    Baserat på en generell diskussion om drivkrafter för framtida konflikter och en genomgång av existerande begrepp för att kategorisera konflikter så har en relativt enkel modell skapats i denna studie. En fyrfältare har skapats baserad på två variabler som påverkar konfliktens karaktär:

    1. Militär förmåga (Från låg till hög förmåga)
    2. Relativ förmåga i förhållande till motpart (Symmetri eller asymmetri av förmåga)

     

    Reguljär/Symmetrisk konflikt

    Reguljär/symmetrisk krigföring kännetecknas av två aktörer med likartad och hög militär förmåga – med största sannolikhet två stater. Denna typ av krigföring är mycket väl beskriven i både doktrin och teoretiska sammanhang och behöver inte beskrivas närmare här. Värt att notera är att dessa krig tenderar att bli storskaliga och högintensiva, dels på grund av krigets inre logik vilket leder till eskalation (Clausewitz) och dels på grund av de stora aktörernas förmåga och kapacitet att eskalera.

    Reguljär/Asymmetriskt konflikt

    Dessa konflikter kännetecknas av två aktörer med hög militär förmåga men som ändå är långt ifrån symmetriska. Exempel är Falklandskriget 1982 och Gulfkriget 1991. Trots att Saddam Hussein kunde mobilisera mer än en halv miljon man så medförde deras tekniska underlägsenhet gentemot den USA-ledda koalitionen en asymmetrisk konflikt. Dessa konflikter tenderar att bli mycket kortvariga om inte den svagare parten övergår i irreguljär krigföring.

    Irreguljär/Symmetrisk konflikt

    Dessa konflikter kännetecknas av två svaga (med traditionella mått på militär krigföringsförmåga) militära aktörer som slåss med samma irreguljära metoder. Flera inbördeskrig i Afrika tillhört denna kategori. Inte minst kriget i Liberia mellan bland andra NPFL och INPFL. Dessa konflikter eskalerar snarare i brott mot krigets lagar än i konfliktens intensitet – vilket i slutändan innebär allvarliga brott mot mänskliga rättigheter, barnsoldater, våld mot civila och därmed mycket svårläkta sår för samhället i en post-konfliktsitutation.

    Irreguljär/Asymmetrisk

    Denna konfliktkategori omfattar två aktörer med olika krigföringsförmåga där den svagare parten valt irreguljära metoder för att bekämpa en överlägsen fiende. Gerillakrig, upprorsmotverkan och många komplexa fredsfrämjande insatser ryms inom denna kategori. Pågående konflikter i Afghanistan, Irak, Colombia och mellan Israel och Palestinierna är ett antal exempel.

    Hybridkrigföring

    Hybridkrigföring beskrivs som en kombination av traditionell krigföring, blandat med terrorism, andra asymmetriska hot och upprorsverksamhet. Orsaken till begreppet är en ökad insikt om att de traditionella dikotomierna beskrivna ovan är missvisande i en betydligt mer komplex verklighet där olika typer av krigföring flyter ihop. Det är viktigt att notera att då fienden bedriver flera olika typer av krigföring samtidigt – hybridkrigföring – så ställs det med stor sannolikhet liknande krav på våra förband.

    Aktörers intressen och förändringar av konflikters karaktär

    Analysen trycker vid flera tillfällen på vikten av förståelse för att konflikter inte är statiska utan att konflikters karaktär kan ändras på flera olika sätt. Därför har studien även diskuterat ett antal tänkbara rörelser mellan modellens fem fält. Aktörernas intressen är utöver detta avgörande för förändringsbenägenheten i konflikter, då motgångar för aktörer med absoluta mål kommer leda till metodförändringar vilket i sin tur förändrar konfliktens karaktär.

     

    Slutligen presenterar studien ett par exempel på hur modellen kan användas inom FM för strategisk planering och framtagande av typscenarior. Trots att territoriella hot mot Sverige inte diskuterades framkom det med tydlighet att det kommer krävas en mycket stor bredd av förmågor för svenska förband – en kraftfull och expeditionär Försvarsmakt som med trovärdighet kan agera utmed hela konfliktskalan – på hemmaplan, i närområdet och internationellt. Flexibilitet och anpassningsförmåga är dessutom central ledord för att kunna följa med i framtida konflikters karaktärsförändringar. Statiska militära organisationer tillhör det förflutna.

  • 156.
    Egnell, Robert
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    Lessons from Helmand, Afghanistan: What now for British counterinsurgency?2011In: International Affairs, ISSN 0020-5850, E-ISSN 1468-2346, Vol. 87, no 2, p. 297-315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses the conduct of British operations in Helmand between 2006 and 2010 and discusses the implications for the legacy and future of British counterinsurgency. Substantially changed training, painful relearning of counterinsurgency principles and changed mindsets are necessary to avoid repeated early failures in the future. Moreover, despite eventually adapting tactically to the situation and task in Helmand, the British Armed Forces proved inadequate in dealing with the task assigned to them for two key reasons. First, the resources of the British military are simply too small for dealing with large-scale complex engagements such as those in Helmand or southern Iraq. Second, the over-arching comprehensive approach, and especially the civilian lines of operations that underpinned Britain's historical successes with counterinsurgency, are today missing.

  • 157.
    Egnell, Robert
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Leadership.
    Sweden's Implementation of a Gender Perspective: Cutting Edge but Momentum Lost2019In: Women and Gender Perspectives in the Military: An International Comparison / [ed] Egnell, Robert; Alam, Mayesha, Washington DC: Georgetown University Press, 2019, p. 41-72Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 158.
    Egnell, Robert
    Georgetown University, Washington D.C., USA.
    The Swedish Decision to Participate in Operation Unified Protector2016In: Political Rationale and International Consequences of the War in Libya / [ed] Henriksen, Dag & Larssen, Ann Karin, New York: Oxford University Press, 2016, p. 174-191Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 159.
    Egnell, Robert
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL). Georgetown University, Washington D.C., USA.
    The Swedish Experience: Overcoming the Non–NATO-Member Conundrum2015In: Precision and Purpose: Airpower in the Libyan Civil War / [ed] Mueller, Karl P., Santa Monica, Californien, USA: Rand Corporation, 2015, p. 309-338Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 160.
    Egnell, Robert
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Strategy Section.
    Winning 'Hearts and Minds'?: A Critical Analysis of Counter-Insurgency Operations in Afghanistan2010In: Civil Wars, ISSN 1369-8249, E-ISSN 1743-968X, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 282-303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article conducts a critical analysis of the historical lessons, theassumptions and the conduct of ‘hearts and minds’ approaches to counterinsurgency.This results in challenges. Theoretically the ‘hearts and minds’approach is rooted in modernisation theory and a normative Western approachto legitimacy that fails to live up to the expectations of the local population.The approach is also based on lessons from past successes such as the British1950s campaign in Malaya. However, a great contextual shift has taken placesince then and the relevance of past experiences is therefore questionable ina context of complex state-building in the wake of intervention. This also haspractical consequences as we seek to rectify the often misapplied approachesof today.

  • 161.
    Egnell, Robert
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Leadership.
    Alam, Mayesha
    Department of Political Science, Yale University, USA.
    Conclusion: Lessons of Comparison and Limits of Generalization2019In: Women and Gender Perspectives in the Military: An International Comparison / [ed] Robert Egnell and Mayesha Alam, Washington DC: Georgetown University Press, 2019, p. 253-266Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 162.
    Egnell, Robert
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Leadership.
    Alam, Mayesha
    Department of Political Science, Yale University, USA.
    Introduction: Gender and Women in the Military - Setting the Stage2019In: Women and Gender Perspectives in the Military: An International Comparison / [ed] Egnell, Robert; Alam, Mayesha, Washington DC: Georgetown University Press, 2019, p. 1-22Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 163.
    Egnell, Robert
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Leadership.
    Alam, MayeshaDepartment of Political Science, Yale University, USA.
    Women and Gender Perspectives in the Military: An International Comparison2019Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Women and Gender Perspectives in the Military compares the integration of women, gender perspectives, and the women, peace, and security agenda into the armed forces of eight countries plus NATO and United Nations peacekeeping operations. This book brings a much-needed crossnational analysis of how militaries have or have not improved gender balance, what has worked and what has not, and who have been the agents for change. The country cases examined are Sweden, the Netherlands, Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, Israel, Australia, and South Africa. Despite increased opportunities for women in the militaries of many countries and wider recognition of the value of including gender perspectives to enhance operational effectiveness, progress has encountered roadblocks even nearly twenty years after United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 kicked off the women, peace, and security agenda. Robert Egnell, Mayesha Alam, and the contributors to this volume conclude that there is no single model for change that can be applied to every country, but the comparative findings reveal many policy-relevant lessons while advancing scholarship about women and gendered perspectives in the military.

  • 164.
    Egnell, Robert
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), ISSL Directorate.
    Cardoso Reis, Bruno
    ISCTE-IUL CIS, Lissabon, Portugal.
    Counterinsurgency2018In: The Handbook of European Defence Policies and Armed Forces / [ed] Hugo Meijer och Marco Wyss, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018, p. 592-607Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 165.
    Egnell, Robert
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), ISSL Directorate.
    Ucko, David H.
    National Defense University, Washington D.C., USA.
    True to form?: Questioning the British counterinsurgency tradition2016In: Insurgencies and Counterinsurgencies: National Styles and Strategic Cultures / [ed] Heuser, Beatrice & Shamir, Eitan, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2016, p. 25-46Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 166.
    Egnell, Robert
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Afghanistan: Krig utan slut?2017In: Om Krig och Fred: En introduktion till freds- och konfliktstudier / [ed] Karin Aggestam och Kristine Höglund, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, 2, p. 153-172Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 167.
    Ehrlinder, Erik
    Swedish Defence University.
    Principer i konflikt2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The principles of war have a central but debated role in modern doctrine with heritage dating back to Sun Tzu. Despite that the principles are used in several modern doctrines, there is surprisingly little research to be found on these principles. The principles of security and surprise, are both argued as being key components in amphibious operations, though can also be seen as contradictory.

    Method: This thesis explores the principles of war by studying the theory of security, developing a theory with a set of success factors. These factors consist of physical protection, information supremacy and reserves. Hypothetically, the presence of these factors explains the outcome of amphibious raids. The theory is examined in a qualitative text analysis on two case studies on the raids on St Nazaire and Makin Island where the success factors are tested by a deductive dihedral design. The results open for a final discussion in comparison with Jimmy Johansson’s research of the principle of surprise previously made on the same raids.

    Results: The results show that security, through the presence of success factors, is positively affecting the outcome of amphibious raids, though further research is necessary. Security and surprise although contradictory can work in synergy with a successful surprise element leading to increased security and information supremacy a prerequisite for surprise. 

  • 168.
    Ekholm, Anders
    Swedish Defence University.
    Ett svagt svenskt försvar i en oroligare tid: Att göra det mesta med det man har / Fördel genom indirekt metod och manöverkrigföring utifrån svenska förutsättningar2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT:

    Due to increased tension in the Baltic sea region, the Swedish defense is directed to focus on rebuilding its capacity to defend Sweden on Swedish soil. One of the areas of challenge is the army and its attempts to rebuild its capacity to conduct combined arms fighting in a brigade structure.

    In 2013 the Swedish army received a new army tactics handbook, to replace the old land doctrine of 2005. Recent research has shown that the old land doctrine was to a great extent, a product influenced by William S Lind´s Maneuver Warfare handbook, written in the mid 80´s. The underlying problem pointed at in this essay, is the consequences connected, when adapting a Handbook written for someone else, in this case the US, with its huge supply of forces and its long history of attrition warfare based on firepower and maximizing blows.

    The aim of this essay has been to find out if and in that case how, the army tactics handbook also is a product influenced by Lind´s theories, if so, what are the consequences from a Swedish small-army perspective?   

    The overall mindset for this essay is; Despite being outnumbered, strive for local superiority which can be achieved through maneuver warfare, a development of the indirect approach.

    The result indicates extensive similarities, but also differences, probably due to the diversity of the audiences. It is also important to stress that there may well be other factors that can produce these similarities.

  • 169.
    Eklund, Daniel
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Civil-militär samverkan som resurs för psykologiska operationer2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Information operations constitute a more and more important part of the Swedish international operations, where Psychological Operations (PSYOPS) and Civil-Military Cooperation (CIMIC) are included. Due to the basic view of Swedish information operations CIMIC is meant to have a support function for PSYOPS during international operations. This function of support is however only briefly specified in the documentation of the Swedish Armed Forces. The essay aims at describing and analysing how Swedish PSYOPS can receive support from CIMIC during an international operation.

    The essay specifically intends to describe PSYOPS and CIMIC individual  characteristics and features. The analysis has been carried out with the help of a descriptive method.

    To create a theoretical frame for the analysis Cialdinis theory on human influence and Agrells theory on the complexity of the intelligence analysis have been used.

    The results of the essay show that PSYOPS is in great need of cultural intelligence gained from the appointed target audiences in the operation area. CIMIC has according to the analysis a good potential concerning collecting cultural intelligence thanks to its well-developed circle of contacts and its possibilities to accomplish CIMIC projects. 

  • 170.
    Ekman, Carl
    Swedish Defence University.
    Operation Trident2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna uppsats studeras Operation Trident som utfördes av den indiska flottan mot Pakistan i december 1971, till denna operation hade Indien införskaffat ett nytt vapen i form av sjömålsrobotar. Sjömålsroboten är ett vapen som är signifikant för den moderna sjöstriden genom att ge en stor verkan på långa avstånd.

    Men hur påverkades striden av det nya vapnet? Syftet med uppsatsen är att analysera modern sjöstrid med sjömålsrobotar. Konflikten mellan Pakistan och Indien 1971 väljs som särskilt studieobjekt för att det är en modern sjöstrid där sjömålsrobotar till sjöss användes i betydande omfattning.

    Genom att använda de stridsfunktioner som beskrivs i DuBois, Hughes och Low teori, A concise theory of combat, analyseras striden för att finna dess karakteristiska samt vad som präglade taktiken. Sjömålsroboten påverkade det taktiska agerandet och stridens karaktär. Det som blev karakteriserande för striden var även vikten av att kunna anpassa sig mot ett nytt hot.

  • 171.
    Ekman, Lisa
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    A Duty to Save, Support, or Serve the Locals?: Swedish Military Members’ Notions of Military Duty in the FieldManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The notion of military duty is becoming increasingly complex in contemporary global security dynamics. Increasing regional instability has renewed focus on national security concerns and the reinstatement of conscription in several European states, nevertheless most European armed forces mainly conduct military operations elsewhere with a principal focus on addressing ‘population-oriented’ security concerns of host states. This dual nature of military duty raises a number of questions, including what contemporary understanding of duty guides the decision-making and behavior of military professionals. The article investigates how population-oriented objectives and responsibilities shape notions of military duty in the context of international military operations. Based on interviews with Swedish military personnel with experiences of international deployment, the article identifies a number of empirical tensions between general notions of military duty and the individual sense of responsibility and obligation in the field.

  • 172.
    Ekman, Lisa
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Fighting for Strangers?: Military Duty in Contemporary War2017In: Leadership in Extreme Situations / [ed] Michael Holenweger, Michael Karl Jager, and Franz Kernic, Springer, 2017, p. 167-180Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter explores the concept of military duty in the context of contemporary war. It focuses on the recent developments in the normative and strategic frameworks of Western military operations, which emphasize that mission effectiveness is largely dependent on the security and wellbeing of the local population. This has seemingly stretched the traditional notion of military duty, which is to master and apply organized military force to achieve political objectives and defeat the enemy on the battlefield. Based on empirical insights from the U.S. military and its recent missions in Iraq and Afghanistan, the chapter argues that this development has created tensions between political and military understandings of duty, as well as between organizational and individual notions of duty within the U.S. military. Conflicting notions of military duty hold important policy implications to both domestic civil-military relations and U.S. military power abroad because they challenge the integrity of political objectives and threaten military cohesion and unity of effort with regard to the management of local populations during war.

  • 173.
    Ekman, Lisa
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Helping Strangers: The Role of the Local Population in Swedish Military Personnel’s Sense of DutyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 174.
    Ekman, Lisa
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Local Ties that Bind?: Exploring Noncombat Contact and Understandings of Military Duty in AfghanistanManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 175.
    Ekman, Lisa
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Local Ties that Bind?: Exploring Noncombat Contact and Understandings of Military Duty in AfghanistanManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary ‘population -oriented’ military intervention and the objectives of protecting, supporting, and fighting alongside host-nation authorities and populations pose new challenges to Western armed forces’ traditionally combat-oriented understanding of duty. The article argues that military personnel who engage in unarmed and non-threatening interaction–noncombat contact–with host citizens are more likely to develop a stronger sense of duty–perceived obligations–toward the host-nation population. Interviews with U.S. Army officers with experiences from Afghanistan show that noncombat contact with Afghan citizens led to increased willingness to safeguard the interests and well-being of the Afghan population and adapt the mission accordingly.

  • 176.
    Ekman, Lisa
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Local Ties that Bind?: Exploring U.S. Military Duty toward Local Citizens in AfghanistanManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 177.
    Ekman, Lisa
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Florian, Krampe
    SIPRI.
    Post-War Legitimacy: A Framework on Relational Agency in PeacebuildingManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 178.
    Ekman, Lisa
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Krampe, Florian
    Stockholm International Peace Research Institute .
    Post-war Legitimacy: A Framework of Relational Agency in PeacebuildingManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is increasing interest in the role of legitimacy in post-war societies as an indicator of social and political stability. In this chapter we propose an analytical framework that examines post-war peacebuilding processes by focusing on two central concepts: legitimacy and actors. We understand peacebuilding as rooted in the relationship between politics, namely the state in particular, and the wider society. Peacebuilding is the process wherein the structural-normative setup of the post-war state vis-à-vis society is renegotiated through various interactions between domestic state and non-state actors with, or without, the involvement of international or other external actors. The degrees to which this domestic relationship will be sustainable and peaceful is largely contingent on whether society finds it legitimate, or not. This understanding of legitimacy is important because it recognizes the importance of relational agency, which neither rejects the role and existence of the state, nor understates the agency of society in the process of rebuilding countries after internal armed conflict. Applying the framework on empirical insights from Afghanistan and Nepal, this chapter highlights the importance of relational agency and the perceived legitimacy of the domestic state-society relationship.

  • 179.
    Ekman, Lisa
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Learning Duty: Military Duty in Swedish Military Training and EducationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 180.
    Ekström, Thomas
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Operational Functions Section.
    There is no "A" in CD&E, Neither for Analysis nor for Anarchy: Ensuring Scientific Rigour and Analytical Structure While Maintaining Military Relevance and Artistic Freedom2019In: Advances in Defence Analysis, Concept Development and Experimentation: Innovation for the Future / [ed] Bianca Barbu, David Martin, Lora Hadzhidimova, Norfolk, Virginia, USA: NATO - Headquarters Supreme Allied Commander Transformation , 2019, p. 22-60Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 181.
    Elg, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Wargaming Section.
    Instructor Buy-In: Pitfalls and Opportunities in Wargaming2019In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 2, p. 6-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Krigsspel är en fundamental del av militär utbildning. Likafullt är krigsspel kontroversiellt, med återkommande cykler av uppskattning och ogillande. Krigsspel kan definieras som en betingad interaktion med mänskliga spelare som påverkar simulerade militära aktioner. Syftet med denna text är att undersöka och förklara hur militära instruktörer mildrar sina bekymmer med att handha ett krigsspel. I texten analyseras relevanta skrifter om utbildningsspel för att belysa frågan om instruktörer och krigsspel. Denna metod kompletteras av ny och explorativ forskning, som inbegriper grundad teori, avseende det substantiella empiriska området krigsspel för militär utbildning. Militära instruktörer använder sig av tre strategier för att uppnå instruktörs-acceptans (instructor buy-in). En majoritet av instruktörerna verkar sträva efter att undvika explicit spelifiering (gamification). Detta undvikande utgör en förklaring till att vissa krigsspel inom militär utbildning förändras eller upphör. Av denna anledning är det vitalt att militära instruktörer har en förståelse för instruktörs-acceptans för att stärka praktiken krigsspel.

  • 182.
    Elg, Johan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Krigsspel och militära operationer: den japanska planeringen inför Midway 19422008In: Krigsvetenskaplig årsbok 2007 / [ed] Dan Öberg, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan , 2008, p. 61-83Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 183.
    Elg, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Krigsspel som metod2018In: Militära arbetsmetoder: En lärobok i krigsvetenskap / [ed] Peter Thunholm, Jerker Widén och Niklas Wikström, Universus Academic Press , 2018, p. 255-294Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 184.
    Elg, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Soviet Operational Art: Narratives on Manchuria, 19452014In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 4Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This text explores the Soviet military offensive into Japanese-held Manchuria in August 1945 by looking at two narratives: the Soviet and the Japanese. The former has dominating the latter, perhaps due to the Soviet success as Japan surrendered a few days into the operation. However, by adding rather than dismissing the Japanese perspective, Soviet performances on different levels can be scrutinized. For example, faults with logistical planning and the difficulties to achieve a 'deep battle' are found. It also highlights the main difference between the two operations, namely that the Soviet operation aimed for a double pincer movement, while the Japanese operation aimed for a withdrawal into a mountain redoubt.

  • 185.
    Elg, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section. King's College London.
    Wargaming in Military Education for Army Officers and Officer Cadets2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wargaming has been part of military curricula for about 200 years since the introduction of Kriegsspiel, but it is still something of an art form. This thesis attempts to theorise the practice of military educational wargaming, and specifically to explore why such wargaming takes the form it does.

    The thesis is limited to army educational wargaming for officers and officer cadets. Wargaming for analytical purposes, and political and strategic gaming, are excluded.  Instead, the focus is on army educational wargaming at the tactical level, which is arguably more comparable between countries. The research method combines an exploratory approach influenced by grounded theory with a comparative case study approach encompassing three successive levels of army officer education in five countries: Sweden, Germany, the United Kingdom, the United States and Japan.

    The research indicates the central importance of individual game directors. This is particularly evident when wargaming forms evolve. The main concern of the individual game director is how to achieve instructor buy-in. This core category encompasses control, credibility and comfort. Three methods, or strategies, were discovered regarding how to achieve instructor buy-in. Those three strategies are: innovative active learning, simple standardising and control & veiling. This discovery contributes to new substantive theory, as it explains how specific army educational wargaming forms commence, evolve and are discontinued.

  • 186.
    Eliasson, Per
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Norsell, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    On a Tentative Model for Supporting Educational Development in Military-Technology2008In: Stockholm Contributions in Military-Technology 2007 / [ed] Martin Norsell, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan , 2008, p. 65-71Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 187.
    Eliasson, Per
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Norsell, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Teaching Military-Technology: a Working Approach2008In: Stockholm Contributions in Military-Technology 2007 / [ed] Martin Norsell, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan , 2008, p. 73-81Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 188.
    Ellingsen Larsson, Carl Simon
    Swedish National Defence College.
    MARTIN VAN CREVELDS PRINCIPER FÖR MANÖVERKRIGFÖRING– EN FLERFALLSSTUDIE2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    This study is a multiple case study utilizing Martin van Creveld’s Principles for ManeuverWarfare to analyze two World War II battles, El Alamein and Operation Market Garden.The relation between van Creveld’s principles for maneuver warfare and the outcome of thestudied battles is investigated. The purpose of the study is to determine if van Creveld’sprinciples are applicable to the cases and specifically if they can be used to explain the outcomeof each battle. It is also investigated if the use of the principles gives victory in the battles.The result of the study is that van Creveld’s principles are used more frequently and no deviationsfrom the principles are found in the case that ends in victory, the battle at El Alamein.Van Creveld’s principles are used less often and several deviations from the principles arerecorded in the case that ends in defeat, Operation Market Garden.

  • 189.
    Elvin Nowak, Hannes
    Swedish Defence University.
    Framgång i amfibieoperationer: En teoriprövande studie om framgång i Operation Chromite, 19502019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines how Speller’s theory of success in amphibious operations can be applied on a successful amphibious operation. The research has been encouraged by the fact that previous research concerning success in amphibious operations appears to be lacking. No previous studies of the theory have been found, which further strengthen the necessity for this study. The theory is examined by a single-case study of the recognised amphibious assault on Inchon during the Korean War. The theory is able to explain the success, otherwise the credence to the theory would be refuted.

    The result of the analysis discloses that Speller’s theory successfully explains the Inchon success in every analytical aspect but deception. The study shows that the coalition forces did not manage to or intend to deceive the North Korean opponent in relation to how an amphibious landing should take place. This study supports the theory as explanatory and can serve as vital knowledge when planning and executing an amphibious operation; however, to strengthen the study’s result, further studies are necessary.

  • 190.
    Enander, Ann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Kommunikation om risker2017In: Rustad för risk: riskpsykologi för militärer och insatsorganisationer / [ed] Ann Enander, Marcus Börjesson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, p. 148-160Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 191.
    Enander, Ann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Mötet med det drabbade samhället2017In: Rustad för risk: riskpsykologi för militärer och insatsorganisationer / [ed] Enander, Ann & Börjesson, Marcus, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, 1, p. 203-224Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 192.
    Enander, Ann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Varför bryr man sig?: Drivkrafter för riskreducering och katastrofberedskap2016In: Katastrofriskreducering: perspektiv, praktik, potential / [ed] Susann Baez Ullberg, Per Becker, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2016, p. 365-384Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 193.
    Enander, Ann
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Börjesson, MarcusSwedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Rustad för risk: riskpsykologi för militärer och insatspersonal2017Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 194.
    Enander, Ann
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Börjesson, Marcus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Lindholm, Erik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Postpandemic nightmare: narcolepsy in the Swedish media2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 195.
    Enerdal, Mikael
    Swedish Defence University.
    Operation Gunnerside: Planeringen och förberedelsernas inverkan2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research on special operations is vague and at an early stage despite the fact that special operations, as we know them today, have been implemented since World War II. Several theories about why and when special operations succeed have been identified. However, current research suggests that these singly are not sufficient to explain something as complex as the nature of the special operations. Instead, the theories of special operations should be used together to complement each other. The purpose of this study is to provide an initial contribution to the research of special operations in which two independent theories are used to analyse how the planning and preparation for a special operation affect its outcome. One theory addresses the issue at a strategic level and the other one a tactical level. By breaking down the theories into smaller elements and seeking answers to these through a qualitative text analysis, indicators and evidence of its occurrence are obtained. The study's outcome shows that the parts of the two theories contribute, to some extent, to the explanation of the importance of planning and preparation in a special operation. It also shows that it is fruitful to use two theories to better understand the phenomenon of special operations.

  • 196.
    Engberg, Martin
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Kulturella underrättelser i upprorsmotverkande insatser2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Peace operations conducted as counterinsurgency operations force the counterinsurgent to develop the ability to collect and analyze cultural information in order to understand and foresee complex events in economic, sociological and cultural dimensions. Sweden is well experienced in peace operations. However, very little documentation is available when it comes to how cultural information is collected and analyzed. The purpose of the essay is to contribute with knowledge of the subject and to create an understanding of any problems regarding it. The essay is based on a study of five policy documents and on several interviews with personnel having recently served in Afghanistan. The results of the essay shows how the Swedish Armed Forces collect and analyze cultural information in Afghanistan and how policy documents describe collection and analysis of cultural information. One conclusion is that there are no manuals available that describes how this work should be carried out. The creation of standard operating procedures sorts out this problem. There are also different ways of practice and attitudes regarding work with cultural intelligence. One of these different perceptions is which section should analyze cultural information. A major conclusion is that there is no comprehensive definition of the civilian population in an intelligence perspective.

  • 197.
    Engdahl, Mikael
    Swedish Defence University.
    Försvarstransformation – Lättare sagt än gjort?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Transformeringen av Försvarsmakten startade i mitten på nittiotalet, i och med en betydande avvecklingsprocess. Detta innebar en stor påverka på försvarsförmågan under mitten av nollnolltalet. Tidigare forskning inom området har visat hur säkerhetspolitik påverkat transformationen av Sveriges Försvarsmakt och samtidigt att när transformering ska ske, sätts flera saker på spel och maktbalansen rubbas.

    Uppsatsen avser att studera hur Försvarsmaktsledningen och den politiska ledningen uttrycker försvarets förmåga, och vilka konsekvenser detta får på Försvarsmaktens transformation. Uppsatsen utgår från att språket har en avgörande betydelse för hur vi uppfattar och förstår omvärlden. Uppsatser kommer att studera tal under Folk och Försvars rikskonferensen. Den kan betraktas vägledande för den försvarspolitiska debatten vilket gör att den kan anses som en social handling som medverkar till att sätta den försvarspolitiska debatten. Perioden som studeras är mellan 2012 och 2018 med fokus på Försvarsminister och Överbefälhavaren.

    Inom ramen för ledningsnivåernas beskrivning av Försvarsmaktens förmåga finns två diskurser, Insatsdiskursen och utvecklingsdiskurs.

  • 198.
    Engdahl, Ola
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), International Law Centre. Swedish Ministry Foreign Affairs, Stockholm, Sweden..
    A rebuttal to Eric David2013In: International Review of the Red Cross, ISSN 1816-3831, E-ISSN 1607-5889, Vol. 95, no 891, p. 667-674Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In this issue of the Review, we invited two experts in international humanitarian law (IHL) and multinational peace operations – Professor Eric David and Professor Ola Engdahl – to debate on the way in which the involvement of a multinational force may affect the classification of a situation. This question is particularly relevant to establishing whether the situation amounts to an armed conflict or not and, if so, whether the conflict is international or non-international in nature. This in turn will determine the rights and obligations of each party, especially in a context in which multinational forces are increasingly likely to participate in the hostilities.

  • 199.
    Engelbrekt, Kjell
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS).
    EU Enlargement and the Emboldening of Institutional Integrity in Central and Eastern Europe: The ‘Tough Test’ of Public Procurement2011In: European Law Journal, ISSN 1351-5993, E-ISSN 1468-0386, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 230-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    EU enlargement and the incorporation of the acquis communautaire are widely seen as successful and emboldening the integrity of political, administrative and legal institutions in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). The analysis reported here describes the specific problems associated with affirming institutional integrity in the fieldof public procurement, which constitutes a 'tough test'. Public procurement is namely an area where the acquis swiftly gained pre-eminence in accession states, but whose complex regulations depend on a well-functioning judiciary, effective administrative supervision and limited corruption. The experience in Poland and Bulgaria, countries that represent different stages of institution building in this area, is compared. The results suggest that an EU-compatible public procurement regime is being consolidated throughout the CEE region. At the same time, that regime may only work well when boundaries between institutional subjects, as well as between the spheres of law, politics and economics, are upheld in post-communist countries. 

  • 200.
    Engelbrekt, Kjell
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Mission Creep?: The Nontraditional Security Agenda of the G7/8 and the Nascent Role of the G202015In: Global Governance: A Review of Multilateralism and International Organizations, ISSN 1075-2846, E-ISSN 1942-6720, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 537-556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2008–2011, the Group of 20 swiftly eclipsed the Group of 7, created in themid-1970s as an informal mechanism for stabilizing markets and facilitatingtransnational currency exchange and investment. Several observers have expressedthe view that the former, broader group is also destined to appropriatethe role of the Group of 8, the G7’s pioneering successor in the realmof nontraditional security. This article examines the G7/8 legacy of forgingquasi-permanent institutional arrangements and frameworks in this policyarea and goes on to gauge nontraditional security initiatives subsequentlylaunched by the G-20. Having juxtaposed the past record of these bodiesand analyzed the interests and power dynamics that influence member stateaction in the short and long term, the article outlines three basic options forhow the relationship between the G-20 and the G7/8 may evolve.

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