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  • 151.
    Hultberg, Anton
    Swedish Defence University.
    Ett luftburet ledningssystem i en taktisk kontext2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is about an airborne command-and-control (C2) system, and seeks to examine how this specific airborne C2- system can increase the risk of fratricide in military operations.

    Based on earlier studies that defines and describes the most common causes for fratricide, a system analysis were made on the airborne C2-system. The analysis treated three different efficacy-measurements, and each one of these were put in specific scenarios.

    Beyond literature studies, the information in the paper has been collected through qualitative interviews with personnel who works with the airborne C2-system and with Swedish military personnel within the air command-and-control organization.

    The result shows that the airborne C2-system can risk to contribute to fratricide due to a poor radar resolution in the horizontal plane or because the “zero-doppler-limit” is set too high.

    The result is only valid in conjunction with the defined scenarios, and there may be more ways the system can contribute to fratricide. To examine this, more efficacy-measurements according to the airborne C2-system’s performance must be presented and analyzed.

  • 152.
    Humeur, Robert
    Swedish Defence University.
    Radarupptäckt av artilleriraketer2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport behandlar en radarsensors förmåga att upptäcka 107 mm raketerberoende på hur sensorn positioneras i förhållande till skyddsobjektet.Fältförsök, underrättelser och stridserfarenheter har visat att dessa raketer ärvanligt förekommande samt svåra att detektera med radarsensorer.

    En modell för hur räckviddsökning beror på olika sensorpositioner har skapats genom att använda dokument från USA och forna Sovjetunionen beskrivande ballistik tillsammans med teorier för hur räckvidd påverkas av radarmålarea (RCS) samten beskrivning av RCS tillhandahållen av FOI. Resultat från körningar iMATLAB visar att sensorpositioner inom 300 meter från skyddsobjektet ärfördelaktiga vid en skottvidd av 3000 meter.

    Som tumregel för att uppnå maximal sensorprestanda bör strävan vara att placera sensorn på ett avståndfrån skyddsobjektet understigande 10% av förväntad skottvidd.

  • 153.
    Hård af Segerstad, Per
    Swedish Defence University.
    Artificiella neurala nät för datorseende hos en luftmålsrobot2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is aimed at increasing the knowledge to those concerned within the Armed Forces by providing information on the possibilities of modern artificial intelligence (AI).

    Motivation comes from observations of civilian technology on the use of AI in the field of Computer Vision showing performance equaling the level of the human vision when using the technology of Deep Learning of Artificial Neural Nets. In air-combat aircraft the pilot´s vision is used for recognizing the aircraft that is about to be shot down. For example when utilizing helmet mounted displays, the seeker of an air-target-missile is directed upon the aircraft on which the pilot´s eyes are looking. However when air-target-missiles are utilized beyond visual range the pilot´s vision cannot help in directing the seeker on a specific target. Therefore computer vision within an air-target-missile is studied.

    The results of the study support that the technology of neural networks may be used in an air-target-missile and that computer vision provided by this technology can do the job of recognizing a combat aircraft.

  • 154.
    Hörstedt, Håkan
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Utveckling av multifunktionella missiler2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 155.
    Innala, Nils
    Swedish Defence University.
    Spårbarhet i mål och förmågeutveckling utifrån erfarenheter, finns den?2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen avser undersöka om det finns någon spårbarhet i utvecklingen utifrån dragna erfarenheter, detta görs med inriktning på artillerilokaliseringsenheten Arthur ur dess nyttjande i nationell samt internationell tjänst, ur fyra olika länders sammanfattade erfarenheter av dess tjänst och anbefalld uppgift. Spårbarheten i utvecklingen kommer att kopplas till det mål som sattes år 2002 i Arméinspektörens långsiktiga förmåge- och förbandsutveckling för indirekt eld funktionen, samt även mot den förmågeutveckling som efterfrågas i 2008 års regleringsbrev.

    En metodkombination kommer genomföras under arbetet, innehållande komparation och idealtyper. Grunden till detta utgörs av en beskrivning av systemet och dess olika modifikationer, svensk organisation och de uppgifter som enligt reglementen kan ställas på svenska artrrenheter. Där även de länder vars erfarenheter hanteras kommer att beskrivas utifrån organisation och uppgift. I syfte att undersöka om utvecklingen har någon spårbarhet i de tidigare dragna erfarenheterna både för systemet i sig och inom enhetens organisation för svensk del. Resultatet av de dragna erfarenheterna kommer att synliggöras och analyseras utifrån det teoretiska ramverk tillika idealtyper som är de sex grundläggande förmågorna, för att på så sätt slutligen leda an till de ur problemformuleringen fastslagna frågeställningar som framhålls, där det slutgiltiga resultatet utmynnar i att utvecklingen följer erfarenheterna, i stort sett samtliga av de nyttjade idealtyperna, om än inte i lika hög grad av alla. Med slutsats att spårbarheten av erfarenheter inom utveckling är tydligt framträdande.

  • 156.
    Ivarsson, Olle
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Systemjämförelse – NH-90 och MH-60R2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2001 Swedish FMV ordered 18 NH-90 medium heavy helicopters from NH industries. The purpose of the procurement was that the new helicopter 14 would become the Swedish armed forces new primary medium helicopter, able to solve both ground and naval missions. The deal consisted of 5 naval versions of helicopter 14 and 13 helicopters for ground operations. The naval version of helicopter 14 was supposed to replace the Swedish helicopter 4, which was decommissioned 2011. Helicopter 14 was planned to be delivered at 2011, but because of delays it is now predicted to be delivered at 2019.  

    Therefore in this assignment a system analysis has been conducted to determine which helicopter system the Swedish armed forces in theory would have profited most to procure. Helicopter 14 system, or the American commercial off the shelf solution, MH-60R Seahawk. The assignment has be conducted to conclude which of these two system solutions would be the most optimal for preforming anti-submarine warfare under Swedish conditions. But also external factors in the procurement will be examined such as procurement methods, political effects, both positive and negative and also aspects of multinational cooperation’s.        

    The results of the system analysis showed that helicopter 14 was the best system for the Swedish armed forces. However there was few decisive differences between the two systems, therefor more factors should be taken into account during the procurement of a new helicopter system, such as procurement methods, defense cooperation’s and extending the lifetime of the previous system.     

  • 157.
    Iversen, Sverre G.
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Bruk av UCAV i nærstøtte for landoperasjoner2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The development in the field of UAVs is extensive and gaining in focus andinterest as their mission catalogue is widened. The recent use of weaponizedUAVs in Afghansistan and Iraq to combat an array of targets has shown theirpotential. At the same time there is an ongoing development of offensivesystemes known as UCAVs, designed to strike targets all throughout thebattlespace.Land operations demands systems which allow tempo, flexibility and the useof combined effects to achieve the maximum possible dislocation of theopponent. The author arrives at preconditions for such systems to partakeeffectively by outlining land operations and describing the conduct of closesupport of land formations. Today, the air to ground support part of it iscontrolled by a forward air controller who controls manned platforms andtheir weapon systems. This thesis also describes UCAV systems and theircomponents with focus on authonomy, sensors, communications and weaponsystems.By connecting the conduct of landoperations, close support in general andclose air support (CAS) especially with the description of UCAV systems, thepurpose of the thesis is to outline how CAS to land operations can beconducted with UCAVs. The thesis does this by answering the questions as tohow to control CAS with UCAV and which demands that must be met by theUCAV system.

  • 158.
    Jansson, Dan
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Telematik - en del i NBF?:  2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As our industrial society has become more information based, ournational defense requirements have changed focus from an invasion defenceto an operations defence. For many years, new information technologiessuch as the internet were first developed for military use. Today the oppositeis true. Market forces are now driving the development of new technologiessuch as IT, at a fast pace. Armed forces must strive to make use of thesedevelopments within the areas of communication and informationtechnology, to better prepare for future threats. The military development inthis sector in called a “Revolution in Military Affairs” (RMA). The SwedishArmed Forces equivalency is called a “network-based defense” (NBF) andmakes use of the RMA concept. Extensive research is underway within ITin general and telematics is not an exception.The American document, “Joint Vision 2010 FOCUSED LOGISTICS”claims that the development of technology will play a decisive part inlogistics management, and that improvement in among other things, BITand telemaintenance will raise the effectiveness of technical servicepersonnel. Telemaintenance is one part within the concept of telematics andconsists of:Vehicle service consisting of diagnostic surveillance of vehicle systems,alarms for indication of serious faults, and Vehicle Control for remotecontrolling of vehicle functions.Maintenance service consisting of operational information such as thenumber of hours in operation, fuel consumption, vibration etc.Telemaintenance is investigated in this thesis with a background ofSwedish Army maintenance concept, which purpose is to support militaryfield units in their ability to solve their tasks. The maintenance conceptoffers greater technical and tactical availability by keeping optimal numbersof material systems operational.This thesis describes the expectations of a telemaintenence system of aSwedish troop in international operation, or more precisely, thetelemaintenence needs that were evident in 1993 at the first battalion(BA01) in Bosnia as part of UNPROFOR.

  • 159.
    Jensen, Tony
    University of Defence in Brno.
    Does operating a UCAV make it casual for pilots to execute a remote lethal strike?2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The use of unmanned combat aerial vehicles (UCAV) is relativity new with the first known lethal strike taking place in 2001. Few systems are operational but many are in development. The use of UCAVs is debated and many claim that UCAVs make it casual for the pilots to kill, and the pilots are not able to differentiate the ethics of what they do from those of a video game. When researched it is found that some factors regarding the use of UCAVs may make a pilot less reluctant to execute a remote lethal strike, yet it does not make it casual. The pilots know that what they do has real world implications and what they see on their screens are real people. Contrary to some people’s beliefs, UCAV pilots may have a greater connection with their victim as well as a greater reluctance towards killing compared to bomber pilots.

  • 160.
    Johansson, Arvid
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Aktivt Pansar: Att nå verkan med dagens vapensystem i morgondagens pansar2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since today's weapons systems are becoming more efficient with higher penetration and greater efficacy, it is no longer possible to only put on more armor to get adequate protection. The vehicles become too heavy and mobility is adversely affected to an excessive degree, because of this systems for active protection are now breaking into the market. These systems are actively scanning the vehicle's surroundings and shoot down incoming threats such as rockets and robots and are already implemented in a number of countries in our region. The infantry's main armament against armored units, which traditionally have been just missiles, rockets and grenades are in many cases useless meeting with active protection systems.

    The paper examines the possibilities of reaching effect in targets equipped with active armor using the equipment available to the Swedish armed forces today. The existing active protection systems Trophy, Iron Curtain and Arena have been chosen as example systems. The weapons systems examined are STRIX , Rb56 , Pskott m/86 , Grg m/86 and Fordonsmina 14.

    One conclusion is that the audited systems all lack the ability to protect the vehicle from threats that come from directly above; this means that STRIX is fully functional to a vehicle protected by an active protection system.

  • 161.
    Johansson, Martin
    Swedish Defence University.
    Den militära nyttan med Sweccis vid planering av en insats2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    On operational and higher tactical command and control-levels within the SwedishArmed Forces Sweccis, Swedish Command and Control Information System, is used.This system can be used for planning and conduction operations within the nationalborders of Sweden. Sweccis combines a number of functions, for instance a mapfunction,Geographical Information System, logistical support and a portal for sharinginformation, in one system. Unlike previous systems used on this level of commandwithin the armed forces Sweccis is accredited for handling secret information.The purpose of Sweccis is to allow command and control on operational and highertactical levels, based on the military doctrines used by Sweden. The purpose is tocoordinate physical factors, for instance army units, to conduct activities that will leadto effect against our opponent. These effects must then be evaluated to be used forfurther activities combined with other input, such as a new mission from acommanding officer. This will be described using the OODA- and DOODA-looptheories. The focus is the planning-phase of a mission but other events that effect theplanning will be mentioned.Sweccis is a system that will contribute to the planning-process and it can also beused to evaluate the effect of the orders that has been given. The functions that thesystem offers are adapted for staff-work and it is also possible to modify the system tomeet the demands of the future.

  • 162.
    Johansson, Niklas
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Military technology and humanitarian law2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 163.
    Johnsson, Fredrik
    Swedish Defence University.
    Beräkningsmodeller för riktad sprängverkan vid ammunitionsröjning2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is an attempt to develop models for design of protective measures during clearance of shaped charge ammunition. Unlike for other hazards, the EOD personnel are lacking adequate means for the establishment of the maximum hazardous area and for the design of measures for hazard confinement against the shaped charge effect.

    The development of the models is based on the military utility, by consideration of the limited information availability, the short time frames, the working methods and the technology level that are characteristic for EOD operations.

    The result is a suggestion of two complete and adapted tools for the design of protective measures. The first tool is a model for the design of measures for hazard confinement, which combines the jet penetration depth with the influence of the stand-off distance. The second tool is a simple model for estimation of the maximum hazardous area generated by the shaped charge jet, which is based on the trajectory of the most critical jet segment.

  • 164.
    Johnsson, Fredrik
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Experimentellt vidareutvecklad modell för dimensionering av skadebegränsandeåtgärder mot RSV-penetration vid ammunitionsröjning2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the clearance of shaped charge ammunition, explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) personnel lack adequate means for the design of protective measures against the jet. In this thesis a calculation model, previously suggested by the author, is developed further. The aim is to create a tool that can be applied to EOD operations.

    Full-scale experiments have been conducted to clarify the effects of conditions that are typical for EOD operations: protective measures built from sandbags with a long standoff distance to the ordnance. The results indicate that the hydrodynamic penetration theory is not suitable for these conditions. Furthermore, a sandbag construction provides significantly better protection against the jet than a homogeneous gravel construction.

    By disturbance analysis, the sensitivity of the individual parameters in the model is studied for typical errors. Subsequently, Monte Carlo simulation has been used to analyse the effect these errors can cause. The simulation results have then been the used to determine the model´s margin of safety.

    Military utility implies that it should be possible to use the model under field conditions, with limited time frames and without access to advanced calculating means. This has resulted in a simple diagram included in the comprehensive design tool.

    It is proposed that the tool is implemented in regulations and curricula in order to remedy today’s lack of decision support.

  • 165.
    Johnsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    SWEDEC.
    Vretblad, Bengt
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Experimentally developed model for the design of protective measures against shaped charge jet penetration during EOD operations2014In: ISMS Annual Connference 2014: Armed Forces for 2020 and beyond Roles, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The wide use of light anti-tank weapons, such as rocket propelled grenades and the scattering of sub-munitions lead toa greatnumber of explosive remnants of war (ERW) containing shaped charge warheadsin different conflict areas. A serious problem is that, the explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) personnel lack adequate means for the design of protective measures against the jetfrom clearance of shaped charge ammunition. In this paper, based on a master thesis in military technology,a previously suggested calculation model1, is developed further. The objectiveis to create a tool that can be applied to EOD operationsand meet military requirements by consideration of the limited information availability, the short time frames, the working methods and the technology level that are characteristic for such operations.

    Full-scale experiments have been conducted to clarify the effects of conditions that are typical for EOD operations: protective measures built from sandbags with a long standoff distance to the ordnance. The results indicate that the hydrodynamic penetration theory is not suitable for these conditions,and,furthermore, thata sandbag construction provides significantly better protection against the jet than a homogeneous gravel construction.

    By disturbance analysis, the sensitivity of the individual parameters in the model is studied for typical errors. Subsequently, Monte Carlo simulation has been used to analyse the cumulative effect these errors can cause. The simulation results have then been the used to determine the model ́s margin of safety.

    To achieve the desired military utility it should be possible to use the model under field conditions, with limited time frames and without access to advanced calculating means. This has resulted in a simple diagram included in a completedesign tool.It is proposed to implement the toolin regulations and curricula for EOD operations in order to remedy today’s lack of decision support

  • 166.
    Johnsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Vretblad, Bengt
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Full-scale experiments to determine shaped charge penetration in sandbag constructions from long standoff distances2015In: 16th ISIEMS International Symposium on the Interaction of the Effects of Munitions with Structures, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Protective measures must often be established during explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) operations to reduce the effects of unexploded ordnance (UXO). Adequate models for the design of protective constructions against the jet from shaped charge ammunition are lacking. Two conditions are unique for EOD operations on shaped charges: constructions built from sandbags and long standoff distances. For these conditions, verified test data are very limited.

     

    To study these conditions, full-scale experiments have been conducted at the Swedish EOD and Demining Centre (SWEDEC) with the objective to generate data for the development of a useful tool for EOD operations. Three series of five shots using a 107 mm warhead have been fired against both sandbag and homogenous sand/gravel targets, at standoff distances from 10 to 100 calibers.

     

    The result indicates that the hydrodynamic penetration theory, based on the Bernoulli equation, is not suitable for these target materials and these standoff distances. The actual penetration was more than twice what was expected from calculations based on this theory. Furthermore, the penetration was found to be significantly smaller when the sand/gravel was packed in sandbags – a result in contradiction to the same theory.

     

    Standoff curves which also take into account if the target material is packed in sandbags or not have been developed. The general shape of these curves is different from what is characteristic for materials such as metals and concrete. Increasing standoff decreases penetration only marginally.

     

    The jet is fully fragmented into smaller segments when it hits the target, but still has good penetration capability in these target materials. This phenomenon is related to the cut-off velocity, the lowest jet velocity that gives a contribution to the penetration, which is considerably lower than for more resistant target materials. Combining the influence of the cut-off velocity with the hydrodynamic penetration theory is used in the explanatory model in the paper.

     

    The experiments also demonstrated that the target material surrounding the jet moved forward, resulting in a growing penetration channel after the jet was fully consumed. This is related to phase three penetration. The contribution to the total penetration is considerable and gives a plausible explanation as to why sandbags give better protection.

     

    The results have been used to develop a new model for the design of protective measures against jet penetration. The military utility for EOD operations has been the main criteria during all development phases. The final result is a simple tool that can be used under field conditions. Approximately one year after the first experiments, the result has been implemented in regulations and training for EOD personnel in the Swedish Armed Forces.

  • 167.
    Johnsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Vretblad, Bengt
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Risk: Is That Really a Technical Issue?2015In: ISMS2015, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Life is full of risks – in war and peace. Risks that we often try to avoid, eliminate or - at least - reduce. Military activities often include risks – in war requiring excessive countermeasures but also in peacetime situations and during international military missions where competent risk reducing actions must be searched for.

    Military Technology within SNDU focuses research on military utility as a measure when evaluating technical systems for military purposes. The definition of military utility often must be different for different applications and measured in different units, e.g. economic costs, cost in time to complete a task or costs in human lives - or even combinations of units for different systems.

    A recent research program at SNDU handles risks in explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) operations based upon the military utility.

    The wide use of light anti-tank weapons and the scattering of sub-munitions have made clearance of unexploded ordnance containing shaped charge warheads - a frequent task for EOD personnel.

    Several circumstances are characteristic for EOD operations and have to be taken into consideration when evaluating the military utility: the limited information availability, the short time frames, the working methods and the technology level.

    Protective measures such as evacuation of a hazardous area or building of a protective construction often have to be executed to reduce risks.  Two conditions are unique for protective constructions in EOD operations on shaped charge ammunition: constructions built from sandbags and long standoff distances.

    As has been shown in earlier ISMS annual conferences measures to handle risks were identified and acted upon in the SNDU program[i],[ii].  

    The result up until now is a tool meeting the military requirements - e.g. which can be used under field conditions, within a limited time frame and without access to advanced calculating equipment. The format is a simple diagram included in a complete design tool.

    This tool is now being implemented in regulations and training for EOD personnel in the Swedish Armed Forces.

    The result reached so far fill a gap, but it does not represent the ultimate solution for risk handling –it rather form a step forward within EOD operations. The tool, however transparent and based upon verified tests, only handles the two cases: either full countermeasures or no countermeasures. This binary approach to risk factors is not unique for this situation, many methods and tools are designed for extrema, nothing in between.

    To establish a protective construction that completely eliminates the risk is often not possible, simply because the large dimensions require resources or time to complete the construction that are not available.

    What if only partial protection is possible– what risk does that leave us with?

    The surroundings also affect the actual risk. Infrastructure, terrain formations and vegetation can both decrease and increase the effects from the ammunition. Furthermore, what influence do different render safe procedures and applied clearance charges have on the risk? Only suitable tools that consider the actual influence of these aspects will provide the necessary foundation for estimation of a more correct risk. Here we are still without rules to apply.

    Basic questions like “What risk is acceptable?”, “During what conditions?” and “How do we reach acceptable risk levels?” remain to be answered. Furthermore, we have to develop how we communicate the risk to decision makers, particularly in extreme situations. If a risk described in mathematical format is not rightly understood by everyone other formulations that are perfectly clear must be used.

    We know that the attitude towards risks varies with individuals, with the situation and over time but we do not have vehicles to give us adequate quantitative measures. The answers to questions on acceptable risk not only relate to technical issues but also comprise military judgement, leadership and communications as well as they have judicial and ethical dimensions.

    The objective for future research in the field is a dynamic risk management model comprising also other situations than those studied up until now and to evaluate and appreciate alternative mitigation measures along the chain of clearance activities.

    A dynamic risk management concept developed for EOD operations should be a step in the handling of the general threat from explosive remnants of war, i.e. land mines, UXO:s  and IED:s, which often have significant impact on a military operation as a whole. These threats exist on all levels of conflict and their constantly changing character requires a dynamic approach when it comes to risk handling.

    War fighting is evolving, with a continuous struggle between our measures and the opponents countermeasures. There is no clear distinction between friend and foe, peace and war or danger and safety - military activities take place in a grey-zone. Supportive programs have to be adapted to this reality and methods for dynamic risk management tailored for military operations. The military utility of such a concept is obvious with good possibilities to generalisation, a worthwhile starting point for dynamic risk handling methods for other military activities.

    The paper is focused on a dynamic risk management concept where not only technical issues are dealt with, but also other military concerns are addressed with the military utility as a basic measure.

     

    [i]Johnsson, F, Vretblad, B & Sivertun, Å, Shaped Charge Calculation Models for Explosive Ordnance Disposal Operations. International Society of Military Sciences (ISMS) 2012 Annual Conference. Kingston, Canada, 2012.

     

    [ii]Johnsson, F & Vretblad, B, Experimentally developed model for the design of protective measures against shaped charge jet penetration during EOD operations. International Society of Military Sciences (ISMS) 2014 Annual Conference. Vienna, Austria, 2014.

  • 168.
    Johnsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Vretblad, Bengt
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Sivertun, Åke
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Shaped Charge Calculation Models for Explosive Ordnance Disposal Operations2012In: Journal of Military Studies, ISSN 1799-3350, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 1-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The clearance of unexploded ordnance (UXO) and other explosive remnants of war (ERW) containing shaped charge warheads poses a particular technical hazard to consider for explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) personnel. The wide use of light anti-tank weapons, such as rocket propelled grenades and the scattering of sub-munitions in different conflict areas have made the clearance of shaped charge ammunition a frequent task. However, unlike other hazards, for shaped charges, EOD personnel lack adequate means for the establishment of the maximum hazardous area and for the design of measures for hazard confinement against the shaped charge effect.

    In this article two different models are suggested, which together give guidance for protective measures during clearance of shaped charge ammunition. The development of these models is based on their military utility, by consideration of the limited information availability, the short time frames, the working methods and the technology level that are characteristic for EOD operations. The two suggested models are developed further into a complete set of design rules for protective measures, giving a versatile tool to replace today´s rough estimates and guesswork, in these safety-related decisions.

  • 169.
    Johnsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    SWEDEC.
    Vretblad, Bengt
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Sivertun, Åke
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Shaped Charge Calculation Models for Explosive Ordnance Disposal Operations2012In: International Society of Military Sciences (ISMS) 2012 Annual Conference, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The clearance of unexploded ordnance (UXO) and other explosive remnants of war (ERW) containing shaped charge warheads poses a particular technical hazard to consider for EOD personnel. The wide use of light anti-tank weapons, such as rocket propelled grenades and the scattering of sub-munitions in different conflict areas have made the clearance of shaped charge ammunition a frequent task. However, unlike other hazards, for shaped charges, EOD personnel lack adequate means for the establishment of the maximum danger area and for the design of measures for hazard confinement against the shaped charge effect. This shortcoming limits the responsible EOD officer to rough estimates and guesswork without scientific support, in these safety-related decisions.

    This paper is based on a SNDC military technology thesis, (1). In the thesis two different models, which together give guidance for protective measures during clearance of shaped charge ammunition, are suggested. The development of these models is based on their military utility, by consideration of the limited information availability, the short time frames, the working methods and the technology level that are characteristic for EOD operations.

    The first model is intended for use in the design of measures for hazard confinement against jet penetration. The suggested model is derived from a combination of two existing models for the shaped charge effect. A model for shaped charge penetration in single layered media developed by the Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI) is used as the basis for the model. This is then combined with a modified model that describes how the penetration depth decreases with an increasing stand-off distance. Together they give a simple model for calculating the minimum thickness of barricades and mounds to withstand the penetration of shaped charges at varying distances.

    The second model is for estimation of the maximum hazardous area generated by the shaped charge jet. This calculation model is based on the trajectory of the most critical jet segment, i.e. the slug. By defining typical values for those parameters that EOD personnel normally do not have information about, this model can be described with a simple graph. The graph gives the maximum hazardous area based only on the calibre and the elevation of the ordnance. The slug may be stable or unstable in its trajectory - the former giving a significantly larger hazardous area. As the conditions for or the probability of which will apply in a particular case is, currently, not supported by adequate scientific data, figures are given both for a stable and a tumbling slug segment. The use of the figures for an unstable slug will lead to a smaller area at the expense of higher risk.

    The two suggested models are developed further into a set of "tools" for the design of protective measures. These tools are adapted to the unique nature of EOD operations, and consist of a complete set of design rules giving a versatile tool to replace today´s rough estimates and guesswork.

  • 170.
    Jonsson, Henrik
    Swedish Defence University.
    Klassificering av örlogsfartyg, ett bidrag till den militära nyttan?2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper in military technology investigates the military benefits of using Classification Societies with the example Det Norske Veritas (DNV) and their rules and procedures on Naval Ships with the example the Visby class corvette. The aim is to investigate in what extent and in what different areas of the society’s rules comply with the military use which in this paper is defined as the ability to conduct combat through the six fundamental abilities. Furthermore the aim is to investigate in what specific areas the society´s rules fit the ability of combat the most, through the systems on board a naval ship that supports the six fundamental abilities. The paper comes to the conclusion that the Classification society puts focus on naval ships survivability. The rules of the classification society supports the fundamental abilities direct but first and foremost indirect through the demands on the different technical areas on board a Naval ship

  • 171.
    Jonsson, Henrik
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Klassningssällskapens regelverk, ett möjligt verktyg för att skapa stryktålighet på örlogsfartyg?2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with how the classification society’s rules may contribute to the survivability of warships when exposed to hostile fire. The aim is to examine whether the regulations can be used to reduce the vulnerability of naval ships through their notations and requirements for redundancy, separation and fragmentation protection.

    The first part of this thesis involves gathering information regarding relevant theory which covers the survivability of warships, which in turn forms the theoretical framework. Subsequently an analysis of the classification rules is conducted and a fictional operational environment is created in order to develop tactical tasks and threats, which are then converted into weapons effects and critical components. The models are created and together with the weapons used in the simulation program, Semi-automatic ship tool AVAL. The simulations measure the kill probabilities of different functions onboard when different weapons are used on the models.

    The results indicate that classification models generally have a lower kill probability, especially from weapons that generates splinters. The conclusion is that the classification society’s rules and regulations can be used to implement measures to decrease the vulnerability of naval ships.

  • 172.
    Karlsson, Andreas
    Swedish National Defence College.
    En undersökning om hur Robotsystem 70 skytten presterar i kyla2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this essay it has been studied how cold environment can affect the gunner of the RBS 70.

    In this study, the method of testing a hypothesis has been used. Hypothesis: “The Gunner is affected by cold to such an extent that a hit is not probable”

    The hypothesis is used in helping to answer the following two questions:

    1.      To what level is the RBS 70 Gunner affected by cold?

    2.      How can the Swedish AD Regiment improve its use of equipment in order to   reduce the effects of cold weather, on the RBS 70 gunners’ ability to aim?

     A test was performed to verify or falsify the hypothesis. Seven people from the Swedish AD Regiment fired simulated missiles both indoors and outdoors, in different temperatures. The results show that the missiles fired indoors at 20°C had an approximated direct hit-ratio of 94 percent. The firings where the thumb temperatures were the lowest had a lot lower direct hit ratio.

    The greatest issue lowering the gunners thumb temperature was the temperature of the joystick of the sight. The conclusions are that the joystick, which is made of aluminium, must be isolated to avoid cooling the gunners’ thumb. Otherwise it will be harder to hit the target at a low temperature.

  • 173.
    Karlsson, Sebastian
    Swedish Defence University.
    Tillvaratagande av möjligheter med ledningsstödssystem inom teknisk tjänst.2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    New Command and Control Support systems are being introduced within the Swedish Armed Forces. Military maintenance units are therefore presented with new conditions. This study aims to evaluate how well this implementing of systems is adapted to said organizations and what should be done to further improve the effects of this change. Directorial documents are studied and active personnel are interviewe to provide data for this study. There are technical solutions to put in place an effective use of maintenance units and today there are several systems used side by side. Sensemaking is hard to achieve on the field, in particular with important items like spare parts and technical systems. The largest hindrance is within transmission resources and common transmission system, which are sometimes different and sometimes absent. Information security and capability to exchange information with other nations restricts operational effect, both nationally and internationally. This study suggests that the implementation will not reach optimum effect since the changes doesn’t reach low enough within the organization, or are focused on a single system to achieve maximum effect. More effective Command and Control systems enable more mobile maintenance units. A wise implementation will lead to both rational operations and economical efficiency. 

  • 174.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Luftvärnsbataljonens tekniska tjänst: med fokus på avhjälpande underhåll2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 175.
    Kedeby, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University.
    Militärteknikens bidrag till den gemensamma operationen2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie är ett resultat av en utbildning på Försvarshögskolans högre stabsutbildning med operativ och militärteknisk inriktning. Militärtekniken på Försvarshögskolan är den vetenskap som beskriver och förklarar hur tekniken inverkar på militärverksamhet på alla nivåer. Den operativa inriktningen som beskriver och förklarar hur operationer planeras och genomförs.

     

    Studien syftar till att klarlägga relationen mellan de två ämnena och svara på frågeställningen hur militärtekniken kan stödja operativ planering. Metoden är att genom ett militärtekniskt analysverktyg identifiera var militärtekniska metoder kan användas för lösandet av operativa problem. Verktyget används inledningsvis på NATO:s COPD och därefter i ett antal intervjuer med operativ planeringspersonal.

     

    Resultatet visar att militärtekniska metoder används i 15 av 16 identifierade COPD moment.

    Vilket innebär att de militärtekniska analysmetoderna har mycket gemensamt med de metoder som används i operativ militär planering. Även militärteknikens tekniska systemförståelse är nödvändig för att genomföra en gemensam operation. Slutligen redovisas ett antal förbättringsförslag för att öka militärteknikens bidrag till operativ planering

  • 176.
    Kerro, Aram
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Den militära nyttan av ett C4I-system för en skyttegrupp2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Seen from a historical perspective, the development of soldiers’ equipment has been relatively slow. However, developments this past decade have been faster. In the early 2000s several countries needed to develop soldiers’ personal equipment. Therefore, several countries have launched their own future soldier system project. The availability of a C4I system is something that all soldier modernization programmes have in common. One of the purposes of the C4I system is to provide the soldier situational awareness of his own position, the location of enemy and friendly forces, and the surrounding terrain. This study aims to investigate the military benefits of a C41 system for guard duty. Two conclusions of this study show that the C4I system helps enhance the soldier's situational awareness and orientation in the terrain. Access to a digital map facilitates orientation in difficult conditions in unknown terrain, poor visibility and darkness. The increased situational awareness capability gives the soldier the ability to get an overview and general knowledge about the current situation, which leads to greater efficiency during guard duty.

  • 177.
    Khaji, Zahra
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Sturesson, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division. Uppsala University.
    Hjort, Klas
    Uppsala University.
    Klintberg, Lena
    Uppsala University.
    Thornell, Greger
    Uppsala University.
    Investigation of the storage and release of oxygen in a Cu-Pt element of a high-temperature microcombustor2014In: Journal of Physics Conference Series, Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A miniature combustor for converting organic samples into CO2 with application in carbon isotopic measurements has been manufactured and evaluated. The combustor was made of High-Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (HTCC) alumina green tapes. The device has a built-in screen printed heater and a temperature sensor made of platinum, co-sintered with the ceramic. A copper oxide oxygen supply was added to the combustor after sintering by in-situ electroplating of copper on the heater pattern followed by thermal oxidation. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) were used to study electroplating, oxidation and the oxide reduction processes. The temperature sensor was calibrated by use of a thermocouple. It demonstrates a temperature coefficient resistance of 4.66×10−3/°C between 32 and 660 °C. The heat characterization was done up to 1000 °C by using IR thermography, and the results were compared with the data from the temperature sensor. Combustion of starch confirmed the feasibility of using copper oxide as the source of oxygen of combustion.

  • 178.
    Khaji, Zahra
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Sturesson, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division. Division of Microsystems Technology, Dept. of Engineering Sciences and Ångström Space Technology Centre, Dept. of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Klintberg, Lena
    Uppsala University.
    Hjort, Klas
    Uppsala University.
    Thornell, Greger
    Division of Microsystems Technology, Dept. of Engineering Sciences and Ångström Space Technology Centre, Dept. of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Manufacturing and characterization of a ceramic microcombustor with integrated oxygen storage and release element2015In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 25, no 10, article id 104006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A microscale ceramic high-temperature combustor with a built-in temperature sensor and source of oxygen has been designed, manufactured and characterized. The successful in situ electroplating and oxidation of copper, and the use of copper oxide as the source of oxygen were demonstrated. It was shown that residual stresses from electroplating, copper oxidation and oxide decomposition did not cause much deformation of the substrate but influenced mainly the integrity and adhesion of the metal films. The process had influence on the electrical resistances, however. Calibration of the temperature sensor and correlation with IR thermography up to 1000 °C revealed a nearly linear sensor behavior. Demonstration of combustion in a vacuum chamber proved that no combustion had occurred before release of oxygen from the metal oxide resource.

  • 179.
    Kinnander, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Verkanslaser som skydd för ytstridsfartyg2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 180.
    Klaeboe, Tony Martin
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Passive sensorer i det Nettverksbaserte Forsvaret2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 181.
    Klint, Andreas
    Swedish Defence University.
    En ny motmedelsprincip: Kan HPM användas som motmedelssystem för helikopterplattformar?2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie undersöker ifall man i framtiden skulle kunna använda High Power Microwaves (HPM) som skyddssystem på helikopterplattformar. Skulle HPM kunna slå robotsystem på det elektroniska djupet istället för att avhaka eller blända hotsensorn, vilket idag görs med hjälp av facklor eller remsor.

    Uppsatsen beskriver funktion och ingående komponenter för HPM-konstruktioner, olika  verkansformer samt skydd mot elektromagnetisk strålning. En beskrivning av hotrobotars olika delar och hur HPM påverkar dess funktioner ges.

    Ett scenario utarbetas för att skapa ett fast utgångsläge för SWOT-analys och beräkningar av ett HPM-baserat motmedelssystem. Scenariot är gjort för att skapa sämsta tänkbara läge för en helikopterplattform.

    Uppsatsen jämför även HPM-teknik med Directed Infrared Counter Measures (DIRCM), vilket är ett relativt nytt elektrooptiskt motmedel för skydd av helikoptrar mot IR-robotar. Efter jämförelsetabell och SWOT-analys forstätter studiens fokus vara HPM.

    Slutsatsen visar att det, av vikt-, volym-, uteffekt- och tidsskäl i en nära framtid inte lämpar sig att slå robotsystem på det elektroniska djupet för att skydda en mindre helikopterplattform mot hotrobotar. HPM- system lämpar sig däremot väl för rörligare större plattformar som TP84.

    HPM-teknik på helikopter visar sig emellertid kunna nyttjas som verkans- och Understödssystem för skydd av större geografiskt område, vid förflyttning eller som telekrigsunderstöd av markförband, vilket möjliggörs av helikopterns höga rörlighet.

  • 182.
    Knaust, Stefan
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Khaji, Zahra
    Uppsala University.
    Sturesson, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division. Uppsala University.
    Klintberg, Lena
    Uppsal University.
    Characterization of dielectric properties of polycrystalline aluminum nitride for high temperature wireless sensor nodes2013In: Journal of Physics: Conference Series / [ed] Paul Mitcheson, London: Institute of Physics (IOP), 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An aluminium nitride (AlN) passive resonance circuit intended for thermallymatched high temperature wireless sensor nodes (WSN) was manufactured using thick-lmtechnology. Characterization was done for temperatures up to 900C in both a hot-chuck forfrequencies below 5 MHz, and using wireless readings of resonating circuits at 15 MHz, 59 MHz,and 116 MHz. The substrate for the circuits was sintered polycrystalline AlN. Using a simpliedmodel for the resonators where the main contribution of the frequency-shift was considered tocome from a shift of the dielectric constant for these frequencies, the temperature dependency ofthe dielectric constant for AlN was found to decrease with increasing frequency up to 15 MHz.With an observed frequency shift of 0.04% at 15 MHz, and up to 0.56% at 59 MHz over atemperature range of 900C, AlN looks as a promising material for integration of resonancecircuits directly on the substrate.

  • 183.
    Krohné, Stig-Olof
    Swedish National Defence College.
    CNI - en metod för terroristernas underrättelsetjänst?2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 184.
    Kujansuu, Jyrki
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Små UAV-system för bataljonsnivån - en nyttoanalys2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish military forces are under a transformation process as a consequence of analtered world situation and technical progress. Unmanned vehicles are being studied and areestimated to contribute valuable capabilities.The purpose of this research paper is to investigate the usefulness of small UAV-systems atthe battalion-level in an international military operation. The four basic functions commandand control, intelligence, and protection are used as factors in the analysis.The result of the research paper comprises a contextual part and a technical part. It alsocomprises an evaluation of small UAV-systems in a typical case: urban warfare. Theresearch paper shows that there are several tasks within the basic functions, which the smallUAV-systems can solve with varying capacity. The systems are most useful in the fightingphase, when the unit is close to the adversary. Combinations with different UAV-systemsare preferable. A severe threat restricts the capacity of small UAV-systems. Developmentshould be characterised by a systems view and comprise technology as well as tactics,personnel and organisation. Knowledge about air traffic rules is important in the context.The introduction of small UAV-systems can be seen as a complement to existing systems.

  • 185.
    Kung, Nichlas
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Teknik kontra taktik: hur påverkar de varandra inom artilleriet?2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 186.
    Laestadius, Nils
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Påverkansfaktorer i pansarduellen: människans roll i bekämpningskedjan2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the technical and human factors that affect the time a gunner detects, identifies and destroy a target. The paper submits suggestions on technical and educational measures that can be rectified to save time in a combat process.

    Many battles between combat vehicles take place in swiftly situations, duel fighting. The combat distance is derived from simulated battles from all over Sweden and is set to as short distance as 300 m. The gunner can, under good weather conditions, identify a 2.3 m high target at a distance of 1520 m, but under difficult conditions like in fog, it may be hard to identify at the given distance of 300 m. This, together with, the hit probability of hitting the target due to system scattering and selection of aim point at the target, makes it difficult to determine the effect of the given fire. There is a risk that the gunner will overcompensate that with firing to many rounds at the target, which in turn leads to time losses.

    The purpose of the paper is to study the Kill chain process to build up knowledge of the processes, in order to understand where it is possible to optimize. This optimization should then reduce the time from detection until the target is destroyed.

    The results of the analysis show that the proven experience contained in the Armed Forces manuals and regulations is well balanced but lacks references so that traceability is inadequate. The result also shows that if rules of firing are followed, the opponent will be destroyed with sufficient effect. However, it depends on where the target is hit. In the front, it will be difficult to observe the effect, but a hit in the side of the target the effect will be fairly easy to observe as it leads to fire in a high number of extent. The gunner may have to fire up to eight rounds to be sure to destroy a combat vehicle depending on the distance to the target and where the round hit the target.

    With this result, it is recommended that a further examination be carried out on which algorithms can support image enhancing electro optics.  Fusion of sensors plus fire and control systems ought to be examined to find solutions that enable predictive automatically sets of fire to speed up the kill chain.

     

  • 187.
    Lamke, Thomas
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Teknik eller taktik: om framgång i den maritima arenan2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the thesis is to examine whether military technology and resources or tactics and operational art, is the most plausible explanation for success in a maritime operation. A selection of naval theory literature has been used as the theoretical context of the thesis.Initially it is crucial to define success in a maritime operation in order to measure a fleet’s ability to achieve and obtain it. Success is hereby defined as securing command of the sea or disputing it, depending on the purpose of the operation.The analysis will be carried out by examining the chosen literature and extracting the authors’ argumentation of how to explain a successful behaviour in a maritime operation.The analysis will show that a fleet has to rely upon the same capabilities to whether the aim is to secure or dispute command. The conclusion is also that the capabilities needed to achieve success do not differ in different types of maritime operations. The analysis has also pointed out that technology and resources are dependent upon tactics and operational art and vice versa. Above all the main conclusion is that technology and resources on one hand and tactics and operational art on the other are impossible to separate from each other. To be able to succeed in a maritime operation a commander has to constantly take both concepts into consideration as well as when preparing for an operation as during combat.

  • 188.
    Larsson, Johan
    Swedish Defence University.
    Stormakt vs. småstat: En studie om skydd av flygplan på marken2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fighter Aircraft are an exclusive resource that are most vulnerable when standing on the ground. Due to the uncertain geosecurity situation surrounding the Baltic Sea, the government has determined that investment is required in the airbase system to increase the survival of air force assets in the case of war. Based on John A Warden III theories of factors for success for aircraft protection on the ground, this multi-case study compares the superpower view with that of the small state regarding principles for such protection. The study indirectly aims to provide clues for the development of future wartime basing concepts. The result of the study shows similarities, for example in view of the need for dispersal of aircraft and the logistic challenge of supplying this, as well as differences e.g. in views of deception measures such as screening and camouflage.

  • 189.
    Larsson, Lars-åke
    Swedish Defence University.
    En kvalitetsbedömning av några av flygvapnets kravunderlag2012Student paper other, 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The paper firstly examines if the FOI principles for formulating requirements need to be complemented as a result of the Armed Forces needs and then examines the quality of some of the Air Force requirements documents relative to the principles of requirements formulation. The results show that the principles can be complemented by the principles of priority and contextual description. The case studies results show that the quality of the air force's requirements documentation relative to the principles is generally low, that it varies between the documents and that they in some cases are very low in terms of fulfilling the principles. The paper recommends that the FOI principles for formulating requirements are complemented with the principles of priority and contextual description. It recommends the Air Force to improve the quality of future requirement formulations so that the military utility of such work also may increase. Finally, as a spin-off product, it shows how a should-requirement can be used in a different way than what has been the Armed Forces tradition.

  • 190.
    Larsson, Stefan
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Stridsdelar för markmålsbekämpning från ytstridsfartyg 2015-20202002Student paper otherStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the studies of future surface attack ships, long range precision engagement of land or ground targets becomes anew task for Sweden. The purpose of this thesis is to illustrate the development of warhead technology until 2015, andpropose different constructions of warheads for cruise or land attack missiles. The thesis starts with an inventory ofthe political and military ambitions to procure a concept for land attack missiles from ships. In order to identifyfeasible targets, the author illustrates the future combat environment and the future visions for the armed forces inSweden. The trends of technical development and a short analysis of future land attack missiles, gives together withthe list of targets, different ideas of the construction of warheads. Those are based on modular or combinationalconstructions, which is the most feasible development. The discussion in the thesis leads to the fact that future surfaceattack ships still will have the traditional naval duties as their main task, but long range precision engagement andsupport of ground units will be additional tasks. The armament of the ships will be determined especially for everydifferent mission, but it is the authors opinion, that there always will be a considerable number of missiles with antisurfacecapacity onboard each ship.

  • 191.
    Lendrop, Peter
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Organisk minröjning: ny förmåga eller teknisk vision? ; en studie av US Navy´s minröjningsförmåga efter Kuwaitkriget 19912006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the war in Kuwait in 1991, the US Navy had huge difficulties in defeating an oppo-nent who used asymmetric warfare using sea mines. The devastating result was that two naval ships were seriously damaged by mines and an amphibious assault was cancelled. This was not the first time that USA had ignored the importance of Mine Warfare. Changes in the world have forced the USA to start transforming their navy from a pure “Blue Water Navy” into a navy that can operate in littoral waters. To give the operational commander enough freedom of action in this environment, the US Navy must be able to deal with the mine threat in these waters. New doctrines have been developed dealing with manoeuvre from the sea to objectives inland. The lessons learned from the Kuwait War have resulted in a desire to make mine warfare a core capability in the US Navy and making an organic mine countermeasure (MCM) capability in expeditionary strike groups. This is a paradigm shift when compared to the present separate dedicated MCM capacity. However, organic MCM demands develop-ment of new advanced MCM systems. This essay describes how the MCM capability in the US Navy has developed since the Kuwait War in 1991. The main aim of the essay is to ex-plain why the US Navy had developed this organic MCM capacity and to describe the techni-cal MCM system needed for organic MCM. The essay shows that implementation of an or-ganic MCM concept will increase the commander’s freedom of action even though it is im-portant that dedicated MCM systems survive and that there is a proper balance between dedi-cated and organic MCM systems. It also shows that it is doctrine that controls the technical developments of new MCM products and not vice versa. There is, however, a risk that the US Navy will be short of MCM capability in the short term if dedicated MCM systems is phased out before organic MCM systems are fully operational.

  • 192.
    Lien, Kristian
    Swedish National Defence College.
    ”LIDAR, en sensorrevolusjon for Hæren?”2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    LIDAR is a type of sensor that has not yet been put into operation by the army's combat units. The technology's scope is broad, and for this thesis limited to a sensor role in a ground-to-ground scenario in combat units, where the sensor is used to build a commander's situational awareness (SA).

    In this thesis the results from both social scientific and scientific methods have been merged to measure the military utility of a sensor and its role for a military leader in contributing to his situational awareness and how this enables him to execute basic tactical principles. Data has been collected via literature studies, interviews and study visits to the Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI). The results show the important role a sensor has as a direct contributor to a military leader’s situational awareness and his ability to execute basic tactical principles. Furthermore, the results clearly indicate where a LIDAR sensor can improve this role. It will do this because of its capability to detect well, classify and identify at long ranges, and its ability to penetrate natural and man-made obscurants and camouflage.

    The conclusions are that a LIDAR can be used by armoured combat units as a targeting sensor, and that the fielding of such a system will give a leader increased SA and a better basis for decisions. It is also clear that it cannot replace the systems in use today, but will be a complementary system that can be used under given circumstances.

  • 193.
    Limoseth, Øystein
    Swedish National Defence College.
    En bataljonsstridsgruppe i det nettverksbaserte forsvaret: utfordringer, konsekvenser og tiltak ved en implementering av konseptet2002Student paper otherStudent thesis
  • 194.
    Lind, Anja
    Swedish Defence University.
    Geografiska informationssystem: användning vid PUT-bedömanden2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ArcGIS is a geographic information system (GIS) that is possible to use as atechnical support system in military decision making and planning.In this work an analysis is performed to state what is needed to use ArcGIS in militarydecision making and planning. More specifically in the Swedish planning model “planningduring pressure of time” at battalion level.The result indicates that what is needed to use ArcGIS at battalion level in parts are found inthe handbook about geosupport in the Swedish Armed Forces. The prerequisite existing isprimarily routines in managing data. The prerequisite missing is generally personnel that areeducated to work with ArcGIS and its tools.

  • 195.
    Lindh, Jens
    Swedish Defence University.
    Erfarenhetsöverföring inom markarenan med stöd av simulatorteknik: En studie av StriSimPC2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One of the main tasks of the Swedish Armed Forces over the past few years has been International assignments, which increased the importance of the Lessons Learned process. Methods of simulator training with computers have become more frequent and the technical ability to collect digital data from sensors has been developed as well. This work demonstrates how the experience of Lessons Learned can be communicated with the computer simulator StriSimPC and how modern technology in future support experiences from the Lessons Learned process at the tactical level in the Army.

    Currently knowledge sharing consists of several processes and strategies in the Swedish Armed Forces. This is done by written reports, oral presentations and different practical exercises.

    This case study shows the functions of the simulator StriSimPC, methods of training and how it is used today. The study also describes the future opportunities, where digital metadata acquired from the modern combat vehicles could contribute sharing of experience in the Lessons Learned process.

    The summarized conclusions indicate that StriSimPC can combine the two strategies for personalization and codification of knowledge transfer to reach a higher level of learning. Account must be taken to the training officers’ role and his impact when using serious gaming, especially if StriSimPC will be used for distance learning in the future. StriSimPC can also be a simulation instrument for experiment and development activities based on resource efficient methods with low risk factors. In the future Simulators using serious gaming as StriSimPC may be used to create reconstructions of situations based on models or on the collected digital data from the field. This can be used for visualization and increase knowledge in several ways.

  • 196.
    Lindholm, Sverker
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Satellitkommunikation ubåt2002Student paper otherStudent thesis
  • 197.
    Lindqvist, Christoffer
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Teknikutvecklingens påverkan på manöverkrigföringen2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     A considerable development of technology has been taken place since 1980s until today. The development could almost be likened to a revolution. This means that the basic principles of warfare and the means to wage war on will be affected by the development in one way or another. The author is interested to see how this rapid development has affected the maneuver warfare.

    The purpose of the paper is to examine how the significant technological advances have affected the maneuver warfare and its basic principles. As method, description is used. Maneuver warfare will first be explained in the paper and then the main technological trends for the work.  A case study with a qualitative text analysis of the war in Iraq 2003 has been done. To finally in the case study to examine how the new technology is used.

    The result of the study shows that the technological advances are of benefit to those who have the ability to utilize the new technology. But it takes a long time to coordinate the new technologies in a holistic functioning concept. The evolution of technology generates greater ability to apply the maneuver warfare basic principles.

  • 198.
    Lindstedt, Rasmus
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Framtida markbaserade precisionsbekämpningssystem i den nya Försvarsmakten2001Student paper otherStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppgiften är att utarbeta ett förslag på inriktning vid val av ett framtida markbaserat precisionsbekämpningssystem för den nya Försvarsmakten. Uppsatsen tar avstamp utifrån RMA, även kallad ”den nya krigföringen”, som antas vara den vision som gäller när det nya försvaret skall formas. Inledningsvis studeras de trender och pågående projekt som föreligger. Dessa får sedan lägga grunden för ett antal spelkort som bedöms utifrån de förväntade krav som kommer att ställas i framtiden. Kraven är framtagna med hjälp av studerade scenarier, rapporter samt intervjuer. Systemverkan kommer att vara en avgörande parameter. För att erhålla avsedd systemverkan är det viktigt med god precision, verkan i alla måltyper, lång räckvidd och mobilitet på systemen. Balansen mellan precision, räckvidd och verkan är betydelsefull. Balans råder då dessa parametrar har tillräckligt utrymme i stridsdelen. Det system som bäst svara mot de ställda kraven är en robot med fiberoptisk länk. Följande fördelar ses med systemet; god precision, lång räckvidd, god verkan, hög störresistens samt förmågan att verifiera och gradera verkan. Att endast förlita sig på eldrörsartilleri som precisionsbekämpningssystem är inte tillräckligt med de nya krav som ställs. Försvarsmakten bör välja ett markrobotsystem som framtida precisionsbekämpningssystem. Genom detta val erhålls ett system som i första hand löser precisionsbekämpning, vilket medför att ingen hänsyn behöver tas till den ständigt pågående växelverkan mellan understöd, bekämpning och precisionsbekämpning. På detta sätt blir ”bekämpningsfamiljen” mer komplett.

  • 199.
    Lindström, Rickard O
    et al.
    Försvarets Materielverk (FMV), Sverige.
    Vretblad, Bengt
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Janzon, Bo
    Secrab Security Research, Sverige.
    Christensson, Anders
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Sjöland, Magnus
    Kungl. Krigsvetenskapsakademien (KKrVA), Sverige.
    En studie rörande nolltolerans mot förluster vid internationella insatser: Årlig redovisning från KKrVA Avd IV den 4 december 20132014In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, Vol. 1:Bihäfte, no 1Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Royal Swedish Academy of War Sciences, Division of Military Technology, presents its annual report on the theme "Zero Tolerance for Losses in International Operations". Focus has been on own personnel and losses by combat action.) The study primarily concerns the land arena and the time span 2020-2030. Weapons development continues. The availability of weapons – even advanced ones – increases, also for non-state belligerents. Zero tolerance will require more and more efficient protection solutions to be developed – and to be used to meet increasing threats. Available technology offers many options. Zero tolerance requires high skills of the planner and purchaser, to ensure long-term research and development, timely acquisition and training, and ability to understand potential, limitations, and to adjust tactics accordingly. Holistic systems thinking will be required before, during and after interventions, including staff recruitment, advanced leadership, adequate equipment and high quality training in order to be able to fulfil a difficult mission in the highly complex environment in which the operation will occur.

  • 200.
    Lindström, Rickard
    et al.
    Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademien, KKrVA.
    Vretblad, Bengt
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Christensson, S. Anders
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Janzon, Bo
    Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademien, KKrVA.
    Sjöland, Magnus
    Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademien, KKrVA.
    En studie rörande nolltolerans mot förluster vid internationella insatser2013Report (Other academic)
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