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  • 151.
    Andersson, Kent
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Veszelei, Monica
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Roos, Arne
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Zirconium nitride based transparent heat mirror coatings: preparation and characterisation1994In: Solar Energy, ISSN 0038-092X, E-ISSN 1471-1257, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 199-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transparent heat mirror coatings based on thin zirconium nitride films have been prepared using reactive magnetron sputtering. The zirconium nitride films have been sandwiched between layers of zirconium oxide. It is shown that the multilayer configuration ZrO2/ZrN/ZrO2 can be used as solar control coatings on window glazings. A visible transmittance of around 60% and a thermal emittance lower than 0.2 can be obtained, and the ratio between visible transmittance and total solar transmittance can be as high as 1.7. The influence of substrate temperature on the optical quality of the films is evaluated and it is shown that the crystal structure of the first oxide layer is of importance for the optical quality of the nitride. The influence of preparation conditions and accelerated ageing has been modelled using the optical constants of thin films prepared under identical conditions as the films in the multilayer coatings.

  • 152.
    Andersson, Kent
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Wahlström, M.K.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Roos, Arne
    Uppsala Universitet.
    High stability titanium nitride based solar control films1992In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 214, no 2, p. 213-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Triple-layer structures of TiO2TiN/TiO2 and quadruple layer structures of TiO2Al/TiN/TiO2 have been sputtered on glass substrates at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 300°C. The reflectance and transmittance were measured in the visible and the near-IR wavelength regions. The thin layer of aluminium, in the quadruple layer, oxidizes and forms a dense diffusion barrier. The multilayers exhibit improved optical selectivity which also improves with substrate temperature up to 300°C.

  • 153.
    Andersson, Kent
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Åkerlind, Christina
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut (FOI).
    A review of materials for spectral design coatings in signature management applications2014In: Optics and Photonics for Counterterrorism, Crime Fighting, and Defence X; and Optical Materials and Biomaterials in Security and Defence Systems Technology XI (vol. 9253) / [ed] Douglas Burgess; Gari Owen; Harbinder Rana; Roberto Zamboni; François Kajzar; Attila A. Szep, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current focus in Swedish policy towards national security and high-end technical systems, together with a rapid development in multispectral sensor technology, adds to the utility of developing advanced materials for spectral design in signature management applications. A literature study was performed probing research databases for advancements. Qualitative text analysis was performed using a six-indicator instrument: spectrally selective reflectance; low gloss; low degree of polarization; low infrared emissivity; non-destructive properties in radar and in general controllability of optical properties. Trends are identified and the most interesting materials and coating designs are presented with relevant performance metrics. They are sorted into categories in the order of increasing complexity: pigments and paints, one-dimensional structures, multidimensional structures (including photonic crystals), and lastly biomimic and metamaterials. The military utility of the coatings is assessed qualitatively. The need for developing a framework for assessing the military utility of incrementally increasing the performance of spectrally selective coatings is identified.

  • 154.
    Andersson, Kurt
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Artman, Kristian
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Astell, Magnus
    Axberg, Stefan
    Liwång, Hans
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Lundberg, Anders
    Norsell, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Tornérhielm, Lars
    Lärobok i Militärteknik, vol. 1: Grunder2007Book (Other academic)
  • 155.
    Andersson, Kurt
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Axberg, Stefan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Eliasson, Per
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Harling, Staffan
    Holmberg, Lars
    Lidén, Ewa
    Reberg, Michael
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Silfverskiöld, Stefan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Sundberg, Ulf
    Tornérhielm, Lars
    Vretblad, Bengt
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Westerling, Lars
    Lärobok i Militärteknik, vol. 4: Verkan och skydd2009Book (Other academic)
  • 156.
    Andersson, Lennart
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, The Military History Division.
    Fienden i öster!: Svenskt jaktflyg under kalla kriget2012Book (Other academic)
  • 157. Andersson, Lennart
    Flygvapnets spaningsflyg: Sveriges ögon och öron under kalla kriget2013Book (Other academic)
  • 158.
    Andersson, Lennart
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, The Military History Division.
    ÖBs klubba: Flygvapnets attackeskader under kalla kriget2010Book (Other academic)
  • 159.
    Andersson, Liam
    Swedish Defence University.
    UAV:ernas möte med en högteknologisk motståndare: en fallstudie av konfikten i Ukraina2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    UAV: s are in more frequent use as a result of a growing commercial market. This increases the probability of UAV: s in conflicts. This means that conflicts where both sides have access to UAV: s that are relatively high-tech becomes more likely. Ukraine and Russia’s use of UAV: s in Ukraine can be described as this kind of conflict. In this paper it is primarily military UAV: s that are discussed. The difference between these and their civilian counterparts are range, flight time and the quality of the sensors. In order to understand how the use of UAV: s is being affected, the following question needs to be answered.  How is the use of UAV: s affected in a conflict between two high-tech opponents? This was answered by analysing the decision-making process using the OODA loop and the kill chain. The paper is a case study which uses qualitative text analysis and an interview.The conclusion of this paper is that UAV: s has acted as a force multiplier in Ukraine and they will be used in future conflicts. Despite the electronic warfare against the UAV: s and the fact that they are missing systems for counteracting the disturbance both sides continue to use UAV: s. The force multiplier that is gained from using UAV: s is justified from a battle economic standpoint despite being hindered by electronic warfare.

  • 160.
    Andersson, Linn
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Nodal governance och svensk terrorismbekämpning2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här uppsatsen handlar om nodal governance som teori och analysverktyg. Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka på vilket sätt nodal governance är användbart i analysen av en svensk förvaltningskontext där främst offentliga aktörer samverkar och vilka teoretiska och metodologiska problem det eventuellt för med sig. Teorin har applicerats på en fallstudie som analyserar ett fall; svensk terrorismbekämpning.

    Analysen har visat att visat på teoretiska utvecklingsmöjligheter för nodal governance. Dessutom har förslag till förfining av analysverktyget kunnat presenteras. 

    Studien har visat på möjligheterna och begränsningarna för nodal governance att beskriva och förklara den komplexa förvaltningsmiljö terrorismbekämpning organiseras i.

  • 161.
    Andersson, Martin
    Swedish Defence University.
    Möjliga efterträdare till robotsystem 702012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For many years, there has been a discussion about the needs to replace missilesystem 70 witha more modern short range air defense unit. The anti-aircraft regiment has prepared a conceptproposal against a possible successor to the current robotsystem. In order to show that thereare other options which can be potential replacements instead of the concept proposal, ananalysis of three quite different launchers is made along certain valuation criteria, which arereflected against the Swedish Armed Forces basic abilities. The analysis is made of three scenariosin order to reflect some of the tasks that a short range air defense has to handle. Thescenarios will also show the advantages and disadvantages of the different units. By the scenariosseven criteria are revealed as extra important to take into account when a new air defenseunit is ordered to be able to solve the expected tasks.These criteria’s are: Multi-Targeting, darkness capacity, performance area, protection of theterrain - camouflage, Small Claims Act, all-weather capability and set up time.

  • 162.
    Andersson, Max
    Swedish Defence University.
    Att outsourca eller inte outsourca, det är frågan: En analys av Försvarsmaktens bevaknings- och säkerhetsverksamhet.2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the 1990s the Swedish Armed Forces (SAF) adopted the concept of outsourcing for the provision

    of certain services. With an increasing amount of services being outsourced to civilian companies,

    there is little research regarding which types of services are being outsourced by SAF, and

    how it´s motivated. One service being partially outsourced is the guarding of military bases

    throughout Sweden. With an on-going debate by researchers on the concept of military outsourcing

    in expeditionary forces, this study takes a domestic view of outsourcing.

    This thesis seeks to investigate the concept of military outsourcing, applied to the case of base

    guards in Sweden. The analysis proves that several reasons or justifications for outsourcing base

    guarding are presented by those responsible for security in Swedish military units. The analysis also

    concludes that guard services is viewed different between headquarter level and regimental level.

    Although considered not a core activity, due to high interdependence with core activities and

    the requirement for firm-specific competence regimental representatives show more reluctance

    towards outsourcing guard services.

  • 163.
    Andersson, Mikael
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Behovet av pansarvärnsrobotsystemsystem i Försvarsmakten: en förmågestudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Present work is based on the Armed Forces' existing ability to operate with anti-tank missiles. With the objective to investigate whether there is a void to fill for armor piercing missile systems and to compare the existing system with previous and suggest desirable abilities. From history, older studies and technical data from the previous system and interviews are conclusions drawn and underlying the values of the existing need. The results show that anti-tank missile 57 has good potential to solve the given task if the system is applied on a larger scale within infantry units. The environment decide tactic, the tactic control benefits, which in turn generates effect with the system. An upgrade of the 57-system is deemed worth consideration for the armed forces in the context of the needs that exist.

  • 164.
    Andersson, Oskar
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Ledarskap under organisationsförändring: Kultur och ledarskap under förändringsarbete2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ledarskap och kultur är något som en chef under en förändring måste förstå och kunna arbeta med. Frågan är hur Försvarsmaktens modell utvecklande ledarskap kan användas under ett förändringsarbete? Slutsatser kan dras att det utvecklande ledarskapet som i stort grundar sig i medmänsklighet fungerar ypperligt att använda under en organisationsförändring.

    Försvarsmaktens organisationskultur är präglad av en lång historia och en stolthet hos personalen att arbeta inom organisationen. Hur denna kultur påverkas av en förändring är svårt att säga. Konklusionen av uppsatsen är att hela Försvarsmaktens kultur ej förändras, men kulturen kopplat till förändring blir negativt påverkad. Detta beroende på historiska aspekter av tidigare förändringar. 

  • 165.
    Andersson, Oskar
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Vilken betydelse hade de grundläggande förmågorna i slaget om Kasserinepasset feb 1943?2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 166.
    Andersson, Patrik
    Swedish Defence University.
    Indirekta effekter av luftvärnsoperationer: En begreppsutredande studie kring luftvärnets indirekta effekter under Kosovokonflikten2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Serbian Air Defence shot down a small number of airplanes during the Kosovo War. Even so, it turns out that NATO’s air operations were indirectly affected a lot by the Serbian Air Defence. The purpose of this dissertation is to problematize and define the term of indirect effect in the context of air defence and to apply it to an authentic conflict.

    The dissertation consists primarily of two interrelated studies. The first is an investigative study that culminates in a definition of the term indirect effect. Thereafter, a case study on the Kosovo conflict is used to concretize and exemplify the indirect effect. This conflict was chosen as both parties used primarily air power and air defence against each other.

    The study resulted in a definition of indirect effects that can be used to describe the effects of air defence operations. The case study showed that the indirect effect of the air defence were important for the progression of the conflict and ultimately may have delayed Milosevic's capitulation.

  • 167.
    Andersson, Patrik
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Utvecklingsarbete inom Försvarsmakten: en uppsats om arbetsmotivation och organisationskulturs påverkan2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 168.
    Andersson, Per-Olov
    Swedish National Defence College.
    UAV/UCAV i fredens tjänst: UAV/UCAV och dess operativa betydelse i framtida Peace Support Operations2001Student paper otherStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Luftstridskrafter har spelat en betydande roll i senare tiders Peace Support Operations (PSO). Obemannade flygande system har varit en del av dessa insatser, hur kommer rollfördelningen att vara i framtiden? Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka och göra en bedömning avseende hur obemannade flygsystem kan utnyttjas och ha en roll i framtida Peace Suport Operations. Litteratur- och dokumentstudier, föreläsningar och intervjuer ligger som faktabakgrund för bedömningen av hur en framtida PSO kan se ut samt vilken roll obemannade flygsystem kan ha i en framtida Peace Suport Operation. Jämförelse har skett mellan bemannade och obemannade flygande system varvid fördelar och nackdelar har belysts. Resultatet av studien är att obemannade flygande system bör kunna få en betydande roll i framtida Peace Suport Operations främst avseende underrättelseinhämtning och uppgifter där vapenleverans inte är huvuduppgiften. Obemannade flygande farkoster med stridsuppgift (UCAV) har däremot betydande hinder som måste övervinnas innan dessa kan få en viktig roll i framtida PSO. Det är inte uteslutet att UCAV efter en tids utveckling kan få en viktig roll i en framtida PSO främst inom uppgifter som karaktäriseras av stor risktagning, krav på lång uthållighet eller uppträdande i ohälsosam miljö.

  • 169.
    Andersson, Rasmus
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Principer i sabotaget mot Vemork: Krigföringens grundprinciper provade mot historien2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is written as a study in four parts. The first part consists of statements of purpose, methodology and source materials, and how I created the analysis tools used at work. The second section highlights the basic principles of warfare as defined in the literature. This also presents the factors that will be used for identification. The third part of my study starts out a historical review, which I am recounting the events that take place in Norway during 1942-1943. This case, which is the basis for my study is one of WWII's most famous Special Operations, who, despite its fame, very few have deeper information. These operations are marked by misfortune and death, but above all the determination and eagerness. By using my analysis tool of this case I want to see whether all of the basic principles of warfare can be identified. The conclusions that are drawn are that all of the basic principles of warfare can be identified by the factors I used.

  • 170.
    Andersson, Robin
    Swedish Defence University.
    Kan andra libanonKriget klassificeras som ett ”Nytt” krig?2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Second Lebanon War has proved to be a complex war in a new and different context. An important part of this is the globalization that Kaldor refers to. The Second Lebanon War shows an example of this regarding Hezbollah which originally was a guerrilla group that was founded in 1985. What is special here is that Hezbollah since then has developed more into an organization that has established a strong foothold in Lebanese politics. They have thus evolved into the form of a kind of sub state, since they cannot be defined as a guerrilla group or a state, which means that they are classed as something intermediate. The analysis also shows this problem when explaining what problems Israel was facing before and during the war, which they were not prepared for. Another part of the globalization that has affected this problem is the involvement of all outside states and actors and that the war was waged in Lebanon but not against the state but against a regional "guerilla group" that is classified as something else than an ordinary guerilla group.

     

    The purpose of this study is to increase the understanding of the Second Lebanon war, which in turn contributes to an increased understanding of contemporary war and understanding of the empirical basis of Mary Kaldor's theory of “New Wars”. Furthermore, the war has been analyzed to ascertain whether it can be considered a new war and if so to what extent. The result has then shown that Kaldor's theory has been well successfully applied to the Second Lebanese War and that the war can be considered to be a new war based on her theoretical framework.

  • 171.
    Andersson, Sara
    Swedish Defence University.
    The United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security in the Armed Forces and in Peace Keeping Operations – Implementation Progress in Sweden and Austria and a comparison of the two countries and their National Action Plans2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores the National Action Plans of Sweden and Austria concerning the UN adopted Resolution 1325 about Women, Peace and Security.

    The increase of the number of women in the armed forces has for a long time been a prioritised topic for the Swedish Armed Forces. This thesis investigates how the Swedish and the Austrian NAPs are dealing with this question.

    The NAPs are written with the purpose of making the implementation of Resolution 1325 easier and faster, in a national context. In this thesis, the parts concerning increasing the number of women in the armed forces and in peacekeeping operations are the ones investigated. A qualitative methodology is used in the thesis and a comparison is conducted between the National Action Plans to see what Sweden and Austria can learn from each other.

    The results show that the Austrian National Action Plan does not consist of any particular part that concerns how to make more women work in the armed forces. However, there is a section concerning the importance of raising the number of women in peacekeeping operations. This section is within the Swedish National Action Plan as is the part which is concerned with having more women employed in the Swedish Armed Forces.

    The Austrian National Action Plan would benefit if how to get a higher per cent of women in the armed forces was included. It is a prioritised topic in Austria, as well as in Sweden, to increase the number of women in the armed forces. This is also an issue that goes hand in hand with the implementation of Resolution 1325, which makes it an important element in the NAP.

    Key words: Resolution 1325, National Action Plan, Sweden, Austria, Gender, Implementing Resolution 1325, Swedish Armed Forces, Austrian Armed Forces, Peacekeeping Operations, increasing women in armed forces.

     

  • 172.
    Andersson, Tobias
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Elhybridteknik i bandvagnssystemet: Den militära nyttan i logistikfunktionen2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fossil fuels are finite resources and in a report from 2013, the Swedish Defence Material Administration encourages the Swedish Armed Forces to start planning for the transition to alternative propulsion systems to reduce its dependency of fossil fuels. The most promising technology to bridge the gap between pure electric propulsion and today’s internal combustion engine is hybrid electric technology. This essay examines the implications a series hybrid solution would have on military logistics. The method used includes analysis of both scientific reports and of survey answers from personnel in the SAF with several years of experience working with the tracked vehicle Bandvagn 309. The analysis of the survey answers is completed with interviews with these people and others working at BAE Systems who contributes with technical expertise. The essay will conclude that a series hybrid solution would have a positive impact on military logistics even though it is hard to specify how great the effect would be due to technical uncertainties and the fact that the technology is yet to be tested in combat.

  • 173.
    Andersson, Tom
    Swedish Defence University.
    Har Rysslands nyttjande av informationskrigföring förändrats mellan 1999-2014?2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The absence of previous research regarding Russia´s use of information warfare has not been able to show if there has been a new way of adapting information warfare alongside the development in the warfare in general. The previous research has established a development in warfare by the means of information technology. This is important to understand as it constitutes an equalizer between small states and great powers in the global arena. At the same time, it is even more important to understand that the development of Russian behavior has implications on warfare in a global perspective. The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to the conclusions of previous research which predicted a transformation in the warfare and give a new view of the transformation by inspecting Russia´s use of information warfare in modern warfare and probe if there has been a change. Additional purpose of this study is to understand Russia´s way of conduct in modern conflicts and have a better ability of control in forthcoming conflicts. The method used reflects the qualitative case and is constructed as a one-case study with variation in time, using three different conflicts. The analysis is conducted by the means of operational indicators extracted from Libickis theory. The result of the study shows that Russia have changed their way of using information warfare in between all of the three conflicts, and it is not that easy to say that the use of information warfare has changed. It might depend on the situation or the opposite side and how the individual conflict occur. There is no clear answer on that question, but this essay gives a deeper view in the use of information warfare by Russia in modern conflicts.

  • 174.
    Andersson, Torbjörn
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Signalsökande robotar vs sensorer - en duell på liv och död, eller?2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 175.
    Andersson Vilhelmsson, Mark
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Sverige och Finland i en osäker värld2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här uppsatsen använder teorin om säkerhetsgemenskap för att se hur långt Sverige och Finland har kommit med sina försvars- och säkerhetspolitiska samarbeten, under perioden 1998-2014. Den försöker dessutom belysa en förändring med båda staternas samarbete med försvarsalliansen Nato under samma period. Till sist försöker studien belysa hur Rysslands militära intervention i Georgien 2008 och Ukraina 2014 har påverkat dessa samarbeten. Den viktigaste slutsatsen är att Sverige och Finland är i en hårt morgen sammankopplad säkerhetsgemenskap, utifrån försvars- och säkerhetspolitiska aspekter.

  • 176.
    Andersson, Åke
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Kollektivt försvar i förändring2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this academic essay is to increase the underlying understanding of the meaning of the article V of the North Atlantic Treaty. Article V is the formalisation of the collective defence within NATO, often referred as the security guarantee. Since the ratification of the treaty in 1949 has the actual meaning of the article V varied with reference to observer, context and actual period in time. The wordings of the fifth article have however always remained unchanged. The text of the treaty is particularly general worded which represents the essence of the issue; How has the meaning of article V changed from 1949 to 2009?

    In order to answer the question above, three theoretical perspectives are introduced in detail to improve the understanding and to analyse the history. The three selected perspectives are; the internal security guarantee, the external deterrence and the instrument of foreign policy. The empiric is thereafter processed to isolate the change of the meaning of the fifth article to the actors; the alliance, the member countries and the ones outside of the alliance.

    A coherent line of change for the meaning of the article V to the alliance is found where the starting point is the security guarantee. In the early 1950’s the meaning turns to deterrence and remains unchanged during the cold war until the end of bipolarity, thereafter followed by a more diffuse and uncertain meaning. More recently, however, two diverging lines are discovered. The first line of more recent members, in most cases border states, strive for the meaning of security guarantee covering the geographical area of the member states territories. The second line consists of more powerful member states where the instrument of foreign policy seems to be the desired meaning, and this to promote the alliance as an global security provider.

    The analysis also uncovers a repetitive pattern of behaviour in respect to the meaning of article V for new member states. This pattern of preference changing seems to be constant irrespective of time interval of the examined empiric.

  • 177.
    Andreasson, Emelie
    Swedish Defence University.
    All in the name of security: A qualitative content analysis regarding the concept of security in the movie Zero Dark Thirty2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores how the concept of security is presented in current American action movies.This study will use the movie Zero Dark Thirty as an illustrative example to examine the concept ofsecurity during the ’War on Terror’-era. The study will use qualitative content analysis in order toexamine the concept of security.

  • 178.
    Andren, Dan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division. Theresianische Militärakademie, Österrike.
    Sweden´s and Austria´s contribution to realising the EU Battlegroup Concept2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since the Helsinki Headline goals of 1999 the European Union has been trying to increase its military capability to conduct military operations abroad. The EU led operation Artemis in the Congo inspired the creation of the Battlegroup concept. The concept is intended to conduct military operations up to a distance of 6000 km from Brussels at short notice. The development of the Battlegroup differs between different member states, which have chosen different organisations. Bigger nations have better possibilities to contribute to the Battlegroup. Research indicates some nations prioritise the military aspect of the Battlegroup and other nations focus on the integration effect of cooperation. The new security challenges after the Cold War require new solutions by the old militaries and an answer to this problem is closer cooperation between European states.

    The purpose of this thesis is to compare Sweden´s and Austria´s contributions to realising the European Battlegroup Concept. These two countries represent two similar countries in regards to size and historic traditions and research surrounding these two countries has not been conducted earlier.

    The conclusion of the thesis shows big contributions from both countries since the start of the Battlegroup Concept in 2007. Austria began contributing to the Battlegroup later, but has developed its contribution during recent years. Sweden contributed early on to the development of the Battlegroup concept as a Framework Nation to the Nordic Battlegroup. Because of early work and bigger contributions Sweden has contributed more to realise the European Battlegroup Concept.

  • 179.
    Andrén, Alexander
    Swedish Defence University.
    Telekrig mot bandspridningsteknik2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay examines two spread-spectrum technologies and what their effects are on the electronic warfare ability. The essay seeks to answer this question:

    What are the possibilities for signals intelligence and communications jamming against radio communications using one of the two spread-spectrum technologies frequency-hopping and direct sequence?

    The essay initially describes a model for how electronic warfare against radio communication is conducted, “telekrigcykeln”. It then describes the principles of a radio system as well as the two spread-spectrum technologies frequency-hopping and direct sequence. Using the model “telekrigcykeln” the essay finally analyses and discusses the impact of the spread-spectrum technologies.

    The essay finds that it is possible to conduct signals intelligence towards both signals, however direct sequence pose bigger problems than frequency-hopping. Both signals are easiest to jam using a jammer in close proximity to the radio receiver. However, close-proximity jammers are harder to place close to the opponent’s receiver.

  • 180.
    Andrén, Rasmus
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Organisatoriskt lärande efter kris: Socialstyrelsens lärdomar av svininfluensan 20092016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The following study seeks to explain why the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare (Socialstyrelsen) learnt particular leassons concerning flexibel planning, following the swin flue pandemic in 2009. By using George P. Huber’s teory of organizational learning the study finds that coherent cognitiv maps between coworkers and experience-based learning curves functioned as a selection mechanism between options presented by a formal investigations. With the aim of explaining the empirical case, limitations were also found in the theoretical framework concerning the relationship between old knowledge and the construction of the new knowledge.

  • 181.
    Andrén, Rasmus
    Swedish Defence University.
    The African Union and its Behaviour During the Ebola Outbreak 2014-2016: Steps Towards Understanding Actorness and Effectiveness2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The following thesis seeks to test Brattberg and Rhinard’s hypothesized correlation between actorness and behaviour (assumed to facilitate effectiveness) during disasters. Its goal is to test it on the African Union during the Ebola outbreak and thereby investigate if there is a positive relation between degrees of actorness and behaviour. The test shows, broadly speaking, a positive result, but it does suggest that certain expectancies in behaviour need to be conceived in broader terms.

  • 182.
    Antonson, Mats
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies.
    Comprehensive Approach: Civil-militär filosofi eller allsidigt strategiskt koncept?2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Erfarenheter från de senaste årens komplexa konflikter har bidragit till insikten att separata militära insatser ofta är otillräckliga för att skapa fred. Comprehensive Approach ses av många som ett koncept med målsättningen att skapa en integrerad civil-militär ansats för konfliktlösning. Konceptets innebörd är emellertid oklar. Dessutom är det problematiskt att empiriskt belägga att användandet av konceptet leder till framgång, vilket medför svårigheter att granska dess värde.

    Uppsatsen utnyttjar Michael Howards teori om strategins dimensioner för att analysera Storbritanniens syn på Comprehensive Approach som strategiskt koncept. Som metod används en kvalitativ textanalys av systematiserande typ. Utifrån analysen identifieras styrkor och svagheter med konceptet, vilket medför att huvudfrågan vad Storbritanniens syn på Comprehensive Approach innebär och vilket värde Comprehensive Approach har som strategiskt koncept besvaras. Svaret bidrar till ökad kunskap och förståelse för Comprehensive Approach, vilket är uppsatsens syfte.

    Resultatet visar att Storbritannien ser Comprehensive Approach som ett strategiskt koncept som kräver integrerade civil-militära strukturer för att fungera på ett bra sätt. Samtliga Howards dimensioner återfinns, och att ingen dimension överfokuseras är utifrån teorin en styrka. Värdet på Comprehensive Approach som strategiskt koncept kan samtidigt ifrågasättas främst på grund av att det mestadels uttrycks vad som bör uppnås, men däremot sällan beskrivs hur det ska genomföras. Uppsatsen påvisar även svårigheterna att samordna och koordinera aktörer mot ett gemensamt mål i en multinationell miljö, när incitament för samordning saknas.

  • 183.
    Antonér, Sebastian
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Så blir ett reglemente till: En studie om arbetsprocessen kring Taktikreglemente för marinstridskrafterna2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The paper covers the development of TRM (Taktikreglemente för marinstridskrafterna). By using Dr. Geoffrey Till’s and James J. Tritten’s theories about doctrine development and development processes attempts to understand why the process with TRM looked like it did and why the content is the way it is.

    The purpose is to make this a minor contribution to any future and further development of doctrine development processes.

    The theory is based on Tritten’s theory of different concepts which affect a doctrine and a model of a cyclical doctrine development process created by Till.

    The creation and development of TRM has been explained, based on interviews with persons involved with the project. Subsequently, an attempt to explain and understand the process is made by using the two theories.

    The result shows that the process with TRM was not at all time a simple one. During the process a lot of focus has been on trying to harmonize Swedish operations and procedures with those of NATO. The knowledge about the document should be good hence the “bottom up” perspective in which it was written. Even though the writers did not use any specific theory, is it possible to show that the development of TRM may be a part of a cyclic process and that it largely was influenced by certain concepts.

  • 184.
    Apel, Erik
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL).
    Guns n' roses: The Swedish Social Democratic Party and the Saudi agreement2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study I examine the decisions to sign and later terminate the so called Saudi agreement, a military memorandum of understanding (MoU) between Sweden and Saudi Arabia, understood as a gateway agreement for future arms deals as well as exchange of defense technology knowledge. Comparing statements from the Social Democratic Party (SAP), who held government both in 2005 when the agreement was signed as well as in 2015 when it was terminated unilaterally by Sweden, I examine the ideological preferences of Swedish foreign policy. Could the shift in policy be explained by ideology?

  • 185.
    Apelgren, Håkan
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Går Sveriges militära alliansfrihet att förena med ett EU-medlemskap?2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 186.
    Appelkvist, Per
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Faktorer som påverkar en militär exit2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 187.
    Appelkvist, Per
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Gav modern COIN-doktrin framgång redan vid försvenskandet av Skånelandskapen?2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom ramen för ISAF genomförs nu en massiv utbildningsinsats i counterinsurgency, detta för att den nya strategin som tillämpas skall få stort genomslag. Den doktrin som används vid utbildning och vid genomförande är den amerikanska FM 3-24. Den bygger på flera andra doktriner, men är som egen helhet ny och relativt oprövad.

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka om faktorer i doktrinens operationslinjer bidrar till framgång. Detta görs genom att besvara frågan: I vilken utsträckning var det faktorer som framgår av FM 3-24 ”logiska operationslinjer” som gav framgång vid försvenskningen av Skånelandskapen?

    Designen för undersökningen är en fallstudie, där operationslinjerna i doktrinen har översatts och operationaliserats och sedan jämförts med ett urval av litteratur om försvenskningen av Skånelandskapen.

    Resultatet stödjer att utifrån detta enskilda fall leder användandet av FM 3-24 operationslinjer till ökad sannolikhet för framgång. Vilket ger en ökad legitimitet i doktrinens nyttjande. Uppsatsen har även ett underliggande syfte, att påvisa att det finns svenskt nationellt exempel på COIN.

  • 188.
    Arasimowicz, Fredrik
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Stridstross: en metod att lösa understödet2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 189.
    Arby, Nathaniel
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Hur utvecklas den svenska minröjningsfunktionen inom marinen?2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose with this essay is to examine the development of the Swedish mine warfare branch both tactical and technical and how these two components are combined to maximize the effect. The essay also analyses the midlife upgrade of the MCMV Landsort class towards the MCMV Koster class.

    This essay will describe on the basis of the Swedish doctrines and mine warfare textbooks how the naval tactics and technology function as a foundation for development of new means in the duel against the sea mine.

    The sea mine is a weapon system that has been used during several centuries and has sunk more tonnage than all other weapon systems together. As long as there have been sea mines, there has also existed its counterpart, the mine counter measures.

    The Swedish MCMV’s technological and tactical developments strive towards fulfilling the six mandatory functions in warfare, command, effect, protection, mobility, intelligence and endurance. The modern MCMV develops toward a more secure and efficient unit.

  • 190.
    Ardin, Mattias
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Krigsspel i beslutsprocessen2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the Swedish Armed Forces’ and the Swedish National DefenceCollege’s interest in war-gaming has increased due to the adoption of NATO Guidelines ofOperational Planning. The purpose of this essay has been to investigate how to use war gamesas a tool for developing and testing military plans. The other purpose of this essay has been tofind some general rules on how to conduct those games.Initially three hypotheses were drawn from a literature survey. These hypotheses were thentested against two different case studies.This study found that the planning process needs two types of war games. The first type is agame that is fast, easy and encourages the players’ creativity. The second type is a game thathas the ability to test the plan and the details in it before the operation is launched.The general rules for war gaming can be summarised as follows:• Clear goals and purpose of the war game• Play a series of war games. The first one is an overall game that will help to find the rightquestions. After that you have to play detailed games to illuminate the questionspresented.• The players in the game need to have a common analysis tool to work with. One such toolcould be the military base functions. They will probably give a broad review of thesubject.• Finally, tne of the most important parts of these kinds of war games is the time factor. Asuccessful game must be capable of showing the impact of the time factor on theoperation.

  • 191.
    Arding, Mikael
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Är uppdragstaktik och utvecklande ledarskap förenligt med utvecklandet av anpassningsbara officerare?2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The human ability to adapt to a changing environment and a never ending technological development, can be observed by counting the many times a new invented weapon result in a new kind of defence. Today’s military personnel must not only adapt to technological, tactical and environmental changes, but also to new kind of objectives. Missions, conducted under the authorization of the UN, consist not only of combat missions, but also of considerable amount of civil-military cooperation (CIMIC). If adaptability is part of what has taken us this far, it’s reasonable to assume that adaptability will be as important in the future to come. Hence, an armed force with a high level of adaptability is likely to be advantageous over a less adaptable enemy.

    This paper was written with the sole purpose of finding out whether the Swedish Armed Forces’ (SAF) command & control-method (Auftragstaktik) and the provided leadership model (Developmental leadership) were consistent with the development of adaptable officers. A describing comparison indicated numerous similarities between all three concepts, thus it would seem

    auftragstaktik and developmental leadership has in-born support for the development of adaptability.

  • 192.
    Areskoug, Max
    Swedish Defence University.
    Hur kan kombinerade vapen skapa framgång på taktisk nivå?: en teoriprövande fallstudie av Robert Leonhards principer om kombinerade vapen.2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines how the use of combined arms according to Robert Leonhards theory can explain the military success on the tactical level of war in two historical cases. Previous studies focus mainly on how combined arms shall be understood and how it shall be used and not how combined arms has contributed to military success. This thesis uses a theory testing case study to examine how combined arms contributed to the military success of the Israeli forces in the Yom Kippur-war and to that of American forces in  Operation Desert Storm.

     

    The analysis is based on Robert Leonhards three principles of combined arms. The result of the analysis shows that both the Israeli forces and the American forces used the different principles of combined arms. The analysis also showed that the use of combined arms created military success at the tactical level of the different wars, but combined arms cannot by itself explain the military success as the technical advantages, moral and educational level also had a significant impact on the outcome.

  • 193.
    Arfvén, Gustav
    Swedish Defence University.
    Europol & the Creation of the European Counter Terrorism Centre2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    While the limited number of scholars in the field of EU intelligence cooperation tend to have a rather state-centric view and focus on the normative (trust) or the functional (efficieny) dimension of intelligence cooperation, this study contributes to the field by focusing solely on the institutional structure of Europol.

    The purpose of this study is to examine why the Europol established the European Counter Terrorism Centre and why it is not addressing the interconnectedness between terrorism and organized crime. In order to address these questions, the theoretical framework of historical institutionalism has been applied and the notion of path dependency plays a vital role. 

    The study rests on a qualitative single case study design and the disciplined configurative-model is used to fulfill the research objective. The researcher traces the process in a historically chronological order and uses pre-existing materials in order to uncover explanatory findings.

    The study concludes that the theoretical framework of historical institutionalism and the notion of path dependency can explain the research problem and the research questions. The findings prove that Europol is a highly reactive institution in terms of its counter-terrorism arrangements and that historical perceptions play a significant role and inevitable leads the institution onto a path dependent track. 

  • 194.
    Arin, Nils
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Ingenjörpluton: Kung på en sak eller klåpare på tusen?2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay is about the engineer platoon. The engineer platoon has many different tasks and from my own experience sometimes too many. The platoon is able to build bridges, clear mines and to perform all kinds of construction work in rural or in urban terrain.

    In this case study I compare goals/demands for the battalion to goal’s set up for the company and finally what effects this has on the engineer platoons abilities. The main question is, if the engineer platoon really can solve all tasks given to them in the document TOEM? Abilities such as effect, protection and movement are the bearing parts of the case study.

    The materials I have analyzed are mostly from documents published by The Swedish Armed Forces. The most important document is TOEM, where all demands are presented for the Combat-Support engineer battalion 2009. The essay also discusses why different priorities are made and what effects will be the result in the long term. After reading this essay you will come to find out that engineers sometimes have too many tasks to solve.

  • 195.
    Aringer, Martin
    Swedish Defence University.
    Hybridkrigföring, en militärteoretisk revolution?: En granskning av den begreppsteoretiska diskussionen och fallet Rysslands intervention i Ukraina och på Krim2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The previous definitions of war have become outdated and several theories claim their place  in the theoretical debate of the future wars. One of them, Hybrid Warfare have had a great impact   and are now being incorporated into doctrine by several nations and military organizations, even though the theory is criticized. This thesis aims to clarify the discussion surrounding this theory and at the same time make a contribution to the theoretical debate. By extracting key signatures of Hybrid Warfare and testing them on the Russian intervention in the Ukraine and the Crimea the thesis seeks to answer if this conflict really is a case of Hybrid Warfare, as it is portrayed.  The theoretical debate is the main focus of the thesis and the case study of the Ukraine concludes     that evidence within the conflict categorizes it as a case of Hoffman´s Hybrid Warfare. The later chapters argue that these findings strengthen the debate in favour of Hoffman´s theory and ads another empirical factor to the discussion of the understanding of future conflict. Ended by thoughts of how the results can affect the future of the military profession. 

  • 196.
    Arnell, Krister
    Swedish National Defence College.
    NBF: en självsynkroniserande myt eller ett organiserat paradis?2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During my career in the Royal Swedish Air Force I have served in several different positions,amongst them I can mention the ones as weapons controller and fighter allocater.During the recent years, I have through the reading of different books and discussionswith my colleagues, encountered the opinion that self-synchronised organisationswould be the ultimate goal when organising Network Centric Warfare. My own experiencewas that this was the last option used after everything else had failed. In Swedishlitterateur regarding Network Centric Warfare, you can see the expression of a will to beable to change command philosophy from centralised command to a decentralised anddelegated (Auftragstaktik) command. In this essay I have examined the effectiveness oftwo different organisations, the first one more like a classic hierarchic organisationcomplemented with rules regarding responsibilities for each participant. The participantsin the second organisation only got a role and then had to fulfil this role drawingon their previous experience from working in the Air Force. The participants were allAir Force officers and each one of them could only participate in one of the organisations.The organisations were then tasked to carry out counter air operations in a simulator.Their only mission during the simulations was to protect the city of Stockholm. Inthe simulation the participants met a pre-recorded adversary, for the elimination of atarget the organisations were awarded points. The target heading towards Stockholmearned each organisation more points then other targets. The accumulated points thengave a rating for their effectiveness. The result was then analysed with the help of theoriesregarding what is needed for organisational success and theories regarding networkorganisations. The conclusions clearly state that the organisation with the rules achieveda better result, especially when the technical conditions degenerated. This organisationeven succeeded to improve their result with degraded technical conditions, the otherorganisation got a lower result during the same circumstances. One of the main reasonsthe organisation who had to rely on their previous experience from the Air Force nevergot up to the same standard as the other organisation, was due to the fact that they hadto spend more time to get them selves organised. Furthermore my examination showsthat networks are very complex and hard to overlook for an individual person. Thisleads to problems when you want to communicate in the network and also severe problemswhen it comes to optimizing the efficiency of the network.

  • 197.
    Arnesen, Joakim
    Swedish Defence University.
    Specialoperationer & McRavens principer: en teoriprövande tvåfallstudie på Operation Neptune’s Spear & Operation Gothic Serpent.2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A conventional army is required to meet many needs and face many threats. However, when conventional warfare methods do not make the cut, Special Operations and Special Forces become a necessity. However, there exists few theories that sufficiently explain how Special Forces units around the world accomplishes these Special Operations. One of the few researches who has developed a theory regarding Special Operations is William H. McRaven with his theory of relative superiority

     

    McRaven´s theory proposes that there are six principles which determine the success of a Special Forces unit´s ability to plan, prepare and execute a Special Operation. The aim of the study is to understand McRaven´s theory´s explanatory power in explaining the results of Operation Neptune Spear and Operation Gothic Serpent.

     

    This study concludes that Operation Neptune spear attained almost all of the required principles. However, Operation Gothic serpent lacked half of the required principles. In order to create a favourable relation, one must create synergy between the principles in order to achieve relative superiority. The study concludes by illustrating that McRaven´s theory´s explanatory power increased.

  • 198.
    Arnesson, Emanuel
    Swedish Defence University.
    Kraftsamling vid ubåtsattacker: En teoriprövande fallstudie på ubåtsattacker under andra världskriget2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many theorists have discussed the question of the fundamental principles of warfare. But the importance of the principle of concentration of force for warfare is controversial and the theories about the principle are too general to say something about the reality. So what is required to achieve success with a concentration of force?

    In order to answer this question, this essay deals with the basic principle of warfare on the concentration of force from recognized theorist, Carl von Clausewitz, Sir B.H. Liddell Hart, John M. Collins and Milan Vego, in the context of submarine attacks. The study has a deductible theoretical research effort and the purpose is to identify and describe which variables that contribute to success in implementing a concentration of force and how they affect submarine attacks.

    To create a coherent image of the principle, the principle is measurable by identifying variables to achieve success with concentration of force. From the theories, the author identifies five variables: aggregate strength, spread, opponent knowledge, mobility and misleading. To investigate the principle, the variables are tested against two submarine attacks during World War II, which are known to be cases where the concentration of force was used.

    The result shows that during the two attacks only two variables, combined strength and spread were identified. During the attack on the HX 229/SC 122 convoys, which from the attacking party are considered a successful concentration of force, all variables were identified. However, the attack on the SC 130 convoy was considered as a failed concentration of force, since only two variables were identified. 

  • 199.
    Arneving, Joakim
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Utan samband ingen seger: sambandsmedel för Jägar- och spaningsförband2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 200.
    Aronsson, Patrik
    Swedish National Defence College.
    EU:s och Sveriges säkerhetsstrategier: studier av EU-ledda svenska insatser i Afrika 2006-20092009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay examines how The EU Security Strategy affected the objectives of Swedish foreign politics before launching military operations in The Democratic Republic of Congo 2006, Chad/Central African Republic 2008 and in Somalia 2009. The intentions and goals of foreign politics determine Governmental bills and the objectives for the military operations that are sent overseas. These objectives are to serve as guidelines for the realization of the operations.

    This was the basis of the overall problem for my study which asks: How have security policies based on EU reasoning of Security Strategies affected the Swedish national motives for military operations commanded by the EU in Africa 2006-2009? Can they be identified and explained in the Governmental bills from the same era?

    The document, A secure Europe in a better world ­ European Security Strategy, (2003) is used in the case study to identify the objectives and to compare how these have been implemented in the Swedish governmental bills before the initiation of the EU commanded military operations. This was achieved by using qualitative text analysis and a deductive method to analyse foreign policies with an analysis tool, divided into security, welfare of the state and ideological objectives.

    The outcome of the study identified that the motives for the Governmental bills were permeated by EU’s overall objectives. In the Governmental bills, it was identified that there was generally a lack of the sharpness that the EU policy stands for, regarding being active, preventive and resolute. In order to achieve more effectiveness in the welfare of the state objectives, the EU considers this objective ought to be integrated into all resources as well as into civil and military integration. Additionally, this integration was not emphasized in explicit terms in the examined bills. The main and most prioritised outcome was to consider Human Rights, which resulted in high ranking publicity for the EU and Sweden in the outcome of the operations, both regionally and strategically.

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