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  • 1401.
    Vedung, Evert
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Hansén, Dan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section, Sektionen för krishantering och internationell samverkan.
    Oljekrisen 1973 och Sveriges tvehövdade krispolitik2019In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 121, no 4, p. 647-679Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How do governments cope with lurking crises that call for behavioral change among a wider citizenry? The global warming threat is a topical case in point. In this article, we explore the Swedish government response to the 1973 oil crisis, from which we draw lessons. In terms of policy instruments, Swedish policymakers deployed a twopronged, strategy. The government simultaneously initiated a package of quick/ soft as well as slow/hard instruments in the hope that the first package with information campaigns would be successful enough to make the second package with formal rationings redundant. The substantive goal was that the Swedes must save in homes, offices, and premises so that the large exporting industry should get the oil it needed to continue with full employment. The strategy worked. All pertinent actors, households as well as foreign oil concerns, heeded government persuasion efforts (sermons, a negotiated agreement) and took measures voluntarily. Why? One explanatory factor is the creative organization of the national crisis authorities. To a large extent, the strategy was implemented by organs stacked with a mixture of public agencies, private oil distributors and all kinds of organized non-governmental energy-use stakeholders to promote outreach, transversal co-creation, and collaborative governance. The government succeeded in its meaning-making efforts and created a strong narrative (sermon), which clearly pointed out the serious anticipated effects of the crisis in Sweden, according to which it became obvious that households and commerce needed to save energy in order to secure oil supply for industry to protect jobs and impede mass unemployment.

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  • 1402.
    Vlassenroot, Koen
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    Sandrine, Perrot
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    Informal political structures, resources and the Ugandan army in the Democratic Republic of Congo2009Report (Other academic)
  • 1403.
    Waaler, Gudmund
    et al.
    Royal Norwegian Naval Academy, The Norwegian Defence Univeristy College, Norway.
    Berntsen, Tor Arne S.
    Norwegian Command and Staff College, Norwegian Defence University College, Norway.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Avstand og nærhet som militæretisk utfordring2018In: Necesse, ISSN 2464-353X, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 95-103Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1404.
    Waaler, Gudmund
    et al.
    Sjøforsvaret, Norge.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Voldsbruk og livsfare: Norske og svenske soldaters krigserfaringer fra Afghanistan2019 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [no]

    Voldsbruk og livsfare dokumenterer norske og svenske soldaters krigserfaringer fra Afghanistan. Basert på grundige intervjuer med soldatene, tegnes et levende bilde av hvordan dramatiske krigserfaringer påvirker soldathverdagen og hvordan erfaringene fortolkes og bearbeides i etterkant – både individuelt og kollektivt.Intervjuene med soldatene tolkes gjennomgående i lys av internasjonal faglitteratur og pågående fagdebatter. Boken drøfter blant annet spørsmål knyttet til forberedelser før avreise, stressmestring, moralske dilemmaer, motivasjon, sorgreaksjoner, profesjonsidentitet og profesjonalisering av soldatrollen. Boken inneholder i tillegg en grundig drøfting av reaksjonsmønstre knyttet til å ta liv i kamp.Voldsbruk og livsfare vil særlig ha interesse for studenter og forskere innenfor de militære utdanningene, men er også skrevet for alle med interesse for Forsvaret og Norges rolle i internasjonale, militære konflikter.

  • 1405.
    Waaler, Gudmund
    et al.
    Sjøforsvarsstaben/Sjøkrigsskolen, Norge.
    Monsen, Rolf Eivind
    Sjøkrigsskolen, Norge.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Leadership Division, Karlstad.
    Å ta liv i kamp: En operativ, moralsk og psykologisk utfordring2018In: Necesse, ISSN 2464-353X, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 10-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [no]

    I denne studien kartlegger vi hvordan det oppleves å ta liv i kamp. I forlengelse av det drøfter vi hva som skal til for å bli i stand til å drepe i skarpe operasjoner. Studien viser at soldater ikke opplever moralsk stress når de tar liv i situasjoner der de selv er truet. Våre funn peker i retning av at det er naturlig for mennesker å ta liv når situasjonen tilsier at det er helt nødvendig for å overleve samtidig som den sosiale rammen anerkjenner handlingen. Trening som vektlegger at soldater utsettes for sterkt gruppepress og rollemodeller med sterk autoritet, er ikke nødvendig for å sette soldater i stand til å drepe. Våre funn viser at soldater som har tatt liv i situasjoner der de har vært i livsfare, ofte opplever mestring og personlig vekst (PTG) etter hendelsen. I studien referer vi til et kvalitativt forskningsprosjekt der vi har intervjuet 28 soldater.1 Vi referer også til et kvantitativt materiale der 82 soldater deltok. I denne studien drøfter vi våre funn i relasjon til ulike teoretiske modeller som forsøker å svare på vår problemstilling.

    1Resultater fra denne undersøkelsen vil bli presentert i sin fulle bredde i bokform i 2018.

  • 1406.
    Waaler, Gudmund
    et al.
    Sjøforsvaret, Norge.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Å ta liv: Erfaringer fra Afghanistan2017In: Michael, ISSN 1504-0658, Vol. 14, p. 54-59Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1407. Waaler, Gudmund
    et al.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Espevik, Roar
    Ars vitam tollendi: kunsten å slå i hjel2013In: Pacem : militært tidsskrift for etisk og teologisk refleksjon, ISSN 1500-2322, E-ISSN 1503-2116, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 5-26Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1408.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Beyond the RtoP: Responsibility as Doing, Being and Sharing2015In: International Politics Reviews, ISSN 2050-2982, E-ISSN 2046-9292, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 50-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review article exposes that the scholarly interest in the notion of ‘responsibility’ in the field of security studies goes far beyond the ‘Responsibility to Protect’ and the debate on emerging ‘responsible stakeholders’ in Asia. It is argued that the significant scholarly attention to ‘responsibility’ reflects political concerns with transnational threats and humanitarian issues, but it also mirrors a quest for status and power in a post-hegemonic security milieu as well as a need to distribute responsibilities among powers in an effective way. The article reviews approximately 160 peer-reviewed articles to expose strengths and weaknesses in the scholarly production of knowledge on responsibility in the field of security studies. The article suggests a new way to categorize works on responsibility in terms of ‘doing’, ‘being’ or ‘sharing’; focusing on one or several of these three aspects is an effective way to capture key contemporary problems in international security.

  • 1409.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Divided power Europe: normative divergences among the EU 'big three'2010In: Journal of European Public Policy, ISSN 1350-1763, E-ISSN 1466-4429, Vol. 17, no 8, p. 1089-1105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article challenges Ian Manners's 'Normative Power Europe' thesis by arguing that although the European Union (EU) promotes norms in the international arena, it is not different from other powers. Drawing on a large set of empirical data and making use of a new institutionalist framework, it discerns how major European powers - Russia, France, Germany, Britain and the EU - have worked to gain acceptance for their individual favoured normative yardstick in the realm of security. The article concludes that as a consequence of diverging logics of appropriateness in Europe, the EU should rather be regarded as a divided than as a strong normative power. As long as both the EU and its major member states hold strong individual normative ambitions, the Union risks becoming hampered from acting rapidly and concertedly in international crises.

  • 1410.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Europa - ta ditt ansvar!2016In: EU och de nya säkerhetshoten / [ed] Antonina Bakardjieva Engelbrekt, Anna Michalski & Lars Oxelheim, Stockholm: Santérus Förlag, 2016, p. 251-279Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 1411.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Europe: take on your responsibilities2018In: The European Union: Facing the Challenge of Multiple Security Threats / [ed] Bakardjieva Engelbrekt, Antonina; Michalski, Anne; Nilsson, Niklas; Oxelheim, Lars, Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2018, p. 212-234Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 1412.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    NATO’s role in the Strategic Concept Debate: Watchdog, fire-fighter, neighbour or seminar leader?2011In: Cooperation and Conflict, ISSN 0010-8367, E-ISSN 1460-3691, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 482-501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article argues that traditional Westphalian powers are increasingly pressured to move beyond Westphalia, towards institutionalization of security co-operation and a broader definition of referent-objects of security. Focusing on the case of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), it notes that the Alliance is severely torn between traditional constructions of ‘the self’ and a need for change. Exploring how NATO handles this dilemma, the article examines how the Alliance articulated its constitutive story during the Strategic concept process of 2009-2010. Four roles crystallised from the reading of the narrative: the fire-fighter, the watchdog, the good neighbour and the seminar leader. It is argued that NATO will be able to meet the exigencies of the post-Westphalian world more or less effectively depending on how it develops in each of these roles. The article concludes that NATO largely remains Westphalian in its four roles, but the launching of the seminar leader role indicates that it may be preparing a farewell toWestphalia. NATO is a composite actor and tensions between academic, global reformist and traditionalist regional story-lines will prevail. Nevertheless, the globalised threat environment is likely to eventually force NATO to fully recognise the need for a more post-Westphalian approach to security.

  • 1413.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Security in a Greater Europe : The Possibility of a Pan-European Approach2008Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Can Russia, the European Union and the three major EU member states adopt a unified policy line in the global arena? Charlotte Wagnsson investigates the cohesiveness of ‘greater Europe’ through the detailed scrutiny of policy statements by the leadership elites in the UK, France, Germany, Russia and the EU in connection with three defining events in international security: the crisis in Kosovo of 1999; the terrorist attacks of 9/11 and the Iraq crisis of 2003. This extensive empirical enquiry results in a critical constructivist response to neorealist understandings of European security. 

    The book contrasts the EU’s new way of ‘doing security’ with the established, competitive bilateral interplay in the European security sphere and provides a clue to the kind of security politics that will prevail in Europe. A joint Moscow Brussels approach would improve the chances of both increasing their relative strength vis-à-vis the USA, but serious cleavages threaten to undermine such a ‘greater European’ common view on security. Wagnsson considers the extent to which the major European players pursue similar objectives, and assesses the possible implications for and the chances of greater Europe emerging as a cohesive global actor. This meticulously researched book will interest scholars and students with an interest in international security, the EU’s international role, European international relations and Russian security.  

  • 1414.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section, Sektionen för säkerhet.
    Barzanje, Costan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section, Sektionen för krishantering och internationell samverkan.
    A framework for analysing antagonistic narrative strategies: A Russian tale of Swedish decline2019In: Media, War & Conflict, ISSN 1750-6352, E-ISSN 1750-6360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New information technologies and media consumption patterns have enabled aggressive practices that are qualitatively different from old-style propaganda. Actors no longer rely on secrecy, but can openly make use of social media and media outlets in foreign languages to destabilize other states and societies from within. Strategic narratives have become a key means in this endeavour. To expose the discursive (harmful) capacity of strategic narratives, the article suggests detailed analysis based on a narrative ontology. The analytical framework is applied in an exploratory case study of the Russian state-sponsored broadcasting company Sputnik’s strategic narrative about Sweden from 2014 to 2018. In addition to unmasking Sputnik’s strategic narrative, the article fills a gap in previous research in particular by exposing three antagonistic narrative strategies labelled ‘suppression’, ‘destruction’ and ‘direction’. These strategies reflect general driving forces in the security sphere and can inspire and structure future research into antagonistic strategic narration.

  • 1415.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Hallenberg, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Conclusion: farewell Westphalia?: the prospects of EU security governance2009In: European Security Governance: the European Union in a Westphalian World / [ed] Charlotte Wagnsson, James A. Sperling, Jan Hallenberg, Routledge, 2009, p. 127-140Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 1416.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section, Sektionen för säkerhetspolitik och strategi.
    Hellman, Maria
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Normative Power Europe Caving In?: EU under Pressure of Russian Information Warfare2018In: Journal of Common Market Studies, ISSN 0021-9886, E-ISSN 1468-5965, Vol. 56, no 5, p. 1161-1177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scholars have characterized the EU as a normative power whose greatest asset is to be able to shape conceptions of what is ‘normal’ in international affairs. Scholars have argued that a normative power has to meet certain discursive standards; representing others in a non‐antagonistic, humble way. We question whether the EU can live up to this ideal when defending itself against Russian strategic communication. The empirical enquiry establishes that while the EU High Commissioner communicates in line with the stipulated standards, the newly established East Stratcom Taskforce and its publication ‘Disinformation Digest’ diverges from this ideal. The establishment of the Taskforce has led to the EU losing reflexivity and normative power. The article concludes that while Diez’ and Manners’ standards are utopian in the contemporary communicative climate, they remain useful as guiding rules that can help normative powers ‘watch their language’ and avoid doing unnecessary harm.

  • 1417.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Holmberg, Arita
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Conflict Management2014In: Handbook of Governance and Security / [ed] James Sperling, Northampton: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2014, p. 324-342Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 1418.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Political Science Section.
    Holmberg, Arita
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Political Science Section.
    Hellman, Maria
    Stockholms Universitet, Institutionen för Journalistik, Medier och Kommunikation.
    The Centrality of Non-traditional Groups for Security in the Globalized Era: The Case of Children2010In: International Political Sociology, ISSN 1749-5679, E-ISSN 1749-5687, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The globalized security situation characterized by transnational threats and international interventionism in ‘‘new wars,’’ connect non traditional local actors and traditional global actors to one another in unprecedented ways. We argue that children in particular need to be highlighted because they are highly pertinent to the globalized security situation, yet they make up one of the few agents that have remained non-politicized in the eyes of the scholarly community. The article suggests a framework of analysis that can generate analyses on security of traditional as well as non-traditional agents. Placing non-traditional groups in the center of attention serves to mirror the complexities of the current security situation better.

  • 1419.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Political Science Section.
    Sperling, JamesUniversity of Akron, Ohio, USA.Hallenberg, JanSwedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Political Science Section.
    European Security Governance: The European Union in a Westphalian World2009Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book focuses on problems of, and prospects for, strengthening the global system of security governance in a manner consistent with the aspirations and practices of the EU. The Eu approach to security governance has been successful in its immediate neighbourhood: it has successfully exported its preferred norms and principles to applicant countries, thereby 'pacifying' its immediate neighbourhood and making all of Europe more secure. This edited volume addresses both the practical and political aspects of security governance and the barriers to the globalization of the EU system of security governance, particularly in teh multipolar post-Cold War era. This book will be of great interest to students of security governance, EU politics, European Security and IR in general.

  • 1420.
    Wallenius, Claes
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Att lära sig stresshantering vid tillämpade övningar: Ett utbildningskoncept2014Report (Other academic)
  • 1421.
    Wallenius, Claes
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Beslut under osäkerhet2017In: Rustad för risk: Riskpsykologi för militärer och insatsorganisationer / [ed] Ann Enander och Marcus Börjesson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, p. 163-178Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1422.
    Wallenius, Claes
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Human adaptation to danger2001Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of the thesis was to increase knowledge concerning how people adapt psychologically when faced with a real dan­ger incident, and what implications these reactions and adaptation mecha­nisms have upon immediate performance.

    The thesis is based on three empirical studies concerning people with per­sonal experience of dangerous incidents. Swedish peacekeeping person­nel who were involved in shooting incidents or other highly threatening events participated in two of these studies. Swedish citizens who were living in Kobe, Japan, during the earthquake of 1995 partici­pated in the third study. Retrospective self-reports included both qualitative and quantitative approaches. More specifically, the research questions focused on the subjec­tive descriptions of personal reactions and performance during dan­gerous situations, the frequency of various reac­tions, and the individual and situ­ational factors that influence reactions and functioning.

    On a general level, all groups seem to have performed well during the dangerous encounters they experienced. Severely dysfunctional reactions were rare, but general feelings of invulnerability were commonly reported. During these threatening situations, a partial loss of emotional balance and cognitive functioning was also common. Different individual and situ­a­tional factors appeared to interact with reactions and performance. Factors that were associated with lower performance included whether the danger incident implied a loss of control or if it demanded complex cogni­tive activity.

    A fourth and purely theoretical study addressed how assumptions from Darwian, Freudian, and cognitive psychology are supported by empirical disaster research in explaining why people occasionally fail to adapt when danger is present. It was suggested that the different theories could be integrated into a model, in which adapta­tion mechanisms on different psychological levels could be included; from processes that are con­sciously controlled to automatic processes.

  • 1423.
    Wallenius, Claes
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Människans illusoriska rationalitet: om kampen mellan känsla och förnuft i samhälle och politik2014Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Are humans rational? Do we generally choose the alternative with the best balance between costs and benefits when making decisions? Or are we to a large extent guided by our emotions and impulses? This book argues that it can be both ways. The latter may, however, be more frequently the case than we ourselves want to believe. Our emotions - and our way of coping with them - are important explanations for decisions that do not have the results that were anticipated, as well as to enemy images, violence and evil.

    It may be reasonable to use gut instinct in everyday decisions that affect only one self and has no dramatic consequences. But the focus in this book is primarily in different contexts in which decisions may have - or may be expected to have - large effects. The first part addresses the question if we are rational in relation to different types of threats - from risks in the community to life-threatening situations and war. The second part analyzes whether political decision makers and various political movements are rational – ranging from the average local politicians to more extreme and violent movements.The book also includesa theoretical part, with a discussion about how our lack of rationality can be explained and understood.

  • 1424.
    Wallenius, Claes
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Why do people sometimes fail when adapting to danger?: A theoretical discussion from a psychological perspective.2001In: International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, ISSN 0280-7270, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 145-180Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During life-threatening danger people may react in ways that decrease their chances of surviving or coping with the event. Several empirically demon­strated reactions have a potentially maladaptive effect on per­formance, due to limitations in our cognitive and emotional processing capacity or the activation of obsolete adaptation mechanisms. The possible psychological explanations for this are discussed in terms of assumptions derived from three major psychological paradigms: Darwian, Freudian, and cognitive psychology. These theoretical models all illustrate useful concepts and assumptions, which do not logically exclude one another, necessary to understand more thoroughly how psychological adaptation occurs in danger situations. However, no theory alone explains the empiri­cal find­ings and the various theories should be integrated into a model that includes different levels of psychological function, from consciously controlled processes to emotional and automatic process.

  • 1425.
    Wallenius, Claes
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Alvinius, Aida
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Decision-making in a military staff context: A qualitative study on norms, challenges and difficulties2019In: Res Militaris, E-ISSN 2265-6294Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1426.
    Wallenius, Claes
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Berglund, Anna Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Brandow, Carina
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Den politiska nivåns syn på försvarets folkförankring: En intervjustudie med försvarspolitiker och deras tjänstemän2014Report (Other academic)
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 1427.
    Wallenius, Claes
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Brandow, Carina
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    How (Not) to Implement an Unpopular Decision: A Case-Study of the Swedish Armed Forces2017In: Res Militaris, E-ISSN 2265-6294, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the armed forces' ability to implement an unpopular decision while maintaining commitment and job satisfaction among its personnel, as well as examine what factors affect the perceived outcome of a decision process in a military context. In line with earlier research, it was hypothesized that a fair process, knowledge (about the circumstances and objectives of the decision) and trust (in the decision-makers) will promote decision acceptance. An additional hypothesis was that a higher hierarchal position will promote understanding of the decision. A specific decision process was chosen - that which led to the 2010 choice to make service on international military missions mandatory for all personnel in the Swedish Armed Forces. An ad hoc questionnaire was constructed with the intention to measure the perception of the decision's input values, the decision process, the organization and decision-makers, as well as of the outcome. The questionnaire response rate was 48% (N = 229 respondents). The respondents were (predominantly middle-aged, mid-career, male) Swedish military officers and civilian employees. Knowledge about the decision, its perceived timing, and trust in the decision makers - but not the respondents' hierarchical position - significantly contributed to the outcome : its degree of acceptance. The study shows much dissatisfaction with the decision and its implications, but also a lack of knowledge about the decision-making process involved.

  • 1428.
    Wallenius, Claes
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Brandow, Carina
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Berglund, Anna Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    To Maintain the Armed Forces' Anchoring in Society in the Post-conscription Era2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1429.
    Wallenius, Claes
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Brandow, Carina
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Berglund, Anna Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Hede, Susanne
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Befolkningens syn på försvarets folkförankring: En enkätstudie på ett befolkningsurval2015Report (Other academic)
  • 1430.
    Wallenius, Claes
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Brandow, Carina
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Berglund, Anna Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Jonsson, Emma
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Anchoring Sweden’s Post-conscript Military: Insights From Elites in the Political and Military Realm2019In: Armed forces and society, ISSN 0095-327X, E-ISSN 1556-0848, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 452-471Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The universal nature of conscription ties or anchors broad segments of society to the military. What happens to societal anchoring after the draft ends? Using in-depth interviews with two groups of elites, this article explores factors that promote and hinder the Swedish Military’s societal anchoring post-conscription. The first group consisted of 18 executives at the Swedish Armed Forces (SAF) headquarters with strategic positions in relation to societal anchoring. The second group consisted of 15 representatives from the corresponding political level: members of the parliamentary Committee on Defense and their officials. The interviews were semistructured and analyzed according to a grounded theory-inspired approach. Main themes concerning obstacles were the public’s low interest and dated knowledge, an unclear political debate resulting in vague expectations concerning the SAF, as well as unclear responsibility for informing the public, and confidence gaps between the military and the political elite.

  • 1431.
    Wallenius, Claes
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Brandow, Carina
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Jonsson, Emma
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Sohlberg, Jennifer
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Österberg, Johan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Militära professionen: Delområde: "Personalförsörjning - Rekrytering och urval" - Syntes2013Report (Other academic)
  • 1432.
    Wallenius, Claes
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Bäccman, Charlotte
    Karlstad universitet.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Examining the impact of personality and situational factors on decision making among military staffs2014In: Journal of Military Studies, ISSN 1799-3350, Vol. 5, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Military staff performance may be inferior due to several reasons. The purpose of the present survey was to study the impact of stress reactions, personality factors, situation awareness, and maladaptive group dynamics on the quality of the decision-making in Swedish high-level military staffs. Participants were mainly captains and majors, but also lieutenant colonels and colonels took part (n = 256, 61 % response rate). A mainly self-made questionnaire was administered in two staff exercises. Maladaptive group dynamics, stress exposure, lack of situation awareness, and negative stress reactions were the strongest predictors of poor staff performance, while personality had less impact.

  • 1433.
    Wallenius, Claes
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Delområde: "Personalförsörjning - Rekrytering och urval": Syntes2012Report (Other academic)
  • 1434.
    Wallenius, Claes
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Mattsson, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för operationskonst (KV Opkonst).
    Hyllengren, Peder
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Brandow, Carina
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Psychological Operations: What Makes them Work?2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1435.
    Wallenius, Claes
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    A Lack of Effect Studies and of Effects: The Use of Strategic Communication in the Military Domain2019In: International Journal of Strategic Communication, ISSN 1553-118X, E-ISSN 1553-1198, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 404-417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychological operations (PSYOP) implies a purposeful use of communication by a government or military organization to fulfill its mission and is one understanding of strategic communication. The present study focuses on PSYOP effects. The few studies available on this area indicate that the effects of PSYOP generally tend to be on a minor scale, while PSYOP may have a stronger impact in specific contexts. We discuss possible explanations and suggest that a number of psychological factors inhibit PSYOP success. One major example is that of human cognitive conservatism. Other psychological mechanisms, mostly emotional ones, may promote PSYOP, for example, strong identification with one’s own (national, ethnic or religious) group, a sense of threat to the resources, status and/or survival of own group, a perception of hostility from other groups, and the experience that another group has devalued or offended the in-group.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 1436.
    Watts, John
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Ledberg, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Engelbrekt, Kjell
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Brothers in Arms, Yet Again?: Twenty-first Century Sino-Russian Strategic Collaboration in the Realm of Defence and Security2016In: Defence Studies, ISSN 1470-2436, E-ISSN 1743-9698, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 427-449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    2014-2015 were years of turmoil for strategic relations, with Sino-Russian relations emerging as a particularly interesting set of ties to observe. This article asks whether recurrent Sino-Russian exhortations of friendship are mirrored by their strategic alignment in the defence and security realm, half a century after the end of the Sino-Soviet pact during the communist era. We examine the arms trade between the two countries and with regional partners, but also the recent pattern of bilateral and multilateral military exercises, as a combined test of the security and defence relationship.  We are able to show that the image of friendship that both Moscow and Beijing like to promote, while apparent at the UN Security Council and within the BRICS group, remains constrained by rivalry in high-tech segments of the arms industry and by lingering concerns about the prospects of peer interference in their shared regional vicinity.

  • 1437. Weatherby, Pete
    et al.
    Longworth, Sally
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), International Law Centre.
    The Bahrain Independent Commission of Inquiry: As One Season Ends, Does Another Begin?2010In: Yearbook on Islamic and Middle Eastern Law, Vol. 16, p. 91-109Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 1438.
    Weber, Megan
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet.
    Österberg, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    A Principal Component Analysis of Swedish Conscripts’ Values and Attitudes towards their Military Education2015In: Res Militaris, E-ISSN 2265-6294, ISSN 2265-6294, Vol. 5, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By identifying components relevant to conscripts' success in and positive attitudes towards the military, we may be able to make it a more attractive employment option for current and future age-cohorts, thus solving the recruitment crisis not only in Sweden, but in several other European countries that have recently made the shift from conscription to an all-volunteer force. Precisely, this study aims to identify and examine conscripts' values and attitudes towards their mandatory tour of duty. The objective of this study is to analyze the components important to Swedish conscripts in order to determine what components should be included or emphasized in future military education programmes. Data were collected from 55,239 conscripts between 2002 and 2010 (when conscription was suspended in Sweden), using an anonymous course evaluation questionnaire. Data from 2002-2005 were combined and used as a baseline to compare against data from later years. Principal component analysis was conducted and resulted in 3 components being extracted for each year (except 2008, a year for which only 2 components were extracted). Those components were individual development, group cohesion, and competence/ state of readiness. The study's most important conclusion was that conscripts' attitudes and values were in line with those of younger generations and that a focus on these values may lead to the development of more attractive educational and career opportunities for today's youth.

  • 1439.
    Wedin, Lars
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    De europeiska försvarsfrågorna och det svenska ordförandeskapet i EU2009In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 3, p. 50-59Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1440.
    Wedin, Lars
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    Défense en Europe: La Suède vers un nouveau Livre Blanc2011In: Revue Défense Nationale, ISSN 2105-7508, Vol. Avril, no 739, p. 122-124Article in journal (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 1441.
    Wedin, Lars
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    FB 2015: ett beslut under osäkerhet2012In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 3, p. 108-121Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den kommande försvarsbeslutsperioden kommer att karaktäriseras av stor osäkerhet och geopolitiska omvälvningar. Ett antal risker har identifierats i denna artikel som exempelvis kärnvapenspridning, terrorism, energisäkerhet, hot mot de vitala sjöförbindelserna och en ökande konkurrens om allt mindre resurser som ska räcka till allt fler.

    I Asien och Ryssland pågår en militär upprustning samtidigt som Europa rustar ned. Europa är visserligen fortfarande – för hur länge? – en ekonomisk jätte men blir alltmer en militär dvärg. Än värre är den politiska splittringen som omöjliggör en verklig gemensam försvars- och säkerhetspolitik.

    Men också för Nato ser framtiden riskabel ut. Den europeiska nedrustningen drabbar Nato likaväl som EU. Det är knappast troligt att USA i längden kommer att vara intresserat av att betala för det försvar, som européerna inte anser sig ha råd med. Dessutom har USA nu andra prioriteringar – främst Asien och Stilla havet.

    Havet blir bara viktigare. De maritima transporterna är av vital betydelse för världsekonomin och därmed för vår egen levnadsstandard. I takt med att reserverna av råvaror utarmas på land ökar betydelsen av reserverna i havet och därmed konkurrensen om dem. Ny teknik gör dessa allt tillgängligare. Men havet är också en miljö som utnyttjas av illegal verksamhet: terrorism, pirater, illegalt fiske och annan organiserad brottslighet. Det är därför av största betydelse för hela världen, och då inte minst för Europa inklusive Sverige, att den globala maritima verksamheten präglas av god ordning: säkerhet i ordets alla bemärkelser, efterlevnad av havsrättskonventionen och annan internationell lagstiftning, miljöskydd med mera.

    Vilka slutsatser kan då dras inför det kommande försvarsbeslutet?

    För det första något som borde vara en självklarhet: försvaret får inte vara en budgetregulator, försvaret är inget särintresse utan själva grunden för vår välfärd och försvaret är hela folkets angelägenhet.

    Det största hotet mot försvaret, och därigenom vår säkerhet, är okunskap och ointresse. Här har regeringen och då särskilt statsministern och försvarsministern ett stort ansvar. En viktig pedagogisk uppgift är att få allmänheten att förstå kopplingen mellan transnationella hot och personlig säkerhet. Sverige är ingen isolerad ö utan beroende av vad som händer i världen.

    Den svenska strategin måste vara öppen för nya, mer eller mindre oförutsedda händelseförlopp. Uthållighet, redundans och anpassningsförmåga bör därför vara tre ledord i det kommande försvarsbeslutet.

    Ett nytt försvarsbeslut måste ta ett brett grepp om säkerheten. Framtida regeringar kan komma att behöva hantera mycket svåra situationer som ett krig med kärnvapen i Mellersta östern eller en konflikt mellan Kina och USA. Kampen mot terrorism och organiserad brottslighet kommer bara att bli viktigare.

    Europeisk splittring och svaghet är farligt för ett litet utlandsberoende land som Sverige. En aktiv europapolitik – också inom området försvar och säkerhet – är därför nödvändig. Det är möjligt att ett nytt försvarssamarbete börjar utvecklas med Frankrike och Storbritannien som kärna. I så fall måste Sverige försöka kvalificera sig för deltagande, vilket torde kräva en väsentlig ambitionsökning. Alternativet är marginalisering.

    Den militära nedrustningen måste vändas. Alla försvarsgrenar har stora behov även om ett nytt JAS knappast kan vara prioriterat i någon trolig försvarsekonomi. Sverige måste återta sin rang i Europa när det gäller forskning och utveckling inom försvarsområdet.

    Solidaritetsförklaringen kan inte göras ogjord och måste därför utgöra en grund för materielanskaffning, planering och övningar. Men hänsyn måste tas till Natos och EU:s svaghet och att vi inte räkna med att få någon mer omfattande hjälp.

    Prioriteringar blir givetvis nödvändiga. Givet havets allt större betydelse är det ganska självklart att det är Sjöförsvaret – marinen och kustbevakningen – som ska prioriteras. Sjöförsvaret måste kunna ansvara för säkerheten längs vår långa kust i alla väder året om. Göteborgsområdet är särskilt viktigt. Sjöförsvaret måste kunna bidra till säkerheten i övrigt runt den skandinaviska halvön. Det måste också bidra till skyddet av de globala sjöförbindelserna – vårt bidrag kan inte bli stort men det är en viktig markering att vi är beredda att ta vår del av ansvaret. I varje typ av konflikt med Ryssland kommer Sjöförsvaret att behöva vara i första linjen.

  • 1442.
    Wedin, Lars
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    Första världskriget flottan sätts på prov2009In: Kustflottan: de svenska sjöstridskrafterna under 1900-talet / [ed] Gustaf von Hofsten och Frank Rosenius, Stockholm: Kungl. örlogsmannasällskapet , 2009, p. 33-58Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1443.
    Wedin, Lars
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    Gemensam säkerhets- och försvarspolitik – en vision2011In: Vårt Försvar, ISSN 0042-2800, no 2, p. 28-30Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 1444.
    Wedin, Lars
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    Information, propaganda och desinformation2012In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 1, p. 183-184Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 1445.
    Wedin, Lars
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    Introduction2009In: Quatre siècles de coopération militaire franco-suédoise = Svenskt-franskt militärt samarbete under fyra sekler: actes des journées d'études franco-suédoises organisées à Stockholm les 25 et 26 octobre 2005 et à Vincennes les 7 et 8 décembre 2006 = svenskt-franskt seminarium organiserad i Stockholm 25 och 26 oktober 2005 och i Vincennes 7 och 8 december 2006 / [ed] Gunnar Åselius och Valérie Caniart, Paris / Stockholm: Service historique de la Défense / Försvarshögskolan , 2009, p. 7-13Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1446.
    Wedin, Lars
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    Jordbävning i Försvaret: Den franska vitboken, en bred säkerhetsstrategi2009Report (Other academic)
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 1447.
    Wedin, Lars
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum (upphört).
    Kaliningrad, enclave russe dans l'espace de l'Otan2013In: Revue Défense Nationale, ISSN 2105-7508, Vol. Avril, no 759, p. 22-26Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Artikeln diskuterar Kaliningrad ur ett geopolitiskt och strategiskt perspektiv

  • 1448.
    Wedin, Lars
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    Kina - en blivande maritim stormakt2011In: Tidskrift i Sjöväsendet, ISSN 0040-6945, no 3, p. 197-210Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det 21 århundradet är ett maritimt århundrade. Det har de kinsesiska ledarna förstått. Den egna sjöfarten måste skyddas samtidigt som "hotet" från USA måste kunna avvärjas

  • 1449.
    Wedin, Lars
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    La coopération nordique de défense, vers une alliance tacite?2009In: Nordiques, ISSN 1761-7677, no 19, p. 13-29Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 1450.
    Wedin, Lars
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    La féminisation de la force sous-marine suédoise2010In: Revue Défense National, ISSN 2105-7508, Vol. June, no 731, p. 169-170Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [fr]

    La Marine suédoise constate que la féminisation a eu des effets plutôt positifs. En premier lieu, grâce à la perspective tactique élargie que procure la combinaison des aptitudes masculines et féminines. Ensuite, la présence des femmes a contribué à créer une ambiance plus détendue, avec comme résultat observé des équipages mixtes vus commeplus efficaces. La féminisation participe de l’excellence de l’arme sous-marine suédoise.

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