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  • 1401.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, The Military History Division.
    Eellend, Johan
    Södertörns högskola.
    Wawrzeniuk, Piotr
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, The Military History Division.
    Commemorating the Fallen for Friendship and Encouragement: The Commemoration of Fallen Soldiers in the Military Culture in the Baltic Sea Region 1919-19392013In: Baltic Security and Defence Review, ISSN 1736-3772, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 123-143Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 1402.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, The Military History Division. Kungliga Skogs- och lantbruksakademien.
    Eriksson, PerKunglilga Skogs- och lantbruksakademien.
    Perspektiv på lantbrukets organisering: historiografi, begreppshistoria och källor2016Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 1403.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, The Military History Division.
    Ivarsson Westerberg, Anders
    Rivstart för Sverige: Alliansen och maktskiftet 20062013Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 1404.
    Eriksson, Gunilla
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för operationskonst (KV Opkonst).
    Swedish military intelligence: producing knowledge2016Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Builds a revisionary theoretical framework for researching intelligence knowledge and applies it to the Swedish Military and Security Directorate

    Gunilla Eriksson revises our perception of intelligence as carefully collected data and objective truth, arguing that there are hidden aspects to intelligence analysis that need to be uncovered and critically examined. This twofold study investigates the character of intelligence knowledge and the social context in which it is produced, using the Swedish Military and Security Directorate (MUST) as a case study.

    Eriksson argues that there is an implicit framework that continuously influences knowledge production: what kind of data is considered relevant, how this data is interpreted and the specific social and linguistic context of the organisation, surrounded by unarticulated norms and specific procedures. She asks whether these conventions hamper or obstruct intelligence assessments; an essential analysis, given that history has shown us the grave consequences basing policy on intelligence's wrong conclusions.

    Sources include

    • The annual Swedish Armed Forces Strategic Intelligence Estimates from 1998–2010
    • Lengthy and highly valuable interviews with the analysts, including managers, working at MUST, giving insights into everyday life at the institution and leading to many important results
    • Participant observation carried out by the author at MUST working meetings and seminars during the production process of the 2010 estimate, and drawing on her experience from her years working as an active analyst
  • 1405.
    Eriksson, Gunilla
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för operationskonst (KV Opkonst). Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    The intelligence discourse: the Swedish military intelligence (MUST) as a producer of knowledge2013Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Military Intelligence and Security Directorate (MUST) is a producer of knowledge, a knowledge that is fundamental for decisionmaking in foreign and security policy. The intelligence knowledge production is often held as objective, value neutral, and with the intention of ‘speaking truth onto power’. However, this study holds that such a perspective on intelligence knowledge production calls for a revision. Hence, the overall purpose of this study is to examine the characteristics of knowledge in intelligence analysis and also to investigate how that knowledge is affected by the social context of its production, the military intelligence service. The source material is of three kinds; first texts and documents, second interviews with intelligence analysts and managers, and third observations of seminars and meetings during the production process of estimates.

    The results are that there is a strong presence of an implicit interpretive framework that continuously influences and guides the knowledge production and thereby makes the knowledge dependent on one specific perspective contrary to the intentional objectivity within the intelligence service. Further, the study reveals that the social and discursive practices for intelligence knowledge production include a ‘logic of appropriateness’ suggesting the presence of a structured Denkkollektiv with a structuredDenkstil. The actions and choices of the individuals are transformed to create conformity to the norms within the social discursive practices. Thus, the inherited frame of interpretation, as well as the socialised norm of staying within the existing accepted frames ofthinking and acting ends up to the stability and duration of the not always accurate and fruitful Denkstil.

    At the core of political science resides the question of how policy is shaped. Even though this study has focused merely on one organisation in a specific policy field in one country it brings insights to the knowledge and policy nexus.

  • 1406.
    Eriksson, Gunilla
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Operational Functions Section.
    Pettersson, UlricaSwedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies.
    Special Operations from a Small State Perspective: Future Security Challenges2017Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 1407.
    Eriksson, Ivar
    Swedish Defence University.
    Uppror och Irreguljär Krigföring i Efterkolonial Kontext - Rhodesia och Kongo2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The struggle to usurp the reign over nations amongst local africans in the post-colonial era was affecting countries all over the continent. Some times the transfer of power were conducted in the absence of war. In some countries the end of colonialism brought with it bloody conflicts that would battere the stability for a nation in years to come. Some countries fought the colonial empire for independence and other was granted the freedom. Some european settlers hade made their colony their home and a source of income, and though the empire that onces conquer the land no longer had means to rule it, some of its settlers did. Whilst in other cases, tribes native to the once colonized land created unrest due to their lack of believe in the new regim and had a wish for governance over their own lands. Noriyuki Katagiri’s theory on how insurgents win wars against a state is based mainly on studies conducted on conflicts between colonial empires and insurgents. This study aims to examine wether Katagiris theory is applicable in conflicts between previous colonies which gained independence but still is ruled by an unpopular government rather than the local natives. The results of this study will perhaps bring new understandings of the outcome of conflicts by examining the rebellion in the region Katanga in Congo in the early 1960s aswell as the conflict in Rhodesia between 1965 and 1979.

  • 1408.
    Eriksson, Jimmy
    Swedish Defence University.
    En hållbar maritim säkerhet?2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the report is to analyze the abilities that maritime security in thesurroundings of Sweden demands. These needs are then compared to maritimeresources in a finishing discussion.The Swedish government´s foreign policy and policy for the sea, with focus onmaritime security, has been used as a starting point.In this report, the concept “maritime units” is represented by the Swedish coastguard and the Swedish navy. The threats against the maritime security have beenidentified from the goals that the maritime units are working against. Thesethreats have been divided into Geoffrey Till´s five subcategories for maritimesecurity. The concept maritime security is then broken down into ways of actionand means, in this case abilities. The ways of action and the means lead up to thegoal, that is maritime security.The result from the report shows that Sweden as a small country always need tocompromise to optimize the abilities of its maritime units to achieve the goal ofmaritime security. Henceforth is the conclusion that international cooperationplays an important role for Sweden in this context. Finally it is established that theabilities of the maritime units contain flaws and that continuing work ofimprovement and continuing to prioritize is very important to sustain thenecessary and fundamental abilities within the maritime arena.

  • 1409.
    Eriksson, Joakim
    Swedish Defence University.
    Koherens mellan militära strategier: Är det möjligt i en föränderlig säkerhetspolitisk situation?2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     

    In less than 20 years the orientation in Swedish security politics changed drastically from only prioritizing their own national defense to a solidarity proclamation to the neighboring countries. This is due to the constant shifting in the international political environment. These changes also meant a major impact on the lower strategies such as the resource and operational strategy. The resource and operational strategies changes in different time perspectives. The military strategy can be changed with just one government resolution while the resource strategy takes years to change. The purpose of the essay is to examine how the coherence between those two strategies looked when they constantly have to adjust to the changing international political environment.

    The result of the analysis shows that during the current time for each strategy there were in fact sufficiently satisfactory coherence between the resource and the operational strategies. This is due to the very specific international political environment that were during each time period.

  • 1410.
    Eriksson, Johan
    et al.
    Utrikespolitiska institutet.
    Newlove-Eriksson, Lindy
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Rymden: en privat affär?2012In: Internationella Studier, ISSN 0020-952X, no 3, p. 12-14Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1411.
    Eriksson, Kjell
    Swedish Defence University.
    HPM-vapen vs. kommersiell UAV2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper in military technology discusses whether high power microwaves can affect commercial UAVs. Two non-lethal HPM-weapons are analyzed. The data is collected from a scenario where there is a high risk for collateral damage. A Swedish Armed Forces study stated that the Air Defence Battalion lacks ability to affect small UAVs. The latest knowledge is obtained from the environment in the scenario, from research and from the industry. This knowledge has enabled a logical-mathematical parametric study on the scenario within a military perspective. The result of the study is the assessment that commercial UAVs are assessed to have low protection factor, facilitates decision to act in all environments and provides an electronic shield protection of a large surface at the same time. HPM-weapons can´t stand as a single system for protection against commercial UAVs and achieve guaranteed effect. However, HPM-weapons can complement other weapon systems and thus make the air defense stronger through systems of systems. HPM-weapons can reduce the capability deficiency against commercial UAVs.

  • 1412.
    Eriksson, Kjell
    Swedish Defence University.
    Nu har den första drönarsvärmen anfallit - betyder det något?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the civil war in Syria numerous weak groups fought the Russian-supported regime. In January 2018 a Russian air base and port in Syria were attacked. It was the first time that swarms of small cheap drones carried out long-range and concentrated precision attacks. An exploratory case study uses theories of change and surprise to detect patterns from the event. The purpose was to see if this case can identify any aspects of asymmetries in the arena of warfare which may be useful primarily in a Swedish context.  The results show that the event was disruptive, but was expected, rather than surprising. If the enemy use disruptive technology to change their means and methods, in terms of performance, numbers and costs, there is an opportunity to exploit asymmetries in the arena of war.

  • 1413.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Swedish Defence University.
    Vilja eller Förmåga?: En studie av militärteoretikers inverkan på flygvapnets operativa utveckling, 1931-19332017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    -

  • 1414.
    Eriksson, Marcus
    Swedish Defence University.
    Martin van Creveld: En bortglömd teori om manöverkrigföring?2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Maneuver warfare is a multifaceted subject in debates and discussions. However, there is a lack of scientific studies on the subject. Martin van Creveld is one of the theorists who have produced a theory for maneuver warfare, without being questioned either in debates or scienetific research.  

    The purpose of this paper is therefore to contribute to the research of Martin van Creveld's theory, by testing his theory and warfare principles on two empirical cases. Through this, conclusions can be drawn wether his theory could contribute with an explaination to the outcome of the cases. 

    The result has shown that the theory could explain the outcome of one of the cases, while the second case achieved the desired outcome by using only three of the total six principles. It is also shown that this study is too insufficient to falsify Martin van Creveld's theory and principles of maneuver warfare. More studies are required on more empirical cases in order to draw such conclusions. Though, this study has contributed to a new subject within the studies of war and maneuver warfare.

  • 1415.
    Eriksson, Mats
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Förstörande motmedel för egenskyddet av stridsvagn2001Student paper otherStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis investigates which effects hard kills can have on hostile projectiles that threaten a friendly tank. Different hard kills and alternative implementation principles are described and evaluated based on the effects reached. Furthermore is the thesis suggesting which hard kills that should be part of an effective warning and counteraction system. The method used is descriptive and, to some degrees, comparative. The threats against a tank could identify from principle of action and threats angle. The threats are kinetic energy, shaped charge III and IV as well as direct and indirect directional. The most significant characters the threat shows from a counteraction perspective are speed, geometrical data, threats angle and optics/optoelectronics. There must be a combination and overlapping of many different hard kills to get a system with high total effect in a warning and counteraction system. The hard kills proposed to be part of a basic warning and counteraction system is, in priority: active counter-fire with radiation weapons, active close-protection with pressure and finally active counter-fire with barrel. It should also be possible to equip tanks with mission adapted extra protection like active armour with sheet-metal. When implementing hard kills in the tank system, i.e. adding a warning and counteraction system to present weapon, warning and defence systems, there are possibilities to integrate the systems and achieve additional advantages. It is possible that the threshold to use weapons against units, equipped with warning and counteraction system, will be higher.

  • 1416.
    Eriksson, Mats
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Örebro; Mittuniversitetet, Sundsvall.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Centre for Societal Security, CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training). Mittuniversitetet, Sundsvall.
    Facebook and Twitter in Crisis Communication: A Comparative Study of Crisis Communication Professionals and Citizens2016In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 198-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This mixed-methods study presents a comparative analysis of the use and perceived usefulness of Facebook and Twitter, among Swedish citizens and crisis communication professionals, as crisis communication tools and information sources. The use and perceived usefulness of Facebook and Twitter are not congruent and consistent between the two different groups, according to the overall study. Communication professionals, for example, report higher levels of perceived usefulness regarding Facebook’s potential as a crisis communication tool than do the citizens. Taken together, the results show that researchers (within social media and crisis communication) and crisis managers both need to deal with the fact that social media is not a homogenous phenomenon with a single coherent role in crisis management and communication research and practice.

  • 1417.
    Eriksson, Niclas
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Manöverkrigföringens principer i förbandsövningsverksamheten: en studie avseende framtagande av indikatorer för manöverkrigföring samt en fallstudie som mäter förekomst av manöverkrigföring vid en svensk förbandsövning (RSÖ-04)2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The issue that has been studied in this essay is, whether the concept of maneuver warfare isreflected in one of the Swedish Army live exercises (LIVEX) called RSÖ-04“Dubbeleken”.My hypothesis is that the Swedish Army does not practise maneuver warfare during RSÖ-04 “Dubbeleken” to the extent where the thoughts about maneuver warfare can beimplemented and developed within the army.The main purpose of this essay has been to measure the occurrence of the maneuverwarfare concept in LIVEX RSÖ-04 “Dubbeleken”. The secondary purpose has been todevelop indicators to measure maneuver warfare.In order to fulfill the main purpose for this composition, my first step was to developindicators for maneuver warfare, in order to be able to measure to what extent maneuverwarfare has been practiced or in what way conditions were set to enable the units topractise maneuver warfare. The method for this was to study five different militaryauthors’ views about what is significant for maneuver warfare at the tactical level througha qualitative textual analysis. The result from the qualitative textual analysis was fourindicators for maneuver warfare and one indicator for how to train maneuver warfare:• Decentralized command and mission tactics• Surfaces and gaps• Surprise and deception• Focus of effort and combined arms• Free play exercise with an active, reactive opposing force. (Indicator for training.)My second step was to measure the occurrence of a maneuver warfare concept through acase study of the exercise RSÖ-04 “Dubbeleken”. The method for this was to analyze theexercise by using the 5 indicators.The essay shows that the occurrence of a maneuver warfare concept was very low duringthe exercise studied, even though the exercise director stressed that maneuver warfare wasto be exercised. The reason for this is mainly because the necessary conditions to practicemaneuver warfare didn’t exist during the exercise.In the light of this, my hypothesis that the Swedish Army does not practice maneuverwarfare to the extent where the thoughts about maneuver warfare can be implemented anddeveloped within the army has been verified.The issue which has been studied, that is to say, whether the concept of maneuver warfareis reflected in the LIVEX studied, has been answered by a;No, not when it comes to all aspects.With this in mind, in the last part of the composition, I’ve reflected upon how the armyshould conduct their exercises in the future in order to be able to practise maneuverwarfare.

  • 1418.
    Eriksson, Niklas
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola.
    During, Carl
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan.
    Holmlund, Joakim
    Södertörns högskola.
    Rönnby, Johan
    Södertörns högskola.
    Sjöblom, Ingvar
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för operationskonst (KV Opkonst).
    Ågren, Michael
    Resande mannen (1660): Marinarkeologisk rapport 20122013Report (Other academic)
  • 1419.
    Eriksson, Per-Anders
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Betygssystems påverkan på inlärningsbetingelser: ett pedagogiskt instrument som bör grundas på en pedagogisk idé!2002Student paper otherStudent thesis
  • 1420.
    Eriksson, Robbin
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Ådalen och bloody sunday: En jämförande fallstudie av militärt våld2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The 1900s saw two incidents of states using their military in civil disorder situations, which resulted in the killing of unarmed citizens. May 14, 1931 in Ådalen, marks a significant part of Swedish history and its view of the use of military force.  On that day, a peaceful protest march escalated, which resulted in live firing by the military stationed there to uphold law and order. This resulted in the deaths of five civilians and the prohibition of the use of military force in incidents of civil disorder. In 1972 in Northern Ireland a similar event took place on January 30, which is commonly known as Bloody Sunday. The Troubles were raging and resulted in protests for civil rights by nationalists. On that day a protest march escalated and the soldiers from the 1st Battalion of the Parachute Regiment were sent in to the city and killed fifteen civilians. This marked the worst case of military abuse in The Troubles, but resulted in no further restrictions on the use of military force in the United Kingdom.     The issue in this thesis is how cultural factors affect states’ views of the use of military force.

    The purpose of this thesis is to increase the understanding of how two cases of the use of military force against civilians, can have such different outcomes and expression. The theory used in the thesis comes from the book The Culture of National Security and explains how a state’s norms, culture and identity affect its national security.

        The conclusion is that a change in a state’s culture and identity affects the state’s view of the use of military force. Sweden had a major change in identity, which resulted in a new law against the use of military force in cases of civil disorder. The United Kingdom did not have a major identity change, which resulted in no major changes to policy on the use of military force.

  • 1421.
    Eriksson, Sofia
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Divine Mothers and Western Disbelievers: Constructions of the Self and Other in IS female-oriented propaganda discourse2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores the construction of the Self and Other in the official and semi-official female-oriented propaganda discourse of the extremist group that call itself Islamic State (IS). A deeper knowledge of the ways in which IS construct identities for women is vital to the understanding of how the group tries to control the discourse about women’s role in the so-called caliphate and uses it as a recruitment tool.

    The propaganda is analysed from a discourse theoretical approach, building on the theory of Laclau and Mouffe, and is then discussed in the light of social identity theory (SIT). When examining propaganda directed to English and Arabic female target groups, eight ways in which IS has constructed the identities of women in its so-called caliphate was found. Within representations of the Self, five different identity constructions were found; The Righteous Muslim, The Wife of the Mujahid, The Divine Mother, The Noble Widow and The Part-Time Community Servant. When analysing representations of the Other, three different constructions were found; The Western Disbeliever, The Deceptive Muslim and The Jihadi Warrior. The latter is actually an in-group, since it refers to the male members of IS, but The Jihadi Warrior also function as an Other since the men of IS are everything that women are not.

    The propaganda discourse of IS largely revolve around the notion of us and them, in-groups and out-groups, or as referred to in this thesis, the Self and Other. This is coherent with how SIT suggests that a shared sense of identity strengthens the bonds within a certain group at the same time as it is alienating relevant out-groups. In the female-oriented propaganda discourse of IS, the out-group Other is often used as a way of strengthening the Self. According to SIT, group members often tend to be prejudicial against the out-group and in the analysed propaganda, the out-group Other is constructed around notions of ignorance, tyranny and impurity while the Self appears as the exact opposite; righteous, pure and divine. 

  • 1422. Eriksson, Sofia
    Turkiet, AKP och Israel: En studie av en utrikespolitik i förändring2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Turkey has often been described as a cultural and geographical bridge between West and East. When the Islamic AKP came to power in Turkey 2002 many critics feared that the country was going to abandon its former Western allies and strengthen their relations with the Arab world instead. The criticism was intensified when the AKP increased Turkey’s bilateral relations with the Middle East and moved closer to former foe’s like Iran and Syria, at the same time as their long-time friendship with Israel experienced serious crisis. The aim and purpose of this thesis is to describe and explain the change in AKP’s foreign policy towards Israel.

    The research method is a combination of a qualitative text analysis of Turkey’s speeches in the UN General debate and Jakob Gustavsson’s model for explaining foreign policy change.

    The results show that the Turkish-Israeli relations have deteriorated after the Israeli attack on the Gaza Freedom Flotilla in 2010, particularly regarding diplomatic relations and military agreements. Based on Gustavsson’s model, possible explanations to AKP’s foreign policy change towards Israel, is structural changes such as a growing economy, a strong Turkish public opinion and new partners, with the Gaza war and the attack on the Freedom Flotilla functioning as catalysts for the deterioration. 

  • 1423.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Operationskonst och taktik - en studie av påverkan och konsekvenser2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Operational Art is relatively new as a concept but the phenomenon has existed for a long time.Tactics is another part of Military Art closely connected to Operational Art since decisive tacticalactions leads to the achievement of Operational objectives.Two successful types of Operational Art were German Operational Art as practised in the early1940: s and American Operational Art as practised in Iraq 2003.But what was the content of these types of Operational Art and how did they influence tacticalactions performed by ground units?The overall aim of the thesis is to examine how Operational Art influences tactics and whatconsequences that involves and if the type of Operational Art has any significance.The thesis is a descriptive study. It is based on qualitative text-analysis and an analysis of howOperational Art influences tactics followed by a case study.The main conclusion is that Operational Art influences tactics by limiting or promoting freedomof action for commanders in the field. Tactics is also influenced by the way resources are handled,centralized or decentralized. The differences in influence depend on the type of OperationalArt. No matter the type of Operational Art, the influences will have considerable consequencesfor tactics.

  • 1424.
    Eriksson, Torbjörn
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Flygunderstödet i samband med "Operation Overlord" - byggde det på flygteoretiska grunder eller på krigserfarenheter?2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to examine under what basic doctrinal foundation theAmerican Air Force worked during Operation OVERLORD in the role of supportingthe ground forces. I will also examine if the Air Force followed the guidelines writtenin the doctrines or if the lessons learned became the guidelines.The American Air Force doctrinal base before the Second World War was developedthrough many reorganisations and discussions about how to use the Air Force in anoptimal way. They were a part of the Army until after the Second World War andthis always led to a difference in opinion between Army and Air Force officers. TheAir Force officers argued for independence and the Army officers saw the importanceof having the Air Force under their supervision, as it’s main purpose was tosupport ground battle. The main theoretical influences in the USA were primarilyMitchell, Douhet and Trenchard. They saw strategic bombing as the main missionand thought that this would change future warfare. The heritage of Mitchell was exercisedand developed at the Air Force officer’s basic school “Air Corps TacticalSchool”. Many of the American Air Force leaders were educated at this school duringthe war. The basic messages in the doctrines were filtered through the ArmyGeneral Staff and most of the basic writings were distillations of First World Warexperience.The American participation in the European war started with TORCH. At this timeFM 31-35 was the guiding doctrine. In this doctrine a ground officer always had thefinal say in how to use aviation in support of ground forces. Lessons learned andcooperation with the British troops brought about the production of a complementarydoctrine. This was FM 100-20, dated 21 July 1943. This doctrine made all servicescoequal and independent. Air Force missions were prioritised. Air superiority wasthe highest priority, isolation of the battlefield was priority number two and supportto the ground forces was priority number three. Even though FM 100-20 was publishedafter the start of HUSKY, the messages in it were used from the spring of1943.The doctrinal foundations during OVERLORD was followed closely and eventhough new ways of handling air support aviation were invented, this was well coveredin the doctrine. The constant influx of inexperienced and untrained personnelinto the battle area was a problem. This was extremely obvious in the air supportsystem because different services were cooperating. In spite of this, the highestcommanding levels were well trained, as they were on the whole the same peoplethat started in TORCH. The chemistry between some officers did not work and theacceptance of one’s role in the operation was in some cases inadequate. The strategicAir Force commanders didn’t want to assign resources to air support and some evenquestioned the need for an invasion. The ground units didn’t allocate enough personnelto liaison duties. One of the reasons of the overall success was the resolve to do agood job and the use of common sense. If you had a staff that cooperated well andwillingly, you had great advantages and at the same time could create a climate forinnovative thought. A good example of this is Quesada and Bradley and their cooperation.They made it possible to put an air liaison officer in the front armoured unitswith radio equipment. Above this unit they attached fighter-bombers that wereguided via radio against targets. This way of fighting was used in forthcoming battlesby many units in the advance against Germany.

  • 1425.
    Eriksson, Viktor
    Swedish Defence University.
    Koherens mellan militära strategier: Är det möjligt i en föränderlig säkerhetspolitisk situation?2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In less than 20 years the orientation in Swedish security politics changed drastically from only prioritizing their own national defense to a solidarity proclamation to the neighboring countries. This is due to the constant shifting in the international political environment. These changes also meant a major impact on the lower strategies such as the resource and operational strategy. The resource and operational strategies changes in different time perspectives. The military strategy can be changed with just one government resolution while the resource strategy takes years to change. The purpose of the essay is to examine how the coherence between those two strategies looked when they constantly have to adjust to the changing international political environment. 

    The result of the analysis shows that during the current time for each strategy there were in fact sufficiently satisfactory coherence between the resource and the operational strategies. This is due to the very specific international political environment that were during each time period. 

  • 1426.
    Eriksson-Kurkiewicz, Karin
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Försvarsmaktens exportstöd - gökunge eller möjlighet?2002Student paper otherStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Armed Forces’ task of supporting the Swedish defence industryin their efforts to export munitions, is governed by the state authority withfewer details than anyone perhaps would have expected. This fact makes itinteresting to investigate how the political operational control is interpreted bythose who are going to put this political operational control into practice and ifthey see any problems connected to the operational control. Essential actors inthis essay are the Government Offices, the Swedish Armed Forces, theSwedish Defence Material Administration and Swedish defence industry.The starting point of this essay is the following wording: support the Swedishdefence industry through export-promotion activities within the limits of validguidelines for Swedish export of munitions which is taken from the instructionsfor the Swedish Armed Forces.The result of the investigation makes it obvious that the interpretations of theexpressed will from the state authority are very wide. The problems, in myopinion, lay in the chosen method of conducting operational control. In thiscase, in the given terms of references.

  • 1427.
    Erkki, Per
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Implementering av Flygförbudszoner: En jämförande fallstudie på insatsen i Bosnien 1993 och insatsen i Libyen 20112015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    No-fly Zones have been used in three recent conflicts. For every intervention the time taken to achieve the end-state has decreased. It took twelve years in Iraq, three years in Bosnia and only nine months in Libya. NATO was part of the intervention in both Bosnia and Libya, facing almost the same size of opponent, but it took them four times longer to achieve the end-state in Bosnia compared to Libya.

     

    The purpose of this essay is to analyze this difference in the time taken to achieve the end-state with a structured focused comparison of Bosnia and Libya based on Robert Pape´s theory of coercion with a focus on No-fly Zones.

     

    The results show that the mandate can explain the difference. In Libya NATO had the opportunity, due to the mandate, to use pre-emptive strikes, which they did not have in Bosnia. The lack of a mandate to use pre-emptive strikes in Bosnia made it impossible for NATO to put their threats into effect, which is one explanation why it took four times longer to achieve the end-state in Bosnia. 

  • 1428.
    Erlandsson, Johan
    Swedish Defence University.
    Det teoretiska skyddsrummet: En studie i civilbefolkningens folkrättsliga skydd i nya tidens konflikter2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    After the Second World War, and the creation and ratification of the traditional international law, the majority of the armed clashes has had the character of non-international conflicts with an asymmetric set of actors. Meanwhile, the most affected actor has come to be the civilian population.

    The purpose of this study is to problematize the protection of civilians in the conflicts of the new era.

    A qualitative method is used in the study in order to analyze the Security Council’s resolutions and mission specific strategies for the protection of civilians in the three UN missions UNMIS, UNAMID and MONUC. The result of the analysis is then problematized with van Creveld’s non-trinitarian theory in order to investigate what problems there are in applying the international humanitarian legal protection of civilians in the conflicts of the new era.The aggregated result of the study show that there are problems in applying the traditional international legal protection of civilians in the conflicts of the new era, and that one of the main problems is that the protection only seems to be a subject for the international community.

  • 1429.
    Ers, Andrus
    Swedish National Defence College.
    De möjliga framtiderna vid andra världskrigets slut2015In: Tidskriften Respons, ISSN 2001-2292, no 6, p. 56-58Article, review/survey (Other academic)
  • 1430.
    Ers, Andrus
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Frågan om filosofins ursprung: Werner Jaeger, Erik Stenius och den moderna kulturkrisen2014In: Upplysningskritik: Till Bosse Holmqvist / [ed] Anders Burman & Inga Sanner, Stockholm/Höör: Symposion Brutus Östlings bokförlag, 2014, p. 99-111Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1431.
    Ers, Andrus
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Kris, terror, besvikelse: Sjuttiotalet efter utopierna2014In: Tillsammans: Politik, filosofi och estetik på 1960- och 1970-talen / [ed] Anders Burman, Lena Lennerhed, Stockholm: Bokförlaget Atlas, 2014, p. 563-590Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1432.
    Ers, Andrus
    Swedish Defence University.
    Tidens tecken: Historiefilosofi och revolutionär temporalitet studerade genom exemplet KFML 1967-19792016In: Historiens hemvist: II. Etik, politik och historikerns ansvar / [ed] Patricia Lorenzoni & Ulla Manns, Makadam Förlag, 2016, 1, p. 57-79Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1433.
    Ers, Andrus
    Swedish Defence University.
    År Noll2013In: Glänta, ISSN 1104-5205, no 1Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Gång på gång inleds historien på nytt. År noll postuleras och en ny början utlovas. Andrus Ers hämtar exempel från den franska respektive amerikanska revolutionen, liksom Röda khmerernas Kambodja, och menar att utropandet av historiens början, såväl som dess slut, är två sidor av modernitetens ansträngda förhållande till historien.

  • 1434.
    Erwing, Victor
    Swedish Defence University.
    Svensk och finsk säkerhetspolitisk utveckling efter Kalla Kriget: en jämförande analys av svensk och finsk säkerhetspolitik mellan 1990 och 20102013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Under början av 90‐talet förändrades den säkerhetspolitiska bilden, Sovjetunionen föll samman och det Kalla kriget tog slut. Detta påverkade även Sverige och Finland. Trots de kulturella, historiska och geografiska likheterna har länderna, dock valt olika vägar. I denna uppsats har de båda ländernas säkerhetspolitiska tolkningar analyserats under perioden 1990-2010 för att identifiera varför.

    Genom kvalitativ textanalys och med hjälp av ett analysschema så har de säkerhetspolitiska tolkningarna i respektive land analyserats och jämförts. 90-talet har behandlats som ett bakgrundsavsnitt och på 2000-talet har två försvars- och säkerhetspolitiska propositioner från vardera land analyserats. Analysschemat är hämtat ur teorin som härstammar från forskning av Wilhelm Agrell och Katarina Brodin där tre huvudsakliga beståndsdelar identifierats i en doktrin, världsbild, hotbilder och handlingsalternativ.

    Analysen visar att det finns en samstämmighet i de finska och svenska tolkningarna om omvärlden och hotbilder. Ryssland oroar samtidigt som hotbilden blivit mer mångfacetterad. Vad gäller handlingsalternativ så syns de största skillnaderna då Finland även om man är pro‐europeisk har ett starkt nationellt fokus och där Sverige istället ser den kollektiva säkerheten som viktigast. Finland har kvar invasionsförsvaret medan Sverige har inför ett insatsförsvar.

    Analysen har visat att Finland uppvisar en röd tråd mellan världsbild, hotbilder och handlingsalternativ vilket Sverige inte gör. Den största skillnaden mellan de båda länderna anses vara Finlands historia och oro till Ryssland som blir väldigt tydlig i propositionerna och vilket kan vara anledningen till att de har kvar invasionsförsvaret.

  • 1435.
    Espluga, Joseph
    et al.
    Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona.
    Barnett, Julie
    Brunel University.
    Enander, Ann
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Hede, Susanne
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Horlick-Jones, Tom
    Cardiff University.
    Konrad, Willie
    Dialogic.
    Marcu, Afrodita
    Brunel University.
    Marvulli, Lorenzo
    Cardiff University.
    Filling the gap between discourse and action: The case of domestic consumption practices2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1436.
    Esteman, Maria
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Landet i Öst: En studie i den svenska bilden av Ryssland2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish foreign minister Margot Wallström expressed in 2014 that Russia is erratic and making swedes fear Russia while claiming this to be a new phenome. The statement is a big difference if compared with the words of foreign minister Leila Freivalds during 2004 whom said that Russia was the most important cornerstone in the Swedish security policy work. The change is interesting.

    Russia has gone from being perceived as friend to being perceived as an enemy. This study contains an analysis the Swedish discourse on Russia in the security- and defence politics between the years of 2004-2015. The point of this study is to unveil veiled and hidden structures in the discourse in order to better understand the Swedish image of Russia and to reveal ´the other`.

    The study examines the extreme change in the Swedish perception of Russia from a critical discourse point of view. The critical discourse approach is used to understand how the image of Russia is perceived in the Swedish security- and defence politics. In attempting to understand whyRussia is perceived in a certain way a theoretical connection to Copenhagen´s school of securitazion is made. The study proceeds to take a starting point in Balzacq’s three assumptions to understand the connection to referent object. The material examined is the Swedish Foreign Policy Statements and defence propositions. The result of the study shows that Russia is framed as a threat, even while being mentioned as a friend. Russia is always perceived as ´the other´ and thus a constructed threat to Sweden. 

    The Swedish foreign minister Margot Wallström expressed in 2014 that Russia is erratic and making swedes fear Russia while claiming this to be a new phenome. The statement is a big difference if compared with the words of foreign minister Leila Freivalds during 2004 whom said that Russia was the most important cornerstone in the Swedish security policy work. The change is interesting.

    Russia has gone from being perceived as friend to being perceived as an enemy. This study contains an analysis the Swedish discourse on Russia in the security- and defence politics between the years of 2004-2015. The point of this study is to unveil veiled and hidden structures in the discourse in order to better understand the Swedish image of Russia and to reveal ´the other`.

    The study examines the extreme change in the Swedish perception of Russia from a critical discourse point of view. The critical discourse approach is used to understand how the image of Russia is perceived in the Swedish security- and defence politics. In attempting to understand whyRussia is perceived in a certain way a theoretical connection to Copenhagen´s school of securitazion is made. The study proceeds to take a starting point in Balzacq’s three assumptions to understand the connection to referent object. The material examined is the Swedish Foreign Policy Statements and defence propositions. The result of the study shows that Russia is framed as a threat, even while being mentioned as a friend. Russia is always perceived as ´the other´ and thus a constructed threat to Sweden. 

    The Swedish foreign minister Margot Wallström expressed in 2014 that Russia is erratic and making swedes fear Russia while claiming this to be a new phenome. The statement is a big difference if compared with the words of foreign minister Leila Freivalds during 2004 whom said that Russia was the most important cornerstone in the Swedish security policy work. The change is interesting.

    Russia has gone from being perceived as friend to being perceived as an enemy. This study contains an analysis the Swedish discourse on Russia in the security- and defence politics between the years of 2004-2015. The point of this study is to unveil veiled and hidden structures in the discourse in order to better understand the Swedish image of Russia and to reveal ´the other`.

    The study examines the extreme change in the Swedish perception of Russia from a critical discourse point of view. The critical discourse approach is used to understand how the image of Russia is perceived in the Swedish security- and defence politics. In attempting to understand why Russia is perceived in a certain way a theoretical connection to Copenhagen´s school of securitazion is made. The study proceeds to take a starting point in Balzacq’s three assumptions to understand the connection to referent object. The material examined is the Swedish Foreign Policy Statements and defence propositions. The result of the study shows that Russia is framed as a threat, even while being mentioned as a friend. Russia is always perceived as ´the other´ and thus a constructed threat to Sweden. 

  • 1437.
    Estrada, Armando X.
    et al.
    Washington State Univ, Dept Psychol, Vancouver, WA USA.
    Berggren, Anders W.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Sexual Harassment and its Impact for Women Officers and Cadets in the Swedish Armed Forces2009In: Military Psychology, ISSN 0899-5605, E-ISSN 1532-7876, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 162-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined the incidence, dimensions, and impact of sexual harassment on women officers and cadets in the Swedish military (N = 324). We expected that harassment rates for direct measures would be lower than for indirect measures; hostile environment harassment would be more prevalent than quid pro quo harassment; and harassment would negatively influence women's job-related outcomes and their psychological and physical health. We found that harassment rates for direct measures were lower than indirect measures; hostile environment harassment was more prevalent than quid pro quo harassment; and harassment was associated with decreased job satisfaction, organizational commitment, work group effectiveness, and psychological and physical health. We discuss the theoretical, methodological, and practical implications of our findings for studying harassment across cultures.

  • 1438. Estrada, Armando X.
    et al.
    Olson, Kristine J.
    Harbke, Colin R.
    Berggren, Anders W.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Evaluating a Brief Scale Measuring Psychological Climate for Sexual Harassment2011In: Military Psychology, ISSN 0899-5605, E-ISSN 1532-7876, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 410-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We evaluated the measurement properties of the psychological climate for sexual harassment (PCSH) questionnaire with data from women officers (n = 311) in the Swedish Armed Forces. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that a two-factor solution assessing risks and seriousness/actions associated with sexual harassment episodes described the underlying pattern of correlations among items. Correlational and regression analyses showed that ratings of perceived intolerance for sexual harassment were associated with high ratings of job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and (positive) mental health; and decreased ratings of psychological distress. We discuss the theoretical, methodological, and practical implications of our findings for future research.

  • 1439.
    Evander, Johan
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Lägesbild: Problemområden vid skapandet2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Within the framework of the concept of Network Based Defence (NBF) services should be available in the network, in order to increase the aggregate capacity. A common situation picture is one of these services.

    The aim of this paper is to answer the problem "What are the main problem areas in the creation of a situation picture in the land arena, with the help of the technical sensors that exist today?" and to develop a basis for continued research in the field situation in the concept Networking Enabled Command, Control and Collaboration (NEC3) at JCDEC (Joint Concept Development and Experimentation Centre). To answer the problem, a descriptive method is to be used in descriptions of the land arena, the information arena and the sensors and a deductive method is used when analyzing the asensors in the land arena.

    The problems that exist in the creation of a common situation picture, is that different types of obstacles makes it difficult for the sensors, the large number of people who are not combatants and that it is difficult to judge if a civilian vehicle is a threat, then it could be driven by civilians or by combatants.

  • 1440.
    Evebring, Claes
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Att prestera bra resultat i komplicerade arbetsmiljöer2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1441.
    Everbrand, Mikael
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Frankrike och Storbritanniens strategiska kultur: "I det korta perspektivet dominerar svärdet, men på längre sikt är det idéerna som styr"2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1442.
    Fagerholm, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University.
    Perényi, Maria
    Swedish Defence University.
    Larsson, Anna-Karin
    Swedish Defence University.
    Att vara en lärande organisation i praktiken: Pedagogisk utveckling på Anna Lindh-biblioteket2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med rundabordssamtalet är att diskutera pedagogisk utveckling inom de verksamheter på universitet och högskola som ska stödja lärare i förändringen från ett lärarcentrerat till ett studentcentrerat perspektiv på lärande. Vi vill också ta del av övriga deltagares erfarenhet inom pedagogisk utveckling i syfte att utveckla vårt arbete. Hur arbetar andra lärosäten samt dess stödverksamheter med pedagogisk utveckling och på vilket sätt kan vi samverka i det pedagogiska utvecklingsarbetet?

    Bolognaprocessen har påverkat högskola och universitet på en rad olika sätt. En viktig förändring är perspektivskiftet från ett lärarcentrerat till ett studentcentrerat synsätt, vilket påverkat upplägget av det pedagogiska utvecklingsarbetet på universitet och högskolor. Elmgren och Henriksson lyfter fram behovet av pedagogisk förnyelse och utveckling av utbildning. Universitetsläraren har en viktig roll i det pedagogiska utvecklingsarbetet på ett lärosäte och möjligheten till högskolepedagogisk utbildning och kontinuerlig fortbildning är en viktig faktor (Elmgren & Henriksson 2010, s. 12). Men det finns också ett behov av pedagogisk utveckling inom de verksamheter som ska stödja förändringen från ett lärarcentrerat till ett studentcentrerat perspektiv på lärande. Anna Lindhbiblioteket har därför initierat ett pedagogiskt projekt som syftar till att vägleda personalen i sin pedagogiska roll och problematisera kring vad det innebär att som bibliotekspersonal vara pedagogisk. Metaforen ”lärande som deltagande” kan sägas vara en central utgångspunkt utifrån ett konstruktivistiskt perspektiv men även utifrån att all bibliotekspersonal, inte endast undervisande bibliotekarier, involveras i arbetet (Larsson 2013, s. 115).

    Det pedagogiska projektet har inletts med en pedagogisk utvecklingsdag under hösten 2013, för att diskutera frågor kring pedagogisk grundsyn och pedagogiskt förhållningssätt i mötet med biblioteksanvändarna. Under 2014 fortsätter arbetet med återkommande workshops där pedagogiska metoder, konkreta handledningssituationer och samspelet mellan källkunskap, bemötande och pedagogisk teori diskuteras.

    Elmgren, Maja & Henriksson, Ann-Sofie (2010). Universitetspedagogik. Stockholm: Norstedts. Larsson, Staffan (2013). Vuxendidaktik. Stockholm: Natur & Kultur.

  • 1443.
    Fagerholm, Tony
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Ledning av insatsverksamhet inom Försvarsmakten och den kommunala Räddningstjänsten - en jämförelse2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Statsmakternas krav på ökad samordning mellan olika myndigheter och förmåga tillgemensamma insatser ställer krav på förståelse för organisationernas sätt att leda verksamheten,framförallt vid olika typer av kriser. Syftet med uppsatsen är att öka förståelsen av hurförsvarsmakten och den kommunala räddningstjänsten avser att leda och genomföra sinainsatser ur ett doktrinärt perspektiv och om eventuella skillnader kan förklaras i termer avuppdragsstyrning och detaljstyrning. Studien är nutidsorienterad och tar sin utgångspunkt idagens gällande doktriner eller motsvarande litteratur. Den teoretiska utgångspunkten utgår frånledarskapsteorin om ledarskap och ledarstilar.Resultatet visar att skillnaderna mellan Försvarsmaltens och den kommunala räddningstjänstensdoktrinära syn på metoder för ledning av genomförande verksamhet är relativt små, och att detfinns samsyn i avseende tillämpning av ledarskapets grundläggande element.

  • 1444.
    Fagerli, Terje
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Forsvaret - effektivitet gjennom outsourcing?2001Student paper otherStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the end of the cold war, and a changed security threat, the Norwegian Armed Force military budget has declined .The  budget allocated to the purchase of new equipment and the modification and upgrade of existing systems must be increased in the future to meet the new (warfighting) scenarios. To meet this challenge CHOD NO have to  reduce the costs and improve the performance of its logistics(support) organization.The benefits of outsourcing are apparent every day in our national economy. Companies report that outsourcing could provide the desired benefits. Outsourcing enables companies and other organizations to focus on their core competencies and activities. The main intention of this study is to discuss if and how implementation of outsourcing can lower costs and provide  more efficient support(logistics)  to the Norwegian Armed Forces.The study discuss the problem through resource-based theory, and  a make-or –buy perspectives model has been used and developed for analyses and conclutions(empirical versus theory- test).The study shows that the Norwegian Armed Forces have to prepare and analyse ”their” organization prior to any outsourcing activity. Outsourcing integration must also be well prepared and analysed. Evaluation must be performed continuously.Some important areas are: • Outsourcing as a part of the Norwegian Armed Forces strategy and development to achieve future goals and visions(?) • Core competence/activity • Political  acceptance and approval • Power/dependence • Management/culture/boundaries • Readiness • Law and regulations • Cost analyses(lowest costs ?)

  • 1445.
    Fagerlund, Sonya
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Från invasionsförsvar till insatsförsvar, en jämförelse av kurslitteratur i stress på militärhögskolan Karlberg.2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I samband med att Försvarsmakten år 2000 ändrade fokus från invasionsförsvar till insatsförsvar uppstod nya krav på Sveriges officerare. Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka hur kurslitteraturen som används för att utbilda blivande officerare på militärhögskolan Karlberg i stress har förändrats från en försvarsmakt byggd på ett invasionsförsvar till en försvarsmakt byggd på ett insatsförsvar. Eftersom insatsförsvaret ställer nya krav på en officer är det intressant att undersöka om utbildningen förändrats till att möta de nya krav och behov som ett insatsförsvar innebär. Kurslitteratur mellan år 2000-2001 och år 2011-2014 jämförs för att upptäcka om någon förändring skett. Då två enheter jämförs med varandra och kurslitteratur används som underlag har en komparativ litteraturstudie använts som metod. Slutsatsen i uppsatsen är att kurslitteraturen har förändrats för att möta de nya behov som uppstått i och med fokusskiftet till insatsförsvar. En av förändringarna som skett är att det är mer fokus i kurslitteraturen år 2011-2014 på hur stress motverkas och hanteras.

  • 1446.
    Fagerström, Simon
    Swedish Defence University.
    A refugee crisis as a policy window: a case study on the Hungarian immigration policy change in 20152017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The escalating conflict in Syria that started in 2011 would cause millions of Syri- ans to flee the country. It is estimated that as much as 7,6 million Syrians were displaced internally and 3,7 million externally. This initially caused an enormous pressure on neighboring countries were refugees were displacing to (Ostrand 2011: 1-2). Though as the years passed the large majority of externally displaced refugees stayed in the neighboring states, though this would change in 2015 (UNHCR 2013: 1-3). In the spring of 2015 several ships either sank or were abandoned in the Mediterranean resulting in fatalities. Though as an increasing amount of refugees reached the southern member states of the EU it created an immense pressure on the immigration handling processes of the affected countries such as Italy and Greece (Livingstone, Cerelus 2016). A large amount of refugees would then start moving up throughout eastern Europe towards northern countries such as Germany and Swe- den. Though it won’t be long until Hungary decides to fence in its southern border to prevent refugees from passing through the country. As criticism flourished from the EU, member states of the EU, and other organizations, Hungary did not alter its policy, but instead came to further deteriorate the relations by defending its political position (Than, Krisztina 2017). This was done even though Hungary is heavily dependent on monetary support from the European Union as well as access to its Schengen zone (European Union 2017). Little research has been done on this matter where countries such as Hungary, Poland and Slovakia amongst others have decided to challenge the basic principles of free movement and the Dublin treaty after the refugee crisis. This senior thesis aim to look at how Hungary could have been able to do a immigration policy change that stands in contrast to that of the EU while they are in many ways dependent on the Schengen zone and financial support from the EU.

  • 1447.
    Fagrell, Peter
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Avhjälpande underhåll för svenskt amfibiebåtsystem?: en systemteoretisk ansats2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay has been on the one hand, to identify what problemsthere have been within corrective maintenance for amphibious vessel systemsup till now. The second purpose has been to identify the possibilities availablefor improving the corrective maintenance. The essay has answered thefollowing two questions at issue:1. What problems have there been within corrective maintenance foramphibious vessel systems up till now?2. What future possibilities are available for improving the correctivemaintenance?The questions at issue in this essay have been answered by using a systemstheoreticaland qualitative case study as a method. The technique of gatheringempirical material has been in the way of survey interviews.The first question at issue in the essay can be summarised as follows:There have been problems, in as much as; there has never been a study into therequirements of maintenance. Consequently, this has resulted in scarcity oftools and spare parts at various resource levels and also insufficient training fortechnicians. Furthermore, there is a deficiency within the flow ofcommunication and information. These constrain the possibility of quicklyobtaining decision support and technical systems support. Documentation andso called expert support systems also show deficiencies. Subsequently, theseimply difficulties when training and when implementing repair measures.Finally, deficiencies are apparent in routines, searching, inventory andreplenishment of spare parts. The consequences are time-delays and that thewrong types of spare parts are replaced.The second question at issue in the essay can be summarised as follows:The defence of the future will provide opportunities for an improved flow ofinformation. This will result in technicians receiving decision support andtechnical support systems easier. This will reduce the constraints, among otherthings, which were experienced when choosing methods of repair and orderingof resources. In the future, there will be an opportunity to utilise centraldatabases, which will result in an improved accessibility and use of updateddocumentation. Moreover, an overview and more efficient use of tools andspare parts will be possible. Combining databases and networks will also beenhanced in the future. This can then lead to better surveillance of the runningof the vessel and its state of condition.FÖRSVARSHÖGSKOLAN C-UPPSATS Beteckning 19100:2007Mj Peter Fagrell, ChP 01- 03 2003-07-21 sida 2(50)Finally, there is believed to be the possibility of built- in tests, reference andcontrol systems in the vessels. This possibility can in turn provide improvedfaulty alarm functions, opportunities for remote diagnostics and self-reparation.

  • 1448.
    Fajkovic, Armand
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Sensorer i whiteout2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    När en helikopterbesättning skall landa en helikopter i en whiteout finns alltid risken att besättningen förlorar sina referenser till omvärlden. Resultatet av detta blir att besättningen riskerar att bli spatialt desorienterad. Vid spatial desorientering riskerar besättningen att förlora uppfattningen om vart i luftrummet helikoptern befinner sig och om den driver åt något håll. Uppsatsen har övergripande undersökt elektromagnetiska sensorer och analyserat hur dessa skulle kunna bidra till att bibehålla besättningens spatiala medvetande. Stoftmolnets varierande karaktäristik bidrar till att sensorerna måste vara anpassningsbara. Rapporten fann att elektrooptiska sensorer var kraftigt begränsade vid whiteout och att radarsensorer var mer lämpade för uppgiften. 

  • 1449.
    Falk, Matilda
    Swedish Defence University. År.
    KRIGFÖRINGENS PRINCIPER: en teoriprövande studie av krigföringens principer enligt J.F.C Fullers teori.2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The principles of war are surrounded by a fragmented debate concerning their practical applicability. Previous studies question the assertion regarding a correlation between successful battles and the application of the principles. Therefore, the aim of this thesis is to contribute to the knowledge base about the extent to which applying the principles of war can explain successful outcomes in battles. Drawing on the theory of J.F.C Fuller, the study analyzes the occurrence of the principles in the battle of Raate Road and the battle of Tolvajärvi, fought in the Winter War in Finland, in 1939 and 1940.

    The research design has applied text analysis, in a qualitative approach. Findings indicate that all the principles of war are found in both cases examined but differ as to the extent of the application. Based on the findings of the study, the principles of war appear to play a central role in both battles with a successful outcome, and provide a partial explanation for success. Further empirical studies are needed in order to confirm the full extent of the principles’ significance.

  • 1450.
    Falkheimer, Jesper
    et al.
    Campus Helsingborg, Lunds universitet.
    Johansson, Anders
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training). Örebro universitet.
    Kriskommunikation2015In: Perspektiv på krishantering / [ed] Deverell, Edward; Hansén, Dan; Olsson, Eva-Karin, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, 1, p. 73-98Chapter in book (Other academic)
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