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  • 1101.
    Elg, Johan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Krigsspel och militära operationer: den japanska planeringen inför Midway 19422008In: Krigsvetenskaplig årsbok 2007 / [ed] Dan Öberg, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan , 2008, p. 61-83Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1102.
    Elg, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Krigsspel som metod2018In: Militära arbetsmetoder: En lärobok i krigsvetenskap / [ed] Peter Thunholm, Jerker Widén och Niklas Wikström, Universus Academic Press , 2018, p. 255-294Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1103.
    Elg, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Soviet Operational Art: Narratives on Manchuria, 19452014In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 4Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This text explores the Soviet military offensive into Japanese-held Manchuria in August 1945 by looking at two narratives: the Soviet and the Japanese. The former has dominating the latter, perhaps due to the Soviet success as Japan surrendered a few days into the operation. However, by adding rather than dismissing the Japanese perspective, Soviet performances on different levels can be scrutinized. For example, faults with logistical planning and the difficulties to achieve a 'deep battle' are found. It also highlights the main difference between the two operations, namely that the Soviet operation aimed for a double pincer movement, while the Japanese operation aimed for a withdrawal into a mountain redoubt.

  • 1104.
    Elg, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section. King's College London.
    Wargaming in Military Education for Army Officers and Officer Cadets2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wargaming has been part of military curricula for about 200 years since the introduction of Kriegsspiel, but it is still something of an art form. This thesis attempts to theorise the practice of military educational wargaming, and specifically to explore why such wargaming takes the form it does.

    The thesis is limited to army educational wargaming for officers and officer cadets. Wargaming for analytical purposes, and political and strategic gaming, are excluded.  Instead, the focus is on army educational wargaming at the tactical level, which is arguably more comparable between countries. The research method combines an exploratory approach influenced by grounded theory with a comparative case study approach encompassing three successive levels of army officer education in five countries: Sweden, Germany, the United Kingdom, the United States and Japan.

    The research indicates the central importance of individual game directors. This is particularly evident when wargaming forms evolve. The main concern of the individual game director is how to achieve instructor buy-in. This core category encompasses control, credibility and comfort. Three methods, or strategies, were discovered regarding how to achieve instructor buy-in. Those three strategies are: innovative active learning, simple standardising and control & veiling. This discovery contributes to new substantive theory, as it explains how specific army educational wargaming forms commence, evolve and are discontinued.

  • 1105.
    Eliasson, Per
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Missilhotet mot Sverige under år 1943-19602004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1106.
    Eliasson, Per
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Norsell, Martin
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    On a Tentative Model for Supporting Educational Development in Military-Technology2008In: Stockholm Contributions in Military-Technology 2007 / [ed] Martin Norsell, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan , 2008, p. 65-71Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1107.
    Eliasson, Per
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Norsell, Martin
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Teaching Military-Technology: a Working Approach2008In: Stockholm Contributions in Military-Technology 2007 / [ed] Martin Norsell, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan , 2008, p. 73-81Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1108.
    Elin, Rappe
    et al.
    The Swedish Institute of International Affairs.
    Weissmann, Mikael
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark). The Swedish Institute of International Affairs.
    ‘One Belt, One Road’ in the Swedish Context2016In: Europe and China’s New Silk Roads / [ed] Frans-Paul van der Putten, John Seaman, Mikko Huotari, Alice Ekman & Miguel Otero-Iglesias, European Think-tank Network on China (ETNC) , 2016, p. 60-62Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Considering the economic importance of China for Sweden, a project such as the ‘Belt and Road’ initiative should be expected to entail a great deal of interest among Swedish policy-makers and the business community alike. However, this has not been the case, as the response so far has been varied and often cautious. The focus among Sweden’s policy-makers and the business community alike has been a wait-and-see approach, so the impact of OBOR in Sweden has been very limited. Sweden’s business community has been somewhat more optimistic, in particular with regard to opportunities in Central Asia, while the policy-makers in general do not see much that is new with the OBOR project. In conclusion, very little has been done; much more could and should have been done. There is a great need for strong leadership and guidance if Sweden is not going to fall way too far behind other nations with respect to OBOR.

  • 1109. Ellervall, Eva
    et al.
    Brehmer, Berndt
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Knutsson, Kerstin
    How confident are general dental practitioners in their decision to administer antibiotic prophylaxis?: A questionnaire study2008In: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, ISSN 1472-6947, E-ISSN 1472-6947, Vol. 8, p. 57-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Common dental procedures induce bacteremia. To prevent infectious complications from bacteremia in patients with specific medical conditions, antibiotic prophylaxis is considered. Recommendations are often unclear and ambiguous. In a previous study we reported wide variations in general dental practitioners' (GDPs') administrations of antibiotic prophylaxis. We hypothesized that within such a conflicting clinical area, decisions are made with a high level of personal uncertainty. This study examined GDPs' confidence in their decisions and analyzed the extent to which case-related factors might explain individual variations in confidence. Methods: Postal questionnaires in combination with telephone interviews were used. The response rate was 51% (101/200). There were no significant differences between respondents and non-respondents regarding sex, age, or place of work. The GDPs were presented to patient cases of different medical conditions, where some should receive antibiotic prophylaxis according to recommendations when performing dental procedures that could cause gingival bleeding. The GDPs assessed on visual analogue scales how confident they were in their decisions. The extent to which case-related factors, medical condition and dental procedure, could explain individual variation in confidence was analyzed. Results: Overall the GDPs exhibited high confidence in their decisions regardless of whether they administered antibiotic prophylaxis or not, or whether their decisions were in accordance with recommendations or not. The case-related factors could explain between 30-100% of the individual variation in GDPs' confidence. For 46%, the medical condition significantly explained the individual variation in confidence. However, for most of these GDPs, lower confidence was not presented for conditions where recommendations are unclear and higher confidence was not presented for conditions where recommendations are more clear. For 8% the dental procedure significantly explained the variation, although all procedures could cause bacteremia. For 46% neither the medical condition nor the dental procedure could significantly explain the individual variation in confidence. Conclusion: The GDPs presented high confidence in their decisions, and the majority of GDPs did not present what could be considered a justified varied level of confidence according to the clarity of recommendations. Clinicians who are overconfident in their decisions may be less susceptible to modifications of their behavior to more evidence-based strategies.

  • 1110.
    Ellingsen Larsson, Carl Simon
    Swedish National Defence College.
    MARTIN VAN CREVELDS PRINCIPER FÖR MANÖVERKRIGFÖRING– EN FLERFALLSSTUDIE2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    This study is a multiple case study utilizing Martin van Creveld’s Principles for ManeuverWarfare to analyze two World War II battles, El Alamein and Operation Market Garden.The relation between van Creveld’s principles for maneuver warfare and the outcome of thestudied battles is investigated. The purpose of the study is to determine if van Creveld’sprinciples are applicable to the cases and specifically if they can be used to explain the outcomeof each battle. It is also investigated if the use of the principles gives victory in the battles.The result of the study is that van Creveld’s principles are used more frequently and no deviationsfrom the principles are found in the case that ends in victory, the battle at El Alamein.Van Creveld’s principles are used less often and several deviations from the principles arerecorded in the case that ends in defeat, Operation Market Garden.

  • 1111.
    Ellström Fredriksson, Carin
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Militärt samarbete i Barentsregionen: disarmament of the mind?!2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1112.
    Ellvén, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Hög villighet kräver lägre tillfälle – Faktorer som påverkar den icke-statliga väpnade aktörens långa väpnade kamp2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1113.
    Elman, Kim
    Swedish National Defence College.
    "NI ÄR PROPAGANDA!": Ett bidrag till det psykologiska försvaret.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the possibility of implementing national psychological defence measures utilizing social media. These measures are understood as an exercise of political power and are contextualised in the contemporary global information arena using Castells theory of communication power in the network society, while employing PSYOPS methodology to further understand the tactical dimensions. It also attempts to evaluate the prevalence of ”filter bubbles” and the potential hindrance such may be to successful implementation. Results show that key audiences can be reached and effectively influenced through the use of social media advert targeting systems and open source, fact-based information campaigns. 

  • 1114.
    Elmberg, Andreas
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Ekonomiska sanktioner ur ett sjömaktsteoretiskt perspektiv2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fleets have the ability to affect an adversary’s use of the seas for transportation. Nations have in numerous occasions exercised this power in order to ravage their opponent’s trade in times of conflict with the purpose of diminishing their military might. Great naval thinkers like Mahan and Corbett have described this use of seapower during conflicts in great depth but theories regarding the use of seapower to affect a nation’s peacetime economy in order to achieve limited political goals is lacking. This thesis attempts to analyze the use of seapower in the form of economic sanctions to answer the question; “How is seapower exercised in economic sanctions?” in order to remedy this.

    The results show that seapower is mostly used to halt the inward flow of goods to a nation and general sanctions are more often used than sanctions targeting specific commodities. What these sanctions aim to achieve is often to limit military capacity and to disrupt military aggression. This thesis comes to the conclusions that a force capable of operating anywhere on the globe for an extended period of time is vital for the effectiveness of economic sanctions, seapower is a necessary part of the enforcement of economic sanctions and that naval theory has been too preoccupied with large scale conflicts and neglected the use of seapower to achieve limited political goals with economic measures during times of peace.

  • 1115.
    Elmgren, Alexander
    Swedish Defence University.
    Taktik i Malaya konflikten kopplat till Kilcullens 28 artiklar: En undersökning om Kilcullens tillämpbarhet på den taktiska nivån i Malayakonflikten 1948-19602012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Counterinsurgency (COIN) on the tactical level is difficult because these conflicts are alwaysunique and there is no theory that generally leads to victory.The purpose of this study is to analyze if there is a resemblence between Kilcullens 28articles and the succesful COIN of the brittish security forces in the Malayan emergency.The method that has been used is the qualitativ analysis of documens. The main documentthat has been analyzed is ATOM, the brittish tactical doctrine during the emergency. Articlesthat have been written during the emergency, 1948-1960, by officers and soldiers, have beenused to to elucidate if the brits actually followed their tactical doctrine or not.The author concludes that Kilcullens 28 articles might not be useful as general guidelines foraction at the tactical level. The author highlights, however, that more studies on otherconflicts are needed to establish the claim.

  • 1116.
    Elofsson, Johan
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Rysk luftmaktsanvändning under Georgienkriget 2008: En tillämpning av Robert A. Papes luftmaktsteorier?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sensommaren 2008 anfaller Ryssland Georgien som en följd av den upptrappade konflikten rörande Sydossetien. Kriget varar under fem dagar och Ryssland går till anfall med uppemot tvåhundra stridsflygplan. Ryssland möter dock en förhållandevis välövad georgisk motståndare som de senaste fem åren tränats av NATO och samtidigt gjort både nyanskaffningar och moderniseringar av sitt defensiva luftförsvar.

    Drygt tio år tidigare har professor Robert A. Pape utgett sin bok,Bombing to win, i vilken han bland annat presenterar sina teorier kring den nekande operationskonsten. Genom vetenskaplig analys av ett drygt trettiotal konflikter från 1900-talet har Pape dragit slutsatser om vad som kännetecknar ett framgångsrikt användande av flygstridskrafter. Denna uppsats syftar till att analysera användandet av ryskt stridsflyg under Georgienkriget ur ett perspektiv från Papes framförda luftmaktsteorier. Målsättningen är att skapa en grund för framtida värdering av användning av ryskt stridsflyg i samband med mellanstatliga konflikter.

    Slutsatserna från undersökningen är att det finns tecken på att Ryssland använt sig av en nekande operationskonst. Däremot finns det inget som talar för att detta var ett uttalat syfte av ryska militära befälhavare utan det ter sig troligare att kriget snarare stärker Papes teorier och samtidigt utökar det empiriska underlaget för teorierna.

  • 1117.
    Elofsson, Mats
    et al.
    Försvarets Materielverk.
    Johnsson, Fredrik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Forsman, Björn
    SSPA.
    Liwång, Hans
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Riskanalys för att fatta bättre beslut2016In: Tidskrift i sjöväsendet, ISSN 0040-6945, Vol. 2, p. 130-141Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 1118.
    Elving, Alexander
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Achieving Energy Security in the EU: National Self-Interest vs. Multilateral Cooperation2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Energy security has become an increasingly pressing issue in the EU since the turn of the century. In a context of increased import dependence and competition over natural gas, the approach to achieving energy security is explored here. With the aim of understanding the discrepancy between the EU approach and that of its member states, the strategies employed to achieve energy security are laid out. The neorealist notion of national self-interest and the neoliberal analogue of cooperation offer two competing perspectives on how to understand the problem. A case study design is used where the units of analysis are constituted by three distinct instances that illustrate the disconnect between the EU and member state level. These instances are the internal market for energy, diversification of supply, and bilateral supply agreements. Process tracing allows for studying the motivations of the actors involved. The results show that the national self-interest generally takes precedence over cooperation. This is in line with a neorealist reading of the issue and explains why it is difficult to achieve concerted action within the EU. The energy security case in this paper can be seen as an expression of the difficulties of finding a collective solution that fits widely different needs and preferences on a national level in the EU.

  • 1119.
    Elwe, Kristonel
    Swedish Defence University.
    Tio år i FRA-lagens skugga: en analys av hur ett av de mest omstridda lagförslagen i svensk historia påverkat balansgången mellan frihet och säkerhet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Samhällen har genom historien eftersträvat en perfekt balans mellan frihet och säkerhet. Med anledning av att termerna definieras utifrån subjektiva kriterier har balansgången resulterat i olika utfall beroende på en rad unika och historiska omständigheter. Sedan de förödande terroristattentaten i USA den 11 september 2001 har världssamfundets syn på global fred och säkerhet förändrats. Den balans som tidigare ansågs ha varit väl avvägd hade rubbats. Runtom i världen påbörjades reformarbeten inom den säkerhetspolitiska sektorn som i högsta grad kommit att påverka balansgången, även i Sverige.

    Sverige har likt övriga Europa omfattande utmaningar att ta sig an i en ständigt föränderlig världsbild. Kombinationen av globalisering och teknologisk utveckling innebär ytterligare adderade lager av dynamik och komplexitet. Under det senaste decenniet har det skett en medveten politisk satsning på svensk försvars- och säkerhetspolitik, men den har inte uträttats bekymmerslöst. Mot slutet av 00-talet framlades FRA-lagen i riksdagskammaren, en informell benämning på en rad olika lagändringar i syfte att effektivisera svensk försvarsunderrättelseverksamhet. Det skulle komma att bli ett av de mest omstridda lagförslagen i svensk historia; en vattendelare bland allmänheten som utlöste en kraftigt polariserad debatt.

    Sällan har svenska politiska beslutsfattare resonerat lika mycket kring dikotomin frihet/säkerhet som vid debatten om FRA-lagens vara eller icke vara. Det föranledde en tydlig insikt i hur de politiska partierna konstruerat balansgången mellan frihet och säkerhet i syfte att få gehör för sin politik, vilket förstärktes av att det vid dåvarande tidpunkt rådde en politisk divergens om FRA-lagen. Socialdemokraterna, Miljöpartiet och Vänsterpartiet pekade på att de ingrepp i den personliga integriteten som FRA-lagen skulle medföra inte kunde kompromissas bort eller rättfärdigas av ökad säkerhet. Regeringsstyrande Alliansen ansåg däremot att Sverige var i behov av en effektivare försvarsunderrättelseverksamhet för att trygga svenska medborgares säkerhet in- och utrikes. Efter en rad olika förändringar i lagförslaget samt andra medföljande rättssäkerhetsgarantier kom FRA-lagen att röstas igenom i svensk riksdag och trädde i kraft den 1 januari 2009.

    Vid slutförandet av föreliggande uppsats har det passerat tio år sedan FRA-lagens ikraftträdande. Den offentliga debatten kring integritetsskydd vid försvarsunderrättelseverksamhet har svalnat, men däremot utgör temat en stående punkt som diskuteras på årlig basis i riksdagskammaren. Därmed är det möjligt att analysera hur konstruktionen av balansgången mellan frihet och säkerhet förändrats över tid och resulterat i ett nytt ekvilibrium. Uteslutande Vänsterpartiet råder numer en politisk konvergens kring FRA-lagens nödvändighet, vilket förklaras av den säkerhetspolitiskt försämrade situationen i Sverige och dess närområde, nya typer av hot i form av cyberbaserad krigföring och påverkansoperationer samt ökat antal terroristattentat i Europa. Att finna en väl avvägd balans mellan åtgärder ämnade att öka den nationella säkerheten och medborgares lagstadgade rätt till personlig integritet är en svårartad konst. Den allt mer dynamiska och snabba samhällsutvecklingen tyder på att politiker även fortsättningsvis kommer att få brottas med sökandet efter en perfekt balans.

  • 1120.
    Enander, Ann
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Human needs and behaviour in the event of emergencies and social crises2010In: Emergency response management in today´s complex society / [ed] Lars Fredholm & Anna-Lena Göransson, Karlstad: Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency (MSB) , 2010, p. 31-72Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1121.
    Enander, Ann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Kassandra möter dr Pangloss: om krisberedskapens psykologi2013In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 2, p. 6-15Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 1122.
    Enander, Ann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Kommunikation om risker2017In: Rustad för risk: riskpsykologi för militärer och insatsorganisationer / [ed] Ann Enander, Marcus Börjesson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, p. 148-160Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1123.
    Enander, Ann
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Lessons from the past: tools for the future?2008In: Learning from accidents: an anthology / [ed] Johanna Runarson, Karlstad: Statens räddningsverk , 2008, p. 203-205Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1124.
    Enander, Ann
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Medborgare och myndigheter: samspelta i risk och kris?2011In: Samverkan - för säkerhets skull! / [ed] Nils-Olov Nilsson, Karlstad: Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap , 2011, p. 157-171Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1125.
    Enander, Ann
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Människors behov och agerande vid olyckor och samhällskriser2008In: Säkerhet och sårbarhet: hur skapar vi ett hållbart samhälle? / [ed] Hans Bengtsson & Anders Mellbourn, Halmstad: Högskolan i Halmstad , 2008Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1126.
    Enander, Ann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Mötet med det drabbade samhället2017In: Rustad för risk: riskpsykologi för militärer och insatsorganisationer / [ed] Enander, Ann & Börjesson, Marcus, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, 1, p. 203-224Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1127.
    Enander, Ann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Principles of emergency plans and crisis management2018In: Handbook of Safety Principles / [ed] N. Möller, S-O. Hansson, J E Holmberg & C. Rollenhagen, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2018, p. 711-731Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 1128.
    Enander, Ann
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Psykologiska perspektiv på risk- och krishanteringsförmåga: en kunskapsöversikt2010Report (Other academic)
  • 1129.
    Enander, Ann
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Recalling Chernobyl: reflections among Swedish farmers2006In: International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, ISSN 0280-7270, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 251-269Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1130.
    Enander, Ann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Varför bryr man sig?: Drivkrafter för riskreducering och katastrofberedskap2016In: Katastrofriskreducering: perspektiv, praktik, potential / [ed] Susann Baez Ullberg, Per Becker, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2016, p. 365-384Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1131.
    Enander, Ann
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Vilken syn har allmänheten på risk och säkerhet?2009In: Räddningsledaren: medlemsinformation, ISSN 1104-3776, no 2, p. 12-13Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1132.
    Enander, Ann
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Baez Ullberg, Susann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Hobbins, Jennifer
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Scorched communities: recovery and learning after wildfire2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2014, towards the end of a hot and very dry summer in Sweden, a fire broke out in the forests of the county of Västmanland. Fanned by high winds, this forest fire rapidly swept out of control, developing into a major disaster and national emergency. The acute phase continued for eleven days, resulting in one death, one seriously injured, 71 buildings and over 13,800 hectares of forest destroyed. Approximately 1000 persons and 1700 livestock were evacuated. In the aftermath of the fire, considerable criticism has been raised regarding the firefighting operation, communication with the affected communities and the functioning of the Swedish crisis management system in general. A number of inquiries and analyses have been initiated, some of which are still in progress. The fire has had dramatic effects on the environment, which will be clearly visible in the landscape for many years to come. Less visible, but equally far-reaching are the psychological and social consequences for the affected communities. This paper describes a project initiated in 2015 to study the impact of the Västmanland fire in affected local communities, focusing temporally on the first two years after the event. The impact is conceived of as deriving from the experience of the fire itself and its immediate physical consequences, and from adjusting to physical and social changes in the local environment, but it is also taken to stem from the multiple perceptions and varying understandings among different social actors of how the event has been managed and how it has been framed in the media. In the project these different perspectives are reflected in analyses of reporting in the media, examination of inquiry reports and other materials, observations and interviews with key actors, various stakeholders and community representatives. The purpose of the project is to understand how people and organizations have coped with and recovered from this particular environmental disaster in order to identify factors that support or prevent short term recovery and medium term resilience at the individual and community level. An overall outline of the project will be presented, together with some preliminary findings relating to implications of the post-fire period for recovery and learning processes. 

  • 1133.
    Enander, Ann
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Börjesson, MarcusSwedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Rustad för risk: riskpsykologi för militärer och insatspersonal2017Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 1134.
    Enander, Ann
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Börjesson, Marcus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Uppfattningar och reaktioner inför risker2017In: Rustad för risk: riskpsykologi för militärer och insatsorganisationer / [ed] Ann Enander, Marcus Börjesson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, p. 27-46Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1135.
    Enander, Ann
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Börjesson, Marcus
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Hede, Susanne
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Carlsson, Helena
    Whether ´tis better to vaccinate? Perceptions and experiences of the management of the A(H1N1) influenza pandemic in Sweden2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1136.
    Enander, Ann
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Börjesson, Marcus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Lindholm, Erik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Postpandemic nightmare: narcolepsy in the Swedish media2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1137.
    Enander, Ann
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Hede, Susanne
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Issues and dilemmas of sustainable mobility from a citizen perspective2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1138.
    Enander, Ann
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Hede, Susanne
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Opportunities and barriers for sustainable everyday behaviours from a citizen perspective: a Swedish case study2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1139.
    Enander, Ann
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Hede, Susanne
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Public´s participation adds value to exercises2006In: Homeland Protection Professional, ISSN 1556-0031, Vol. June, p. 14-19Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1140.
    Enander, Ann
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Hede, Susanne
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Lajksjö, Örjan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    One crisis after another Municipal experiences of severe storm in the shadow of the tsunami2009In: Disaster Prevention and Management, ISSN 0965-3562, E-ISSN 1758-6100, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 137-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop a theoretical understanding of experiences of crisis management among municipal leaders Design/methodology/approach - A total of 16 chief officers and three politicians from three different municipalities were Interviewed concerning experiences of dealing with it severe storm Data were analyzed by a grounded theory approach Findings - Data analysis generated model Central to the model is all evaluation sphere, which reflects tension between everyday circumstances and crisis needs, between assessments of legislation and practices its it support or hindrance. and assessments of human vulnerability versus coping resources Manager characteristics, the societal context within which the event occurred, and crisis characteristics all Influence this evaluation sphere Particular stressors include the fact that the leaders themselves were personally affected by the storm, the difficult decisions and assessments that had to be made, the uncertainty of the situation and the timing, soon after the tsunami Crisis management, decisions and actions can be seen its formed from the evaluation sphere and the Influencing factors Research limitations/implications - The paper has a small sample and limited representativeness Generalizability of the model should be tested in other crisis events Practical implication - The model call be used its a tool to design exercises and its it guideline for authorities, in providing preparedness and crisis support Originality/value - The paper provides, a theoretical model highlighting the complex evaluations underlying managers' decisions and actions lit real-life situations

  • 1141.
    Enander, Ann
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Hede, Susanne
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Lajksjö, Örjan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Why worry?: Motivation for crisis preparedness work among municipal leaders in Sweden2015In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much of the responsibility for societal safety and crisis preparedness rests with local municipal leaders. These tasks are demanding, and often insufficiently prioritized and supported. The purpose of this study was to identify factors influencing motivation to work with these issues, and to explore relationships among such factors. Two datasets, formed the basis of the analysis. From the qualitative analysis, a model was developed describing three main categories of motivational factors: person-related, organizational and activity-related. Actual crisis experience was found to influence factors in all three categories. Differences regarding motivational forces could be identified among different roles among officials. Self-determination theory is applied to the model, illustrating possible ways to influence motivation for work with preparedness issues.

  • 1142.
    Enander, Ann
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Lajksjö, Örjan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Tedfeldt, Eva-Lena
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    A Tear in the Social Fabric: Local Communities Dealing with Socially Generated Crises2010In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 39-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to develop knowledge about demands and experiences relating to management of socially generated crises in local communities. Interviews were conducted in four municipalities with experiences of such situations, e.g., widely publicized murders, suicides or cases of sexual abuse. A modified grounded theory analysis of the interviews identified six central themes. Two themes pertained to the actual event and its consequences; two concerned the management of the crisis; and two themes focused on reactions and needs among those involved. Basic tensions were identified between confidentiality and openness, between support and accountability and between empathy and distancing. Similarities and differences in relation to management of other kinds of crises are discussed.

  • 1143.
    Enander, Ann
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Lajksjö, Örjan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Tedfeldt, Eva-Lena
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Det händer mitt ibland oss: kommunala erfarenheter av socialt genererade kriser2008Report (Other academic)
  • 1144.
    Enander, Ann
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Ledarskapsinstitutionen.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Ledarskapsinstitutionen.
    Wallenius, Claes
    Swedish National Defence College, Ledarskapsinstitutionen.
    Programutredning: Kris- och katastrofforskning1993Report (Other academic)
  • 1145.
    Enander, Ann
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Alvinius, Aida
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Hede, Susanne
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Framing the public in crisis2013In: Cultures of Disasters: An International Conference on Humanistic Disaster Studies - University of Oslo, November 6-8, 2013: Book of Abstracts, Oslo: University of Oslo , 2013, p. 40-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1146.
    Enander, Ann
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Wallenius, Claes
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Psychological reactions and experiences among Swedish citizens resident in Kobe during the 1995 earthquake1999In: International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, ISSN 0280-7270, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 185-205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses reactions and experiences of temporary residents and transients in a community struck by a major natural disaster. A retrospective questionnaire study was conducted among a group of Swedish citizens who were resident in Kobe during the Great Hanshin-Awaji earthquake. Respondents describe aspects of their behavior before, during, and after the earthquake. The findings indicate that, as a group, the Swedes appear to have coped well, even though they were not well-prepared for this type of situation. One factor found to be related to the behavioral responses was ability to speak the local language, in this case Japanese. On the basis of the study results, some particular needs and resources of foreign residents are discussed.  

  • 1147.
    Enander, Ann
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Ledarskapsinstitutionen.
    Wallenius, Claes
    Swedish National Defence College, Ledarskapsinstitutionen.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Ledarskapsinstitutionen.
    Studier av människors beteende i samband med kris- och katastrofsituationer: Mätning och metodik1995Report (Other academic)
  • 1148.
    Enarsson, Christofer
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Försvarsmaktens och Polisens värdegrundsarbeten2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1149.
    Eneman, Helena
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Hot och risker: Hot och risker officerare upplever under utlandstjänstgöring2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with this paper is to examine officers experience of threats and risks during serviceabroad. This because maybe in the future be able to create an embryo to prevent officers to developPTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder), since an increase of PTSD cases has been noticed.The method that is used in this paper is qualitative interview study where the author is trying to get adeeper understanding.The paper is to examine physical and psychological experiences of threats and risks during serviceabroad and if it would be possible to prevent.The participants in the study are four officers all male, with different backgrounds and all wasworking in the Swedish army at the time of the study.The results of this paper and previous research have found that experiences of threats and risks canlead to PTSD. The results also show that experiences are different and individual and that PTSD canbe prevented through knowledge of stress.

  • 1150.
    Enerdal, Mikael
    Swedish Defence University.
    Operation Gunnerside: Planeringen och förberedelsernas inverkan2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research on special operations is vague and at an early stage despite the fact that special operations, as we know them today, have been implemented since World War II. Several theories about why and when special operations succeed have been identified. However, current research suggests that these singly are not sufficient to explain something as complex as the nature of the special operations. Instead, the theories of special operations should be used together to complement each other. The purpose of this study is to provide an initial contribution to the research of special operations in which two independent theories are used to analyse how the planning and preparation for a special operation affect its outcome. One theory addresses the issue at a strategic level and the other one a tactical level. By breaking down the theories into smaller elements and seeking answers to these through a qualitative text analysis, indicators and evidence of its occurrence are obtained. The study's outcome shows that the parts of the two theories contribute, to some extent, to the explanation of the importance of planning and preparation in a special operation. It also shows that it is fruitful to use two theories to better understand the phenomenon of special operations.

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