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  • 101.
    Westberg, Jacob
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Det glömda arvet från svensk allianspolitik2016In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 3, p. 23-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Title:

    The forgotten legacy of Sweden´s policies of alignment

    Abstract:

    This article aims to contribute to the present debate on Sweden’s security policy orientation by introducing an analytical framework for explaining and evaluating different choices of grand strategy. The usefulness of the analytical framework is illustrated with reference to Sweden’s previous experiences from perusing policies of military alignment and participation in cooperative security efforts aiming for collective security. A further aim of the article is to remind the readers of these largely forgotten Swedish experiences of policies of alignment. This second aim is related to the mistaken but common view that Sweden during the last 200 years has pursued a consistent policy of non-alignment. In the conclusion of this article six alternative strategies to reduce the present gap between Sweden’s security goals and political and military means are analysed.

  • 102.
    Westberg, Jacob
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Det nordiska försvarssamarbetets drivkrafter och utvecklingsmöjligheter2015In: Svensk säkerhet i Europa och världen / [ed] Kjell Engelbrekt, Arita Holmberg, Jan Ångström, Stockholm: Norstedts Juridik AB, 2015, 2 [utök.] uppl., p. 89-116Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 103.
    Westberg, Jacob
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Försvarssamarbetet: en ny väg till fördjupat nordiskt samarbete?2017In: Norden sett inifrån: Det fjärde spårbytet / [ed] Bengt Sundelius & Claaes Wiklund, Stockholm: Santérus Förlag, 2017, 1, p. 41-55Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 104.
    Westberg, Jacob
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Svenska säkerhetsstrategier: 1810-20142015 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En nationell säkerhetsstrategi handlar ytterst om hur den politiska ledningen inriktar, utvecklar och utnyttjar olika former av maktmedel för att uppnå landets övergripande säkerhetspolitiska mål.

    I denna bok presenteras en sammanhållen analys av de olika säkerhetsstrategier som Sverige tillämpat under den 200-åriga fredsperioden sedan Napoleonkrigens slut. Bland dessa säkerhetsstrategier återfinns exempel på såväl olika former av neutralitetspolitik som olika former av allianspolitik samt strategier syftande till kollektiv säkerhet. De svenska vägvalen analyseras och förklaras med hjälp av teorier om säkerhetspolitiska strategier och internationell politik. Boken avslutas med en analys av dagens svenska försvarspolitik.

    Boken Svenska säkerhetsstrategier är främst avsedd att användas i utbildning på högskolenivå, men den avser också att lämna ett bidrag till forskning och debatt om svensk säkerhetspolitik.

  • 105.
    Westberg, Jacob
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Säkerhet utan alliansfrihet: svenska alliansstrategiers teori och praktik2016In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 118, no 4, p. 411-444Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to contribute to the present debate on Sweden’s security policy orientation by introducing some general theoretical propositions and concepts related to research on alliance formation and alignment strategies of small states. A further aim of the article is to challenge the mistaken but common view that Sweden ever since  has pursued a consistent policy of non-military alignment.

    The usefulness of these propositions and concepts is firstly illustrated with an analysis of Sweden’s previous experiences of military alignment and participation in cooperative security efforts aiming for collective security. Secondly, insights from Sweden’s previous experiences and general research on alliance behaviour of great and small powers are used to discuss potential benefits and costs related to three possible future alignment strategies: (i) a small state military alliance between Finland and Sweden, (ii) a bilateral military alliance between Sweden the US and (iii) a Swedish membership in NATO. Finally, the question of continuity and change in Sweden’s policy of non-alignment is addressed. In answering this question the concepts of critical junctions, path dependency and external shocks are introduced as analytical tools to analyse causes of both continuity and change. I relation to these concepts Sweden’s security strategies have been characterised by far less consistency than theories of critical junctions or external shocks would lead us to expect. It is also argued that the policy of non-alignment since the end of the Cold War has lost most of its practical relevance and that the deteriorating security situation in Europe has created a need for a new coherent Swedish security strategy.

  • 106.
    Wikman, Lars
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy. Department of Government, Uppsala University, Sweden; SCANCOR, Stanford University, USA.
    War with the Terrorists or Rebuilding a Nation in Need?: Dutch Public Opinion on Afghanistan : The Theory of the Principal Policy Objective Revisited2016In: Res Militaris, E-ISSN 2265-6294, Vol. ERGOMAS, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article points to the need for a more complex understanding of the public's perception of the Principal Policy Objective (PPO) when it comes to citizens' attitudes toward foreign military interventions. In contrast to previous research, where one PPO has been linked to support either by experimental standards or survey practicality, this article uses a survey and a method which allow the analysis to account for conflicting PPOs and leaves the interpretation of the PPO to the individual respondent, increasing the validity of the results. This is done using a dataset based on a monthly survey, conducted during the Dutch military involvement in the Afghan province of Uruzgan (2006-2010), in which questions on support and perceptions of two PPO are separated in the questionnaire permitting a separation of two different PPO measurements on each value of public support. In the Dutch case two PPOs stand out as dominating the public discourse : War on Terror and the Reconstruction of Afghanistan. Both are included in the survey. Based on an OLS regression analysis, this article draws the conclusion that there is a significant relationship between each of the PPOs separately and public support, even when controlled for each other. Previous research has pointed to a dominating PPO that guides attitude behaviour ; however, this article finds instead that several PPOs could be driving support simultaneously and that each has a significant relationship to public support independent of one another. This article offers some possible theoretical insights as to how but additional research is necessary to further investigate how several perceptions of PPO relate to each other during the formation of attitudes amongst the citizenry.

  • 107.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Escalation, Emulation, and the Failure of Hybrid Warfare in Afghanistan2017In: Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, ISSN 1057-610X, E-ISSN 1521-0731, Vol. 40, no 10, p. 838-856Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, I argue that hybridization is a contingent result of the dynamics of some conflicts but not others. In particular, faced with opponents with great power, weaker powers seek a situation of asymmetry to gain victory. Drawing on within-case analysis of the conduct of war during the past thirty years in Afghanistan, I demonstrate that what we now consider to be "hybrid" represents an important continuity and strategic option in Afghan warfare. Still, the analysis also demonstrates that choosing "hybrid" has not been a strategy that has worked. Hezb-i-Islami's rather limited attempt for conventionalization of the war against the forces of Dostum and Massoud in 1992 failed and the Taliban's more far-reaching attempt for conventionalization has so far also failed to reap strategic success. This suggests that the threat of hybrid war is inflated.

  • 108.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Försvarsmaktens internationella insatser: i den svenska säkerhetens eller identitetens tjänst?2015In: Svensk säkerhetspolitik i Europa och världen / [ed] Kjell Engelbrekt, Arita Holmberg & Jan Ångström, Stockholm: Norstedts Juridik AB, 2015, 2, p. 233-264Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 109.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy. Uppsala universitet.
    Försvarsmaktens internationella insatser: I den svenska säkerhetens eller identitetens tjänst?2010In: Svensk säkerhetspolitik i Europa och världen / [ed] Kjell Engelbrekt & Jan Ångström, Norstedts Juridik AB, 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 110.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Seger: ett begrepp i behov av nyansering2018In: Minnet av Narva: om troféer, parader och historiebruk / [ed] Klas Kronberg, Anna-Maria Forssberg, Lund: Nordic Academic Press, 2018, p. 213-234Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 111.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    The US perspective on future war: why the US relies upon Ares rather than Athena2018In: Defence Studies, ISSN 1470-2436, E-ISSN 1743-9698, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 318-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses why the US in its military operations tends to focus on only one dimension in war – the military narrowly understood. More precisely, in the US case, its armed forces tend to be preoccupied with platforms and understand military capabilities as those that deliver death and destruction. I explain this one-sided understanding of the military dimension in war with how the US armed forces think about future war. How the US understands future war is, in turn, a reflection of how it organizes its long-term defense planning procedures. In particular, by approaching the concept of future as by and large structurally determined, a focus on platforms becomes natural. Investments in weapons systems, too, are more easily motivated to Congress since it is easier to attach a price to developing, for example, a new submarine than it is to attach a price to the cost of developing a military organization that is adaptive, learning and anticipating. The understanding of the future as something that happens whether you like it or not is particularly odd in the US context where of course a central tenet of the American dream is that the individual creates her own future.

  • 112.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Transformation into Nature: Swedish Army Ranger Rites of Passage2016In: Transforming Warriors: The Ritual Organization of Military Force / [ed] Peter Halden & Peter Jackson, London: Routledge, 2016, p. 144-162Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 113.
    Ångström, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Noreen, Erik
    Uppsala universitet.
    Swedish strategy and the Afghan experience: from neutrality to ambiguity2017In: The Swedish presence in Afghanistan: security and defence transformation / [ed] Arita Holmberg & Jan Hallenberg, London: Routledge, 2017, p. 31-54Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 114.
    Ångström, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Widen, Jerker
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Contemporary military theory: the dynamics of war2015Book (Refereed)
  • 115.
    Ångström, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Widén, Jerker
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Religion or reason?: exploring alternative ways to measure the quality of doctrine2016In: Journal of Strategic Studies, ISSN 0140-2390, E-ISSN 1743-937X, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 198-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we address the often ignored issue of quality standards for doctrine. In doing so, we contribute to the existing literature on military doctrine, since much of previous research has focused on outlining the effects of doctrine or the causes of particular doctrinal content, rather than how we should measure its quality. The predominant way of understanding quality of doctrine is based on the rationalist understanding of doctrine as a force multiplier. However, rationalist aims do not necessarily tell us anything about the contents of doctrine. Hence, a doctrine can be seemingly of high quality, but ultimately impede or lead armed forces astray. Rather than focusing on the utilitarian side of doctrine, we suggest that doctrine should mainly be understood as articles of faith or a belief system. And thus the quality of doctrine becomes inextricably linked to military norms and military identity. Writing doctrine thus becomes part of ritual, rather than reason.

123 101 - 115 of 115
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