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  • 101.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Liberia Incorporated: military contracting, cohesion and inclusion in Charles Taylor’s Liberia2017In: Conflict, Security and Development, ISSN 1467-8802, E-ISSN 1478-1174, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 53-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the existing literature, compensation is often understood to be an inferior source of cohesion in military organisations. Through an investigation of the militias who fought for Charles Taylor’s government of Liberia, this paper makes three claims. Firstly, the organisation of these forces was looser than is often claimed in previous literature, which assumes tight and often coercive military patrimonialism. Consequently, the militias did not enjoy the interpersonal bonds of solidarity that have dominated recent cohesion literature. Secondly, since Taylor chose to suppress attempts to build cohesion around ethnicity, it played a subordinate role in unifying the militias. Thirdly, Taylor instead relied on military contracting and compensation, which allowed for the broad mobilisation of forces. The combination of militias’ hopes of inclusion into the state patrimony and insufficient resources to realise this left the cohesion of the militias fragile. Ultimately, this paper questions both whether Taylor had any choice but to resort to compensation in a context with a weak state and fragmented social organisation, and also whether the strategy is as inefficient as often thought.

  • 102.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy. Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för freds- och konfliktforskning.
    Mystical and modern transformations in the Liberian Civil War2016In: Transforming Warriors: The Ritual Organization of Military Force / [ed] Peter Haldén and Peter Jackson, London/New York: Routledge, 2016, p. 126-143Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This essay investigates military transformation within the context of the Liberian civil wars (1989-1996 and 1999-2003). Military transformation is understood as a process of turning a civilian into a fighter, and in Liberia two ideal types of fighters materialized: the trained soldier and the mystical combatant. Whereas the first drew from their professional military training and international military culture, the second drew on mystical protection. These two ways of transformation also became sources of authority within the military organizations that fought the wars. It was ultimately training that offered more than protection alone: the former military personnel dominated command positions. Training also succeeded in the creation of forming a shared identity, which continues to date. Whereas most combatants demobilized and not fought again since, the identities of soldiers are still very much alive. This has partly to do with the fact that the Liberian government continues to pay pensions to those that have served in the armed forces, which has led to the institutionalization of these identities. The view of military personnel as security professionals also helps to maintain these identities as relevant. While constructing and maintaining this kind of professional cohesion is important during conflicts, it can have long-term consequences for peace-building.

  • 103.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy. Institutionen för freds- och konfliktforskning, Uppsala universitet, Uppsala, Sweden.
    "No Die, No Rest?": Coercive Discipline in Liberian Military Organisations2015In: Africa Spectrum, ISSN 0002-0397, E-ISSN 1868-6869, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 3-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Discipline forms the backbone of all military organisations. While discipline is traditionally associated with draconian punishment, this association is increasingly only applied to non-Western contexts. African rebel movements and similar, weak organisations are represented especially often as lacking non-coercive means of instilling discipline. This article explores the utility of coercive discipline in one such context – the Second Liberian Civil War (1999–2003). I argue that Liberia’s weak military organisations faced significant restrictions when it came to employing direct coercion. Executions, which are often equated with coercion in existing literature, threatened to rive the already frail organisations. Even other formal instruments of discipline, such as military hierarchies and rules and regulations, remained contested throughout the war. Consequently, more indirect means were adopted. Ultimately, the main users of coercion were not military organisations, but peers. This suggests that it is easier for strong organisations to coerce their members, and that the relationship between coercion and organisational strength may need to be reassessed. Furthermore, existing positive perceptions of camaraderie between brothers-in-arms requires re-evaluation.

  • 104.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    On Brokers, Commodification of Information and Liberian Former Combatants2019In: Civil Wars, ISSN 1369-8249, E-ISSN 1743-968X, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 179-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates research brokers and commodification of information.When combined with inherently asymmetric research relationships and successfulgatekeeping, brokers create demand and become indispensable.Potential negative effects of brokerage and commodification of informationare discussed through experiences studying former combatants in Liberia.There bargains with brokers who could facilitate access to this hidden populationresulted in a vicious circle as brokers confirmed what researchers wantedto hear. The attention to this issue was first brought by subsequent ethnographyand participant observation, which also offer the promise of an ethicallydefensible way of collecting information.

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  • 105.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    On Liberian secret societies and conflict resolution2019In: Nordic Journal of African Studies, ISSN 1235-4481, E-ISSN 1459-9465, Vol. 28, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent times have witnessed a rising interest in micro-level conflict resolution mechanisms in the form of religious and traditional leaders due to their perceived legitimacy central to peace. Based on 15 months of ethnographic fieldwork, this article updates the decades old literature on Liberian secret societies to post-conflict realities, focusing especially on these leaders’ peacebuilding potential. While states remain the main instrument for upholding domestic order, the weak Liberian state continues to rely on societies for legitimacy in conflict resolution and governance alike. The article offers a contemporary look at the Liberian societies, and especially their uneasy relationship with the state: the two are so entwined that it is difficult to separate the two. Yet this also poses problems for the societies, as the proximity threatens their ultimately local legitimacy. While peacemakers and statebuilders alike are tempted to co-opt societies to gain legitimacy, the article questions whether this is always desirable or possible.

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  • 106.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    On 'War and Society'2020In: Journal of Perpetrator Research, E-ISSN 2514-7897, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 252-257Article, book review (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Review of Miguel A. Centeno and Elaine Enriquez, War & Society (Cambridge: Polity, 2017).

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  • 107.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Operation Jungle Fire: The Consolidation of the Liberians United for Reconciliation and Democracy2021In: Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, ISSN 1057-610X, E-ISSN 1521-0731Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on 15 months of ethnographic fieldwork, this article investigates the cooperative consolidation of the Liberians United for Reconciliation and Democracy (LURD), a rebel movement that in 1999-2003 sought to rid Liberia of President Charles Taylor. The LURD faced many obstacles to consolidation, including a history of ethnic fragmentation and infighting, leadership conflicts, lack of territory inside Liberia, and a paucity of resources. Yet, despite these hurdles, the LURD succeeded in forging a coalition that lasted just long enough to oust Taylor. It did this by adopting three maxims that emphasized institutional learning, interethnic power sharing, and Guinean sponsorship.

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  • 108.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Pintapuolinen käsitys tulevasta sodasta2021In: Ulkopolitiikka, ISSN 0501-0659, no 4Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 109.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Sodasta ja Yhteiskunnasta: Review of Miguel A. Centeno & Elaino Enriquez: War & Society2019In: Sosiologia, ISSN 0038-1640, Sosiologia, ISSN 0038-1640, Vol. 56, no 2, p. 194-197Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 110.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Strategy, State-centrism and Pessimism: the Case of Russia, 20192019In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 3, p. 132-136Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Artikeln tar upp debatten om Rysslands krig mot Ukraina, men fäster blicken på två övergripande och ofta framkommande aspekter av strategisk teori, fokus på staten som analysnivå samt pessimism. Båda är vanligt förekommande aspekter även i pågående debatt om Ryssland, inte minst den som rör det ryska hotet. I denna debatt ses Ryssland ofta som en monolit som kontrolleras av president Vladimir Putin. I slutändan korrelerar hans grad av kontroll över statsmakten med hot. Men, stämmer bilden av Putin som en mästerlig manipulator och strateg som har övertag över västvärlden? I artikeln frågas vad Ryssland ”är” och om ”den” gör strategi? Tendensen att se ”ett” Ryssland som kontrolleras av Putin har i sin tur bidragit till överskattning och pessimism. Detta har i sin tur hindrat bra strategi. Eftersom Finlands historiskt pessimistiska synsätt mot Ryssland ofta uppfattas ha lett till bra strategi är det i synnerhet finska exempel som tas upp i texten. I slutändan är det mycket som vi inte vet om Ryssland. Det är därför lättare att göra teoretiska poäng av situationen. Bra strategi bygger på korrekt analys av den rådande situationen. Medvetenhet om tendenser att fokusera på faktorerna stater och pessimism kan därför nyansera framtida debatter, och bidra till bättre strategi.

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  • 111.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy. Uppsala Univ, Dept Peace & Conflict Res, Uppsala, Sweden.
    'Taylor Must Go': The Strategy of the Liberians United for Reconciliation and Democracy2015In: Small Wars & Insurgencies, ISSN 0959-2318, E-ISSN 1743-9558, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 248-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1999, rebels rose to oppose the newly elected former warlord Charles Taylor in Liberia. Motivated by a variety of reasons, the minimal common denominator of these rebels, who assumed the name Liberians United for Reconciliation and Democracy (LURD), was that Charles Taylor must leave the country. The decentralized nature of LURD though stands out in their struggle, as they don't fit the unitary actor assumed by literature on strategy, nor the alternative conception of decentralized forces fighting for purely local reasons. Understanding such aberrations as LURD is the first step to finding strategies that can incorporate and manage them.

  • 112.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    The Evolution of Hybrid Warfare: Implications for Strategy and the Military Profession2021In: Parameters, ISSN 0031-1723, E-ISSN 2158-2106, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 115-127, article id 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of hybrid war has evolved from operational-level use of military means and methods in war toward strategic-level use of nonmilitary means in a gray zone below the threshold of war. This article considers this evolution and its implications for strategy and the military profession by contrasting past and current use of the hybrid war concept and raising critical questions for policy and military practitioners.

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  • 113.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    The MODEL social structure of an armed group: From Liberian refugees to heroes of Côte d’Ivoire and liberators of the homeland2018In: Small Wars & Insurgencies, ISSN 0959-2318, E-ISSN 1743-9558, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 776-800Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the Movement for Democracy in Liberia (MODEL) through a revised Weberian framework that focuses on legitimacy and offers a thick description of the different phases of this armed group. The article argues that the key to fostering cohesion is the harmonization of the micro, meso, and macro levels. This proved a difficult undertaking for the MODEL. Not only did the MODEL lack material resources but it also relied on different and evolving kinds of legitimacy on these levels. With its sources of legitimacy exhausted after the war, the MODEL ceased to exist.

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  • 114.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    The people's war in Ukraine2018In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 4, p. 180-183Article, book review (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Review of Volunteer Battalions: Story of a Heroic Deed of Battalions That Saved Ukraine by Kateryna Hladka, Veronika Myronova, Oleg Pokalchuk, Vasilisa Trofymovych and Artem Shevchenko

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  • 115.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    The Russo-Ukrainian War and the art of opportunism2019In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 2, p. 166-170Article, book review (Other academic)
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  • 116.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Toward Strategic Cohesion: A Reply to King’s Criticism of the Call for a Broader View of Cohesion2021In: Armed forces and society, ISSN 0095-327X, E-ISSN 1556-0848, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 596-603Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In October 2018, Armed Forces & Society published a special issue that called for a theoretical and methodological broadening of the study of cohesion. In a response, King accuses me of ignoring his 2013 book The Combat Soldier, which he feels had already made this call redundant. This answer explains why this is not the case. The Combat Soldier ticks the three boxes of modern, Western, and state military that have dominated the study of cohesion. The resulting narrow vantage point affirms problematic assumptions of Western concepts as absolutes with universal validity with little room for other models of sociopolitical interaction. This becomes especially problematic when King defines cohesion as tactical-level combat performance, the be-all and end-all of what makes, and decides, war. The answer concludes with an appeal for truly interdisciplinary future studies of war that a broader understanding of cohesion, among other things, depends on.

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  • 117.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Vaikenevat veteraanit2021In: Politiikasta.fi, ISSN 2323-7090Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [fi]

    Suomalainen keskustelu Afganistanista ja muista kriisinhallintaoperaatioista on ollut vähäistä. Kansainvälisessä vertailussa on silmiinpistävää etenkin kriisinhallintaveteraanien vaikeneminen julkisesti. Vaikenemisen syiden ja seurausten käsittely on tärkeää niin inhimillisesti kuin yhteiskunnallisestikin.

  • 118.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    War as nothing but a duel: war as an institution and the construction of the Western military profession2020In: Journal of Military Studies, ISSN 2242-3524, E-ISSN 1799-3350, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 11-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Like all repetitive human interaction, even war has been institutionalized and fought according to conventions and norms. Historically, this institutionalization is apparent from the way war has been compared to the duel, first in the 14th century and most famously by Carl von Clausewitz 5 centuries later. This article continues this train of thought and argues that the observed limits of Western “professional orthodoxy” and “strategic vocabulary” can be traced to how war has been institutionalized by the military profession. This offers an alternative explanation to the prevailing views of why the West has struggled in contemporary wars: it is the fundamental mismatch between these professional norms in the West and those held by their opponents that forms the biggest asymmetry in contemporary war. As this asymmetry is unlikely to disappear, these professional norms need to be reconsidered: just like the aristocracy with the duel by the late 19th century, the Western military profession appears stuck in an institution that is increasingly becoming obsolete. Without such reconsideration, the attainment of decision – the central strategic objective in war – and hence victory in future wars will remain uncertain.

  • 119.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Haldén, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Full-Spectrum Social Science for a Broader View on Cohesion2020In: Armed forces and society, ISSN 0095-327X, E-ISSN 1556-0848, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 517-522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In October 2018, Armed Forces & Society published a special issue dedicated to broadening the perspective on military cohesion from the narrow focus on 20th and 21st Western state militaries and the microlevel. The special issue emphasized the need for a theoretical and methodological broadening of the study of cohesion: In order to understand the majority of armed groups in the world, it is necessary to investigate macro- and mesolevel preconditions of microlevel cohesion. Such preconditions include the existence of states, nations, and modern military organization. These are specific to modern, Western contexts, and rarely feature in historical or non-Western cases. In many cases, investigating these preconditions requires qualitative methods. In a critical response, Siebold contested some of the arguments of the special issue, claiming that our argument was exaggerated and our methodologies inadequate. In this reply, we seek to clarify some of the issues and arguments at stake.

  • 120.
    Larsdotter, Kersti
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Enhancing European Security?: The Strategy of Military Assistance2020In: Military Strategy in the 21st Century: The Challenge for NATO / [ed] Janne Haaland Matlary and Rob Johnson, London: Hurst & Company , 2020, p. 251-264Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 121.
    Larsdotter, Kersti
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy. Norwegian Defence University College, Norway.
    Military Strategy and Peacekeeping: An Unholy Alliance?2019In: Journal of Strategic Studies, ISSN 0140-2390, E-ISSN 1743-937X, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 191-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the increased use of military force in peacekeeping operations in the twenty-first century, these operations are not included in traditional strategic theory. In this article, I outline the logic of four strategies for peacekeeping operations – defence, deterrence, compellence and offence – and trace the use of these strategies in two consecutive UN operations in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: MONUC and MONUSCO. The article concludes that all four strategies are indeed used in the two operations, but they are neither comprehensive nor proactive, leaving the true potential of military strategy unrealised.

  • 122.
    Larsdotter, Kersti
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Military Strategy and Peacekeeping: An Unholy Alliance?2020In: Military Strategy in the 21st Century / [ed] Kersti Larsdotter, London & New York: Routledge, 2020, p. 37-57Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the increased use of military force in peacekeeping operations in the twenty-first century, these operations are not included in traditional strategic theory. In this article, I outline the logic of four strategies for peacekeeping operations – defence, deterrence, compellence and offence – and trace the use of these strategies in two consecutive UN operations in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: MONUC and MONUSCO. The article concludes that all four strategies are indeed used in the two operations, but they are neither comprehensive nor proactive, leaving the true potential of military strategy unrealised.

  • 123.
    Larsdotter, Kersti
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy. Norwegian Defence University College, Norway.
    Military Strategy in the 21st Century2019In: Journal of Strategic Studies, ISSN 0140-2390, E-ISSN 1743-937X, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 155-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This special issue explores military strategy in the twenty-first century. The articles scrutinise strategy from three perspectives: the study of strategy, and how our understanding of strategy has changed over time; new areas for strategic theory, i.e., areas where the development of war has made strategy become more important, such as peacekeeping operations and cyberspace;and the makers of strategy, more specifically why states choses suboptimal strategies and how wars in the twenty-first century influence strategy makers.

  • 124.
    Larsdotter, Kersti
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Military Strategy in the 21st Century2020In: Military Strategy in the 21st Century / [ed] Kersti Larsdotter, London & New York: Routledge, 2020, p. 1-16Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 125.
    Larsdotter, Kersti
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Military Strategy in the 21st Century2020Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Military Strategy in the 21st Century explores military strategy and the new challenges facing Western democracies in the twenty-first century, including strategy in cyber operations and peacekeeping, challenges for civil-military relations, and the strategic choices of great powers and small states.

    The volume contributes to a better understanding of military strategy in the twenty-first century, through exploring strategy from three perspectives: first, the study of strategy, and how our understanding of strategy has changed over time; second, new areas for strategic theory, such as peacekeeping and cyberspace; and third, the makers of strategy, and why states choose suboptimal strategies.

    With the increasing number of threats challenging strategy makers, such as great power rivalry, terrorism, intrastate wars, and transnational criminal organisations, Military Strategy in the 21st Century will be of great value to scholars of IR, Security Studies, Strategic Studies, and War Studies as well as policymakers and practitioners working with military strategy in particular and international security and war in general. The chapters were originally published as a special issue of the Journal of Strategic Studies.

  • 126.
    Ledberg, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Analysing Chinese Civil-Military Relations: A bottom-Up Approach2018In: China Quarterly, ISSN 0305-7410, E-ISSN 1468-2648, Vol. 234, p. 377-398Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines Chinese civil-military relations using a bottom-up analytical approach and hitherto untapped sources, including interviews with military personnel in active service. It argues that traditional approaches to political control, which generally interpret the changing political-military relationship through military professionalism and institutional autonomy, miss out on important aspects and may generate erroneous conclusions. Here, focus is instead on the professional autonomy of the Chinese officer corps. Through an empirical study of the organization of military work at two of China’s top military education institutes, the article illustrates how professional autonomy and direct political control varies, both between hierarchical levels and issue areas. This highlights the multidimensionality of both control and professional manoeuvrability and underlines the fruitfulness of including an intra-organizational perspective in order to reach better informed conclusions about political control and civil-military relations in today’s China. 

  • 127.
    Ledberg, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    China: party–army relations past and present2020In: Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics, Oxford University Press, 2020Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The People’s Liberation Army (PLA) is a key political actor within the Chinese state. Together with the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and the Chinese state institutions, it makes up the political foundation of the People’s Republic of China. In the early years following the founding of the PRC in 1949, the military played an important role in state consolidation and the management of domestic state affairs, as is expected in a state founded on Leninist principles of organization. Since the reform process, which was initiated in the late 1970s, the political role of the PLA has changed considerably. It has become less involved in domestic politics and increased attention has been directed towards military modernization. Consequently, in the early 21st century, the Chinese military shares many characteristics of the armed forces in non-communist states. At the same time, the organizational structures, such as the party committee system, the system of political leaders and political organs, have remained in place. In other words, the politicized structures that were put in place to facilitate the role of the military as a domestic political tool of the CCP, across many sectors of society, are expected to also accommodate modernization, professionalization and cooperation with foreign militaries on the international arena in post-reform China. This points to an interesting discrepancy between form and purpose in regard to the People’s Liberation Army. 

    The role of the military in Chinese politics has thus shifted over the years, and its relationship with the CCP has generally been interpreted as having developed from one marked by symbiosis to one of greater institutional autonomy and independence. Yet these developments should not necessarily be seen as linear or irreversible. Indeed, Chinese politics in the Xi Jinping era suggests an increased focus on ideology, centralization and personalized leadership, which already has had consequences for the political control of the armed forces in China. Chances are that these trends will impact the role of the PLA in politics even further in the early decades of the 21st century. 

  • 128.
    Ledberg, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Officeren, staten och samhället: ett professionsperspektiv2019 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    En fungerande demokrati förutsätter en god relation mellan militären, staten och samhället. Officerskåren, den militära professionen, förvaltar statens våldsmonopol och ansvarar ytterst för försvaret av viktiga samhällsfunktioner och demokratiska värden – en roll som kräver viss handlingsfrihet, om än begränsad.

    I Officeren, staten och samhället undersöker Sofia K. Ledberg hur relationen mellan militären och omvärlden påverkas av en rad pågående samhällsförändringar. Hotbilden i Europa har ändrats och de militära organisationerna ställs nu inför nya typer av utmaningar och uppdrag. Samtidigt präglas dagens samhälle av ökande individualism och heterogenitet vilket hotar att vidga klyftan till den traditionellt sett konservativa och hierarkiska militära byråkratin.

    Vilka nya krav ställer dessa förändringar på officerens expertis? Vilken betydelse har kårens representativitet värderingar för förankringen i och gemenskapen med det omkringliggande samhället? Med hjälp av ett professionsperspektiv belyser författaren både förändringar och utmaningar som utvecklingen medför

  • 129.
    Ledberg, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Political Control and Military Autonomy: Reexamining the Chinese People’s Liberation Army2018In: Asian Security, ISSN 1479-9855, E-ISSN 1555-2764, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 212-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first part of this article discusses the most common theoretical and analytical approaches to the study of political control over the armed forces in China. It argues that the focus on professionalism and professionalization at the level of the military institution that is common in previous studies has certain limitations when analyzing Chinese civil–military relations. Against this background, the second part of the article suggests an alternative approach that places the Chinese officer corps and its professional autonomy at the center of analysis. Its benefit is demonstrated in a case study of quality control at China’s top three military education institutes. The study shows that autonomy and direct political control varies, which indicate a need for more nuanced discussions about military professionalization in China.

  • 130.
    Ledberg, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    Uppsala Universitet, SWE.
    Björnehed, Emma
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section.
    Managerialism and the Military: Consequences for the Swedish Armed Forces2022In: Armed forces and society, ISSN 0095-327X, E-ISSN 1556-0848, Vol. 48, no 4, p. 892-916Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes civil-military relations and the issue of civilian control through the lens of new managerialism. It illustrates that the means and mechanisms applied by governments to govern the military actually shape its organization and affect its functions in ways not always acknowledged in the civil-military debate. We start by illustrating the gradual introduction of management reforms to the Swedish Armed Forces and the growing focus on audit and evaluation. The article thereafter analyzes the consequences of these managerialist trends for the most central installation of the armed forces-its headquarters. It further exemplifies how such trends affect the work of professionals at the military units. In conclusion, managerialist reforms have not only changed the structure of the organization and the relationship between core and support functions but have also placed limits on the influence of professional judgment.

  • 131.
    Ledberg, Sofia K.
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy. Försvarshögskolan.
    Ruffa, Chiara
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Military Families: Topography of a Field2020In: Handbook of Military Sciences / [ed] Sookermany, Anders, Springer, 2020, 1, p. 1-16Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past decades, debates revolving around the role and challenges of military families have developed into an important subfield in military sociology. Throughout history, military families have played an important role for military forces, and in the post-World War II era, the role of the family has shifted as a consequence of military professionalization. Research on military families explores the different demands placed upon service members from both the military organization and the family. More recently, such research has studied how the inclusion of women and gender minorities, operational deployments, and broader societal changes transformed the composition, stakes, and challenges of military families and the traditional idea of the military spouse.

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  • 132.
    Ljungkvist, Kristin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Toward an Urban Security Research Agenda in IR2021In: Journal of Global Security Studies, ISSN 2057-3170, E-ISSN 2057-3189, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 1-17, article id ogaa019Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theorizing about the manner in which urban dimensions influence global security and vice versa is still in an embryonic stage. The central argument of this article holds that scholars in the fields of international relations (IR) and security studies largely remain blind to contemporary urban dimensions of global transboundary security issues, and have not yet adequately assessed its dynamics or political implications. In order to stimulate and structure further research, this article sets out to situate issues pertaining to urban security within a wider IR theoretical context. I suggest that the contemporary global security environment can be conceptualized in terms of a global–urban security nexus. This nexus points, on the one hand, to a changing spatial dynamic of security where urban places and practices become increasingly imperative and, on the other hand, to a rescaling of state power where urban actors are becoming increasingly empowered. I suggest that the global–urban security nexus as a point of analytical departure is equally relevant to the more traditional, narrow understanding of security as it is to the broadened security agenda, and it captures contemporary spatial security dynamics as well as changing security governance, in terms of both involved actors and practices. I finally draw out an urban security research agenda for IR that puts focus on global and transboundary security problems and their urban facets, and offers a novel way forward for studying global security dynamics in terms of its urban spaces, agents, and practices.

  • 133.
    Ljungkvist, Kristin
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Jarstad, Anna
    Uppsala University, (SWE).
    Revisiting the local turn in peacebuilding - through the emerging urban approach2021In: Third World Quarterly, ISSN 0143-6597, E-ISSN 1360-2241, Vol. 42, no 10, p. 2209-2226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we revisit the ‘local turn’ debate in the peacebuilding literature, and explore its most recent and promising approach to ‘the local’, focussing on post-war cities and on urban dimensions of peacebuilding. There is still substantive contestation and frustration in the peacebuilding research field with regards to the conceptual fuzziness of ‘the local’, and with the continual failures of international interventions to actually take into account local perspectives, promote local agency and establish local ownership. In this article, we explore to what extent recent urban approaches to peacebuilding can help alleviate some of the conceptual problems that has persisted in the literature. We reflect on and raise questions about what a focus on cities and urban perspectives is contributing to the study of local peacebuilding more specifically. We suggest three facets of analytical added value: (1) an increased understanding of how the particularities of urban and rural space affects peacebuilding locally and potentially beyond; (2) how cities and urban space are interrelated with traditional territoriality; and (3) the methodological benefits of the city/urban as (local) analytical entry point. We also discuss potential pitfalls and limitations of urban approaches to peacebuilding, and identify prospective pathways for further research.

  • 134.
    Lyckman, Markus
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Weissmann, Mikael
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Global shadow war: conceptual analysis2015In: Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict, ISSN 1746-7586, E-ISSN 1746-7594, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 251-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The US strategic shift from nation-building to what has been labelled “light footprint” has carried with it a number of changes in the practices used when waging war on terrorism. These activities include covert and clandestine action by special operations and paramilitary forces, and others, operating under a shadowy mandate. It is essential to analyse these changes, due to the nature of the actions taken and the global reach and consequences of US foreign policies. The concept of “global shadow war” has been used by scholars and journalists alike to describe the practices associated with the light footprint framework, although the concept is ambiguous, lacks clear conceptual boundaries and is yet to be defined. This article attempts to resolve the problem of ambiguity through a systematic analysis of how and when the concept is used, in the process establishing its conceptual boundaries and definitional qualities. Using a method for concept analysis developed by Giovanni Sartori, the article provides a conceptual definition which is more clearly delineated, encompasses the characteristics found in the sources studied, and can be used when theorizing about the many practices taking place within the light footprint framework.

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  • 135.
    Lyytikäinen, Minna
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Finland, (FIN).
    Yadav, Punam
    University College London, UK, (GBR).
    Wibben, Annick T.R.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Jauhola, Marjaana
    University of Helsinki, Finland, (FIN).
    Confortini, Catia
    Wellesley College, (USA).
    Unruly wives in the household: Toward feminist genealogies for peace research2021In: Cooperation and Conflict, ISSN 0010-8367, E-ISSN 1460-3691, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 3-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Feminist scholars and activists have historically been written out of peace research, despite their strong presence in the early stages of the field. In this article, we develop the concept of “wifesization” to illustrate the process through which feminist and feminized interventions have been reduced to appendages of the field, their contributions appropriated for its development but unworthy of mention as independent producers of knowledge. Wifesization has trickle-down effects, not just for knowledge production, but also for peacebuilding practice. We propose new feminist genealogies for peace research that challenge and redefine the narrow boundaries of the field, in the form of a patchwork quilt including early theorists, utopian writing, oral history, and indigenous knowledge production. Reflections draw on the authors’ engagements with several archives rich in cultures and languages of peace, not reducible to a “single story.” Recovering wifesized feminist contributions to peace research, our article offers a new way of constructing peace research canons that gives weight to long-standing, powerful, and plural feminist voices, in order to make peace scholarship more inclusive and ultimately richer.

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  • 136.
    Mohlin, Marcus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Merchants of Security: Private Security Companies, Strategy and the Quest for Power2016In: The Routledge Research Companion to Security Outsourcing / [ed] Berndtsson, Joakim & Kinsey, Christopher, London: Routledge, 2016, 1, p. 109-116Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 137.
    Mohlin, Marcus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Security Sector Reform as Trojan Horse?: New Security Assemblages of Privatized Military Training in Liberia2017In: Private Security in Africa: From the Global Assemblage to the Everyday / [ed] Higate, Paul & Utas, Mats, Zed Books, 2017, p. 107-120Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 138.
    Noreen, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Sjöstedt, Roxanna
    Lunds universitet.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Why Small States join Big Wars: The Case of Sweden in Afghanistan 2002-20142017In: International Relations, ISSN 0047-1178, E-ISSN 1741-2862, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 145-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The security behavior of small states has traditionally been explained by different takes of realism, liberalism, or constructivism - focusing on the behavior that aims toward safeguarding sovereignty or engaging in peace policies. The issue of why states with limited military capacities and little or no military alignments or engagements decide to participate in an international mission has received limited attention by previous research. In contrast, this article argues that a three-layered discursive model can make the choices of small states more precisely explained and thereby contribute to an increased understanding of small states' security behavior beyond threat balancing and interdependence. Analyzing a deviant case of a non-aligned small state, this article explains why Sweden became increasingly involved in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)-led International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) mission in Afghanistan. By focusing on the domestic political discourses regarding the Swedish involvement in this mission, it is suggested that a narrative shapes public perception of a particular policy and establishes interpretative dominance of how a particular event should be understood. This dominant domestic discourse makes a certain international behavior possible and even impossible to alter once established. In the Swedish case, it is demonstrated that this discourse assumed a catch-all' ambition, satisfying both domestic and international demands. In general terms, it should thus be emphasized that certain discourses and narratives are required in order to make it possible for a country to participate in a mission such as ISAF and prolong the mission for several years.

  • 139.
    Noreen, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    A Catch-All Strategic Narrative: Target Audiences and Swedish Troop Contribution to ISAF in Afghanistan2015In: Strategic Narratives, Public Opinion and War: Winning Domestic Support for the Afghan War / [ed] Beatrice de Graaf,George Dimitriu & Jens Ringsmose, London: Routledge, 2015Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 140.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, (SWE).
    Hedström, Jenny
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Spatial Struggles and the Politics of Peace: The Aung San Statue as a Site for Post-War Conflict in Myanmar’s Kayah State2021In: Journal of Peacebuilding and Development, ISSN 1542-3166, E-ISSN 2165-7440, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 275-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores processes of place-making and space-making around the erection of the Aung San statue in Kayah state in Myanmar and draws out the competing visions of peace that are articulated through them. The raising of the statue unleashed widespread public protest, which was largely met by repression by the Myanmar authorities. Drawing on interviews, focus groups, and documentary sources, we argue that the statue constitutes an attempt to establish a post-war political order centred on the reassertion of government authority in ethnic minority areas and the creation of unity through the imposition of one national identity. However, the statue has also been appropriated as a key site for the articulation of alternative visions of peace and development. The conflict around the statue thereby makes visible ongoing struggles over the meaning of peace and shows how these post-war struggles are fought on and through space and place.

  • 141.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, (SWE).
    Hedström, Jenny
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Phyo, Zin Mar
    Women, Peace and Security in Myanmar after the 2021 military coup2022Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This policy brief presents recommendations for how international development and peacebuilding organizations can redirect their work with women, peace and security issues in Myanmar in the wake of the 2021 military coup. In response to urgent needs, it is now critical to provide appropriate and flexible support to women’s organizations; identify and work with local structures for humanitarian response and service delivery; and support new and existing forms of cross-border aid.

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  • 142.
    Olsson, Louise
    et al.
    Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO), (NOR).
    Muvumba Sellström, Angela
    Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University, (SWE).
    Moncrief, Stephen
    Yale University, (USA).
    Wood, Elisabeth Jean
    Yale University, (USA).
    Johansson, Karin
    Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University, (SWE).
    Lotze, Walter
    Harvard Kennedy School of Government, (USA).
    Ruffa, Chiara
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy. Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Hoover Green, Amelia
    Drexel University, (USA).
    Sjöberg, Ann Kristin
    Genève, Schweiz, (CHE).
    Kishi, Roudabeh
    Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project (ACLED), (USA).
    Peacekeeping Prevention: Strengthening Efforts to Preempt Conflict-related Sexual Violence2020In: International Peacekeeping, ISSN 1353-3312, E-ISSN 1743-906X, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 517-585Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 143.
    Persson, Mariam
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy. War Studies Department, King's College London, UK.
    Demobilized or Remobilized?: Lingering Rebel Structures in Post-War Liberia2012In: African Conflicts and Informal Power: Big Men and Networks / [ed] Utas, Mats, London: Zed Books, 2012, p. 101-118Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 144.
    Persson, Mariam
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Kantor, Ana
    Liberian Vigilantes: Informal Security Providers on the Margins of Security Sector Reform2011In: The Politics of Security Sector Reform: Challenges and Opportunities for the European Union’s Global Role / [ed] Ekengren, Magnus & Simons, Greg, Farnham: Ashgate, 2011, p. 273-304Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 145.
    Pettersson, Ulrica
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Improved Safety Science - utilizing a Design Hierarchy2017In: World academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 273-278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract—Collection of information after incidents is regularly done through pre-printed incident report forms. These tend to be incomplete; frequently lack essential information. One consequence is that reports with inadequate information, that do not fulfil analysts’ requirements, are transferred into the analysis process. To improve, we used theory in design science and designed a new incident reporting form, based upon witness psychology, interview and questionnaire research and with focus on analysts’ within safety science requests. We have previous conducted three experiments to evaluate the new form, built upon a design science hierarchy. The new form can capture knowledge, regardless of the incidents character or contex. The aim in this paper is to describe how design science viz. a design hierarchy was used to construct a new collection form, in purpose to improve a minor artefact frequently used in safety science.

  • 146.
    Pettersson, Ulrica
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Kiras, D. James
    School of Advanced Air and Space Studies, USA.
    Size matters: Special operations and strategic security in small and large states2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current state of geopolitical affairs has radically changed the security environment for both small and large states.  A changing strategic security environment has drawn many states, connected by treaty and other cooperative obligations, into conflicts that may appear to be distant from direct national concerns.  The nature of many of these conflicts – terrorist tactics, indirect warfare, cyber attacks – has led many of these states to search for and develop different tools for their military toolboxes than had historically been emphasized.  These and other changes in national security environments have led both large and small states to increase their dependence on special operations forces (SOF) proportional to other military options.  However, smaller resource pools and different positions on the geopolitical stage may lead small states to use SOF differently than they are utilized by large states.  This discussion will use a cross-national, comparative approach, looking primarily at the ways in which Sweden and the U.S. have strategically positioned SOF and organizationally configured special operations within their respective militaries.  Examples from other states will be used as appropriate.

  • 147.
    Ries, Thomas
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Forward Resilience in Context2016In: Forward Resilience: Protecting Society in an Interconnected World / [ed] Hamilton, Daniel S., Washington DC: Center for Transatlantic Relations , 2016, p. 1-22Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 148.
    Ries, Tomas
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Finland: Continuity and Change2019In: Uussota - aihtuvat voimasuhteet. / [ed] Suistola, Jouni & Tiilikainen, Heikki, Atlas Art , 2019, 1, p. 143-149Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 149.
    Ries, Tomas
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Freedman and Putin's Moves for Ukraine2019In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 3, p. 120-131Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Krig är inte endast en dialektik mellan motsatta viljor, utan ett spel som alla parter spelar enligt deras egna spelregler. Artikeln presenterar möjliga motiv bakom president Putins spelregler när han invaderade Ukraina 2014. Dessa omfattar tre personliga faktorer: hans känslomässiga reaktion; hans politiska legitimitet; och hans fortsatta kontroll över den övriga ryska makteliten. Därtill tre bredare realpolitiska intressen: Putins uppfattning av Väst och Rysslands övergripnade vitala intressen gentemot USA och Europa; Rysslands specifika intressen i Krim; och Rysslands intressen i Ukraina och övriga grannstater. Målet med artikeln är att bredda den inåtvända och tills nyligen självgoda västerländska liberala världsbilden med ett hårdare ryskt maktpolitiskt perspektiv.

  • 150.
    Ries, Tomas
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    "Surprise Attack... or Not. The Red Army Attack on Finland 1939."2019In: Mental överrumpling: Tankar om aningslöshet inför hot mot nationell säkerhet - ett seminarium genomfört 3 maj 2018 i regi av Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademien / [ed] Tommy Jeppsson, Stockholm: Royal Swedish Academy of Military Science , 2019, 1, p. 25-38-Chapter in book (Other academic)
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