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  • 101.
    Ekengren, Magnus
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Matzén, Nina
    Svantesson, Monica
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    The new security role of the European Union: transnational crisis management and the protection of union citizens2006Book (Other academic)
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  • 102.
    Ekengren, Magnus
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section, Sektionen för krishantering och internationell samverkan.
    Rhinard, Mark
    Stockholm University.
    Barzanje, Costan
    The Swedish Institute of International Affairs.
    Working in the Same Direction?: Civil Protection Cooperation in the Baltic Sea Region2018Report (Other academic)
  • 103.
    Ekengren, Magnus
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section, Sektionen för krishantering och internationell samverkan.
    Rhinard, Mark
    Stockholms universitet, (SWE).
    Engström, Alina
    Utrikespolitiska institutet, (SWE).
    Coronapandemin-en smygande kris vintern 20202021In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 123, no 5, p. 33-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Why did the Swedish Government fail to act earlier against the Covid-19-virus in the light of the many foreshadowing outbreaks in China and in Italy and other EU Member States? With the help of the concept creeping crisis (smygande kris), this article analyses the tardiness with which the Swedish authorities acted to prevent the spread of the virus in the early stages of the pandemic (January – February 2020). The term refers to the phenomenon of belated measures despite extensive knowledge of slow-acting threats with sudden outbursts such as pandemics and global warming. The article explains the procrastination of Swedish actions as a result of psychological repression (“it couldn’t happen here in our country”), as well as cognitive delays that meant that understanding the threat evolution in the abstract did not spur action in proportion to the insight (“we saw it coming, but didn’t act until we felt it in our everyday life”). It ends by discussing possible ways to create more practically and temporally informed knowledge (“know-how”, “know-when”) of creeping crises for the generation of timely action able to stop these before they explode into acute crises.

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  • 104.
    Ekengren, Magnus
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Simons, GregSwedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    The Politics of Security Sector Reform: Challenges and Opportunities for the European Union’s Global Role2011Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Security Sector Reform (SSR) is increasingly becoming a cornerstone in international security and development cooperation. Indeed, the concept has often been seen as a panacea for many of the biggest threats to the world such as failed states, terrorism and poverty. In particular, this book focuses on the complexities of implementation of SSR across the globe and the actual and potential role for the European Union (EU) to play in SSR. As suggested in the title of the book, this involves not only opportunities, but challenges to be overcome as well. There are three core themes to this book: Policy, Policies and Practice. By presenting the themes in this particular order, a greater appreciation of the influences on the process of SSR, from conception to implementation, is relayed to the reader. This volume appeals to audiences interested in the EU as a global actor and the interrelationships between foreign, security, defence and development policies.

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  • 105.
    Engelbrekt, Kjell
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section, Sektionen för säkerhet.
    A brief intellectual history of geopolitical thought and its relevance to the Baltic Sea region2018In: Global Affairs, ISSN 2334-0460, E-ISSN 2334-0479, Vol. 4, no 4-5, p. 475-485Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article outlines a general history of the intellectual origins and development of geopolitical thought. It provides categories for assessing contemporary expressions of this phenomenon, and then discusses the applicability of these tools to the Baltic Sea region. The article focuses on eliciting and juxtaposing contrasts between the three classical bodies of literature that evolved largely in parallel, and ends up briefly commenting on a fourth, partly “critical” approach. The main takeaway is that considering all four geopolitical approaches before applying any of them to the Baltic Sea realm encourages analysts to embrace a more holistic and dynamic viewpoint than each of the alternatives individually can offer. Such a conceptualization promises to forge analytical linkages between a series of relevant, geographically contingent circumstances including resources, arenas and communities that represent prerequisites and opportunities incrisis, conflict, or war.

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  • 106.
    Engelbrekt, Kjell
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Alex Prichard, 2013. Justice, Order and Anarchy: The International Political Theory of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon. London:Routledge, 20132013In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Statsvetenskaplig tidskrift, Vol. 115, no 4, p. 263-266Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 107.
    Engelbrekt, Kjell
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Political Science Section.
    Après le non-alignement2009In: Nordiques, ISSN 1761-7677, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 1-17Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 108.
    Engelbrekt, Kjell
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Begrepp, teori, analysinstrument2015In: Svensk säkerhetspolitik i Europa och Sverige / [ed] Kjell Engelbrekt, Arita Holmberg och Jan Ångström, Stockholm: Norstedts Juridik AB, 2015, 2., [utök.] uppl., p. 19-34Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 109.
    Engelbrekt, Kjell
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Den nya säkerhetspolitiken och dess betingelser2015In: Svensk säkerhetspolitik i Europa och världen / [ed] Kjell Engelbrekt, Arita Holmberg och Jan Ångström, Stockholm: Norstedts Juridik AB, 2015, 2., [utök.] uppl., p. 9-18Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 110.
    Engelbrekt, Kjell
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Den "återställda" dialogen USA-Ryssland: multilateral diplomati i OSSE och FN:s Säkerhetsråd 2009-20112013In: Internasjonal Politikk, ISSN 0020-577X, E-ISSN 1891-1757, Vol. 71, no 4, p. 531-558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är allmänt bekant att den amerikansk-ryska dialogen «återställdes» 2009 under presidenterna Obama och Medvedev men tveksamt huruvida denna symbolpolitiska utfästelse även skapade förutsättningar för bättre, eller närmare, mellanstatliga relationer. I det följande företas en analys av återverkningar av de signaler om förnyat samarbete som sänts av respektive politisk ledning inom multilaterala fora där både USA och Ryssland deltar, med särskild tonvikt på Organisationen för Säkerhet och Samarbete i Europa (OSSE) och FN:s Säkerhetsråd. Det övergripande intrycket är att amerikansk-rysk diplomatisk samverkan 2009–2011 förblev fortsatt begränsad, i några spörsmål mer fokuserad, men att man från båda sidor medvetet undvek att «störa» varandras prioriterade intressen. En specifik iakttagelse från OSSE-samarbetet är att Rysslands diplomatiska initiativ var bättre underbyggda än tidigare, och kan förväntas få starkare genomslag i framtiden, åtminstone på det europiska fastlandet. Till skillnad från USA, som handlar via Säkerhetsrådet när man tror sig kunna skapa en koalition för ett visst ändamål, var rysk FN-diplomati 2009–2011 alltjämt defensiv.

  • 111.
    Engelbrekt, Kjell
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Political Science Section.
    Efter alliansfriheten2008In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, Kungliga Krigsvetenskapsakademiens handlingar och tidskrift, Vol. 212, no 6, p. 49-66Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 112.
    Engelbrekt, Kjell
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    ”En kapplöpning utan like”: En analytisk PM inför det amerikanska presidentvalet den 8:e november 20162016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The 2016 American presidential election has been described as ‘a race like no other’, with reference to the tone and nature of the campaign and the stark contrast between the policy platforms of the two main contenders, as well as the unusually high stakes involved for America, the transatlantic link, and beyond. The analysis contained in this memorandum discusses the foreign, security and defense policy platforms of Hillary Clinton and Donald J. Trump, the leadership styles of the two main candidates, and their respective approaches to transnational alliances and partnerships. In each of three areas of comparison Clinton emerges as the markedly more predictable, more competent and better prepared contender, also reassuringly focused on strengthening ties to close allies and partners in the coming years. From the vantage point of the global order, international trade, security and stability in Europe and the Baltic Sea region, Sweden is therefore significantly more likely to benefit from a Clinton presidency than from an administration led by Trump, and might even be in a position to forge closer ties to the United States in the realm of foreign, security and defense policy following a victory for the Democratic Party candidate on 8 November.

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  • 113.
    Engelbrekt, Kjell
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section, Sektionen för säkerhetespolitik och strategi.
    European Participation in International Military Operations: National Decision-Making and the Role of EU Institutions2020In: European Union Security and Defence: Policies, Operations and Transatlantic Challenges / [ed] Voskopoulos, George, Cham: Springer, 2020, p. 95-100Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book explores the multilayer nexus among inter-related international and regional security parameters that critically define the EU's rapidly changing security environment. In terms of intensity, complexity and urgency these changes constitute challenges that threaten the very core of European security - both internal and external. In a fluid and transitional international environment of diversified needs and polymorphic threats the space dimension acquires a novel unified meaning. The book closely examines the EU's current strategic, organisational and defence capabilities regarding global, regional and domestic challenges such as terrorism, systemic instability, global order and a number of crucial hindrances to transatlantic cooperation. The chapters offer not only valuable theoretical insights, but also unique perspectives on operational and organisational elements of EU applied policies based on the testimonies of field experts. The combination of theory-based approaches and the demonstration of the EU's operational capabilities and weaknesses as externalized through its global strategy choices provide an overall evaluation of adopted policies and their effects. This is crucial in a global transition period that will define the EU's role and its potential to produce desired outcomes through synergies with its strategic allies.

  • 114.
    Engelbrekt, Kjell
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section, Sektionen för säkerhet.
    Final reflections2018In: Global Affairs, ISSN 2334-0460, E-ISSN 2334-0479, Vol. 4, no 4-5, p. 551-554Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 115.
    Engelbrekt, Kjell
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    High-Table Diplomacy: the Reshaping of International Security Institutions2016Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The proliferation of "minilateral" summits is reshaping how international security problems are addressed, yet these summits remain a poorly understood phenomenon. In this groundbreaking work, Kjell Engelbrekt contrasts the most important minilateral summits -- the G7 (formerly G8) and G20 -- with the older and more formal UN Security Council to assess where the diplomacy of international security is taking place and whether these institutions complement or compete with each other. Engelbrekt's research in primary-source documents of the G7, G8, G20, and UN Security Council provides unique insight into how these institutions deliberate on three policy areas: conflict management, counterterrorism cooperation, and climate change mitigation. Relatively informal and flexible, GX diplomacy invites more countries to take a seat at the table and allows nontraditional security threats to be placed on the agenda. Engelbrekt concludes, however, that there is a continuing need for institutions like the UN to address traditional security problems. High-Table Diplomacy will provoke discussion and further research on the role of minilateral summits among scholars of international relations, security studies, and international organizations.

  • 116.
    Engelbrekt, Kjell
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section, Sektionen för säkerhetspolitik och strategi.
    Kärnvapen i en alltmer multipolär värld: forskningsöversikt och jämförande analys av amerikansk, brittisk, fransk och rysk doktrin2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The first part of this report provides an overview of the history of nuclear weapons doctrine, as it evolved in parallel to the practice of warfare and war planning in the mid-1940s and subsequently as an integral element of the cold war. A distinction is made between the early development of nuclear weapons doctrine, when United States held a dominant position in the field, and the near-parity situation that ensued in the late 1960s and onwards. The second part of the report consists of an analysis of American, British, French and Russian nuclear weapons doctrine between 1991 and 2018, illustrating how a period of low tension was gradually replaced with a reinvigoration of mutual suspicion after the year 2000. A third part briefly examines recent contributions to the American scholarly debate about the utility of nuclear weapons for strategic thought in a world moving toward polycentrism, as it revisits earlier theoretical insights and challenges conventional wisdoms. The fourth and final part elicits lessons for Sweden in particular.

    Overall, the report demonstrates that nuclear weapons consistently have represented an integral element of managing security risks in the Western hemisphere but that domestic political and defense industry considerations play in as well. It also suggests that doctrinal adjustments mirror the major concerns of policymakers in this regard and that nuclear powers are well aware of special obligations and privileges ascribed to them by countries that lack this category of weapons. A world in which the United States wields the greatest share of this power (unipolarity) will nonetheless be quite different from one in which two countries possess roughly the same capacity (bipolarity), and yet fundamentally different from one in which three or more countries compete to gain, or sustain, an edge toward others (multipolarity).

    To the extent that the world is moving toward greater security competition including the dimension of nuclear power, it will inevitably be more difficult for individual states to remain on the sidelines, unless they are ready to compromise their political autonomy. In terms of options for aligning Sweden with a broader security arrangement in the near future, there are only three feasible alternatives that may offset the risk of nuclear coercion: responding within the framework of the EU, forge closer ties to NATO, or build a bilateral relationship to the United States. Each such option comes with its own set of assets and liabilities, as does remaining a passive bystander.

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  • 117.
    Engelbrekt, Kjell
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Mission Creep? The Nontraditional Security Agenda of the G7/8 and the Nascent Role of the G202015In: Global Governance: A Review of Multilateralism and International Organizations, ISSN 1075-2846, E-ISSN 1942-6720, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 537-556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2008–2011, the Group of 20 swiftly eclipsed the Group of 7, created in themid-1970s as an informal mechanism for stabilizing markets and facilitating transnational currency exchange and investment. Several observers have expressed the view that the former, broader group is also destined to appropriate the role of the Group of 8, the G7’s pioneering successor in the realm of nontraditional security. This article examines the G7/8 legacy of forgingquasi-permanent institutional arrangements and frameworks in this policy area and goes on to gauge nontraditional security initiatives subsequently launched by the G-20. Having juxtaposed the past record of these bodies and analyzed the interests and power dynamics that influence member stateaction in the short and long term, the article outlines three basic options for how the relationship between the G-20 and the G7/8 may evolve.

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  • 118.
    Engelbrekt, Kjell
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Responsibility Shirking at the United Nations Security Council: Constraints, Frustrations, Remedies2015In: Global Policy, ISSN 1758-5880, E-ISSN 1758-5899, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 369-378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The United Nations Security Council is the primary international body in charge of upholding international peace andsecurity. Permanent and nonpermanent member states share in the responsibility to avert great power conflicts andthwart asymmetric disputes, regional instability and civil war, but the former task has priority and the prerogatives andtherefore the obligations of the five permanent member states widely exceed those of countries that hold two-yearelected seats. The bifurcation of roles nevertheless produces ‘responsibility shirking’, which weakens Council perfor-mance on the latter type of tasks. This article suggests that responsibility shirking is underreported in the literatureeven though it is well known to diplomatic practitioners. It considers three types of remedies to the situation, arguingthat amendments to the UN Charter or the Provisional Rules of Procedure are unlikely, but that piecemeal and prag-matic reform could precipitate a change of mindset. In particular, allowing nonpermanent member states to co-chairthe drafting of resolutions is likely to engage all member states in the core business of the Council.

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  • 119.
    Engelbrekt, Kjell
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Svensk Afghanistaninsats satt i sitt sammanhang - ännu en förtjänstfull granskning av Agrell: Recension av Wilhelm Agrell, Ett krig här och nu: från svensk fredsoperation till upprorsbekämpning i Afghanistan 2001-20142013In: Militärhistorisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0283-8400Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 120.
    Engelbrekt, Kjell
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section, Sektionen för säkerhet.
    Sveriges medlemskap i FN:s säkerhetsråd 2017-18: En utvärdering2020Report (Other academic)
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  • 121.
    Engelbrekt, Kjell
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Political Science Section.
    The Impact of Enlargement on Institutional Integrity in Central and Eastern Europe2009In: Perspectives on European Politics and Society, ISSN 1570-5854, E-ISSN 1568-0258, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 167-180Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 122.
    Engelbrekt, Kjell
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    The Missing Link in the EU's Nascent Strategic Approach toward Asia: Military Diplomacy2012In: Asia-Pacific review, ISSN 1343-9006, E-ISSN 1469-2937, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 62-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Lisbon Treaty enacted in 2009 allows the European Union (EU) to adopt a foreign, security, and defense policy with a higher profile. In particular, the High Representative and the European External Action Service are now in a position to conduct a continuous conversation with China, India, Japan, and ASEAN beyond trade-oriented dialogues. But a genuine strategic approach toward Asia requires military expertise so as to adequately assess how to best contribute to stability in this part of the world. Military diplomacy involving individual member states already takes place, yet virtually no information is shared at the EU level. The adoption of a full-fledged strategic approach toward Asia would not only be politically astute and make excellent economic sense; it can also consolidate EU institutions in the realm of foreign, security and defense policy.

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  • 123.
    Engelbrekt, Kjell
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section, Sektionen för säkerhetspolitik och strategi.
    USA:s bilaterala säkerhets- och försvarsuppgörelser: kartläggning och karakterisering av en ofta underskattad dimension2018In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 3, p. 74-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article provides an overview and concise analysis of the often underappreciated bilateral security and defense agreements that the United States entertains with a significant number of countries around the world. It sets out by emphasizing the role of the United States in sustaining the world order at a systemic level and notes that Washington’s bilateral relations, albeit forming a significant part of the overall security and defense arrangements, receive much less attention than multilateral alliances and systemically conditioned alignments.  After briefly reviewing recent literature on this subject, the article examines the process by which the United States enters into agreements of varying legal and political status, and then discusses the ramifications and limitations of the respective types of arrangements.  In turn, the article examines formal bilateral treaties (mainly with East Asian states), politically motivated security and defense agreements (mainly in the wider Middle East), and, lastly, executive agreements initiated by the presidential administration, the Defense Department or the State Department. The article ends by suggesting that the administration of Donald J. Trump—given campaign statements and the first six months in office—is less likely than many of its predecessors to enter into new agreements and formalize existing alignments, and that the viability of existing ones may become increasingly dependent on America’s counterparts demonstrably living up to their end of the bargain. 

  • 124.
    Engelbrekt, Kjell
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    USA:s ombalansering mot Asien och Stilla havet: en preliminär utvärdering2013In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, Vol. 217, no 2, p. 135-155Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 125.
    Engelbrekt, Kjell
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Why Libya?: Security Council Resolution 1973 and the Politics of Justification2014In: The NATO Intervention in Libya: Lessons Learned from the Campaign / [ed] Kjell Engelbrekt, Charlotte Wagnsson & Marcus Mohlin, London: Routledge, 2014, p. 41-62Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 126.
    Engelbrekt, Kjell
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Hallenberg, JanSwedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    The European Union and Strategy: an Emerging Actor2008Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 127.
    Engelbrekt, Kjell
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Holmberg, AritaSwedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.Ångström, JanSwedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Svensk säkerhetspolitik i Europa och världen2015Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vad betyder det svenska medlemskapet i den Europeiska Unionen för svensk säkerhets- och försvarspolitik? I vad består och vem bedriver svensk säkerhetspolitik idag? Vilka former tar sig svensk säkerhetspolitik? Vilka beröringspunkter finns med andra politikområden? Vad betyder det nordiska samarbetet? Frågorna ställs i den reviderade andra upplagan av "Svensk säkerhetspolitik i Europa och världen" och analyseras utifrån en rad olika perspektiv; från teoretiska till praktiska, från militära till civila och från beslut till implementering.

  • 128.
    Engelbrekt, Kjell
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Holmberg, Arita
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Svensk säkerhetspolitik i omdaning2015In: Svensk säkerhetspolitik i Europa och världen / [ed] Kjell Engelbrekt, Arita Holmberg, Jan Ångström, Stockholm: Norstedts Juridik AB, 2015, 2, p. 265-277Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 129.
    Engelbrekt, Kjell
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section, Sektionen för säkerhetespolitik och strategi.
    Kostadinova, Petia
    University of Illinois at Chicago, (USA).
    Bulgarian Democratic Institutions at Thirty: A Balance Sheet2020 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thirty years after Bulgaria’s democratic breakthrough, this book provides a “balance sheet” of the country’s democratic institutions through a number of interdisciplinary contributions. The volume is organized around three themes—democratic institutions, civil society, and European Union (EU) processes—and examines such topics such as voting, political parties, populism, media, civil society organizations, identity, and the rule of law. While the contributors argue that Bulgaria’s democracy is successful in terms of the procedural norms of democracy, civic participation, and compliance with EU rules, they also identify serious problem areas. Bulgaria’s democratic institutions struggle with obstacles such as populist Euroscepticism, political elitism, corruption, and a lack of political accountability, though this volume fully acknowledges the historical development of Bulgarian democracy, including its achievements and continuing setbacks.

  • 130.
    Engelbrekt, Kjell
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Mohlin, MarcusSwedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum.Wagnsson, CharlotteSwedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    The NATO Intervention in Libya: Lessons learned from the campaign2014Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book explores ‘lessons learned’ from the military intervention in Libya by examining key aspects of the 2011 NATO campaign. NATO’s intervention in Libya had unique features, rendering it unlikely to serve as a model for action in other situations. There was an explicit UN Security Council mandate to use military force, a strong European commitment to protect Libyan civilians, Arab League political endorsement and American engagement in the critical, initial phase of the air campaign. Although the seven-month intervention stretched NATO’s ammunition stockpiles and political will almost to their respective breaking points, the definitive overthrow of the Gaddafi regime is universally regarded as a major accomplishment. With contributions from a range of key thinkers and analysts in the field, the book first explains the law and politics of the intervention, starting out with deliberations in NATO and at the UN Security Council, both noticeably influenced by the concept of a Responsibility to Protect (R2P). It then goes on to examine a wide set of military and auxiliary measures that governments and defence forces undertook in order to increasingly tilt the balance against the Gaddafi regime and to bring about an end to the conflict, as well as to the intervention proper, while striving to keep the number of NATO and civilian casualties to a minimum. This book will be of interest to students of strategic studies, history and war studies, and IR in general.

  • 131.
    Engelbrekt, Kjell
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Mörkenstam, Ulf
    Stockholms universitet.
    Forskarutbildningen: Att forska är att inte distraheras2016In: Att forska: praktiker och roller inom samhällsvetenskapen / [ed] Linus Hagström, Arita Holmberg, Niklas Bremberg, Stockholm: Carlssons Bokförlag , 2016, p. 31-53Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 132.
    Engelbrekt, Kjell
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Nygren, BertilSwedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Russia and Europe: Building Bridges, Digging Trenches2010Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Russian-European political relations have always been problematic and one of the main reasons for this is the different perspectives on even the very basic notions and concepts of political life. With a worldwide recession, the problems as well as the opportunities in Russian-European relations are magnified. While most works on Russian-European, Russian-American and Russian-West relations focus on current policies and explain them from a standard set of explanatory variables, this book penetrates deeper into the structural and ideational differences that tend to bring about misperceptions, miscalculations, misinterpretations and misdeeds in this two-directional relationship. It applies a very broad conceptual framework to analyse differences that are as relevant for Europe and the EU as it is to Russia’s immediate neighbours and, while doing so, identifies the key factors that will dominate Russia-EU ties in the next decade.

  • 133.
    Engelbrekt, Kjell
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Vrieler, Aron
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Är Bundeswehr insatsberedd?: Den tyska försvarsmakten och europeiska säkerhetsutmaningar2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report examines the issue of the deployability abroad of the German Armed Forces, the Bundeswehr, at present and in terms of future-oriented defence reforms. It notes that the Bundeswehr is growing in terms of GDP spending though not yet in numbers, that there are novel ideas about how to further develop German military doctrine toward its use in international military operations within as well as alongside NATO, and that mechanisms for identifying and closing military capability gaps through procurement are coming into place. At the same time, there are a number of industry-related, legal and political constraints in place, some of which appear poised to continue exert influence over the entire sector for years to come. Absent a very conscious effort on the part of the government and the respective ministries and institutions to alter the status quo, especially in conjunction with aggravated security and defence challenges in Germany’s vicinity, it appears unlikely that these modest steps will yield substantive results in the short to mid-term.

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  • 134.
    Engelbrekt, Kjell
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Introduction2014In: The NATO Intervention in Libya: Lessons from the Campaign / [ed] Kjell Engelbrekt, Charlotte Wagnsson & Marcus Mohlin, London: Routledge, 2014, p. 1-14Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 135.
    Engelbrekt, Kjell
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Watts, John
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Sino-Russian Strategic Collaboration: Still an “Axis of Convenience”?2015Report (Other academic)
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  • 136.
    Eriksson, Arita
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Analyzing EU Defence Integration through Problem Definition2008Report (Other academic)
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  • 137.
    Eriksson, Arita
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    The EU in global security governance: lessons for conceptual development2008In: European security governance: the European Union in a Westphalian world / [ed] Charlotte Wagnsson, James Sperling & Jan Hallenberg, London: Routledge , 2008Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 138.
    Eriksson, Johan
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Statsvetenskap, (SWE).
    Newlove-Eriksson, Lindy
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section, Sektionen för krishantering och internationell samverkan. KTH.
    EU och det teknologiska megaskiftet: Hot, sårbarhet och fragmenterat ansvar2020In: EU och teknologiskiftet / [ed] A. Bakardjieva Engelbrekt; A. Michalski; L. Oxelheim, Stockholm: Santérus Förlag , 2020, p. 35-61Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 139.
    Eriksson, Johan
    et al.
    Södertörn University, (SWE).
    Newlove-Eriksson, Lindy
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section, Sektionen för krishantering och internationell samverkan. KTH, (SWE).
    Theorizing technology and international relations: prevailing perspectives and new horizons2021In: Technology and International Relations: The New Frontier in Global Power / [ed] Giampiero Giacomello, Francesco N. Moro, Marco Valigi, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2021, p. 3-22Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter provides an overview of the literature on technology and International Relations (IR) theory. First, the chapter considers how technology is treated in more general IR theory, including what role technology plays in the wider paradigmatic debates of IR. Second, the chapter scrutinizes attempts to develop specific theories on technology and international relations. Third, the chapter discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches, including whether there are some areas that are amply theorized while others remain under-researched. In particular, the chapter addresses how and to what extent various approaches have been able to analyze the relationship between technological and societal change, both including the rapid development of new technologies (concerning, for example, cyber, nano, space, robotics and AI technologies), and how technologies and critical infrastructures are becoming increasingly interconnected. Finally, the chapter suggests new horizons for empirically grounded theory on the relationship between technology and international society.

  • 140.
    Fasakin, Akinbode
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section, Sektionen för säkerhetespolitik och strategi. Department of Economic History and International Relations, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stig Jarle Hansen. Al-Shabaab in Somalia: The History and Ideology of a Militant Islamist Group. London: Hurst and Company, 2016. xvi 213 pp. Foreword. Chronology. Glossary. Notes. Bibliography. Index. $21.95. Paper. ISBN: 978-01902648262019In: African Studies Review, ISSN 0002-0206, E-ISSN 1555-2462, Vol. 62, no 2, p. E9-E11Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 141.
    Fasakin, Akinbode
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section, Sektionen för säkerhetespolitik och strategi. Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The coloniality of power in postcolonial Africa: experiences from Nigeria2021In: Third World Quarterly, ISSN 0143-6597, E-ISSN 1360-2241, Vol. 42, no 5, p. 902-921Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While the coloniality of power underpins the continuity of colonial situations in postcolonial Africa, (neo)liberal thinking attempts to dismiss its place in Africa's contemporary challenges, blaming instead anti-colonial struggles and the quest for complete decolonisation as the cause of these challenges. A focus on this neoliberal cum pro-colonial perspectives, at the expense of a corpus of post-, anti- and de-colonial writings that expose and challenge coloniality, however, inhibits our understanding of the consolidation, problematic place and impact of the coloniality of power in postcolonial Africa. Analysing the presence of colonial situations in policy choices and governance patterns, which link Africa's postcolonial present to their colonial past, this paper claims that the coloniality of power retains its salience in postcolonial Africa. Illustrating with experiences from Nigeria, I show how this continues to structure the state of affairs in Africa even after formal colonialism has ended. This article contributes to the discourse on the legacies of colonialism in Africa.

  • 142.
    Fernström Cederholm, Linnéa
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Svensk krisberedskap sätts på prov: En kvalitativ forskningsstudie om Folkhälsomyndighetens förutsättningar inför hanteringen av covid-19 pandemin2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskningsstudien har genomförts i syfte att öka kunskapen om hur en myndighet har förberett sig inför en potentiell kris genom att se till vilka förutsättningar som fanns, däribland vilka krisförberedelser som myndigheten hade för att kunna hantera en kris. För att belysa detta har en fallstudie genomförts utefter teorin om krisförberedelser för att se till hur Folkhälsomyndighetens förutsättningar såg ut innan covid-19 pandemin drabbade Sverige. En kvalitativ metod med en innehållsanalys har använts för att tolka dokumenten som har utgjort det empiriska materialet. Forskningsstudien operationaliserades utefter tre komponenter inom teorin om krisförberedelser. Dessa komponenter var planering, procedurer samt kapacitet som även strukturerade analysavsnittet.

    De slutsatser som framkom genom analysen var att ett flertal förutsättningar utefter krisförberedelser uppmärksammades som kan ha påverkat Folkhälsomyndigheten på olika sätt inför hanteringen av covid-19 pandemin. Förutsättningarna innebar exempelvis att den beredskapsplanering som redan fanns, de procedurer som berörde myndigheten samt den innehavda kapaciteten i form av ekonomi och lagerhållning alla utgjorde betydande delar som kan ha format Folkhälsomyndighetens möjlighet inför hanteringen under 2020. Genom att analysera myndighetens förutsättningar utefter ett krisförberedande perspektiv kunde studiens slutsatser således stärka krisförberedelsernas relevans inom krishanteringsprocessen och bidra till dess inkludering inom det teoretiska fältet.

  • 143.
    Gustafsson, Karl
    et al.
    Utrikespolitiska institutet.
    Hagström, Linus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Forskningsproblem: vad står på spel?2016In: Att forska: praktiker och roller inom samhällsvetenskapen, Stockholm: Carlsson Bokförlag, 2016, p. 96-118Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 144.
    Gustafsson, Karl
    et al.
    Swedish Institute of International Affairs, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hagström, Linus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section, Sektionen för säkerhetspolitik och strategi.
    What Is the Point?: Teaching Graduate Students how to Construct Political Science Research Puzzles2018In: European Political Science, ISSN 1680-4333, E-ISSN 1682-0983, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 634-648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the key challenges graduate students face is how to come up with a good rationale for their theses. Unfortunately, the methods literature in and beyond political science does not provide much advice on this important issue. While focusing on how to conduct research, this literature has largely neglected the question of why a study should be undertaken. The limited discussions that can be found suggest that new research is justified if it (1) fills a ‘gap’; (2) addresses an important real-world problem; and/or (3) is methodologically rigorous. This article discusses the limitations of these rationales. Then, it proposes that research puzzles are more useful for clarifying the nature and importance of a contribution to existing research, and hence a better way of justifying new research. The article also explores and clarifies what research puzzles are, and begins to devise a method for constructing them out of the vague ideas and questions that often trigger a research process. 

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  • 145.
    Gustafsson, Karl
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Political Science and Law, Political Science Division. Stockholms universitet, (SWE).
    Hagström, Linus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Hansson, Ulv
    Soka University (JPN).
    Long live pacifism!: narrative power and Japan’spacifist model2019In: Cambridge Review of International Affairs, ISSN 0955-7571, E-ISSN 1474-449X, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 502-520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    International relations research acknowledges that states can have different security policies but neglects the fact that ‘models’ may exist in the security policy realm. This article suggests that it is useful to think about models, which it argues can become examples for emulation or be undermined through narrative power. It illustrates the argument by analysing Japan’s pacifism—an alternative approach to security policy which failed to become an internationally popular model and, despite serving the country well for many years, has even lost its appeal in Japan. Conventional explanations suggest that Japan’s pacifist policies were ‘abnormal’, and that the Japanese eventually realized this. By contrast, this article argues that narratives undermined Japan’s pacifism by mobilizing deep-seated beliefs about what is realistic and unrealistic in international politics, and launches a counter-narrative that could help make pacifism a more credible model in world politics.

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  • 146.
    Hagström, Linus
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Att normalisera ett land: Japansk utrikes- och säkerhetspolitik2015In: Japan nu: Strömningar och perspektiv, Stockholm: Carlsson Bokförlag, 2015, 2, p. 209-231Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 147.
    Hagström, Linus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section, Sektionen för säkerhetespolitik och strategi.
    Becoming a traitor2021In: Life Writing, ISSN 1448-4528, E-ISSN 1751-2964, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 135-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this autobiographical essay, I narrate my experience of being positioned in public as naive in my profession and a traitor to my country after publishing an op-ed in Sweden’s largest daily newspaper, in which I argued that Sweden should not join NATO — the transatlantic military alliance. Some of the negative reactions came from within my own workplace. I had just been promoted to Professor at the Swedish Defence University and colleagues thought I had also betrayed them and the university by publishing the piece. In this essay, I disclose some of the reactions I encountered but, more importantly, I try to understand the effect they had on me, recounting my own inner dialogue of shame and resistance. At times I worried that I lacked expertise or even secretly harboured an affinity with the country that is now seen to motivate a Swedish NATO membership — i.e. Russia. At other times, I tried to turn the tables on the stigmatisers, claiming that it was they who had to change. While I work in a highly militarised environment, I think the fear of social death and professional shame I explore in this essay has broader resonance.

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  • 148.
    Hagström, Linus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section, Sektionen för säkerhetespolitik och strategi.
    Disciplinary power: Text and body in the Swedish NATO debate2021In: Cooperation and Conflict, ISSN 0010-8367, E-ISSN 1460-3691, Vol. 56, no 2, p. 141-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article draws on identity construction, emotions and a notion of productive power to address the question of why Swedish policymakers and public opinion are becoming increasingly supportive of NATO membership. It contributes theoretically by arguing that such textual phenomena intertwine with ‘disciplinary power’, which operates on the bodies of the subjects of power, exposing them to verbal and physical sanctions, a host of complex feelings and enhanced levels of self-disciplining. The article analyses 354 editorials and op-eds related to Sweden and NATO, published in the four biggest Swedish newspapers in 2014–2018; 1408 tweets, with a focus on 14 selected NATO campaigners and their advocacy; and semi-structured interviews with 12 such influencers. It concludes that Swedish NATO campaigners produce and negotiate emotional discourses in a way that targets other influencers and potential influencers by exposing them to ridicule and allegations of treason. While tendencies are similar on both sides of the debate, the article demonstrates that productive power currently intertwines with disciplinary power in a way that makes anti-NATO advocacy seem more fraught with personal risk than pro-NATO campaigning, and joining NATO appear to be the most normal, realistic and responsible policy option.

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  • 149.
    Hagström, Linus
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    East Asia's power shift: The flaws and hazards of the debate and how to avoid them2014In: Asian Perspective, ISSN 0258-9184, E-ISSN 2288-2871, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 337-362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The widespread debate on an East Asian power shift is generally based on the crude notion that power and capability are interchangeable. We critique this view and offer the alternative that power is the capacity of actors and discourses to produce effects— what we call relational and productive power, respectively. We also engage in a reflexive exercise by addressing the productive power of the power-shift debate itself, and emphasize the danger that this debate might enable the kind of realpolitik that it forebodes.

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  • 150.
    Hagström, Linus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section, Sektionen för säkerhetespolitik och strategi.
    Great Power Narcissism and Ontological (In)Security: The Narrative Mediation of Greatness and Weakness in International Politics2021In: International Studies Quarterly, ISSN 0020-8833, E-ISSN 1468-2478, Vol. 65, no 2, p. 331-342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Why do self-representations of weakness pervade public discourse in self-identified great powers? Moreover, why do they intersect with self-representations of greatness? Do such narrative instability, inconsistency, and incoherence simply indicate that great powers are ontologically insecure? This article advances a theoretical explanation that is both embedded in and contributes to scholarship that theorizes ontological (in)security from a Lacanian perspective. The gist, ironically, is that great powers’ quest for greatness is co-constituted with the narrative construction of weakness. The article then challenges the assumption in existing ontological security scholarship that states are generally self-reflexive and experience pride when ontologically secure but shame when ontologically insecure. Since great power narratives reflect persistent, exaggerated, and simultaneous feelings of shame and pride, it argues that narcissism helps better account for great power self-identification and ontological security-seeking. Drawing on psychological research on narcissism, the article develops four narrative forms—shame, pride, denial, and insult—through which self-representations of weakness and greatness, and feelings of shame and pride, can be mediated. Finally, using empirical illustrations from the United States and China, the article analyzes how and with what implications political leaders have narrated about each respective great power's weakness and greatness, with a focus on the period 2006–2020.

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