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  • 101.
    Broman, Carl
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Operation Gothic Serpent och Kilcullens upprorsbekämpningsteori: En teoriprövande fallstudie på Task Force Rangers insatser i Mogadishu 19932014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den tredje och fjärde oktober 1993 sköt somaliska rebeller ner två amerikanska Black Hawk-helikoptrar i Mogadishu, Somalia. Dels på grund av ett bristande doktrinärt agerande resulterade det i en 14 timmar lång strid om att överhuvudtaget överleva och många skadades eller omkom. Inte långt därefter lämnade FN och USA Somalia och insatsen sågs som ett militärt misslyckande. Insatsen i Somalia har påverkat amerikanarnas syn på utrikespolitik och den visar tydliga exempel på den komplexitet som counterinsurgency-operationer för med sig.

    Uppsatsen är en teoriprövande fallstudie där David Kilcullens teorier om upprorsbekämpning prövas på Specialförbandsstyrkan Task Force Rangers insats i Mogadishu, Somalia. Uppsatsen syftar inte till att pröva huruvida Kilcullens teorier fungerar eller ej, utan till att pröva hur och i vilken utsträckning Task Force Rangers medel och metoder överensstämmer med vad Kilcullen förespråkar.

    Resultatet av denna studie visar att förekomsten av Kilcullens teorier i vissa fall överensstämmer men överlag är väldigt få. Bland annat på grund av komplexiteten i det somaliska samhället och dess kultur. Vidare visar arbetet att den största bidragande faktorn till utfallet av insatsen beror på det bristfälliga underrättelsearbetet som gjordes av Task Force Ranger under den berörda tidsperioden.

  • 102.
    Bron, Agnieszka
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Biographical methodology in gender studies and adult learning2008In: Researching Gender in Adult Learning / [ed] Joanna Ostrouch och Edmée Ollagnier, Frankfurt: Peter Lang Verlagsgruppe , 2008Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 103.
    Brändström, Annika
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Bynander, Fredrik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    t Hart, Paul
    Utrecht School of Governance, Utrecht.
    Governing by looking back: historical analogies and crisis management2004In: Public Administration, ISSN 0033-3298, E-ISSN 1467-9299, Vol. 82, no 1, p. 191-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article offers a conceptual framework that broadens and enhances our understanding of the role of 'history' in contemporary governance and the attempts by policy-makers to 'manage' critical issues. Building upon the literature on historical analogies in policy-making, we distinguish three dimensions that clarify how the past may emerge in and affect the current deliberations, choices and rhetoric of policy-makers. We apply this in a comparative examination of two cases of crisis management where historical analogies played an important part: the Swedish response to (alleged) submarine intrusions in 1982, and the European Union sanctions against Austria in 1999. We induce from the case comparison new concepts and hypotheses for understanding the role of historical analogies in public policy-making and crisis management.

  • 104.
    Bulus, Mine
    Swedish Defence University.
    Specialoperation som begrepp: Skiljer sig definitionen beroende på vilket lands operationer som studerats?2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 1980s there has been an increase in the use of  special operations  and special forces. Although some theorists would say that the use of special operation is as old as the art of war, the scientific study in this subject is not extensive. The author of this dissertation have identified that the concept special operations is defined in different ways and that there seems to be a discrepancy in how the concept is understood among theorists. Harry Yarger, who has written a theory of American special operations states that there is a difference in how other countries conduct special operations. If that is true, definitions of special operations should vary according to nation. The first purpose of this study is to examine chosen definitions of special operations and to identify what differs and what is similar. The second purpose is to see if there is a connection between how the concept is defined and a which category it belongs to. The studied definitions are here categorized according to studies of cases and/or doctrines from one specified nation or several nations. At least two different definitions were chosen in each category, that way the author could compare the definitions within a category to see if they are consistent with each other. By identifying differences and similarities the authors intent was also to find what traits links the three different categories in order to be able to develop a more uniform definition of the concept special operation. The analysis has shown that there are many differences between categories as well as within categories and therefore the conclusion is indecisive – the author has not been able to establish if or not the there is a connection between how the concept is defined and a category. However, those similarities found in every category has been used to make a suggestion to a more uniform definition of special operations: Special operations are of an unorthodox nature. The purpose of these operations are to solve significant political and military problems. Missions can include time limited attacks aiming to destroy, seize, recover or exploit chosen objects. Special operations are conducted by special forces. 

  • 105.
    Burenius, Louise
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Kvinnor i internationella insatser?: En undersökning om hur kvinnligt deltagande kan påverka internationella insatser.2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to find out if deployment of women improves an operation’s chances of success. Since 1980 traditionally male roles within the Swedish Armed Forces have been avalible for women. In spite of this fact, deployment of women in international military operations are not very common.

    The method used in this essay is a case study. The author has studied a Swedish operation in Afghanistan in 2006, where the commander decided to form a MOT (military observation team) only with women. The main purpose with this team was to gather intelligence from the local population. Earlier operations in the country clearly showed that male soldiers were experiencing difficulties in interacting with local women. During seven months the team, MOT Juliette, worked in the area and found out that the presence of women considerably contributed to the success of the operation.

    To acknowledge the need to increase the proportion of women in the work of war and conflict, the UN Security Council has adopted a number of resolutions where the two most important are 1325 and 1820.

    The results of the study show that women have an important role in international operations. Not just to gather intelligence, but also to act as role models for the women in the country.

  • 106.
    Byström, Joakim
    Swedish Defence University.
    Warden och Pape: En teoriprövning på Libyenkriget 20112017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Airpower has shown its usefulness throughout many wars and was seen as a key instrument in the Libyan war 2011. However, the use of airpower and how it should be applied has been a highly debated topic for as long as airpower has been around. Two theorists, John A. Warden III and Robert A. Pape, have received a lot of attention and there is a debate regarding which one of these theorists has the best solution on how to use airpower.

    The purpose with this essay is to apply some of the two theorists’ ideas on the Libyan war 2011 and investigate their explanatory power in the conflict. To reach an answer, a case study has been used with a theory testing method which would further seek to contribute to the debate that exists between the two theorists.

    Results show that some parts of the theorists’ ideas have a high explanatory power in the conflict and some parts do not. As individuals, they cannot explain the whole war, but together their ideas have a high explanatory power in the conflict.

    Based on the ongoing debate that provides two different ways of using airpower, the conclusions suggest that a combination of the two theorists’ ideas might be the answer to how airpower can be employed in the best way for future operations. Further research is required to investigate this thesis.

  • 107.
    Bäckström, Caroline
    Swedish Defence University.
    Varför ubåtsfrågan blev en fråga: En undersökning av de statliga offentliga utredningarna2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Osäkerheten kring undervattenskränkningarna som skedde i Sverige under 80-talet har skapat många teorier, rykten, hypoteser och frågor. Forskare och tre statliga utredningar har försökt utreda vad som hände, men med olika resultat. Något som är väldigt intressant är att det ur samma material kan skapas så pass olika motiv till undervattenskränkningarna. Syftet med den här uppsatsen är att undersöka vilka hinder som förelåg i de tre olika utredningarna för att finna motivet till undervattenskränkningarna i de två incidenterna U-137 och Hårsfjärden. Utifrån en egen skapad definition av hinder, har den använts som en metod i uppsatsen för att analysera de tre utredningarna. Med hjälp av kunskapsteorin har uppsatsen gjort ett försök till att belysa ubåtsfrågan ur ett nytt perspektiv. De hinder som identifierades i utredningarna var bland annat militärens bristfälliga förmåga att bedriva ubåtsjakt och hanterandet av förhören vid U-137. Utifrån detta har inte tillräckligt med information kunnat samlas in och det som samlats har varit svårt att tyda eller har blivit förstört.

  • 108.
    Börjesson, Marcus
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Österberg, Johan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Enander, Ann
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Military identity and risk perceptions among Swedish military groups2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 109.
    Börjesson, Marcus
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Österberg, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Enander, Ann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Risk propensity within the military: a study of Swedish soldiers and officers2015In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 55-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Issues concerning risks in the military have gained increased attention within the Swedish Armed Forces, particularly relating to the new focus on an all voluntary force participating in international missions. Military activities inevitably include an element of calculated risk-taking, while at the same time the unnecessary taking of risks must be minimized. Within the context of the specific mission and situation, a number of factors relating to demographic variables, traits and beliefs may influence individual inclinations towards risk behaviour. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between such factors and individual risk propensity. Data were collected from two samples of Swedish soldiers and officers. Examining demographic variables, negative safety values and risk propensity were found to decrease with age, while men demonstrated a more sceptical view of safety measures and a higher risk propensity than women. The trait known as lack of deliberation, reflecting an inability to think ahead and foresee consequences, was positively related to risk propensity. A more sceptical view of safety was shown to be associated with a higher sense of personal invincibility and together with lack of deliberation predicted variations in danger-seeking scores. The distinction between functional and non-functional risk-taking is discussed on the basis of the relationships found in the study. Implications for recruitment to the military as well as for training and leadership are suggested, emphasizing the need for military leaders to balance their leadership in terms of safety-oriented and risk-promoting behaviours.

  • 110.
    Carlerby, Mats
    et al.
    The Swedish Armed Forces HQ, Defence Staff, Department of Policy and Plans, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansson, Björn J.E.
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut.
    The lack of convergence between C2 theory and practice2017In: The 22nd International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium, 2017, p. 1-20Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to discuss and make conclusions from more than 15 years research within the field of C 2 and what possible impact that has been accomplished. The point of departure is accordingly a paper presented just after the shift of the millennium where the possible impact of novel ideas and technologies for command and control (C2), such as the network centric approach and radical views on the design of command posts were in focus. Some of the fundamental ideas of what was in vogue at the time was questioned and the “old” was put in contrast with the “new.” Looking back, our thoughts as well as other contributors from that time, and the progression of theory within the field of C2, we suggest that we are at a status quo. What actually has been achieved, may be the worst of the two straw men worlds that where suggested at the time. We suggest that it is necessary to: 1) further develop adaptive approaches to the organization and conduct of military operations, 2) develop enabling instead of controlling technologies, 3) switch focus from structure to function, 4) develop tools for assessing adaptive capacity in sociotechnical systems.

  • 111.
    Carlén, Michael
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Lokal överlägsenhet: Myt eller nyckeln till seger på taktisk nivå inom markarenan?2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen syfte är att undersöka det kausala sambandet mellan lokal överlägsenhet och seger på taktisk nivå inom markarenan. Detta sker genom att begreppen lokal överlägsenhet och seger på taktisk nivå analyseras och diskuteras. Uppsatsen har som ambition att även göra dessa begrepp mätbara för att testa det kausala sambandet i en fallstudie bestående av två fall; slaget vid Suomussalmi och slaget vid Golanhöjderna. 

    Uppsatsen visar att det i de valda fallen föreligger ett samband mellan lokal överlägsenhet och seger på taktisk nivå inom ramen för de definitioner som är gjorda i uppsatsen. Vidare redovisas den problematik som normativ forskning inom krigsvetenskapen är behäftad med. Uppsatsen resultat kan m.h.t. detta ej anses påvisa ett generellt kausalt samband.

  • 112.
    Carlén, Michael
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Stridskraft: en analys av begreppet Fighting power2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen tar sin övergripande utgångspunkt i vår förståelse för teorier inom militärteorin. Det föreligger flera utmaningar vid tolkning av teorier. Exempel på detta kan utgöras av författarens och betraktarens förförståelse, språkliga eller vetenskapsteoretiska perspektiv. Därmed kan också följdfel uppstå i doktriner och riktlinjer.  I det specifika utgör J.F.C Fuller och Martin van Creveld teorier om fighting power empiri när de anlyseras genom en metateoretisk ram bestående av förståelse – förklara och uppifrån – nedifrån kompletterad med en analys avseende krigföringsnivå.

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att skapa en större förståelse för begreppet fighting power genom att analysera den vetenskapsteoretiska utgångspunkten hos Fuller och Creveld. Vidare syftar uppsatsen till att skapa förståelse för att fighting power inte kan betraktas isolerat utan som del av ett större sammanhang.

    Uppsatsen resultat visar hur Fuller och Creveld har olika utgångspunkt när de skapade sina teorier. Fullers teori utgår från ett förklaringsinriktat uppifrånperspektiv och Crevelds från ett förståelseinriktat nedifrånperspektiv. Vidare visar uppsatsen hur båda teorierna främst omfattar den taktiska nivån trots skillnaderna i deras framställning. Uppsatsen påvisar också vikten av de olika förhållningssätten för att kunna förstå fighting power i ett sammanhang för att därmed kunna omsätta detta i doktrinära eller taktiska riktlinjer. Avslutningsvis diskuteras giltigheten i den svenska beskrivningen av krigföringsförmåga (pelarmodellen) utan att betrakta det i ett större sammanhang.

  • 113.
    Carne, Anders
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Teorier om krig eller krig om teorier?: En militärteoretisk fallstudie av kriget i Bosnien- Hercegovina 1992-19952014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att förstå krigets väsen är ett tidlöst och viktigt problem, inte minst i den tid vi lever. Det är av stor vikt att kunna definiera krig och härigenom skilja det från andra typer av konflikter. Denna problematik kommer på ett tydligt sätt i fokus bland annat när det gäller tillämpligheten av krigets lagar. Carl Von Clausewitz är en teoretiker som i hög grad kommit att prägla vår förståelse av krigets karaktär och väsen och han ges fortfarande ett relativt stort utrymme i bland annat militära utbildningssammanhang. Det finns dock problem kopplade till Clausewitz, bland annat är hans teorier intimt förknippade med begreppet staten. Denna uppsats syftar till att bidra till en vidgad förståelse av moderna krig och konflikter. Författaren vill uppnå en mer nyanserad förståelse av fenomenet krig genom att problematisera Clausewitz teoribildning. Resultaten visar att vi måste vara öppna för en vidare tolkning utifrån perspektiven krigföringens karaktär, de krigförande parterna och krigföringens syfte.

  • 114. Causil, Michael
    Svensk organisatorisk interoperabilitet: och hur den förändrats under en period av ökade tekniska komplikationer inom NATO2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    NATO is keen to improve technical interoperability between participating nations. However, according to certain scholars, technical interoperability has been overestimated within the field and other important factors related to organisational interoperability are neglected. The aim of this study is to examine the transformation of Sweden’s organisational interoperability within NATO the last decades. This will demonstrate how Sweden’s organisational interoperability has changed through a period of increased technical complications within military alliances. This dual case study compares Sweden’s contribution in Kosovo and Afghanistan by applying theorganisational interoperability agility model (OIAM). The Swedish Armed Forces have augmented their preparations prior to collaborations which improve their skill to adapt to certain nations. They have also improved their ability to adapt to other leadership styles and structures. However, issues associated with system compatibility have increased and seem to affect military leadership coordination. Sweden’s ability to adapt to other nations cultural differences are restricted between both cases. Technical differences seem to affect military leadership more than combat units whereas cultural differences have a greater impact on soldiers compared with officers.

  • 115.
    Cayirci, Erdal
    et al.
    Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department, University of Stavanger, Norway.
    Bruzzone, Agostino
    University of Genova, Italy.
    Longo, Francesco
    Mobile and Distributed Systems Lab, Dipartimento di Ingegneria, Universita di Messina, Italy.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    A Model to Describe Hybrid Conflict Environments2016In: 6th International Defense and Homeland Security Simulation Workshop (DHSS 2016) / [ed] Bruzzone, Agostino & Sottilare, Robert, Rende: CAL-TEK S.r.l. , 2016, p. 52-60Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on the definition, implementation and testing of a model to describe Hybrid Conflict Environments. Without the need of citing specific cases or countries, it is clear that hybrid strategy and warfare are becoming more important. A hybrid strategy can affect policy makers, military operations, economics and financial trends, intelligence and legal activities as well as information and media. A conceptual model is introduced to define and to gain further insight into hybrid environments. The model is then implemented and tested by running experiments to provide evidence on its relevance. Finally, results are presented and discussed.

  • 116.
    Cedervall, Alexander
    Swedish Defence University.
    Offensiven - Det maskulina idealet?2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are different discourses about the dominance of the offensive, the offensive dominates in a small state like Sweden as well, especially in the tactical thinking, through the military culture and education. Yet it is proven that military culture consists of hegemonic masculinity. Sweden and its armed forces are at the forefront of gender equality work in relation to other states and armed forces, as can be seen with the Swedish armed forces gender manual, and that Sweden have the world´s first feminist government. But if a small state like Sweden, dominated by offensive tactics, have gendered the offensive and the defensive through its military culture, it is likely other states, that haven’t gone that far in their gender equality work, have gendered the offensive and the defensive. This could cause a problem if decisions are made upon the will to appear brave or aggressive instead of good judgement from intelligence. The study aims to examine how the offensive cult can be understood through masculinities theory. This study is conducted on the basis of group interviews with three groups of army officers in the Swedish armed forces, where the groups military culture, thoughts and experience about the offensive and the defensive were sought.

    This study examines that the offensive is given its dominance through gendering by the military culture in the army. By gendering the offensive as masculine, in terms of being brave, aggressive and historical successful offensive operations. While the defensive been gendered as feminine, in terms of passivity and cowardice. This makes the offensive as the accepted answer to its legitimacy, and the defensive is ought to be sub-ordinated.

  • 117.
    Christensson, Claes
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Prickskytt i en lågintensiv konflikt: En undersökning av skillnaderna mellan den svenska prickskyttefunktionen i Sverige och Afghanistan2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The essay was written by Claes Christensson, during his sixth and final semester atKarlbergMilitaryAcademy. The essay is an exam in the final course at theNationalDefenceCollege basic officers program. Before entering the program, Christensson served fifteen months conscription in Arvidsjaur at the Army Ranger Battalion (ARB). Christensson was a sniper squad leader and is himself also a trained sniper.

    Today the Swedish Armed Forces (SAF) takes part in different conflicts around the world. This essay focuses on the SAF contribution to the asymmetric conflict currently taking place inAfghanistan. In today’s conflicts where insurgents cannot fight using conventional warfare, other means and methods are instead used. A problem for COIN forces is the fact that insurgents hide among the civilian populace. A sniper can however, with high precision, both destroy enemy personnel or locate and distinguish insurgents from civilians.

    The purpose of this essay is to determine how snipers are being used by highly experienced officers when training at the ARB. These experiences will then be compared to how snipers are being utilised in the Swedish contribution to ISAF (called FS19) at the Provincial Reconstruction Team (PRT) in Mazar-i-Sharif in northernAfghanistanbetween April and October 2010.

    The method of this essay will be a comparison between the ARB and FS19. Commanders will be subjected to a questionnaire and answer a number of questions, based upon four subjects. The subjects are psychological effect, risks, function and organisation linked to the sniper concept. The result of this essay shows that snipers were not nearly as often being used during FS19 than during exercises at ARB. The apparent reason for this was the increased risk and that commanders from FS19 preferably used them as sharpshooters. Soldiers with sniper rifles were being used to destroy enemy personnel with high precision and to determine civilians from enemy personnel.

    The conclusions are that if snipers are to be used in the proper fashion, the dedicated posting needs to be implemented in the SAF contribution to ISAF. Moreover, both snipers and commanders need to train applicably to get the full understanding of the effects a sniper can have and to gain confidence in the sniper as a concept. Furthermore, the Personnel Recovery ability needs to improve so that commanders can utilise the sniper concept in high risk operations.

  • 118.
    Christiansson, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    Hur kan Sverige bli medlem i Nato?2011In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no Nr 4, p. 132-137Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 119.
    Christiansson, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum (upphört).
    Pooling, Sharing and Specializing: NATO and International Defence Cooperation2013In: NATO beyond 9/11: The Transformation of the Atlantic Alliance / [ed] Ellen Hallams, Luca Ratti and Benjamin Zyla, Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013, p. 178-197Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article has mapped and analyzed internationaldefence cooperation with an emphasis on developments in NATO. In the mapping ofthe processes of defence cooperation initiatives in NATO after the Cold War and9/11, we concluded that there has been a steady stream of capabilitycatalogues, coordination measures and creation of joint ventures. In theanalysis we noted the different types of defence cooperation initiatives(sharing of capabilities, pooling of capabilities, role- and task sharing,co-development, and pooling of acquisitions), the character of the process(sequential and repetitive), and the dynamic and conditions (trade off dynamicsinfluenced by perceived gains, degree of solidarity, strategic similarities,degree of common understanding of political investment, and geographicproximity). The final part of the text elaborated on the potential consequencesof international defence cooperation; in this part we concluded that the threecategories, that might well mirror the future of the transatlantic securityarchitecture, are minimal defence cooperation, flexible defence cooperation orregional defence integration.

  • 120.
    Clementz, Per
    Swedish Defence University.
    Realism eller liberalism? Förklaringskraft i svenska försvarsbeslut: En fallstudie av koherens i strategi2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to some scholars, realism and liberalism as theories are considered to have different explanatory power depending on what phenomenon in international relations they are set to examine. John J. Mearsheimer argues that liberalism seemed to be advancing its explanatory power after the cold war but that realism has made a strong comeback since 9/11. In the wake of the Russian annexation of Crimea and the war in Ukraine, how are these theories reflected in the strategic development of European countries standing without formal military alliances?

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine strategic coherence through realism and liberalism as well as to investigate whether a shift in explanatory power can be identified when comparing results from a period of relative tranquility to more perilous times, regarding international security.

    The results indicate that realism has indeed made a strong comeback and that strategic coherence has increased over the past 15 years. Liberalism on the other hand, appears challenged but is still prevalent although its strategic coherence appears to have slightly diminished.

  • 121.
    Cornils, Fabian
    Swedish Defence University.
    Hybridkrigföring – En begreppsutredning2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s view on an ever-changing world brings new phenomena and consequently new concepts. Hybrid warfare is one relatively new concept, about which today’s scientists have a fragmented view, and this makes it a subject of research interest.

    By examining seven scientific articles about Hybrid Warfare from 2007 up to the present day, the aim of this study was to examine how the concept could be defined in today’s science, and in doing so, also increase the understanding of Hybrid Warfare. The research design is that of a concept analysis, using John Gerring’s Good Concepts theory as a model.

    The result of the analysis showed that a majority of researchers defined the concept as, at least, a mixture of conventional and irregular aspects of warfare and of terrorism, criminality and cyber warfare. However, the research also confirms that the concept is disputed. The study contributes to existing research by showing how a concept analysis model could be used to investigate contested concepts. It also strengthens the thesis that hybrid warfare lacks a universal definition. 

  • 122.
    Cristoffersson, Tommy
    Swedish Defence University.
    Första Gulfkriget2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 123.
    Dahlgren, Johan
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Ryska markstridskrafters förmåga på taktisk nivå under Georgienkriget2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    I augusti 2008 utspelades ett litet, men betydelsefullt krig mellan Ryssland och Georgien. Ryssland vann kriget övertygande, men ändå beordrades en nästan total omstrukturering av de ryska väpnade styrkorna. Den nya idén var att initiativ och beslutsfattning skulle tryckas ned på brigad- och bataljonchefer och mycket pekar på ett införande av manöverkrigföring på den taktiska nivån, likt länderna i väst. I den här uppsatsen undersöks vilka förutsättningar som fanns för ett eventuellt införande av manöverkrigföring på den taktiska nivån. Med utgångspunkt i just manöverteorin genomförs en fallstudie av Rysslands senaste reguljära krig, Georgienkriget. Uppsatsens resultat visar att de ryska väpnade styrkorna har stora hinder att överkomma om manöverkrigföring framgångsrikt ska kunna införas på den taktiska nivån. Brister i framförallt officerarnas utbildning måste åtgärdas, men även utrustningsmässigt finns stora brister som försvårar ett eventuellt införande.

  • 124.
    Dahrné, Per
    Swedish National Defence College.
    COIN-doktrinen och kulturen2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 125.
    Dahrné, Per
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Sjöstriden och den offensiva kulten: En studie av The Grand Fleet 1914-182016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 126.
    Darnolf-Lindskog, Nic
    Swedish Defence University.
    Den nekande operationskonsten i Bosnien och Kosovo2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The two operations in Bosnia and Kosovo named Deliberate Force and Allied Force took place in 1995 and 1999. Both operations show clear signs that the use of air power was the main contributor to the outcome of the operations. Earlier research states that there are signs of coercive air power in both of these operations but fail to explain in what way. The purpose of this essay is to examine if Robert A. Papes theory about denial strategy in air operations can explain the different outcomes of the operations as the operation in Bosnia took 21 days and the operation in Kosovo took 78 days to reach its designated goals. This essay will also test Papes Theory on what constitutes a successful air campaign by comparing the two operations in Bosnia and Kosovo.

    The result supports Papes theory and shows that operation Deliberate Force acted according to Papes theory on denial in five out of six parts, excluding the strategic interdiction. Whereas operation Allied Force acted according to the theory as well but in a smaller extent. It can be argued that there are other background factors that also contributed to the outcome of the operations but by looking at the usage of the air power in both operations it shows that by acting accordingly to Papes theory the outcome was a success. By supporting Papes theory this essay adds to the earlier research a wider knowledge about coercive air power in military interventions.

  • 127.
    Davidsson, Martin
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Luftoperativ kontroll i Koreakriget: En undersökning av Koreakriget mot en luftmaktsteoretisk bakgrund2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Air superiority is something that many, if not all airpower theorists advocate. Air superiority is divided into local airsuperiority, airsuperiority and air supremacy. Air superiority is the degree of air operational control that Airpower Theorists prefer, or consider sufficient. Airpower theorists consider air superiority to be the key to win wars. The paper focuses on John A. Warden IIIs view on the necessity of air superiority and his view is described in the paper.

    The significance of air superiority in the Korean war is examined, and the result is clear that airsuperiority played a key role through out the different phases of the war. Air superiority was the key to end the war in an armistice and the creation of the demarkationzone at the 38th parallel.

    John A. Wardens IIIs statements of air superiority suits well in a comparison to the situation in the Korean war.

  • 128.
    de Waern, Henrik
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Computer Network Attack som olovligt våld: en fråga om association, effekt, aktör och mål2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I Estland 2007 utbröt vad som kommit att kallas ”Cyberwar I”, vari ett stort antal centrala myndigheters, tillika finansiella institutioners servrar attackerades av massiva så kallade Computer Network Attacks (CNA), utfört av framförallt ryska aktörer. Estland protesterade högljutt, men frågan huruvida CNA är att beteckna som olovligt är allt annat än klar. Prövningen sker mot den folkrättsliga regimen Jus ad Bellum, och huruvida metoden uppfyller vissa centrala begrepp. Men hur skall denna regim appliceras CNA?

    De frågeställningar som avses besvaras är: hur kan CNA utgöra våld eller hot om våld i enlighet med FN-stadgans artikel 2(4) samt hur kan CNA utgöra väpnat angrepp i enlighet med FN-stadgans artikel 51? Detta avses göras genom en studie inbegripande flertalet folkrättsliga experters teorier på området CNA och våldsanvändning, samt applicering av desamma på en fallstudie av händelserna i Estland 2007.

    Sammanfattningsvis konstateras att flertalet variabler har bärighet i hur CNA kan uppfylla artiklarnas centrala begrepp, vari frågan om association, effekt, aktör och mål tydligast faller ut. I en efterföljande diskussion påvisas dock hur variablerna endast är att betrakta som indicier på hur CNA kan klassas så som olovligt, varvid endast statspraxis kan ge den slutgiltiga bedömningen.

  • 129.
    Degerlund, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University.
    Obemannade farkoster idag och i morgon2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Debatten inom området obemannade farkoster, med en omfattande diskurs som innefattar både legalitet, etik och autonomins påverkan på det framtida stridsfältet verkar tillhöra stormakterna. I Sverige är det en tillsynes begränsad och bekymmersamt dämpad debatt om att flygplan, stridsfordon eller sjögående enheter ska ersättas eller kompletteras med obemannade eller autonoma alternativ de närmaste åren. Denna studie belyser genom att analysera Storbritanniens och Sveriges aktuella försvarsdiskurs skillnader mellan de olika ländernas diskurs med koppling till obemannade farkoster, med syftet att förklara svenska vägval inom området.

    Olikheter mellan diskurserna pekar på att britterna utvecklat områden som autonomisering, motmedelssystem och verkansförmåga för de obemannade farkosterna i större utsträckning än svenskarna.

    För att höja den svenska förmågan kan erfarenheter från Storbritannien nyttjas. Passiva och aktiva försvarsåtgärder torde öka vårt skydd mot obemannade farkoster intill olika motmedelssystem är operativa. Ett införande av obemannade farkoster med verkansförmåga torde, i likhet med Storbritannien, öka Sveriges verkanspalett och därmed också bidra till att höja tröskeln för ett motståndarangrepp.

  • 130. Dicander, Jonatan
    Pansar i Anfall och Försvar: De grundläggande förmågorna i svenska reglementen under det tidiga kalla kriget2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish armoured warfare rapidly developed during the 1950’s and 1960’s. It evolved from being a mere substitute for heavy cavalry in southern Sweden, into one of the main foundations of the army base organisation. This thesis is about the development of regulations and statutes that came about due to large changes in the organisation of the armoured corps.

    The goal of this thesis is to analyse the use of different base abilities of different regulations and statutes during a time when the Swedish Armoured Corps went through a period of major change as vehicles and equipment were developed. Differences and similarities are highlighted, as well as the changes to the organisation that occurred over the two decades, as possible explanations to the changes. The method that is used is a comparative method based on a qualitative text analysis. The fundamental capabilities theory have been used as the instrument for the analysis. The case studies are based on two different regulations and statutes published in 1956 and 1966 respectively.

    The results show that almost all the principles from the theory of fundamental capabilities are found in the material. Furthermore the results show that despite organisational differences there were similarities between the combat techniques of each organisation. One of the major differences was the way in which the tanks were used. The author draws the conclusion that the infantry’s mobility and level of protection is the limiting factor.

  • 131.
    Dijkstra, Gabriel
    Swedish Defence University.
    Beväpning av flygtekniker2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The AK5C has reached the edge of life and is due for replacement. Studies have been investigating a new small arm but focus of these studies has been the army and its personnel. For flight maintenance personnel the AK5C was too heavy and when working on an aircraft the technicians had to lay the weapon aside. The question this study aims to answer is how the future small arms for flight maintenance personnel might look like. To illustrate when a flight technician might use their weapon three scenarios where created. The scenarios where all originated from reglemente flygbassystem and focused on the main tasks of flight maintenance personnel. In the study personnel with deep knowledge in the field of small arms from different branches of the Swedish Armed Forces were interviewed. The aim was to get an understanding of how the organization view the problem. A survey with flight maintenance personnel from Helicopter Squadron was also conducted and provided details of how the users views the problem. The main question that was asked both in the interviews and in the survey to the users was which attribute of a small arm are the most important for each of the scenarios. The primary difference between the interviewed and the survey was the understanding of penetration and range for different weapon types. The conclusion of the study was that a short barrelled automatic rifle could be a solution that could handle all the investigated scenarios. A recommendation is also made to strengthen the flight maintenance company with machineguns to increase the capacity when defending on longer ranges. 

  • 132.
    Doeser, Fredrik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Finland, Sweden and Operation Unified Protector: The impact of strategic culture2016In: Comparative Strategy, ISSN 0149-5933, E-ISSN 1521-0448, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 284-297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the Swedish decision to participate in Operation Unified Protector in Libya and the Finnish decision to refrain from the same operation. It takes as its theoretical point of departure the concept of strategic culture and argues that differences in the strategic culture of the two countries contributed to the differences in behavior toward the Libya intervention. The Finnish and Swedish strategic cultures differ with respect to the core tasks of the armed forces, willingness to use force, and with respect to what types of operations and organizational frameworks Finland and Sweden find it appropriate to participate in.

  • 133.
    Doeser, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Eidenfalk, Johan
    School of Humanities and Social Inquiry, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia.
    Using strategic culture to understand participation in expeditionary operations: Australia, Poland, and the coalition against the Islamic State2018In: Contemporary Security Policy, ISSN 1352-3260, E-ISSN 1743-8764, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 4-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates how strategic culture influenced the decision-making of Australia and Poland regarding the global coalition against the Islamic State. In the coalition, Australia has followed its tradition of active participation in United States-led operations, while Poland has embarked on a more cautious line, thereby breaking with its previous policy of active participation. The article examines how Australian and Polish responses to the coalition were shaped by five cultural elements: dominant threat perception, core task of the armed forces, strategic partners, experiences of participating in coalitions of the willing, and approach to the international legality of expeditionary operations. It finds that Australia and Poland differed on all five elements but that the major differences are found in dominant threat perception and core task of the armed forces.

  • 134.
    Dufva, Teodor
    Swedish Defence University.
    Rörlighet till sjöss: En begreppsutredande studie kring rörlighet inom marin teoribildning2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    What is manoeuvre and why is it important to comprehend its implication on contemporary naval theory? During the initial stages of the study a confusion regarding the use of manoeuvre as a concept was identified. The purpose of this concept analysis is to pinpoint the contents of the concept of manoeuvre for the field of war studies to enable further studies on the subject.

    The study utilises John Gerring’s meta theory Conceptual Goodness consisting of eight criteria used for concept analysis in social sciences. The study examines the three concepts of manoeuvre by Raoul Castex, maneuver by Milan Vego and maneuver by Wayne P. Hughes.

    The study confirms that a confusion regarding the understanding of the concept exists in contemporary naval though. It has also shown that manoeuvre acts as an important enabler for other processes on the field of battle. Both as a conceptual idea of how war can be fought and in the physical matter of moving platforms. The concluding discussion argues that well-defined concepts are essential for further empirical studies on theories and phenomena.

  • 135.
    Dunert, Henrik
    Swedish Defence University.
    Den nekande operationskonsten: En jämförande fallstudie mellan Operation Enduring Freedom och Operation Iraqi Freedom2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is a debate on how air power should be employed to attain success in war and conflicts. Although scholars do not fully agree on the subject, there is a consensus that attacking the opponents military forces’, a course of action referred to as denial, can contribute to a positive outcome on the battlefield. This thesis investigates the utility of denial in air operations against regular and irregular opponents.

    The purpose of this study was to examine Robert Pape’s Denial Theory in a focused and structured comparative case study of Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan and Operation Iraqi Freedom in Iraq.

    The investigation reveals that denial contributed to the ground offensives in both cases, specifically by providing air support in the theatre, which led to the collapse of Saddam Hussein’s regime in Iraq and drew the opponents out of several cities in Afghanistan. The use of operative interdiction made freedom of action possible and resulted in the final collapse of the Taliban regime in Afghanistan.

    In conclusion the investigation shows that denial may be a suitable modus operandi against both regular and irregular opponents.

  • 136.
    Dyrssen, Felix
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Nekande tvångsmakt i Operation Unified Protector2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are several competing views on how to best utilize air power. Following his quantitative study of air power, Robert Pape developed a theory which focuses on undermining the target state's military strategy. According to Pape it is possible to explain the outcome as a result of military vulnerability. This essay seeks to determine if Pape's theory can predict the outcome of Operation Unified Protector. By using a mixed methods approach on four hypotheses, it will be determined if the operation was a successful case of coercion, if NATO acted according to Pape's model and whether this achieved the desired effects or not.

     

    The results reveal that the theory could not successfully predict the outcome of the conflict. The operation was a coercive failure despite high military vulnerability as a consequence of denial operations. NATO's actions could be explained by Pape's model, yet this did not accomplish a behavioral change in the Gaddafi regime. Consequently, it is discussed if coercion is viable against an adversary who is not rational. Earlier claims that high demands impedes the effectiveness of coercion and that strategies of denial results in higher military vulnerability were strengthened, whereas cooperation between indigenous ground forces and foreign air power has to be further researched.

  • 137.
    Ebeling, Johan
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Underrättelser för sjöstriden: IPB-metoden och den maritima arenan2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to examine the use of the NATO method known as Intelligence Preparation of the Battlespace (IPB), since the Swedish Armed Forces Headquarters in 2004 decided that interoperability with NATO methods is of high priority.

    Combat on the ground, in the air and at sea is characterized by different factors. This circumstance is however not very clear in the Swedish interpretation of IPB. This shortcoming constitutes the problem that this study has looked into. IPB will be examined from a naval point of view at a tactical level. The question that has been asked is how naval tactical combat and the maritime environment influence the use of IPB.

    The study uses the IPB-method itself as theoretical framework. Swedish doctrine, naval regulations and handbooks as well as modern literature on naval combat have been analysed in order to give perspectives on IPB. 

    It is common knowledge today that the essence of success in naval combat at a tactical level is to attack effectively first. The main conclusion is, however, that IPB, which focuses on estimates of the adversary’s courses of action, reflects this maxim poorly. The results of the study show that the intelligence output would be more adequate if IPB, when used in a naval tactical context, was concentrated on an analysis of the duel between ships.

  • 138.
    Ed, Max
    Swedish Defence University.
    Den mänskliga faktorns betydelse vid olyckor i militär verksamhet: En studie av mänskliga faktorer som medverkar till olyckors uppkomst i Försvarsmaktens verksamhet till sjöss2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study has investigated factors that contribute to the rise of accidents in the Swedish Armed Forces. Through investigation of six accident reports human factors have been identified, classi-fied and compiled. The aim has been to seek answers to the question: Which human factors cause accidents in the Swedish Armed Forces' activities at sea?

    In the context of a case study the content of six accident reports, which were linked to the Swedish Armed Forces, was analysed. Documentary research was used to collect data. The analysis of collected accident reports was carried out with content analysis. A total of 134 human factors were identified in this study, compiled from 31 unique human factors. The results drawn from studying the survey concluded that human factors which appear most frequently in the accident reports are routine deviation, judgment, knowledge, sudden event development and communica-tion/information. The results also show that of all the 31 units of human factors identified, no single factor is represented in all accident reports. However, the human factors routine deviation, judgment, communication/information, education, job description and safeguard were repre-sented in five of six reports.

  • 139.
    Edin, Christoffer
    Swedish Defence University.
    Då krigssjukvård påverkar moralen, kan en förändrad syn på risk öka den militära förmågan?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Krigföringsförmågan i en försvarsmakt är bland annat beroende av en god anda. Under perioden 1990-2010 har det militära maktmedlet över den Svenska krigssjukvården minskat i takt med att dessa delar avvecklats. En uppgift vilken därmed måste lösas av den offentliga sjukvården. Tillgången till adekvat sjukvård i krig är alltjämt viktig för bibehållandet av moralen i förbanden, och därmed uppstår ett dilemma då ansvarsflytt skett från Försvarsmakten till, i huvudsak, landstingen, vars beslutsmekanismer inte nödvändigtvis är de samma såsom i Försvarsmakten. Dessutom minskar Försvarsmaktens inflytande över krigssjukvårdens utförande och inriktning. Genom att analysera de gällande riskhanteringsmodellerna för Försvarsmakten och Sveriges Kommuner och Landsting ur ett riskfilosofiskt perspektiv undersöker denna uppsats förutsättningarna att kompensera för denna ansvarsomfördelning. Risken för sjunkande moral kan anses uppstå såsom en konsekvens av överförandet av ansvar. Uppsatsen diskuterar även förslag på åtgärder vilka skulle kunna nyttjas för att undvika en nedgång i moral vid ett väpnat angrepp mot ett nutida Sverige

  • 140.
    Edlund, Johannes
    Swedish Defence University.
    Manöverkrigföringens misslyckande: en fallstudie om manöverkrigföringens utnyttjande i andra Libanonkriget och första slaget om Fallujah2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Israel has been successful in the majority of the conflicts they participated in, but after the second Lebanon war against Hezbollah, the outcome was a loss. The United States Marine Corps have achieved many victories throughout history. However, during operation "Vigilant Resolve" in Fallujah, Iraq, the result was a loss when the Marine Corps failed to seize the city.

    How can regular armed forces have such difficulties to achieve military success against irregular armed forces, despite its technological and numerical superiority? The aim in this paper is to see if another possible explanation to the difficulties lies in insufficient use of manoeuvre warfare.

    The paper examines two negative cases. The examination takes place with the analysis of open written documents of a mainly descriptive nature. 

    Both Israel and the United States Marine Corps used manoeuvre warfare, but inadequately. With that said, it is not clear that the loss of operations can be explained entirely by insufficient use of manoeuvre warfare. It is close to the assertion that inadequate use of manoeuvre warfare can to some extent explain the loss.

  • 141.
    Edén, Sebastian
    Swedish Defence University.
    Theater Air Power In Non-Conventional Wars2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The majority of researchers in air power theory up to this date have studied the use of airpower inconventional wars. This is also the case with the well renowned air power theorist Robert A. Pape.In his academic work Bombing to Win, Pape seeks to find the circumstances for when coercive powersucceeds or fail. After an empirical study, presented in the book, he explains that the extensive useof denial strategies will lead to victory and every other strategy is basically a waste of time. Heclaims that his theory can predict the outcome of 33 air operations during the twentieth century withan accuracy of 93 percent.This study seeks to determine if his claims are true in a non-conventional conflict against an insurgencyor a guerilla. To examine this Pape’s theory is tried against two conflicts in which the oppositionconsisted of irregular forces. Operation Enduring Freedom, when the Americans fought theTaliban and al Qaeda and the South African Border War when the South Africans were in combatagainst a rebellious guerilla.The theory testing case-study shows that Pape’s assumptions to great extent can explain the outcomeof the two conflicts. The denial strategy that Pape advocates where showed to contribute to the greatestmilitary effects.

  • 142.
    Egnell, Robert
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Strategy Section.
    Framtida konfliktyper: En modell för kategorisering av krig och konflikter (S14)2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att kategorisera och namnge möjliga framtida konflikter syftar till att mentalt förbereda sig på olika alternativ och därmed ge organisationen möjlighet att anpassa sin förmåga att hantera de olika utmaningar som dessa konfliktkategorier kan tänkas medföra. Begrepp, eller teoretiska koncept, är viktiga då de har dubbla roller. Dels är de analytiska instrument för att förenkla, strukturera och förstå verkligheten. Överförenklade begrepp och kategorier riskerar däremot att fördärva vår verklighetsuppfattning och angripa de ”verkliga” problemen på ett effektivt sätt. Begrepp är dock inte bara analytiska avbilder av verkligheten, de har även en konstruktivistisk roll – de formar vår verklighetsuppfattning. Detta innebär att de definitioner och begrepp vi använder på insatser kommer att forma vår uppfattning och förståelse av insatsen. Det senaste utkastet till Militärstrategisk doktrin 2012 gör vikten av förståelse av konflikters karaktär mycket tydlig:

    All personal i Försvarsmakten måste förstå och kunna hantera krigets skiftande karaktär. Det ligger i krigets natur att dess karaktär ständigt skiftar och aldrig upprepar sig. Ingen kan styra krigets karaktär. Vi måste därför i vart fall noga bedöma den specifika konfliktens karaktär och anpassa medel och metoder därefter.

    Syftet med studien är därför att assistera Försvarsmakten i strävan efter denna förståelse genom att skapa en tydlig kategorisering av möjliga framtida konflikter. Denna kategorisering utgår från centrala parametrar och begrepp som anses tongivande för att förstå olika typer av framtida konflikter. Beskrivna konflikttyper skall sedan användas för att ta fram övergripande beskrivningar av möjliga framtida försvarsmaktsprofiler, så kallade idébilder, samt för utveckling av Försvarsmaktens befintliga strategiska typscenarier.

     

    Baserat på en generell diskussion om drivkrafter för framtida konflikter och en genomgång av existerande begrepp för att kategorisera konflikter så har en relativt enkel modell skapats i denna studie. En fyrfältare har skapats baserad på två variabler som påverkar konfliktens karaktär:

    1. Militär förmåga (Från låg till hög förmåga)
    2. Relativ förmåga i förhållande till motpart (Symmetri eller asymmetri av förmåga)

     

    Reguljär/Symmetrisk konflikt

    Reguljär/symmetrisk krigföring kännetecknas av två aktörer med likartad och hög militär förmåga – med största sannolikhet två stater. Denna typ av krigföring är mycket väl beskriven i både doktrin och teoretiska sammanhang och behöver inte beskrivas närmare här. Värt att notera är att dessa krig tenderar att bli storskaliga och högintensiva, dels på grund av krigets inre logik vilket leder till eskalation (Clausewitz) och dels på grund av de stora aktörernas förmåga och kapacitet att eskalera.

    Reguljär/Asymmetriskt konflikt

    Dessa konflikter kännetecknas av två aktörer med hög militär förmåga men som ändå är långt ifrån symmetriska. Exempel är Falklandskriget 1982 och Gulfkriget 1991. Trots att Saddam Hussein kunde mobilisera mer än en halv miljon man så medförde deras tekniska underlägsenhet gentemot den USA-ledda koalitionen en asymmetrisk konflikt. Dessa konflikter tenderar att bli mycket kortvariga om inte den svagare parten övergår i irreguljär krigföring.

    Irreguljär/Symmetrisk konflikt

    Dessa konflikter kännetecknas av två svaga (med traditionella mått på militär krigföringsförmåga) militära aktörer som slåss med samma irreguljära metoder. Flera inbördeskrig i Afrika tillhört denna kategori. Inte minst kriget i Liberia mellan bland andra NPFL och INPFL. Dessa konflikter eskalerar snarare i brott mot krigets lagar än i konfliktens intensitet – vilket i slutändan innebär allvarliga brott mot mänskliga rättigheter, barnsoldater, våld mot civila och därmed mycket svårläkta sår för samhället i en post-konfliktsitutation.

    Irreguljär/Asymmetrisk

    Denna konfliktkategori omfattar två aktörer med olika krigföringsförmåga där den svagare parten valt irreguljära metoder för att bekämpa en överlägsen fiende. Gerillakrig, upprorsmotverkan och många komplexa fredsfrämjande insatser ryms inom denna kategori. Pågående konflikter i Afghanistan, Irak, Colombia och mellan Israel och Palestinierna är ett antal exempel.

    Hybridkrigföring

    Hybridkrigföring beskrivs som en kombination av traditionell krigföring, blandat med terrorism, andra asymmetriska hot och upprorsverksamhet. Orsaken till begreppet är en ökad insikt om att de traditionella dikotomierna beskrivna ovan är missvisande i en betydligt mer komplex verklighet där olika typer av krigföring flyter ihop. Det är viktigt att notera att då fienden bedriver flera olika typer av krigföring samtidigt – hybridkrigföring – så ställs det med stor sannolikhet liknande krav på våra förband.

    Aktörers intressen och förändringar av konflikters karaktär

    Analysen trycker vid flera tillfällen på vikten av förståelse för att konflikter inte är statiska utan att konflikters karaktär kan ändras på flera olika sätt. Därför har studien även diskuterat ett antal tänkbara rörelser mellan modellens fem fält. Aktörernas intressen är utöver detta avgörande för förändringsbenägenheten i konflikter, då motgångar för aktörer med absoluta mål kommer leda till metodförändringar vilket i sin tur förändrar konfliktens karaktär.

     

    Slutligen presenterar studien ett par exempel på hur modellen kan användas inom FM för strategisk planering och framtagande av typscenarior. Trots att territoriella hot mot Sverige inte diskuterades framkom det med tydlighet att det kommer krävas en mycket stor bredd av förmågor för svenska förband – en kraftfull och expeditionär Försvarsmakt som med trovärdighet kan agera utmed hela konfliktskalan – på hemmaplan, i närområdet och internationellt. Flexibilitet och anpassningsförmåga är dessutom central ledord för att kunna följa med i framtida konflikters karaktärsförändringar. Statiska militära organisationer tillhör det förflutna.

  • 143.
    Egnell, Robert
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    Lessons from Helmand, Afghanistan: What now for British counterinsurgency?2011In: International Affairs, ISSN 0020-5850, E-ISSN 1468-2346, Vol. 87, no 2, p. 297-315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses the conduct of British operations in Helmand between 2006 and 2010 and discusses the implications for the legacy and future of British counterinsurgency. Substantially changed training, painful relearning of counterinsurgency principles and changed mindsets are necessary to avoid repeated early failures in the future. Moreover, despite eventually adapting tactically to the situation and task in Helmand, the British Armed Forces proved inadequate in dealing with the task assigned to them for two key reasons. First, the resources of the British military are simply too small for dealing with large-scale complex engagements such as those in Helmand or southern Iraq. Second, the over-arching comprehensive approach, and especially the civilian lines of operations that underpinned Britain's historical successes with counterinsurgency, are today missing.

  • 144.
    Egnell, Robert
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Leadership.
    Sweden's Implementation of a Gender Perspective: Cutting Edge but Momentum Lost2019In: Women and Gender Perspectives in the Military: An International Comparison / [ed] Egnell, Robert; Alam, Mayesha, Washington DC: Georgetown University Press, 2019, p. 41-72Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 145.
    Egnell, Robert
    Georgetown University, Washington D.C., USA.
    The Swedish Decision to Participate in Operation Unified Protector2016In: Political Rationale and International Consequences of the War in Libya / [ed] Henriksen, Dag & Larssen, Ann Karin, New York: Oxford University Press, 2016, p. 174-191Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 146.
    Egnell, Robert
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL). Georgetown University, Washington D.C., USA.
    The Swedish Experience: Overcoming the Non–NATO-Member Conundrum2015In: Precision and Purpose: Airpower in the Libyan Civil War / [ed] Mueller, Karl P., Santa Monica, Californien, USA: Rand Corporation, 2015, p. 309-338Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 147.
    Egnell, Robert
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Strategy Section.
    Winning 'Hearts and Minds'?: A Critical Analysis of Counter-Insurgency Operations in Afghanistan2010In: Civil Wars, ISSN 1369-8249, E-ISSN 1743-968X, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 282-303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article conducts a critical analysis of the historical lessons, theassumptions and the conduct of ‘hearts and minds’ approaches to counterinsurgency.This results in challenges. Theoretically the ‘hearts and minds’approach is rooted in modernisation theory and a normative Western approachto legitimacy that fails to live up to the expectations of the local population.The approach is also based on lessons from past successes such as the British1950s campaign in Malaya. However, a great contextual shift has taken placesince then and the relevance of past experiences is therefore questionable ina context of complex state-building in the wake of intervention. This also haspractical consequences as we seek to rectify the often misapplied approachesof today.

  • 148.
    Egnell, Robert
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Leadership.
    Alam, Mayesha
    Department of Political Science, Yale University, USA.
    Conclusion: Lessons of Comparison and Limits of Generalization2019In: Women and Gender Perspectives in the Military: An International Comparison / [ed] Robert Egnell and Mayesha Alam, Washington DC: Georgetown University Press, 2019, p. 253-266Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 149.
    Egnell, Robert
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Leadership.
    Alam, Mayesha
    Department of Political Science, Yale University, USA.
    Introduction: Gender and Women in the Military - Setting the Stage2019In: Women and Gender Perspectives in the Military: An International Comparison / [ed] Egnell, Robert; Alam, Mayesha, Washington DC: Georgetown University Press, 2019, p. 1-22Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 150.
    Egnell, Robert
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Leadership.
    Alam, MayeshaDepartment of Political Science, Yale University, USA.
    Women and Gender Perspectives in the Military: An International Comparison2019Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Women and Gender Perspectives in the Military compares the integration of women, gender perspectives, and the women, peace, and security agenda into the armed forces of eight countries plus NATO and United Nations peacekeeping operations. This book brings a much-needed crossnational analysis of how militaries have or have not improved gender balance, what has worked and what has not, and who have been the agents for change. The country cases examined are Sweden, the Netherlands, Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, Israel, Australia, and South Africa. Despite increased opportunities for women in the militaries of many countries and wider recognition of the value of including gender perspectives to enhance operational effectiveness, progress has encountered roadblocks even nearly twenty years after United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 kicked off the women, peace, and security agenda. Robert Egnell, Mayesha Alam, and the contributors to this volume conclude that there is no single model for change that can be applied to every country, but the comparative findings reveal many policy-relevant lessons while advancing scholarship about women and gendered perspectives in the military.

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