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  • 101.
    Karlberg, Ludvig
    Swedish Defence University.
    En analys av prototypiska maskulina reaktioner hos Försvarsmaktens ledare2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Trots att Sverige är det mest jämställda EU-landet och fortsätter att utvecklas i en positiv riktning håller Försvarsmakten inte jämna steg med denna utveckling. Försvarsmakten som organisation präglas alltjämt av en omfattande jämställdhetsproblematik där socialt genuskodade maskulina praktiker medför destruktiva effekter för såväl män som kvinnor i form av fenomenet hypermaskulinitet. 

    En förklaring till problematiken kan stå att finna i Mosher och Tomkins utvecklingspsykologiska sociokulturella teoribildning om hypermaskulin socialisation och enkulturation. De menar att maskulinitet formas och reproduceras genom prototypiska reaktioner när maskulinitet utmanas. Särskilt stor påverkan har reaktionerna från individer med stor normerande påverkan i form av maskulin status och rangordning. Denna teori prövas i uppsatsen genom att Norman Faircloughs tredimensionella modell för kritisk diskursanalys appliceras på två reaktioner från överbefälhavare Micael Bydén och arméchef Karl Engelbrektsson.

    Analysen visar att Mosher och Tomkins teori kan förklara Försvarsmaktens högsta företrädares reaktioner då maskuliniteten utmanas. Den kritiska diskursanalysen visar på hur såväl Bydén som Engelbrektsson i sina reaktioner ger uttryck för det som Mosher och Tomkins benämner som den motverkande prototypiska reaktionen. De två ytterligare prototypiska reaktionerna, den defensiva respektive reparativa, lyser med sin frånvaro. Bydén och Engelbrektsson vänder hotet mot den egna maskuliniteten från sig själva och mot omgivningen genom att demonstrera än mer maskulinitet. Sociokulturella förklaringsmodeller och genusaspekter åsidosätts och genusaspekter utelämnas fullständigt. Istället görs enstaka individer ansvariga för destruktiva beteenden vilket förnekar maskulinitetens och organisationens roll. I förlängningen riskerarar reaktionerna att leda till en reproduktion av hypermaskuliniteten i Försvarsmakten. 

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    Karlberg Ludvig EN ANALYS AV PROTOTYPISKA MASKULINA REAKTIONER HOS FÖRSVARSMAKTENS LEDARE
  • 102.
    Karlsson, Henrik
    Swedish Defence University.
    En sensemakingstudie av ett personalersättningssystem2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the differences in perception between officers at unit level regarding personnel replacement in war. The army has reintroduced the ability to replace personnel in the manoeuvre units, which has been out of the organization since the 1990s. The officers currently serving at unit level have little to no experience of how the previous replacement system worked and the Armed Forces have not explained how the system is supposed to work. This means that especially the younger officers create their own understanding of the conceived system.

    The study shows that there is basically a common opinion about the replacement system, but also that there are three areas with tensions (different perceptions of the system) between lower and higher unit levels. The difference lies in the fact that the lower level ascribes a different meaning to the categories of competence, experience and esprit de corps than the higher level. This could have been addressed through more active sensegiving from managers in the organization as they have the opportunity to create common meaning with the system.

    The study was conducted to increase the understanding of the different perceptions the officers have and with sensemaking interpret the difference in perception there is in the officer corps, regarding personnel replacement. The study is inductive and qualitative and has used interview as a method for collecting data. The material has then been analysed using thematic analysis.

    Key words:

    Personnel replacement, Sensemaking, Sensegiving, inductive, qualitative, thematic analysis, Swedish Armed Forces.

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  • 103.
    Krekula, Clary
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Engström, Lars-Gunnar
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Alvinius, Aida
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Sweden: an extended working life policy that overlooks gender considerations2017In: Gender, Ageing and Extended Working Life: Cross National Perspectives / [ed] Leime, A; Street, D; Vickerstaff, S.; Krekula, C and Loretto W, Bristol: Policy Press, 2017, p. 157-174Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 104.
    Kylin, Camilla
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Hede, Susanne
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Friman, Yvonne
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Enander, Ann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Att vara till stöd: skilda perspektiv på risk och kommunikation vid internationell militär tjänstgöring2013Report (Other academic)
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  • 105.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    A Conventional War: Escalation in the War in Donbas, Ukraine2021In: Journal of Slavic Military Studies, ISSN 1351-8046, E-ISSN 1556-3006, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 24-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The War in Donbas was in its early phases largely fought between non-state volunteer battalions and separatist forces. Yet unlike the expected theories of non-state actors, the war witnessed limited and symmetrical acts of escalation and rather conventional warfare. Building on primary Ukrainian sources, I argue that this limited escalation stems in part from shared cultural and military norms — a common normative framework — possessed by the belligerents. The contribution of this article is an empirical chronology of the War in Donbas, as well as a discussion of the influence of culture and norms in escalatory dynamics and use of force.

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  • 106.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Conflict chatnography: Instant messaging apps, social media and conflict ethnography in Ukraine2020In: Ethnography, ISSN 1466-1381, E-ISSN 1741-2714, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 71-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social media and instant messaging are fast becoming an integral part of contemporary life, and subsequently of ethnographic research. As ethnography is essentially a process defined by relations between people, this article investigates how online interaction influenced my relationships with the people I studied: Ukrainian volunteer battalions. Framed in a broader context of conflict ethnography, the resulting chatnography made access to informants tremendously easier, and allowed for remote data collection. Chatnography nevertheless exacerbated ethical challenges posed by study of armed conflict. The blending of offline and online also led to despatialization, and the blurring of personal and professional. This questions the traditional notion of the ‘field’, while more immediately threatening to limit my private life. While not a magic bullet, the convenience of chatnography means that it will be here for years to come. This article offers an attempt to investigate what this entails in practice.

  • 107.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Conflict Ethnography Goes Online: Chatnography of the Ukrainian Volunteer Battalions2020In: The Companion to Peace and Conflict Fieldwork / [ed] Roger Mac Ginty, Roddy Brett, Birte Vogel, Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2020, p. 207-221Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter discusses how conflict ethnography—ethnography attuned to the challenges of researching armed conflict—went online in my study of Ukrainian volunteer battalions. This online turn was both unexpected and exciting. While I had never been particularly interested in online research, social media and instant messaging nevertheless appeared to offer unforeseen opportunities for remotely researching a scantly studied conflict. In this chapter, I describe three revelatory moments that marked the rise, fall and plateau of the resulting chatnography, or the interaction through instant messaging apps and social media. Ultimately, I advocate caution when it comes to the use of digital methods in the study of armed conflict: while chatnography may be unavoidable, it can only work as one dimension of a broader ethnographic effort.

  • 108.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Covid-19, Ebola, and the Ethnographic Distance2020Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 109.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Culture and Ethnography in Understanding the War in Ukraine2022Other (Other academic)
  • 110.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Hoffman, Danny: Monrovia Modern. Urban Form and Political Imagination in Liberia2018In: Anthropos: Internationale Zeitschrift für Völker- und Sprachenkunde, ISSN 0257-9774, Vol. 113, no 2, p. 734-734Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 111.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy. Department of Sociology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Introduction to the Armed Forces & Society Forum on Broadening the Perspective on Military Cohesion2018In: Armed forces and society, ISSN 0095-327X, E-ISSN 1556-0848, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 563-570Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This Armed Forces & Society forum concentrates on broadening the perspective on military cohesion. This introduction, and the five articles that it acts as a preamble to, argues for the need to widen the scope of the recent debate on military cohesion, which in part took place in this very journal. This debate narrowly focused on Western state militaries during the 20th and 21st centuries and even then on the microlevel. The articles in this issue contribute to this broadening by exploring military cohesion in non-Western or nonmodern contexts, as well as through new methods, thus individually and collectively suggesting new ways forward to further our understanding of military cohesion.

  • 112.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Liberia Incorporated: military contracting, cohesion and inclusion in Charles Taylor’s Liberia2017In: Conflict, Security and Development, ISSN 1467-8802, E-ISSN 1478-1174, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 53-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the existing literature, compensation is often understood to be an inferior source of cohesion in military organisations. Through an investigation of the militias who fought for Charles Taylor’s government of Liberia, this paper makes three claims. Firstly, the organisation of these forces was looser than is often claimed in previous literature, which assumes tight and often coercive military patrimonialism. Consequently, the militias did not enjoy the interpersonal bonds of solidarity that have dominated recent cohesion literature. Secondly, since Taylor chose to suppress attempts to build cohesion around ethnicity, it played a subordinate role in unifying the militias. Thirdly, Taylor instead relied on military contracting and compensation, which allowed for the broad mobilisation of forces. The combination of militias’ hopes of inclusion into the state patrimony and insufficient resources to realise this left the cohesion of the militias fragile. Ultimately, this paper questions both whether Taylor had any choice but to resort to compensation in a context with a weak state and fragmented social organisation, and also whether the strategy is as inefficient as often thought.

  • 113.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    On Brokers, Commodification of Information and Liberian Former Combatants2019In: Civil Wars, ISSN 1369-8249, E-ISSN 1743-968X, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 179-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates research brokers and commodification of information.When combined with inherently asymmetric research relationships and successfulgatekeeping, brokers create demand and become indispensable.Potential negative effects of brokerage and commodification of informationare discussed through experiences studying former combatants in Liberia.There bargains with brokers who could facilitate access to this hidden populationresulted in a vicious circle as brokers confirmed what researchers wantedto hear. The attention to this issue was first brought by subsequent ethnographyand participant observation, which also offer the promise of an ethicallydefensible way of collecting information.

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  • 114.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    On Liberian secret societies and conflict resolution2019In: Nordic Journal of African Studies, ISSN 1235-4481, E-ISSN 1459-9465, Vol. 28, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent times have witnessed a rising interest in micro-level conflict resolution mechanisms in the form of religious and traditional leaders due to their perceived legitimacy central to peace. Based on 15 months of ethnographic fieldwork, this article updates the decades old literature on Liberian secret societies to post-conflict realities, focusing especially on these leaders’ peacebuilding potential. While states remain the main instrument for upholding domestic order, the weak Liberian state continues to rely on societies for legitimacy in conflict resolution and governance alike. The article offers a contemporary look at the Liberian societies, and especially their uneasy relationship with the state: the two are so entwined that it is difficult to separate the two. Yet this also poses problems for the societies, as the proximity threatens their ultimately local legitimacy. While peacemakers and statebuilders alike are tempted to co-opt societies to gain legitimacy, the article questions whether this is always desirable or possible.

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  • 115.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    On 'War and Society'2020In: Journal of Perpetrator Research, E-ISSN 2514-7897, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 252-257Article, book review (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Review of Miguel A. Centeno and Elaine Enriquez, War & Society (Cambridge: Polity, 2017).

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  • 116.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    ‘Once a combatant, always a combatant’? Revisiting assumptions about Liberian former combatant networks2022In: Journal of Modern African Studies, ISSN 0022-278X, E-ISSN 1469-7777, Vol. 60, no 1, p. 23-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building on 15 months of ethnographic fieldwork, this article draws from military sociology to revisit past portrayals of Liberian former combatant networks and assesses four central assumptions connected to them: that formal wartime command structures continue as informal networks long after the end of the war; that former combatants are united by a wartime identity and form a community to an extent separated from the surrounding society; that wartime experiences have had a major disciplining effect on former combatants; and that former combatants are both good mobilisers and easy to mobilise in elections and armed conflict alike. Finding limited evidence close to two decades after the end of war to support these assumptions, I ultimately ask whether it would be more productive to both theory and Liberians alike to widen investigation from former combatants to structural issues that affect many more in the country.

  • 117.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Sodasta ja Yhteiskunnasta: Review of Miguel A. Centeno & Elaino Enriquez: War & Society2019In: Sosiologia, ISSN 0038-1640, Sosiologia, ISSN 0038-1640, Vol. 56, no 2, p. 194-197Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 118.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    The MODEL social structure of an armed group: From Liberian refugees to heroes of Côte d’Ivoire and liberators of the homeland2018In: Small Wars & Insurgencies, ISSN 0959-2318, E-ISSN 1743-9558, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 776-800Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the Movement for Democracy in Liberia (MODEL) through a revised Weberian framework that focuses on legitimacy and offers a thick description of the different phases of this armed group. The article argues that the key to fostering cohesion is the harmonization of the micro, meso, and macro levels. This proved a difficult undertaking for the MODEL. Not only did the MODEL lack material resources but it also relied on different and evolving kinds of legitimacy on these levels. With its sources of legitimacy exhausted after the war, the MODEL ceased to exist.

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  • 119.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    The people's war in Ukraine2018In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 4, p. 180-183Article, book review (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Review of Volunteer Battalions: Story of a Heroic Deed of Battalions That Saved Ukraine by Kateryna Hladka, Veronika Myronova, Oleg Pokalchuk, Vasilisa Trofymovych and Artem Shevchenko

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  • 120.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    The utility of ethnography for understanding (the Russo-Ukrainian) war2022In: HAU: Journal of Ethnographic Theory, ISSN 2575-1433, E-ISSN 2049-1115, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 677-685Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Russo-Ukrainian war raises the question about the utility of ethnography in understanding interstate war. As anthropologyand sociology have historically punched below their weight when it comes to understanding interstate war and warfare, much ofthe academic study of war has been occupied by political science. In this article I discuss why this is unfortunate, yet not inev-itable. I also discuss three strengths of ethnography in studying war. First, ethnography helps us to restore ambiguity into po-larized understandings of war. Second, ethnography can assist us in understanding strategy because of its focus on people andthe societies we constitute. Third, ethnography helps with the ethical responsibility of giving war a human face. I conclude byarguing that war is too important to be left to generals and political scientists, but that this is inevitable if ethnographers con-tinue to distance themselves from the study of war.

  • 121.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Vaikenevat veteraanit2021In: Politiikasta.fi, ISSN 2323-7090Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [fi]

    Suomalainen keskustelu Afganistanista ja muista kriisinhallintaoperaatioista on ollut vähäistä. Kansainvälisessä vertailussa on silmiinpistävää etenkin kriisinhallintaveteraanien vaikeneminen julkisesti. Vaikenemisen syiden ja seurausten käsittely on tärkeää niin inhimillisesti kuin yhteiskunnallisestikin.

  • 122.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies, Strategy Division.
    Veteraaniaktivismi ja veteraanikäsitykset Suomessa2024In: Sodan Pauloissa: Militarismi suomalaisessa yhteiskunnassa / [ed] Susanna Hast, Noora Kotilainen, Helsinki: Gaudeamus, 2024, p. 79-88Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 123.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    War as nothing but a duel: war as an institution and the construction of the Western military profession2020In: Journal of Military Studies, ISSN 2242-3524, E-ISSN 1799-3350, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 11-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Like all repetitive human interaction, even war has been institutionalized and fought according to conventions and norms. Historically, this institutionalization is apparent from the way war has been compared to the duel, first in the 14th century and most famously by Carl von Clausewitz 5 centuries later. This article continues this train of thought and argues that the observed limits of Western “professional orthodoxy” and “strategic vocabulary” can be traced to how war has been institutionalized by the military profession. This offers an alternative explanation to the prevailing views of why the West has struggled in contemporary wars: it is the fundamental mismatch between these professional norms in the West and those held by their opponents that forms the biggest asymmetry in contemporary war. As this asymmetry is unlikely to disappear, these professional norms need to be reconsidered: just like the aristocracy with the duel by the late 19th century, the Western military profession appears stuck in an institution that is increasingly becoming obsolete. Without such reconsideration, the attainment of decision – the central strategic objective in war – and hence victory in future wars will remain uncertain.

  • 124.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Haldén, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Full-Spectrum Social Science for a Broader View on Cohesion2020In: Armed forces and society, ISSN 0095-327X, E-ISSN 1556-0848, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 517-522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In October 2018, Armed Forces & Society published a special issue dedicated to broadening the perspective on military cohesion from the narrow focus on 20th and 21st Western state militaries and the microlevel. The special issue emphasized the need for a theoretical and methodological broadening of the study of cohesion: In order to understand the majority of armed groups in the world, it is necessary to investigate macro- and mesolevel preconditions of microlevel cohesion. Such preconditions include the existence of states, nations, and modern military organization. These are specific to modern, Western contexts, and rarely feature in historical or non-Western cases. In many cases, investigating these preconditions requires qualitative methods. In a critical response, Siebold contested some of the arguments of the special issue, claiming that our argument was exaggerated and our methodologies inadequate. In this reply, we seek to clarify some of the issues and arguments at stake.

  • 125.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Ledarskapets betydelse för lärande vid After Action Reviews (AAR)2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten utgör dokumentationen av ett uppdrag från Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap (MSB) till Försvarshögskolan. Syftet med uppdraget är att ge en kortfattad kunskapssammanställning över utvecklande ledarskap och koppling till lärande/lärande organisation inom ramen för MSB utvecklingsarbete avseende After Action Review (AAR). Uppdraget innefattar också att ge en rekommendation om verktyg/metoder för att mäta aktuellt ledarskap eller att relatera detta till en idealbild.

    Tre övergripande slutsatser föreslås. För det första, kvaliteten på det allmänna ledarskapet i en organisation kommer att ha en betydande inverkan på AAR verksamhet och ledarskap under AAR sessioner. Den andra övergripande slutsatsen avser betydelsen av högre chefers indirekta ledarskap. Det finns ett stort symbolvärde i att organisationsledningen aktivt stödjer AAR och tillskapar nödvändiga resurser.

    Den tredje och avslutande slutsatsen gäller metoder för att mäta ledarskap. Mot bakgrund av rådande brist på vetenskapligt framtagna instrument med AAR inriktning föreslås bruk av väl beprövade instrument som mäter allmänt ledarskap och att dessa kompletteras med utprovning av AAR specifika tilläggsfrågor.

  • 126.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Utbildning i ämnet Ledarskap under påfrestande förhållanden: En översyn2014Report (Other academic)
  • 127.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Alvinius, Aida
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    “An undisturbed afternoon of writing”: a qualitative study of professors’ job satisfaction2019In: Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, ISSN 2050-7003, E-ISSN 1758-1184, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 719-732Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to model factors that contribute to job satisfaction amonguniversity professors.

    Design/methodology/approach – The approach was qualitative; 12 in-depth interviews were conductedwith Swedish university full professors representing 11 different academic subjects.

    Findings – Five facets of job satisfaction were identified: distal environment (e.g. impact on society and thescientific community), proximal social environment, self (e.g. receiving external credit and experiencinginternal pride), the uplifts of daily life and formal conditions (e.g. pay and opportunities to continue afterretirement). A model was inductively developed according to which professors’ job satisfaction is influencedby interacting contextual and individual antecedent conditions.

    Research limitations/implications – Because a qualitative approach was used, with a limited number ofinformants, there is a lack of representativeness and the concepts generated are of a sensitizing rather than adefinitive character.

    Practical implications – Attention should be paid to university professors’ need for autonomy, otherwisepublic management control strivings may become counter-productive.

    Originality/value – A new model of professors’ job satisfaction with a richness of details was developed.

  • 128.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Leadership Division, Karlstad.
    Berglund, Anna Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Leadership Division, Karlstad.
    Mid-Level Leaders’ Containing Ability: A Key to Organizational Effectiveness2019In: Advances in Sociology Research: Volume 28 / [ed] Jared A. Jaworski, Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2019, p. 93-114Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 129.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Brandow, Carina
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Fors Brandebo, Maria
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Åselis, Gunnar
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, The Military History Division.
    Swedish military officers through other nations' eyes: experiences related to leadership theory, stereotypes, identity and military contextual history2016In: International Journal of Organizational Analysis, ISSN 1934-8835, E-ISSN 1758-8561, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 615-633Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Globalisation of working life means that many organisations are manned by people from different countries. A potentially critical factor is how members from various nations are looked upon by their partner countries. Such perception may be more or less accurate and affect organisational outcomes. The military is no exception as modern warfare is characterised by multinational composition of task forces. The aim of this paper was to gain a deeper understanding of how military officers from other nations perceive Swedish military officers and their leadership qualities in particular.

    Design/methodology/approach

    Interviews were conducted with 20 military officers representing ten nations. Interview questions were deduced from the Developmental leadership model. Responses were first coded inductively according to the constant comparative method. Generated categories were then deductively related to this leadership model.

    Findings

    The analysis resulted in positive and negative patterns. The positive picture included Swedish officers being perceived as calm, competent and generally good at exhibiting exemplary leadership behaviour, showing individualised consideration and creating an inspiring atmosphere. The negative side included opinions such as Swedish officers being too emotionally restrained, exhibiting poor self-confidence, discussing too much before making decisions and having difficulties giving negative feedback. The results are discussed in relation to the Developmental leadership model and the stereotype concept.

    Research limitations/implications

    Small sample size and a focus on military organisations imply a low degree of generalisability.

    Practical implications

    Three suggestions regarding Swedish officer education are presented: officer students should be given an increased awareness of how they are perceived by others, decision-making without group support and giving negative feedback in a constructive, straight forward, but still considerate way, should be practiced and more attention should be paid to emotion management.

    Originality/value

    The paper addresses an increasing tendency in work organisations – a multinational composition of the work force. The foundation of study in leadership theory and the stereotype concept is new.

  • 130.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Bynander, Fredrik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Schyberg, Erik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Holmberg, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Crisis management at the government offices: a Swedish case study2015In: Disaster Prevention and Management, ISSN 0965-3562, E-ISSN 1758-6100, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 542-552Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to gain a deeper understanding of crisis management at the Swedish Government office level in an international crisis by using a multiperspective approach, and paying particular attention to factors contributing favorably to the management process.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The Eyjafjallajökull volcano eruption on Iceland in 2010 was accompanied by an ash cloud that caused serious air traffic problems in large parts of Europe. Interviews were conducted with seven high-level informants at the Swedish Government offices and two informants at the Swedish Aviation Authority. An interview guide inspired by governance, command and control, and leadership perspectives was used.

    Findings

    A Crisis Coordination Secretariat, organizationally placed directly under the prime minister, coordinated the operation. A combination of mandate (hard power) and social smoothness (soft power) on part of the Crisis Coordination Secretariat contributed to confidence building and a collaboration norm between the ministries, and between the ministries and their underlying agencies. Preparatory training, exercises and a high level of system knowledge on part of the Crisis Coordination Secretariat – contextual intelligence – also contributed to a favorable crisis management.

    Research limitations/implications

    The study relies on retrospective self-report data only from a limited group of informants making generalizations difficult.Practical implications– The organizational positioning of the Crisis Coordination Secretariat directly under the prime minister gave its members formal authority. These members in turn skillfully used social flexibility to build confidence and a will to collaborate. This combination of hard and soft power is recommended.

    Originality/value

    The multiperspective approach used when designing the interview guide and when interpreting the responses was new as well as the focus on factors contributing to crisis management success.

  • 131.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Fors Brandebo, Maria
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Destrudo-L: Development of a short scale designed to measure destructive leadership behaviors in a military context2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 132.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Holmberg, M.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Sohlberg, Jennifer
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Alvinius, Aida
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Leadership and command and control at the military strategic level2013Report (Other academic)
  • 133.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad. Department of Health and Social Science, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Elverum, Norway, (NOR).
    Molnar, Malin
    Unit of Intervention and Implementation Research for Worker Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden, (SWE).
    Tinnerholm Ljungberg, Helena
    Unit of Intervention and Implementation Research for Worker Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden, (SWE).
    Björklund, Christina
    Unit of Intervention and Implementation Research for Worker Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden, (SWE).
    Leadership through the subordinates' eye: perceptions of leader behaviors in relation to age and gender2023In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 44, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The study represents a theory-based leadership approach in exploring the subordinate's perceptions of leadership behaviors in relation to age, gender and type of work environment. The aim was (1) to compare subordinates' ratings of their respective leaders' leadership behaviors based on of the leaders' age and gender, controlling for type of work environment and (2) to analyze the relationship between the subordinates' ratings of their leaders' leadership behaviors and their ratings of the outcome of these leadership behaviors.

    Design/methodology/approach

    Data were collected using the Developmental Leadership Questionnaire (DLQ) from a sample of Swedish leadership course participants (n = 10,869) and their respective subordinates (n = 97,943). The DLQ measures leadership behaviors designed to reflect the following leadership styles: developmental leadership, conventional-positive leadership, conventional-negative leadership and destructive leadership.

    Findings

    Results showed that older leaders (51 years or older) were rated less favorably than younger (29 years or younger) and mid-aged leaders. Female leaders received more positive ratings than male leaders. A 3-way analysis-of-variance showed strong main effects for age, gender, and type of work environment and no significant interaction effects. A significant model with high equivalents of R2 coefficients (Cox and Snell, 1989; Nagelkerke, 1991) was obtained in a logistic regression analysis. Developmental leadership and conventional-positive leadership made significant positive contributions to the subordinates' ratings of the outcome of their leaders' leadership behaviors. Destructive leadership behaviors contributed negatively to the outcome ratings.

    Research limitations/implications

    Weaknesses include the cross-sectional study design. The large sample size is a strength, and the results have novel implications for leadership theory related to subordinates' view on leadership.

    Practical implications

    Counter-stereotype age and gender findings may have implications for organizational decisions and processes regarding selection of managers. Development programs are suggested for all categories but for older, male leaders with a focus on reducing their use of leadership behaviors perceived negatively by their subordinates, whereas younger female leaders should be encouraged to continue to develop their positive leadership behaviors.Originality/valueThe theory-based approach on subordinates' perceptions of leadership behaviors with a simultaneous focus on age, gender and type of work environment, based on a large-scale data set, is new.

  • 134.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad. Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, (NOR).
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Bandlitz-Johansen, Rino
    Norweigan Defence University College, (NOR).
    Waller, Gudmund
    Norwegian Royal Naval Academy, (NOR).
    Hyllengren, Peder
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Moral stress and coping: Relationship with long-term postitive reactions and PTSD indication in military personnel2022In: Ethics & behavior, ISSN 1050-8422, E-ISSN 1532-7019, Vol. 33, no 8, p. 672-683Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the relationship between moral stress reactions and resulting coping efforts in severely morally challenging situations. Long-term positive reactions and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) indicators following morally challenging situations are also studied. The sample consisted of cadets and officers (n = 332) from Norway and Sweden. Long-term positive reactions were found to be associated with limited moral stress reactions during the challenging episode and frequent use of acceptance and positive reappraisal coping strategies. Long-term high scores on a PTSD indicator scale covaried with high scores on Openness, a strong moral stress reaction, and frequent use of instrumental coping strategies. The main conclusion is that the immediate moral stress reaction and coping strategies following morally challenging situations appear to be related to both positive long-term reactions and to indicators of PTSD.

  • 135.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Berglund, Anna Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    18 ways to improve military officers' management of moral stress2015In: 18 ways to improve military oficers' management of moral stress: 1-4 June 2015, Tartu, Estonia, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 136.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Berglund, Anna Karin
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    18 ways to improve military officers' management of moral stress2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 137.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad. The Inland University College of Applied Sciences, (NOR).
    Zander, Ann
    Lönngren, Marianne
    Lidingo Town, (SWE).
    Co-workership: development of an assessment tool2022In: International Journal of Organizational Analysis, ISSN 1934-8835, E-ISSN 1758-8561, Vol. 30, no 7, p. 184-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this study was to develop an easy-to-use, theoretically well-founded and psychometrically sound assessment tool of the concept co-workership.

    Design/methodology/approach

    Firstly, inductively generated examples of favourable and unfavourable co-worker behaviours were collected, clustered and then expressed as frequency-based Likert-type scale items. Data were obtained from 825 Swedish white collar workers and military personnel. A factor analysis (principal axis factoring with oblique rotation) resulted in a seven-factor solution built up by 30 items and forming the instrument Co-Worker Questionnaire (Co-Worker Q).

    Findings

    The factors have a strong resemblance to the content of dominating models of leadership, followership, organizational citizenship behaviour and leader–member exchange. The factor scales had relatively high reliability (high Cronbach’s alpha coefficients and low standard errors of measurement). Regarding discriminability, women scored more favourably on five of the factors, men on one factor and age differences were noted on two factors.

    Research limitations/implications

    Shortcomings include the lack of data on possibly related aspects including person factors, such as personality and socio-economic status, and contextual factors such as more detailed data on the type of work environment and organizational culture.

    Practical implications

    The instrument has an easy-to-use format and can be used in organization development interventions with a co-workership focus and in individualized coaching or mentoring programmes.

    Originality/value

    The co-workership concept has so far mainly been used in the Nordic countries. The development of the Co-Worker Q opens up for broader applications.

  • 138.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Zander, Ann
    (SWE).
    Lönngren, Marianne
    (SWE).
    Malmquist Johansson, Madelene
    (SWE).
    Utvecklande medarbetarskap: När medarbetarskap och ledarskap samspelar2022Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Förr talade man om chefer och underlydande. Cheferna bestämde och de underlydande lydde. I dagens globaliserade samhälle, med avancerad teknologi och högutbildade kompetenta medarbetare, ser det annorlunda ut. Enskilda medarbetare och grupper av medarbetare förväntas aktivt ansvara för att tänka ut och planera vad som ska göras, sedan göra detta självständigt och därefter värdera resultatet i en lärande spiral. Ett utvecklande medarbetarskap med stor självständighet och stort ansvarstagande är därmed en viktig faktor för organisatorisk framgång.

    I denna bok summeras teori om medarbetarskap och därefter presenteras detaljerade förslag på hur man kan arbeta praktiskt i en organisation med att utveckla medarbetarskapet så att det samspelar med ett modernt, utvecklande ledarskap.

  • 139.
    Larsson, Sebastian
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Land Operations Division.
    The Techno-Legal Boundaries of Intelligence: NSA and FRA’s Collaborations in Transatlantic Mass Surveillance2022In: Problematising Intelligence Studies: Towards a new research agenda / [ed] Hager Ben Jaffel, Sebastian Larsson, Routledge, 2022Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 140.
    Linehagen, Frida
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Conforming One’s Conduct to Unwritten Rules: Experiences of Female Military Personnel in a Male-Dominated Organization2018In: Res Militaris, E-ISSN 2265-6294, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 1-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Armed Forces have traditionally been exclusively male, and service in the cause of defending the country has until recently been the privilege of men. While the very first women entered the military 37 years ago, the military has so far failed to fully integrate women into the organization and promote gender equality. The object of this study is to probe servicewomen's meanings, identities, strategies and experiences in a male-dominated institution. For that purpose, a qualitative approach was chosen, and nine female members of the Swedish Armed Forces, from private to general, were interviewed. The rich empirical data on what it means and feels like today to serve as a female minority as part of unique culture emphasizing corporateness - on their attitudes, options, dilemmas, contradictions as well as the double binds imposed on them by the prevailing male orthodoxy - are analyzed and discussed in light of Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical concepts : cultural capital, habitus, masculine domination and symbolic violence.

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  • 141.
    Linehagen, Frida
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm. Division of Risk Management and Societal Safety, Lund University, (SWE).
    Wester, Misse
    Division of Risk Management and Societal Safety, Lund University, (SWE).
    To stand in line and fit in—About military men's (un)reflected navigation in the armed forces2023In: Sociology Compass, E-ISSN 1751-9020, Vol. 17, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to investigate how the everyday experience of being a man in a male-dominated organization and what navigating the organization is like. The study builds on 15 interviews with men of various ages and ranks in the Swedish Armed Forces. The findings revealed three major themes that illustrate how men, and their actions, contribute to producing and re-producing gendered norms. First, the ideal military person is seen to have characteristics that are predominantly male and even though respondents only identify with these characteristics to some extent, the typical male ideal is still prevalent within the Armed Forces. Second, this image is reproduced by an uncritical stance towards the internal workings of the organization, relating to career paths and their reliance of traditional gendered roles. Third, the Armed Forces encounter resistance to gender equality work from within the military organization, in both action and inactions. We suggest this is due to a resistance to change and that work with gender equality is minimized to a shadow task that lacks committed men. We conclude that men's reality seems both obvious and unreflected, and these structures are upheld within the Armed Forces.

  • 142.
    Malmio, Irja
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Systems Science for Defence and Security.
    Rituals of (un)changing masculinity: cohesion or diversity? A study of the fraternization traditions of Swedish cadets’ at the Military Academy2022In: Norma, ISSN 1890-2138, E-ISSN 1890-2146, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 181-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the cultural expressions of traditional socialization activities that occur in connection with cadets attending the 3-year Officers Programme at Karlberg in Sweden, in order to analyze how masculinity norms in a male-dominated military organization are produced and sustained. A narrative analysis method was used to interpret the meaning of the campus traditions described in interviews made with five cadets together with the student handbook for newly arrived cadets ‘Ruki’. Three distinct traditions were analyzed: ‘The Despicable Philquist’, ‘The Viking Festivity’, and ‘Lifning’. Three themes that describe these traditions, respectively, were identified: separation, homosociality, and fraternization. Separation specifies a formation of a masculine and militarized subjectivity that separates the dichotomous categories of civilian – military. Homosociality describes activities that reproduce masculine norms where men relate to other men. Lastly, fraternization is used to describe socialization activities where the main purpose is to create cohesion. The contribution of this article is that it confirms how performatory rituals in the Military Academy functions to enforce cohesion that is modeled on masculinity norms, while simultaneously identifying a growing dissonance between society’s demands for diversity and the military’s basic aspiration for cohesion.

  • 143.
    Malmio, Irja
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Leadership.
    Björklund, Stéphanie
    Swedish Defence University.
    Österberg, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Svensén, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    "In Some Situations You Have to Bang Your Head into the Wall in Order to Get Respected": A Qualitative Study of Female Cadets’ Experiences whilst Studying at the Swedish Military Academy and Serving in the Swedish Armed Forces2019In: Res Militaris, E-ISSN 2265-6294, Vol. 9, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One important objective of the Swedish Armed Forces, as expressed in the plan for implementing gender mainstreaming from 2015 onwards, is to increase the number of women in the organization, especially in the higher ranks. Recruiting more women to the Officers’ Programme, while at the same time ensuring that women who have already enrolled as officers will remain in the military, are therefore of utter importance. This article is based on a qualitative study where six recent and present female cadets were interviewed focusing on their experiences of their time in preparing to become officers at the Swedish Military Academy as well as how they perceive a future career with in the Swedish Armed Forces. A thematic analysis was used to analyze the results from which three dimensions emerged : ambition, culture and visibility. Ambition relates to expectations before and during the education, personal grit, perceived demands and family planning. Culture covers traditions, personal treatment and jargon, idealizing of masculinity, as well as servicewomen’s adaptation strategies. The last dimension, visibility, derives from the way females are made visible in the form of “tokens”, and is enhanced through the recruitment and marketing campaigns of the Swedish Armed Forces where women are often singled out as the main focus. Women are made visible because of their sex, not for their achievements. The study suggests that the Swedish Armed Forces should reconsider their focus on women in their internal and external communication. Further suggestions include involving lower-ranking defence employees in the work related to implementing the value system, and seeing to it that its practical application is an integrated part of the education at the Officers’ Programme, while also introducing a mentorship programme for female cadets.

  • 144.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Alvinius, Aida
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Enander, Ann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Frames of public reaction in crisis2016In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 14-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to identify and analyze the ways in which images and reactions of the public are described and framed in media articles and reports. Reporting from six major events affecting the Swedish public was studied using a thematic method of analysis. The results show three dynamic interrelated processes at work simultaneously in framing the public: identification, characterization and evaluation. A significant contribution of this study is the emphasis on how this often subtle and implicit framing influences the portrayal of human reactions, thus possibly influencing the expectations and evaluations of both the public in general and crisis managers in particular.

  • 145.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Alvinius, Aida
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Enander, Ann
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Hede, Susanne
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Public reactions in crisis: representations and realities?2013In: Åre risk event 12–14 march 2013: Book of Abstracts, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 146.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Brandow, Carina
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Olsson, Alicia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Alvinius, Aida
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Militärt ledarskap och emotionshantering i akuta situationer som innehåller moraliska dilemman2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Militärt ledarskap i en insatsmiljö präglad av svårförutsägbar irreguljär krigföring ställer stora krav på officersprofessionen. Etiskt komplexa insatser kan bidra till starka stressrelaterade emotioner hos enskilda soldater och officerare. Förmågan att hantera dessa känslor är central för att bibehålla operativ effektivitet. Kraven ökar samtidigt på den militära organisationen att anpassa sina normer för vad som är acceptabla emotionella uttrycksformer. Studien belyser en militär emotionskultur som ger begränsat utrymme åt emotionella uttryck då det är nödvändigt att vara bestämd, kall och ”professionell” i akuta situationer som innehåller moraliska dilemman. Ledare kan genom att härbergera starka känslor bidra till operativ effektivitet (benämnd containerförmåga). Potentiella konflikter mellan en god containerförmåga i akuta situationer å ena sidan och långsiktig anpassning i vardagen efter insatser å andra sidan belyses.

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  • 147.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Hyllengren, Peder
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Kallenberg, Kjell
    Örebro universitetssjukhus.
    Waaler, G.
    Hedmark University College, Norge.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Leadership and Moral Stress: Individual reaction patterns among first responders in acute situations that involve moral stressors2015In: Journal of Trauma & Treatment, E-ISSN 2167-1222, Vol. 4, p. 261-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to gain a deeper understanding of individual reaction patterns among professional first responders (emergency treatment, military officers, and police officers) during and after acute situations that involve moral stressors in combination with cumulative stress. Swedish and Norwegian informants within these professional groups were interviewed (n=37). Data were analyzed according to a grounded theory approach. A model was developed according to which long-term effects following such stress exposure depends on the character of the continued everyday living. In particular, the frequency and intensity of perceived daily hassles and uplifts is important. Cognitivebehavioral aspects are discussed to prevent and/or reduce negative long-term reactions.

  • 148.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Alvinius, Aida
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    The balance of shadow influencers and the formal organization through organizational boundary filters2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 149.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Alvinius, Aida
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    The balance of shadow influencers and the formal organization through organizational boundary filters2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 150.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Social effektivitet i arbetslivet2022Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Social effektivitet i arbetslivet handlar om hur individen använder sin sociala kompetens i arbetslivet, är socialt effektiv, för att nå organisationens mål. Begreppet ligger nära det man brukar kalla social kompetens, vilket är bredare och mer generellt. Social effektivitet fokuserar mer på individens förmåga att läsa av, påverka och anpassa sig i olika situationer. Det handlar om att förstå spelregler, sociala koder och organisationens emotionskultur för att bättre kunna både anpassa sig och påverka andra. 

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