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  • 101.
    Jonsson, Emma
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Österberg, Johan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Potential för att antas till Officersprogrammet bland sökande till grundläggande militär utbildning2014Report (Other academic)
  • 102.
    Jonsson, Lars
    Swedish Defence University.
    BARNEN OCH JAG HAR LÅNAT UT DIG TILL ARBETSGIVAREN: En kvalitativ studie om hur officerens psykosociala miljö påverkas av de anhöriga vid internationell insats och hur det framtida anhörigstödet kan utformas.2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A lot of relatives to officers who has served in international operations have been af-fected by negative physical and psychological impacts. But in what way has this affected the officer when it’s time to readjust to the normal work or when preparing the next mission from a psychosocial working environment point-of-view? And does this change in accordance with new Swedish laws of official duty and rehabilitation responsibility? That´s the first issue in the essay. The other issue covers how the future Swedish relative support can be designed.

    The essay has shown a tendency to causality between the relatives’ perception of well-being and the officer´s psychosocial working environment. Further, the essay proposes that future relative support shall be based on the principles previous experienced, flexibility and availability with a limited mandatory part.

  • 103.
    Kallenberg, Kjell
    et al.
    Örebro universitetssjukhus, Sverige.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Hyllengren, Peder
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Moralisk stress och ledarskap2016Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I alla tider har människor plågats av svåra moraliska val, ibland till synes omöjliga. Men det är först på senare år som man har börjat uppmärksamma moralisk stress. Den kan uppkomma i arbetslivet. Den påverkar och påverkas av ledarskap.

    Ledarskap utövas i ett socialt och kulturellt sammanhang med mer eller mindre tydliga normer och värderingar. Men hur ser de ut och i vilken utsträckning delar vi dem? Och vad gör vi när våra egna och den omgivande organisationens värderingar inte stämmer överens?

    Boken belyser olika aspekter av ledarskap, organisationers värderingar och den enskildes val och beslut.

    Framställningen bygger delvis på författarnas egen forskning men behandlar även utförligt hur man förebygger, hanterar och bemästrar moralisk stress på såväl individ- som organisationsnivå.

  • 104. Kjellevold Olsen, Olav
    et al.
    Eid, Jarle
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Leadership and Ethical Justice Behavior in a High Moral Intensity Operational Context 2010In: Military Psychology, ISSN 0899-5605, E-ISSN 1532-7876, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 137-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study explores the relationship between moral behavior in a high moral intensity context and leadership behavior in Norwegian naval officer cadets (N = 82). Peer ratings of leadership behavior were used as predictor variables, and ethical justice behavior, defined as the disclosure of sensitive information in a demanding prisoner-of-war exercise, was used as an outcome measure. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed that transactional leadership explained 19% of the variance in ethical justice behavior, whereas transformational leadership did not augment this effect. However, in a model including all facets of the full range of leadership model, 25% of the variance in leaders' ethical justice behaviors was accounted for, with high scores on the transformational facet of Intellectual Stimulation (β = -.45, p < .05) and low on Individual Consideration (β = .44, p < .05) combined with high scores on the transactional facet Contingent Reward (β = -.68, p < .01) as significant predictors. The present data indicate that there is a strong component of ethical behavior embedded in both transactional and transformational leadership.

  • 105.
    Kylin, Camilla
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Sjöberg, Misa
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Autentiskt och trygghetsfokuserat ledarskap: En kvalitativ studie av KS 172011Report (Other academic)
  • 106.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Att leda förändringsarbete2012In: Kvalitetsarbete för bättre och säkrare vård / [ed] Nordström, G. Wilde Larsson, B., Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2012, p. 111-135Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 107.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Frontiers of leadership research of the Swedish National Defence College2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 108.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Leader development in natural context2012In: The Oxford handbook of military psychology / [ed] Lawrence, J. H., Matthews, M., New York: Oxford University Press, 2012, p. 187-196Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 109.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Ledarskap vid kriser: Inverkan av stress och emotioner2013In: Pacem : militært tidsskrift for etisk og teologisk refleksjon, ISSN 1500-2322, E-ISSN 1503-2116, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 27-39Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 110.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Människors samspel i grupp och ledarskap2014In: Gemensamma grunder för samverkan och ledning vid samhällsstörningar, Karlstad: Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap (MSB) , 2014, p. 47-53Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Framgångsrikt samarbete bygger på kunskap, förtroende och ömsesidig respekt.

    Aktörer som känner till varandras organisationskulturer, har förtroende för varandra och visar varandra respekt samarbetar bättre. Sådana goda samarbeten och relationer växer ofta fram över tid, men ibland kräver hanteringen av samhällsstörningar mer tillfälliga och spontana samarbeten.

    Det är viktigt att

    • uppmuntra människor att komma med synpunkter utifrån sin kunskap och erfarenheter

    • arbeta för att stärka gruppens sammanhållning

    • vara vaksam på tankemässig likriktning.

    Arbete över aktörsgränserna bygger på social och kulturell kompetens

    Känsla för socialt samspel är en fördel när det gäller att arbeta över aktörsgränserna. När flera aktörer ska samarbeta behöver du bland annat ha kulturell kompetens.

    Kulturell kompetens är att

    • vara medveten om den egna organisationens syn på världen

    • vara medveten om den egna organisationens attityder till andra aktörer

    • ha kunskap om hur andra aktörer arbetar och ser på världen

    • kunna anpassa kommunikationen med andra aktörer, utifrån deras organisationskultur.

  • 111.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Utsatte personalgrupper: Betyding av ledarskap og kameratskap2017In: Krisehåndtering: planlegging og handling / [ed] Tore Hafting, Oslo: Fagbokforlaget, 2017, 1, p. 77-94Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 112.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Alvinius, Aida
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    “An undisturbed afternoon of writing”: a qualitative study of professors’job satisfaction2019In: Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, ISSN 2050-7003, E-ISSN 1758-1184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to model factors that contribute to job satisfaction amonguniversity professors.Design/methodology/approach – The approach was qualitative; 12 in-depth interviews were conductedwith Swedish university full professors representing 11 different academic subjects.Findings – Five facets of job satisfaction were identified: distal environment (e.g. impact on society and thescientific community), proximal social environment, self (e.g. receiving external credit and experiencinginternal pride), the uplifts of daily life and formal conditions (e.g. pay and opportunities to continue afterretirement). A model was inductively developed according to which professors’ job satisfaction is influencedby interacting contextual and individual antecedent conditions.Research limitations/implications – Because a qualitative approach was used, with a limited number ofinformants, there is a lack of representativeness and the concepts generated are of a sensitizing rather than adefinitive character.Practical implications – Attention should be paid to university professors’ need for autonomy, otherwisepublic management control strivings may become counter-productive.Originality/value – A new model of professors’ job satisfaction with a richness of details was developed.

  • 113.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Berglund, Anna Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Daily hassles, their antecedents and outcomes among professional first responders: a systematic literature review2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 57, no 4, p. 359-367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Occupational groups such as firefighters, military officers, paramedics and police officers are exposed to a combination of acute, severe and accumulated everyday stress. Drawing on the daily hassles perspective on stress, the aim was to synthesize existing research on daily hassles in professional first responder settings into a theoretical model. A systematic mixed studies review with an integrated design was undertaken. The selection process resulted in 40 articles meeting the inclusion criteria. The selected papers represented two literature reviews, one qualitative study, eight longitudinal studies and 29 cross-sectional studies. Five superior categories emerged in the analysis: Individual antecedent and continuously framing factors, Environmental antecedent and continuously framing factors, Appraisal and coping processes, Daily hassles and Outcome. Suggestions for future research are presented

  • 114.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Fors, Maria
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Levin, Anna-Lena
    Thuresson, Annika
    Ledarskapets betydelse för värnpliktigas och unga officerares motivation att fortsätta inom Försvarsmakten2007Report (Other academic)
  • 115.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Fors, Maria
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Destrudo-L: Development of a short scale designed to measure destructive leadership behaviours2012In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 383-400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a short and easy to use yet psychometrically sound instrument designed to measure destructive leadership behaviours in a military context.

    Design/methodology/approach – First, examples of destructive leadership behaviours in a military context were collected using a qualitative approach. Second, these examples were operationalised and pilot tested, which resulted in a 20-item questionnaire called Destrudo-L. Third, data were collected from three Swedish military groups (n=428). Dimensionality of the instrument was analysed using structural equation modelling. Conventional psychometric assessments of reliability and validity were performed.

    Findings – A nested hierarchical model with a general factor and the following specific factors emerged: arrogant, unfair; threats, punishments, overdemands; ego-oriented, false; passive, cowardly; and uncertain, unclear, messy. Meaningful subgroup differences and relationships with a criterion variable (lack of motivation/propensity to leave) were found. More use of active forms was reported by subordinates of younger military commanders and more use of passive forms was marked by subordinates of senior military managers.

    Practical implications – The instrument is easy to administer and interpret (norm values are provided) and can be used in leader evaluation, as well as leader development, contexts.

    Originality/value – The main contribution is methodological – the development of a new scale. Additional findings are a strong positive correlation between active and passive forms of destructive leadership behaviours in a military context, as well as significant differences between groups with different ranks.

  • 116.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Fors, Maria
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Ledarskap och tillit: Analys och värdering av befintlig forskning ur ett Nordic Battle group perspektiv2006Report (Other academic)
  • 117.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Hyllengren, Peder
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Sjöberg, Misa
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Wallenius, Claes
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    The role of the commander in future missions: A leadership perspective2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to obtain a deeper understanding of the force commander role in modern multinational and multifunctional missions. Several sources of data were collected: (1) a focus group interview with five former Swedish force commanders having served in Afghanistan, (2) nine individual in-depth interviews with the same sample of commanders, (3) one in-depth interview with a Swedish Civilian Representant (an ambassador) serving in Afghanistan, (4) facts on selection ciriteria and education/training of force commanders, and (5) formal documents where the role of the commander is dealt with. The results were related to a theoretical leadership model which implies that a number of individual and contextual characteristic interact and shape a commander’s appraisal or sensemaking of a given situation. This meaning, applied to what is taking place, in turn generates a number of leadership behaviours which, to a greater or lesser degree, affect the outcome. Conclusions and research suggestion for the future focus on the following:

    - civilian leadership of the military operation

    - task complexity

    - culture

    - end state

    - self-management.

     

  • 118.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Ledarskapsinstitutionen.
    Kallenberg, K.
    Dimensional analysis of sense of coherence using structural equation modelling1999In: European Journal of Personality, ISSN 0890-2070, E-ISSN 1099-0984, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 51-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sense of coherence (SOC) concept has been criticized on conceptual and psychometric grounds. The aim of this study was to develop the concept using structural equation modelling. The short 13-item version of the SOC questionnaire was used and data were collected from two different samples. Each sample consisted of about 2000 individuals, selected to be representative of the Swedish population. A model with a general factor and two subordinate specific factors yielded a satisfactory solution in both samples. The two factors were labelled Social Comprehension and Commitment and Unpleasant Emotions and Inner Tension respectively. It was concluded that the 13-item SOC scale could to a cel rain degree be regarded as a measure of negative affectivity and that the suggested model makes the SOC concept move theoretically coherent.

  • 119.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Hyllengren, Peder
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Kallenberg, Kjell
    Örebro universitetssjukhus, Sverige.
    Waaler, Gudmund
    Royal Norwegian Naval Academy, Norway.
    Moralisk stress bland "first responders"2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 120.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Hyllengren, Peder
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Waaler, Gudmund
    Royal Norwegian Naval Academy, Norway.
    Kallenberg, Kjell
    Örebro University Hospital, Sweden.
    Stress reactions following acute situations involving moral challenges among health care professionals2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 59, no 2, p. 177-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many health care professionals have to make morally difficult decisions during acute, stressful situations. The aim was to explore the applicability of an existing qualitatively developed model of individual reactions among professional first responders following such situations using a quantitative approach. According to the model, the interaction of antecedent individual and contextual characteristics affect the immediate emotional reactions to acute, stressful events involving a moral dilemma. Continuous coping efforts and the quality of social support will also affect the long‐term positive and negative reactions to the event. The participants (n = 204, about 50% response rate) represented three Swedish health care professions stationed at a university hospital and a regional hospital: Physicians (n = 50), nurses (n = 94) and “others” (n =60, mainly social welfare officers and assistant nurses). Except for the personality dimension emotional stability which was measured using an established instrument, all measurement scales were operationalizations of codes and categories from the qualitative study (ten scales altogether). Four multiple regression analyses were performed with long‐term positive and negative reactions in everyday acute and morally extremely taxing situations respectively as dependent variables. The outcome showed that long‐term positive reactions covaried with much use of the coping strategies Emotional distancing and Constructive emotional confrontation and a perception of a well‐functioning Formal social support. Regarding long‐term negative reactions, higher age and little use of Emotional distancing accounted for much of the variance. Immediate emotional reactions also contributed significantly. Conclusion: the results largely supported the model concepts and their assumed relationships.

  • 121.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Berglund, Anna Karin
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    18 ways to improve military officers' management of moral stress2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 122.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Berglund, Anna Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    18 ways to improve military officers' management of moral stress2015In: 18 ways to improve military oficers' management of moral stress: 1-4 June 2015, Tartu, Estonia, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 123.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Waaler, Gudmund
    The Royal Norwegian Naval Academy, The Norwegian Defence University College, Norway.
    Moralisk stress: professionella moten med moraliskt laddade situasjoner2018In: Necesse, ISSN 2464-353X, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 32-37Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 124.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Berglund, Anna Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Daily uplifts and adaptive coping as a buffer against daily hassles: relationship with stress reactions over time in military personnel2017In: Scandinavian Psychologist, ISSN 0036-5653, E-ISSN 2000-088X, no 4, article id e13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this research was to gain a deeper understanding of how daily hassles and uplifts interact with each other and with stress reactions over time in military personnel. Interviews were conducted with 15 Swedish veterans five years after an international peace enforcement mission. The grounded theory method was used and result patterns were generated for six specific time periods distributed before, during, and after the mission. A theoretical model was developed showing that everyday uplifts combined with adaptive coping can be sufficient to limit stress reactions related to daily hassles. The model was supported by the fact that, five years after the mission, none of interviewees had received a PTSD diagnosis or needed professional psychological treatment. The last-mentioned outcome is noteworthy in itself given the severe stress often encountered in peace enforcement missions and previous research observations of high PTSD incidence, suicide rates, criminality, and substance abuse in mission participants.

  • 125.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum. Hedmark University College, Elverum, Norway.
    Sandahl, Christer
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Söderhjelm, Teresa
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Sjövold, Endre
    Norges teknisk-naturvitenskapelige universitet, Norge.
    Zander, Ann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Leadership behavior changes following a theory-based leadership development intervention: a longitudinal study of subordinates’ and leaders’ evaluations2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 58, no 1, p. 62-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to evaluate effects of leadership courses based on the developmental leadership model at the leadership behavioral level. A longitudinal design was employed with assessments before, one and six months after the leadership courses. The sample consisted of 59 leaders who made self-ratings and were rated by at least three subordinates on each occasion. Leadership behaviors were measured with the Developmental Leadership Questionnaire (DLQ). A limited increase of favorable leadership behaviors and a significant reduction of unfavorable leadership behaviors were found, particularly according to the subordinates’ ratings. A cluster analysis yielded three meaningful leader profiles and showed that this pattern was found in all three profiles, irrespective of how favorably they were rated before the onset of the intervention.

  • 126.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Wilde Larsson, Bodil
    Department of Nursing, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden, and Department of Nursing, Hedmark University College, Elverum, Norway.
    Changes over time in the importance patients ascribe to different aspects of care: On the need to improve person-centeredness2012In: The International Journal of Person Centered Medicine, ISSN 2043-7730, E-ISSN 2043-7749, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 482-490Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rational and aim: Knowledge of which aspects of care are more important to patients is crucial for health providers. The aim of the work presented here was to explore changes over time in patients’ preferences in hospital and in out-patient settings.

    Method: Cross-sectional data were collected among patients at a number of Swedish hospital wards and out-patient clinics in 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2008 (N = 46,525). Data for men and women were analysed separately. The main outcome measure consisted of replies to the questionnaire “Quality from the Patient’s Perspective” (QPP) (numerous references).

    Results: (1) Subjective importance (preference) ratings increased throughout the time period studied, (2) in-patients gave higher ratings than out-patients and (3) women gave higher ratings than men, particularly in out-patient settings.

    Conclusion: The increase over time in ratings of the importance ascribed to different aspects of care may reflect a general trend towards strengthened consciousness among citizens as consumers of care and is an important index for improving the person-centeredness of clinical services.

  • 127.
    Manigart, Philippe
    et al.
    Royal Military Academy, Belgium.
    Lecoq, Valerian
    Royal Military Academy, Belgium.
    Moelker, Rene
    Netherlands Defence Academy, Netherlands.
    op den Buijs, Tessa
    Netherlands Defence Academy, Netherlands.
    Brundtland Steder, Frank
    Department for Analysis, Norwegian Defence Research Establishment, Norway.
    Österberg, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Jonsson, Emma
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Szvircsev Tresch, Tibor
    Militärakademie (MILAK), Switzerland.
    Why are young people attracted to the armed forces? A comparison between five countries2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With the demographic change taking place all over European societies, the number of young people entering the labor market will decline. As a result, European Defense organizations will likely face severe recruitment and retention problems and find themselves in ever more direct competition with the private sector to attract the best candidates. To offset the shrinking base of recruitment, they will have to become more attractive to potential recruits and to increase the number of candidates in previously under-represented segments (for example, women and ethnic-cultural minorities). The paper presents selected results from an online survey carried out between Spring 2015 and Spring 2016 in five countries (Belgium, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, and Switzerland) among samples of young people. The paper presents how young people from these countries in general, view their armed forces, what their job expectations are, and what they think the armed forces can offer them. The multinational survey on which the analyses were based is part of a collaborative project conducted within the framework of the European Defense Agency on the impact of demographic change on the recruitment and retention of personnel in European armed forces.

  • 128.
    Monié, Frida
    Swedish Defence University.
    Kvinnligt mentorskap: En intervjustudie om positiva faktorer som får kvinnor att stanna i Försvarsmakten2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Throughout history, military organizations have been a male-dominated workplace. The Swedish Armed Forces claims that as a result of more enlisted females and a gender equal organization, its operational capability and efficiency increases. Furthermore, the UN Resolution 1325 also highlights the positive effects of women in both national and international operations.

    The Swedish Armed Forces has yet to reach its desired end-state regarding women in the organization which is the issue from which the dissertation is based. The aim of this thesis has been to study the positive factors that makes women stay in the organization rather than to focus on the negative factors that make them retract. This focus is chosen to reach a deeper understanding of how an organization can develop into a more attractive workplace for women as a minority. 

    The result of the thematic analysis, based on interviews of female seamen in the Swedish Armed Forces, shows that factors such as career opportunities, personal growth and education give the momentarily motivation to continue in the forces. Female colleagues and female mentorship along with the possibility to combine a career with the family life as a woman significantly affects and simplifies a woman’s working environment in a military organization.

  • 129.
    Mårdberg, Bertil
    Swedish National Defence College, Ledarskapsinstitutionen.
    Professional forum: Improper use of tests in Sweden1996In: International Journal of Selection and Assessment, ISSN 0965-075X, E-ISSN 1468-2389, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 154-158Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 130.
    Mårdberg, Bertil
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Ledarskapsinstitutionen.
    Carlstedt, Berit
    Swedish National Defence College, Ledarskapsinstitutionen.
    Swedish Enlistment Battery (SEB): Construct validity and latent variable estimation of cognitive abilities by the CAT-SEB1998In: International Journal of Selection and Assessment, ISSN 0965-075X, E-ISSN 1468-2389, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 107-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern computer technology permits efficient evaluation of test scores in terms of basic orthogonal factors of ability. A three-level hierarchical model of cognitive abilities was used as the theoretical basis of the computerized Swedish Enlistment Battery (CAT-SEB). Structural analysis of ten ability tests on a sample of 1,436 conscripts by confirmatory factor analysis (tested by the LISREL system) revealed a general, a verbal and a spatial factor - although the determinacy of the latter was weak. A nested factor model was used, with direct influences of the latent variables on the tests. This result is a construct validity evaluation of the testing system. Unrelated factor scores of the three latent variables comprise the output of the testing system. Future research should evaluate the efficiency of the prediction from the latent variables.

  • 131.
    Niclason, Philip
    Swedish Defence University.
    Urvalskriteriernas prognostiska validitet för studieresultatet vid officersprogrammet2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to compare two different systems for selection criteria for the Swedish officers’ programme. In order to compare the old respectively the new system for cadet selection, the cadets’ achievements were compared to their selection criteria. The systems selection criteria were correlated to the cadets’ achievements in a correlation matrix. Thenceforth the connections were further investigated by semi-partial correlations and confidence intervals. In the study, there is evidence which indicates the previous system’s superior effectiveness compared to the new system; for example, regarding selection of cadets likely to benefit from the Programme. The selection criterion with the strongest connection to the cadet achievement was the cadets’ high school grades, which also seems to be a good indicator for predicting student achievement in civilian schools. If the Swedish Armed Forces want to enhance future cadets’ study capabilities, an advised method of achieving this would be to augment the significance of high school grades for the selection criteria.

  • 132.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Alvinius, Aida
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Enander, Ann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Frames of public reaction in crisis2016In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 14-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to identify and analyze the ways in which images and reactions of the public are described and framed in media articles and reports. Reporting from six major events affecting the Swedish public was studied using a thematic method of analysis. The results show three dynamic interrelated processes at work simultaneously in framing the public: identification, characterization and evaluation. A significant contribution of this study is the emphasis on how this often subtle and implicit framing influences the portrayal of human reactions, thus possibly influencing the expectations and evaluations of both the public in general and crisis managers in particular.

  • 133.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Brandow, Carina
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Military leadership and emotion regulation in acute situations that contain moral dilemmas2017In: International Journal of Work Organisation and Emotion, ISSN 1740-8938, E-ISSN 1740-8946, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 269-289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to gain a deeper understanding of individual emotion-focused coping strategies and institutionalised norms as regards emotion regulation in a short-and long-term perspective in relation to acute stressful situations that contain moral dilemmas. 15 participants at different hierarchical levels in the Swedish Armed Forces (SAF) were interviewed. Several individual emotion regulation strategies and organisational norms for emotional expressiveness were identified. These were integrated into a theoretical model. The study contributes by explicating a context-specific emotion culture that gives limited space for emotional expression as it is necessary to remain firm and cold in acute situations that include moral dilemmas. Leaders must be able to minimise emotional displays in order to contribute to operational efficiency (termed emotional containing capacity). Potential conflicts between a well-developed emotional containing capacity in acute situations and long-term adaptation to organisational norms in daily life after missions and practical implications are discussed.

  • 134.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Brandow, Carina
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Olsson, Alicia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Alvinius, Aida
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Militärt ledarskap och emotionshantering i akuta situationer som innehåller moraliska dilemman2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Militärt ledarskap i en insatsmiljö präglad av svårförutsägbar irreguljär krigföring ställer stora krav på officersprofessionen. Etiskt komplexa insatser kan bidra till starka stressrelaterade emotioner hos enskilda soldater och officerare. Förmågan att hantera dessa känslor är central för att bibehålla operativ effektivitet. Kraven ökar samtidigt på den militära organisationen att anpassa sina normer för vad som är acceptabla emotionella uttrycksformer. Studien belyser en militär emotionskultur som ger begränsat utrymme åt emotionella uttryck då det är nödvändigt att vara bestämd, kall och ”professionell” i akuta situationer som innehåller moraliska dilemman. Ledare kan genom att härbergera starka känslor bidra till operativ effektivitet (benämnd containerförmåga). Potentiella konflikter mellan en god containerförmåga i akuta situationer å ena sidan och långsiktig anpassning i vardagen efter insatser å andra sidan belyses.

  • 135.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Hyllengren, Peder
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Fors Brandebo, Maria
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Waaler, Gudmund
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Militära ledares hantering av akuta stressituationer: Med fokus på moraliska dilemman i kombination med ackumulerad stress2012Report (Other academic)
  • 136.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Hyllengren, Peder
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Kallenberg, Kjell
    Örebro universitetssjukhus.
    Waaler, G.
    Hedmark University College, Norge.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Leadership and Moral Stress: Individual reaction patterns among first responders in acute situations that involve moral stressors2015In: Journal of Trauma & Treatment, ISSN 1195-1982, E-ISSN 2167-1222, Vol. 4, p. 261-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to gain a deeper understanding of individual reaction patterns among professional first responders (emergency treatment, military officers, and police officers) during and after acute situations that involve moral stressors in combination with cumulative stress. Swedish and Norwegian informants within these professional groups were interviewed (n=37). Data were analyzed according to a grounded theory approach. A model was developed according to which long-term effects following such stress exposure depends on the character of the continued everyday living. In particular, the frequency and intensity of perceived daily hassles and uplifts is important. Cognitivebehavioral aspects are discussed to prevent and/or reduce negative long-term reactions.

  • 137.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Hyllengren, Peder
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Kallenberg, Kjell
    Örebro universitetssjukhus.
    Waaler, Gudmund
    Royal Norwegian Naval Academy, Norway.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Moral stress: Individual reaction patterns among first responders2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 138.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Jonsson, Emma
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Fors Brandebo, Maria
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Military professionalism of the Swedish Armed Forces in the 21st century2012In: Threats to Military Professionalism: International Perspectives / [ed] Jeff Stouffer och Douglas Lindsay, Kingston, Ontario: Canadian Defence Academy Press , 2012, p. 169-194Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 139.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Berglund, Anna Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Därför fick de inte PTSD: en kvalitativ studie av vardagsstress hos 15 svenska veteraner2016Report (Other academic)
  • 140.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Berglund, Anna Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Därför fick de inte PTSD: En Kvalitativ studie av vardagsstress hos 15 svenska veteraner - Resultatbilaga (Arbetsmaterial)2016Report (Other academic)
  • 141.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Lundqvist, Linda-Marie
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Alvinius, Aida
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Hyllengren, Peder
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Waaler, Gudmund
    Sjøkrigsskolen, Norway.
    Bandlitz Johansen, Rino
    Forsvarets stabsskole, Norway.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Militärt ledarskap: Emotionskultur och emotionshantering i moraliska påfrestande situationer: Ett kvantitativt test av en kvalitativt framtagen modell2014Report (Other academic)
  • 142.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Sjöberg, Misa
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Kallenberg, Kjell
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Moralisk stress vid internationella militära insatser: En enkätstudie2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Militär etik innefattar ett dualistiskt dilemma då officerare och soldater förväntas respektera mänsklig värdighet och rättfärdiga dödande på en och samma gång.

    Syftet med rapporten var att kartlägga förekomsten av moraliska dilemman vid internationella militära insatser, hur de hanteras och hur de påverkar den enskilde individen.  

    Data bearbetades med faktoranalys. Samband mellan dessa faktorer beräknades och jämförelser mellan olika undergrupper av respondenterna utfördes.

    Sju typer av moraliska dilemman, fyra hanteringsstrategier och tre olika typer av påverkan på individen identifierades. Studiens resultat visar att det finns ett svagt samband mellan typ av moraliskt dilemma och hanteringsstrategi. Likaså finns det bara ett svagt samband mellan hantering av moraliska dilemman och negativ påverkan på individen. Det finns dock ett starkt samband mellan hanteringsstrategin ”Följer egen moral även vid risk att bli bestraffad/avskedad” och positiv påverkan på individen. Resultaten visar också på ett starkt samband mellan moraliska dilemman och negativ påverkan på individen. Undergruppsskillnader har främst identifierats på basis av kön och ålder/grad.

    Kombinationen av en tidigare intervjustudie och denna enkätstudie har bidragit till framtagandet av ett separat utbildningsmaterial som riktar sig till officerare.

  • 143.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Sjöberg, Misa
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Kallenberg, Kjell
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    ”Tänk om jag inte hade skjutit ...”: Om beslutsfattande, moraliska dilemman och moralisk stress i samband med internatio­nella militära insatser2010Report (Other academic)
  • 144.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Wallenius, Claes
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Att vara svensk officer på hög ledningsnivå vid påfrestande incidenter under internationella uppdrag: En intervjustudie2006Report (Other academic)
  • 145.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Alvinius, Aida
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Shadow structure within higher-level military staff: A qualitative study2017In: Res Militaris, E-ISSN 2265-6294, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study's aim was to elucidate the role played by leadership in the relationship between informal organizational influencers and the formal organization in a military context. A qualitative study was conducted by interviewing eleven high-level military officers and analyzing the data according to the grounded theory method. The analysis resulted in an identification of a core variable : Organization Influencers, which are composed of two sub-core variables (Shadow Factors and Formal Factors) that interact with one another. Therefore challenges arise for the leader to balance varying shadow and formal factors for individuals, groups and the organization. Previously research has defined the shadow organisation as a negative force ; however, our results indicate that this is not always the case. This study contributes by mapping out specific shadow factors in relationship with formal factors of a military organization, along with pointing out that shadow factors can be beneficial forces for organisations if balanced appropriately by the leader.

  • 146.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Bandelitz Johansen, Rhino
    Norwegian Defence University College, Oslo, Norway.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    An exploratory study of the association between the Big-Five personality dimensions, the use of upward influencing tactics ans political skills with military staff members' perveived performance2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, E-ISSN 2002-2867, Vol. 2, no 1, article id 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to explore the relationship and mediation effects between the Big Five personality dimensions, and political skill with military staff members’ perceived performance. The sample included 185 Armed Forces International staff members from several military education facilities. The results indicated that the PSI and several personality dimensions were positively correlated with individuals’ perceived performance. In addition, the personality dimension Conscientiousness acted as a statistically significant mediator between an individual’s use of political skills and their perceived performance. Practical considerations and future research directions are suggested.

  • 147.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Emotions in strategic leadership: a literature review and theoretical modelling for future research2017In: International Journal of Organization Theory and Behavior, ISSN 1093-4537, E-ISSN 1532-4273, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 311-340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to explore the existing literature on emotion and strategic leadership in a systematic review and to synthesize it into a theoretical model. A literature review on emotion in connection to strategic leadership was undertaken. After adhering to the search strategy and exclusion criteria, 46 peer-reviewed texts consisting of articles and relevant book chapters remained. The texts were analyzed according to the grounded theory method (GTM) to generate a new theoretical model and a core variable was identified, organizational emotion shaping. The model attempts to show how the interaction of individual and organizational framing factors with the strategic leader’s tasks and challenges lead to emotion shaping internal and external of the organization. Suggestions for future research were formed and suggestions of practical implications were given. This literature review and theoretical integration offers a starting point for potential areas of further exploration.

  • 148.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Wallenius, Claes
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Comprehensive approach: doctrinal overview and implications for Swedish military leadership2012Report (Other academic)
  • 149.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Wallenius, Claes
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    The comprehensive Approach: Doctrinal Overview and implications for Leadership from a Swedish perspective2014In: Effective Inter-agency Interactions and Governance in Comprehensive Approaches to Operations, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 150. Rawski, A. A.
    et al.
    Brehmer, Berndt
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Knutsson, K.
    Petersson, K.
    Reit, C.
    Rohlin, M.
    The major factors that influence endodontic retreatment decisions2003In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 23-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of a new or persistent periapical radiolucency adjacent to a rootfilled tooth is often used as a criterion of endodontic treatment "failure". However, clinicians' suggested management of such cases is subject to substantial interindividual variation. Several components that might influence endodontic retreatment decision making have been explored, but data on which factors dentists actually think they consider, are missing. The aim was to interview 20 general dental practitioners (GDPs) and 20 endodontists about factors they thought would influence the prescription of endodontic retreatment. Six simulated cases were presented as cartoons accompanied with a clinical history. In two of the cases the teeth were planned to serve as an abutment tooth in a fixed prosthodontic construction. The status of the periapical bone tissue and the quality of rootfilling seal were varied. Between 1 and 6 factors per case were reported to influence decision making. In cases not planned to serve as abutment teeth most dentists considered that the periapical condition was the most important factor, whilst they considered the fixed prosthodontic construction to be the most important factor in cases planned as abutment teeth. Generally, endodontists seem to be more inclined to retreat and act on the mere presence of a periapical lesion regardless of size than GDPs. In a real clinical setting in direct contact with patients, additional factors like economy and patients' preferences might be expected to exert a major influence. The majority of the dentists stated that they thought that their colleagues would make similar decisions as they did themselves.

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