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  • 101.
    Pettersson, Ulrica
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Improved Safety Science - utilizing a Design Hierarchy2017In: World academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 273-278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract—Collection of information after incidents is regularly done through pre-printed incident report forms. These tend to be incomplete; frequently lack essential information. One consequence is that reports with inadequate information, that do not fulfil analysts’ requirements, are transferred into the analysis process. To improve, we used theory in design science and designed a new incident reporting form, based upon witness psychology, interview and questionnaire research and with focus on analysts’ within safety science requests. We have previous conducted three experiments to evaluate the new form, built upon a design science hierarchy. The new form can capture knowledge, regardless of the incidents character or contex. The aim in this paper is to describe how design science viz. a design hierarchy was used to construct a new collection form, in purpose to improve a minor artefact frequently used in safety science.

  • 102.
    Pettersson, Ulrica
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Kiras, D. James
    School of Advanced Air and Space Studies, USA.
    Size matters: Special operations and strategic security in small and large states2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current state of geopolitical affairs has radically changed the security environment for both small and large states.  A changing strategic security environment has drawn many states, connected by treaty and other cooperative obligations, into conflicts that may appear to be distant from direct national concerns.  The nature of many of these conflicts – terrorist tactics, indirect warfare, cyber attacks – has led many of these states to search for and develop different tools for their military toolboxes than had historically been emphasized.  These and other changes in national security environments have led both large and small states to increase their dependence on special operations forces (SOF) proportional to other military options.  However, smaller resource pools and different positions on the geopolitical stage may lead small states to use SOF differently than they are utilized by large states.  This discussion will use a cross-national, comparative approach, looking primarily at the ways in which Sweden and the U.S. have strategically positioned SOF and organizationally configured special operations within their respective militaries.  Examples from other states will be used as appropriate.

  • 103.
    Ries, Thomas
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Forward Resilience in Context2016In: Forward Resilience: Protecting Society in an Interconnected World / [ed] Hamilton, Daniel S., Washington DC: Center for Transatlantic Relations , 2016, p. 1-22Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 104.
    Ries, Tomas
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Finland: Continuity and Change2019In: Uussota - aihtuvat voimasuhteet. / [ed] Suistola, Jouni & Tiilikainen, Heikki, Atlas Art , 2019, 1, p. 143-149Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 105.
    Ries, Tomas
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Freedman and Putin's Moves for Ukraine2019In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 3, p. 120-131Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Krig är inte endast en dialektik mellan motsatta viljor, utan ett spel som alla parter spelar enligt deras egna spelregler. Artikeln presenterar möjliga motiv bakom president Putins spelregler när han invaderade Ukraina 2014. Dessa omfattar tre personliga faktorer: hans känslomässiga reaktion; hans politiska legitimitet; och hans fortsatta kontroll över den övriga ryska makteliten. Därtill tre bredare realpolitiska intressen: Putins uppfattning av Väst och Rysslands övergripnade vitala intressen gentemot USA och Europa; Rysslands specifika intressen i Krim; och Rysslands intressen i Ukraina och övriga grannstater. Målet med artikeln är att bredda den inåtvända och tills nyligen självgoda västerländska liberala världsbilden med ett hårdare ryskt maktpolitiskt perspektiv.

  • 106.
    Ries, Tomas
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    "Surprise Attack... or Not. The Red Army Attack on Finland 1939."2019In: Mental överrumpling: Tankar om aningslöshet inför hot mot nationell säkerhet / [ed] Tommy Jeppsson, Stockholm: Royal Swedish Academy of Military Science , 2019, 1, p. 25-38-Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 107.
    Ries, Tomas
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    The Case for Forward Resilience in the Baltic States2016In: Forward Resilience: Protecting Society in an Interconnected World / [ed] Hamilton, Daniel S., Washington DC: Center for Transatlantic Relations , 2016, p. 85-90Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 108.
    Ries, Tomas
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Uncertainty, Analysis and Intuition2017In: The Bridge Builder: essays in Honor of Professor Bengt Sundelius / [ed] Ulrika Mörth, Charles Parker and Fredrik Bynander, Stockholm: Crismart , 2017, 1st, p. 133-152Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 109.
    Rietjens, Sebastiaan
    et al.
    Netherlands Defence Academy, The Netherlands.
    Ruffa, Chiara
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy. Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Understanding Coherence in UN Peacekeeping: A Conceptual Framework2019In: International Peacekeeping, ISSN 1353-3312, E-ISSN 1743-906X, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 383-407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coherence is a core objective in most multinational interventions and seems of particular relevance to UN peacekeeping missions with their increasing complexity and multidimensionality. Yet, coherence has rarely been studied empirically. We borrow the concept of ‘fit’ from organizational theory and use it to develop a conceptual framework to study coherence in peacekeeping operations. Fit is the degree of match between what is required by the mandate, on the one hand, and an institutional set-up and the implemented practices, on the other. We identify three relevant dimensions of fit to study coherence: strategic and organizational, cultural and human and operational fit. Our empirical material focuses on the UN mission in Mali (MINUSMA) and in particular on the interplay between the intelligence components and the rest of the mission. We draw upon a large empirical dataset containing over 120 semi-structured interviews, field observations and participation in pre-deployment exercises and evaluation sessions. Our empirical analysis suggests that low level of fit across several dimensions leads to inertial and widespread frictions in the practice of peacekeeping and could potentially undermine peacekeeping effectiveness. Building on existing scholarship on micro-level approaches to peacekeeping, we hope to further the debate on organizational dynamics within peace operations.

  • 110.
    Ruffa, Chiara
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Cohesion, Political Motivation and Military Performance in the Italian Alpini2015In: Frontline: Combat and Cohesion in Iraq and Afghanistan / [ed] Anthony King, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015, p. 250-268Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 111.
    Ruffa, Chiara
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Designing and Conducting the Comparative Case Study Method2019Other (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This case is about the comparative case study method and discusses the opportunities and challenges of designing and conducting it in practice. It draws on my research about military organizations in peace operations. In my research, I argue that military organizational cultures influence the way in which soldiers behave while deployed in a peace mission and, ultimately, their ability to keep peace. I complement this argument with an explanation for why those domestic national military cultures look the way they do. To answer my questions, I combine most similar system with most different system designs and compare French and Italian units deployed in the UN mission in Lebanon and the NATO mission in Afghanistan, respectively. I collected my data combining in-depth qualitative interviews, semi-structured questionnaires, focus groups, and observations between 2007 and 2014.

  • 112.
    Ruffa, Chiara
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    'Just deploy and always call it peacekeeping!': Italian strategic culture and international military operations2016In: European Participation in International Operations: the role of Strategic Culture / [ed] Malena Britz, Palgrave Macmillan, 2016, p. 101-122Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 113.
    Ruffa, Chiara
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Military Cultures and Force Employment in Peace Operations2017In: Security Studies, ISSN 0963-6412, E-ISSN 1556-1852, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 391-422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although hundreds of thousands of soldiers from different national contingents are deployed every year in multinational peace operations, no previous study has examined differences in peacekeeping practices along national lines. This paper first documents systematically differences in the way national contingents behave during peace operations in their respective area of operation. In a second step, it argues that these differences in behavior are largely consistent with the most important traits of each army's military culture. Based on extensive fieldwork conducted between 2007 and 2014 in Lebanon and Afghanistan, the paper shows how, within each mission, Italian soldiers prioritized humanitarian activities, while the French engaged in more patrolling activities, despite being both contingents deployed under similar conditions. These variations in behavior are consistent with the way French and Italian soldiers perceive the mission and context in which they deployed. And both the differences in behavior and perception are in line with the respective armies' military cultures. This paper contributes to the debate on the role of ideational factors in international politics and in particular to the ongoing discussion on strategic and military cultures.

  • 114.
    Ruffa, Chiara
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Military Cultures in Peace and Stability Operations: Afghanistan and Lebanon2018 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
  • 115.
    Ruffa, Chiara
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Peacekeeping operations2015In: Encyclopedia of Public Administration and Public Policy / [ed] Domonic A. Bearfield, Melvin J. Dubnick, London: CRC Press, 2015, 3, p. 2362-2369Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 116.
    Ruffa, Chiara
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Portela, Clara
    Singapore Management University.
    The Politics of Coercion: Assessing the EU:s Use of Military and Economic Instruments2015In: Sage Handbook of European Foreign Policy / [ed] Knud Erik Jorgensen, Aasne Kalland Aarstad,Edith Drieskens, Katie Laatikainen, Ben Tonra, London: Sage Publications, 2015, p. 545-558Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 117.
    Ruffa, Chiara
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Sundberg, Ralph
    Uppsala, University, Sweden.
    Breaking the Frame: Frame disputes of war and peace2018In: Acta Sociologica, ISSN 0001-6993, E-ISSN 1502-3869, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 317-332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Frames guide the way in which organizations and individuals interpret their surrounding contexts and shape avenues for thought, action, and behavior. This paper tests the individuallevel effects of experiencing ‘frame disputes’: the state of holding individual-level frames that are at odds with dominant organizational frames. We hypothesize that on the individual level a frame dispute will be associated with negative effects on outcomes important for an organization’s functioning. The hypothesis is tested using a survey of a battalion of Italian soldiers. Our results demonstrate that, on average, soldiers who experienced frame disputes in that they perceived their mission differently from the dominant organizational frame displayed significantly lower levels of perceived cohesion, performance, and legitimacy. Frame disputes are likely to be widespread phenomena among organizations and social movements, and understanding their effects has theoretical, empirical, and policy relevance beyond the military case under study.

  • 118.
    Watts, John
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Ledberg, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Engelbrekt, Kjell
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Brothers in Arms, Yet Again?: Twenty-first Century Sino-Russian Strategic Collaboration in the Realm of Defence and Security2016In: Defence Studies, ISSN 1470-2436, E-ISSN 1743-9698, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 427-449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    2014-2015 were years of turmoil for strategic relations, with Sino-Russian relations emerging as a particularly interesting set of ties to observe. This article asks whether recurrent Sino-Russian exhortations of friendship are mirrored by their strategic alignment in the defence and security realm, half a century after the end of the Sino-Soviet pact during the communist era. We examine the arms trade between the two countries and with regional partners, but also the recent pattern of bilateral and multilateral military exercises, as a combined test of the security and defence relationship.  We are able to show that the image of friendship that both Moscow and Beijing like to promote, while apparent at the UN Security Council and within the BRICS group, remains constrained by rivalry in high-tech segments of the arms industry and by lingering concerns about the prospects of peer interference in their shared regional vicinity.

  • 119.
    Westberg, Jacob
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Det glömda arvet från svensk allianspolitik2016In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 3, p. 23-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Title:

    The forgotten legacy of Sweden´s policies of alignment

    Abstract:

    This article aims to contribute to the present debate on Sweden’s security policy orientation by introducing an analytical framework for explaining and evaluating different choices of grand strategy. The usefulness of the analytical framework is illustrated with reference to Sweden’s previous experiences from perusing policies of military alignment and participation in cooperative security efforts aiming for collective security. A further aim of the article is to remind the readers of these largely forgotten Swedish experiences of policies of alignment. This second aim is related to the mistaken but common view that Sweden during the last 200 years has pursued a consistent policy of non-alignment. In the conclusion of this article six alternative strategies to reduce the present gap between Sweden’s security goals and political and military means are analysed.

  • 120.
    Westberg, Jacob
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Det nordiska försvarssamarbetets drivkrafter och utvecklingsmöjligheter2015In: Svensk säkerhet i Europa och världen / [ed] Kjell Engelbrekt, Arita Holmberg, Jan Ångström, Stockholm: Norstedts Juridik AB, 2015, 2 [utök.] uppl., p. 89-116Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 121.
    Westberg, Jacob
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Försvarssamarbetet: en ny väg till fördjupat nordiskt samarbete?2017In: Norden sett inifrån: Det fjärde spårbytet / [ed] Bengt Sundelius & Claaes Wiklund, Stockholm: Santérus Förlag, 2017, 1, p. 41-55Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 122.
    Westberg, Jacob
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Svenska säkerhetsstrategier: 1810-20142015 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En nationell säkerhetsstrategi handlar ytterst om hur den politiska ledningen inriktar, utvecklar och utnyttjar olika former av maktmedel för att uppnå landets övergripande säkerhetspolitiska mål.

    I denna bok presenteras en sammanhållen analys av de olika säkerhetsstrategier som Sverige tillämpat under den 200-åriga fredsperioden sedan Napoleonkrigens slut. Bland dessa säkerhetsstrategier återfinns exempel på såväl olika former av neutralitetspolitik som olika former av allianspolitik samt strategier syftande till kollektiv säkerhet. De svenska vägvalen analyseras och förklaras med hjälp av teorier om säkerhetspolitiska strategier och internationell politik. Boken avslutas med en analys av dagens svenska försvarspolitik.

    Boken Svenska säkerhetsstrategier är främst avsedd att användas i utbildning på högskolenivå, men den avser också att lämna ett bidrag till forskning och debatt om svensk säkerhetspolitik.

  • 123.
    Westberg, Jacob
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Säkerhet utan alliansfrihet: svenska alliansstrategiers teori och praktik2016In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 118, no 4, p. 411-444Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to contribute to the present debate on Sweden’s security policy orientation by introducing some general theoretical propositions and concepts related to research on alliance formation and alignment strategies of small states. A further aim of the article is to challenge the mistaken but common view that Sweden ever since  has pursued a consistent policy of non-military alignment.

    The usefulness of these propositions and concepts is firstly illustrated with an analysis of Sweden’s previous experiences of military alignment and participation in cooperative security efforts aiming for collective security. Secondly, insights from Sweden’s previous experiences and general research on alliance behaviour of great and small powers are used to discuss potential benefits and costs related to three possible future alignment strategies: (i) a small state military alliance between Finland and Sweden, (ii) a bilateral military alliance between Sweden the US and (iii) a Swedish membership in NATO. Finally, the question of continuity and change in Sweden’s policy of non-alignment is addressed. In answering this question the concepts of critical junctions, path dependency and external shocks are introduced as analytical tools to analyse causes of both continuity and change. I relation to these concepts Sweden’s security strategies have been characterised by far less consistency than theories of critical junctions or external shocks would lead us to expect. It is also argued that the policy of non-alignment since the end of the Cold War has lost most of its practical relevance and that the deteriorating security situation in Europe has created a need for a new coherent Swedish security strategy.

  • 124.
    Wibben, Annick T.R.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Everyday Security, Feminism, and the Continuum of Violence2020In: Journal of Global Security Studies, ISSN 1864-6492, E-ISSN 1473-8376, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 115-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article returns to the original forum question “What is Global Security Studies?,” looking at it in relation to the theme of inclusion and exclusion to point out that security studies scholars exclude feminist scholarship on (everyday) security at their own peril. Showcasing the increasing body of feminist security studies scholarship, the article then highlights not only what scholarship might be included in a truly global security studies, but also the important insights (e.g., about the continuum of violence that spans peace- and wartime) that are missed without it. The article ends with a reflection on the need to also include a wider range of approaches as eminently valuable to global security studies.

  • 125.
    Wibben, Annick T.R.
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Donahoe, Amanda E.
    Centenial College of Louisiana, US.
    Peace and War in the Classroom2020In: Teaching Peace and War: Pedagogy and Curricula / [ed] Annick T.R. Wibben, Amanda E. Donahoe, London: Routledge, 2020, p. 1-5Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 126.
    Wibben, Annick T.R.
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Donahoe, Amanda E.Centenary Colleg of Lousiana, US.
    Teaching Peace and War: Pedagogy and Curricula2020Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 127.
    Wikman, Lars
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy. Department of Government, Uppsala University, Sweden; SCANCOR, Stanford University, USA.
    War with the Terrorists or Rebuilding a Nation in Need?: Dutch Public Opinion on Afghanistan : The Theory of the Principal Policy Objective Revisited2016In: Res Militaris, E-ISSN 2265-6294, Vol. ERGOMAS, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article points to the need for a more complex understanding of the public's perception of the Principal Policy Objective (PPO) when it comes to citizens' attitudes toward foreign military interventions. In contrast to previous research, where one PPO has been linked to support either by experimental standards or survey practicality, this article uses a survey and a method which allow the analysis to account for conflicting PPOs and leaves the interpretation of the PPO to the individual respondent, increasing the validity of the results. This is done using a dataset based on a monthly survey, conducted during the Dutch military involvement in the Afghan province of Uruzgan (2006-2010), in which questions on support and perceptions of two PPO are separated in the questionnaire permitting a separation of two different PPO measurements on each value of public support. In the Dutch case two PPOs stand out as dominating the public discourse : War on Terror and the Reconstruction of Afghanistan. Both are included in the survey. Based on an OLS regression analysis, this article draws the conclusion that there is a significant relationship between each of the PPOs separately and public support, even when controlled for each other. Previous research has pointed to a dominating PPO that guides attitude behaviour ; however, this article finds instead that several PPOs could be driving support simultaneously and that each has a significant relationship to public support independent of one another. This article offers some possible theoretical insights as to how but additional research is necessary to further investigate how several perceptions of PPO relate to each other during the formation of attitudes amongst the citizenry.

  • 128.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Escalation, Emulation, and the Failure of Hybrid Warfare in Afghanistan2017In: Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, ISSN 1057-610X, E-ISSN 1521-0731, Vol. 40, no 10, p. 838-856Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, I argue that hybridization is a contingent result of the dynamics of some conflicts but not others. In particular, faced with opponents with great power, weaker powers seek a situation of asymmetry to gain victory. Drawing on within-case analysis of the conduct of war during the past thirty years in Afghanistan, I demonstrate that what we now consider to be "hybrid" represents an important continuity and strategic option in Afghan warfare. Still, the analysis also demonstrates that choosing "hybrid" has not been a strategy that has worked. Hezb-i-Islami's rather limited attempt for conventionalization of the war against the forces of Dostum and Massoud in 1992 failed and the Taliban's more far-reaching attempt for conventionalization has so far also failed to reap strategic success. This suggests that the threat of hybrid war is inflated.

  • 129.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Försvarsmaktens internationella insatser: i den svenska säkerhetens eller identitetens tjänst?2015In: Svensk säkerhetspolitik i Europa och världen / [ed] Kjell Engelbrekt, Arita Holmberg & Jan Ångström, Stockholm: Norstedts Juridik AB, 2015, 2, p. 233-264Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 130.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy. Uppsala universitet.
    Försvarsmaktens internationella insatser: I den svenska säkerhetens eller identitetens tjänst?2010In: Svensk säkerhetspolitik i Europa och världen / [ed] Kjell Engelbrekt & Jan Ångström, Norstedts Juridik AB, 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 131.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Seger: ett begrepp i behov av nyansering2018In: Minnet av Narva: om troféer, parader och historiebruk / [ed] Klas Kronberg, Anna-Maria Forssberg, Lund: Nordic Academic Press, 2018, p. 213-234Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 132.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    The US perspective on future war: why the US relies upon Ares rather than Athena2018In: Defence Studies, ISSN 1470-2436, E-ISSN 1743-9698, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 318-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses why the US in its military operations tends to focus on only one dimension in war – the military narrowly understood. More precisely, in the US case, its armed forces tend to be preoccupied with platforms and understand military capabilities as those that deliver death and destruction. I explain this one-sided understanding of the military dimension in war with how the US armed forces think about future war. How the US understands future war is, in turn, a reflection of how it organizes its long-term defense planning procedures. In particular, by approaching the concept of future as by and large structurally determined, a focus on platforms becomes natural. Investments in weapons systems, too, are more easily motivated to Congress since it is easier to attach a price to developing, for example, a new submarine than it is to attach a price to the cost of developing a military organization that is adaptive, learning and anticipating. The understanding of the future as something that happens whether you like it or not is particularly odd in the US context where of course a central tenet of the American dream is that the individual creates her own future.

  • 133.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Transformation into Nature: Swedish Army Ranger Rites of Passage2016In: Transforming Warriors: The Ritual Organization of Military Force / [ed] Peter Halden & Peter Jackson, London: Routledge, 2016, p. 144-162Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 134.
    Ångström, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Haldén, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    The poverty of power in military power: how collective power could benefit strategic studies2019In: Defense and Security Analysis, ISSN 1475-1798, E-ISSN 1475-1801, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 170-189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Strategic studies deals intimately with the topic of power. Most scholars in the discipline work with a concept of power as an adversarial zero-sum competition. This is natural and necessary. However, other conceptions of power developed within political science and sociology could enrich strategic studies. Approaching two typical, traditional tasks of strategy – alliance building and war-fighting – this article demonstrates the heuristic mileage of theories of collective power. In particular, we can shed new light on the post-Cold War transformation of NATO as well as state-building as a strategy in counter-insurgencies with new ideas of power. Broadening the palette of theories of power is thus valuable if strategic studies is to prosper as an independent field of study.

  • 135.
    Ångström, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Noreen, Erik
    Uppsala universitet.
    Swedish strategy and the Afghan experience: from neutrality to ambiguity2017In: The Swedish presence in Afghanistan: security and defence transformation / [ed] Arita Holmberg & Jan Hallenberg, London: Routledge, 2017, p. 31-54Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 136.
    Ångström, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Petersson, Magnus
    Norwegian Institute for Defence Studies, Norway.
    Weak Party Escalation: An Underestimated Strategy for Small States2019In: Journal of Strategic Studies, ISSN 0140-2390, E-ISSN 1743-937X, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 282-300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we develop the strategic rationale behind weak party escalation against stronger adversaries. There are, we suggest, four main strategies: to provoke a desired over-reaction from the stronger adversary; to compartmentalize conflict within a domain in which the weak party has advantages; to carve a niche with a stronger ally, and to forge a reputation of not yielding lightly. Spelling out these different logics contributes to the literature on small state strategies and escalation. It also suggests, contrary to much of the existing literature, that it can be rational for weak parties to escalate against great powers.

  • 137.
    Ångström, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Widen, Jerker
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Contemporary military theory: the dynamics of war2015Book (Refereed)
  • 138.
    Ångström, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Widén, Jerker
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Religion or reason?: exploring alternative ways to measure the quality of doctrine2016In: Journal of Strategic Studies, ISSN 0140-2390, E-ISSN 1743-937X, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 198-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we address the often ignored issue of quality standards for doctrine. In doing so, we contribute to the existing literature on military doctrine, since much of previous research has focused on outlining the effects of doctrine or the causes of particular doctrinal content, rather than how we should measure its quality. The predominant way of understanding quality of doctrine is based on the rationalist understanding of doctrine as a force multiplier. However, rationalist aims do not necessarily tell us anything about the contents of doctrine. Hence, a doctrine can be seemingly of high quality, but ultimately impede or lead armed forces astray. Rather than focusing on the utilitarian side of doctrine, we suggest that doctrine should mainly be understood as articles of faith or a belief system. And thus the quality of doctrine becomes inextricably linked to military norms and military identity. Writing doctrine thus becomes part of ritual, rather than reason.

123 101 - 138 of 138
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