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  • 101.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Hansén, Dan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Perspektiv på krishantering: Introduktion2015In: Perspektiv på krishantering / [ed] Deverell, Edward, Hansén, Dan & Olsson, Eva-Karin, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, p. 5-18Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 102.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Culture Clash – How organizational culture affects effective crisis management2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given the importance of organizational culture in explaining organizational behavior, it is surprising that research on how organizational culture affects organizations’ ability to react to and act in times of crisis has received limited interest. In this paper we examine how specific organizational cultures affected crisis responses in three cases – the handling of the so called anthrax letters in Sweden by the Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI) in 2001, the electrical power company Birka Energy’s management of a big tunnel fire in Stockholm, Sweden in 2001 and the television broadcasting company TV 4’s response to September 11, 2001. The cases have been researched by the use of a detailed process tracing of the main decision making occasions that the organizations confronted that e.g. included interviews with key participants in the crisis management. The studies show that in the FOI case, the democratic expert advisory culture led to a crisis response that was characterized by vague leadership and lack of decision making capacity. In the case of Birka Energy, the technical engineering culture resulted in a crisis response that lacked understanding of symbolic and communicative dimensions of crisis communication, focusing solely on the technical and operational parts of the crisis. The TV 4 case on the other hand shows a flexible organizational culture that managed to handle the change in mission.

  • 103.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Hur organisationskultur påverkar strategi och anpassningsförmåga i kriser2011In: Strategisk kommunikation: forskning och praktik / [ed] Mats Heide och Jesper Falkheimer, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2011Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 104.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Learning from crisis: A framework of management, learning and implementation in response to crisis2009In: Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, ISSN 2194-6361, E-ISSN 1547-7355, Vol. 6, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 105.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Organizational culture effects on strategy and adaptability in crisis management2010In: Risk Management: An International Journal, ISSN 1460-3799, E-ISSN 1743-4637, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 116-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a typology of temporal organizational responsesto crises in public perception aimed at examining the ability of organizations torestructure in order to cope with acute crisis management challenges. The typologyis based on organizations ’ capacities to launch crisis management strategies andadapt their managerial and operational levels to deal with crises. According to thetypology, the Fully Adapting Organization manages to adapt both its strategy andits managerial and operational levels to deal with the crisis. The Semi-AdaptingOrganization changes its strategy but lacks the capacity to change managerial andoperational levels according to the new strategy. The Non-Adapting Organizationdoes not grasp the importance of strategy change in the first place. Based on threeinductive case studies the study concludes that organizational culture plays animportant role in this process where the Semi and the Non-Adapting organizationswere dominated by strong expert cultures that proved to be less inclined to change.In contrast, the Fully Adapting Organization had deliberately fostered an organizationalculture in which flexibility was a cornerstone.

  • 106.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Hellman, Maria
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Johnsson, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Understanding Public Agency Communication: the case of the Swedish Armed Forces2015In: Journal of Public Affairs, ISSN 1472-3891, E-ISSN 1479-1854, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 387-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article suggests a diagnostic framework of public communication intended to capture new communication strategies used by Armed Forces across Europe to legitimize new tasks and recruit new personnel. Three distinct communicative models that impact differently on democratic values and public support are suggested: an Old Public Administration (OPA) model influenced by bureaucratic values, a New Public Management (NPM) model fuelled by market values and a deliberative model labelled ‘New Public Service’ (NPS) that is largely influenced by proponents of ‘e-democracy’. A case study of the communication of the Swedish Armed Forces identifies a lingering bureaucratic (OPA) ideal. The market ideal (NPM) however clearly dominates. The article concludes that communication along market purposes, principles and practices risks distancing Armed Forces further from society. Yet, an embryonic deliberative ideal (NPS)—much fuelled by the use of social media such as blogs—was also identified. This growing ideal holds the potential of infusing deliberative vigor into the organization and presumably facilitates the bridging of the gap to society.

  • 107.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Stiglund, Jonatan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Crisis: Designing a method for organizational crisis investigation2015In: Organizing after crisis: the challenge of learning / [ed] Nathalie Schiffino, Laurent Taskins, Cecile Donis & Julien Raone, Brussels: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2015, p. 29-54Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 108.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Marknadiseringen av Försvarsmaktens kommunikation: ett strategiskt maktmedel i en tid av förändring2016In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 118, no 4, p. 589-622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research shows that the Swedish Armed Forces’ communication is dominatedby market communication, and that this may impact on how the organizationis anchored in society. By adopting a neo-institutional perspective to the studyof agency communication, this article aims to deepen the analysis of the ArmedForces’ communication. Our analysis, based on interviews and official documents,demonstrates both risks and opportunities with marketization of the Armed Forces’communication. On the one hand, market communication may lead to the neglectof alternative values and images of the Armed Forces. Also, the rushed changes incommunication strategies identified risk providing an image of a complex organizationthat is difficult to comprehend, which may undermine the Armed Forces’legitimacy. On the other hand, the Armed Forces’ enhanced role as an employer andcomprehensive use of social media has led to more transparency and to the fosteringof values corresponding to values in society at large. How the Armed Forces, itsleadership, management, and communicators relate to these opportunities andrisks will be crucial for the organization’s future legitimacy.

  • 109.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Örtenwall, Per
    Almgren, Ola
    Bombattentatet i köpcentrumet i Finland 20022005Book (Other academic)
  • 110.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Örtenwall, Per
    Almgren, Ola
    Bombattentatet i Myyrmanni köpcentrum 20022004Book (Other academic)
  • 111.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Örtenwall, Per
    Almgren, Ola
    Riddez, Louis
    KAMEDO Report No. 87: Bomb Attack in Finnish Shopping Center, 20022007In: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, ISSN 1049-023X, E-ISSN 1945-1938, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 86-88Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 112.
    Di Baldassarre, Giuliano
    et al.
    Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; IHE Delft Institute for Water Education, Delft, The Netherlands.
    Nohrstedt, Daniel
    4Department of Government, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mård, Johanna
    Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Burchardt, Steffi
    Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Albin, Cecilia
    Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bondesson, Sara
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Leadership. Department of Government, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Breinl, Korbinian
    Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Deegan, Frances
    Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Fuentes, Diana
    Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Girons Lopez, Marc
    Department of Geography, University of Zurich, Switzerland.
    Granberg, Mikael
    Centre for Climate and Safety, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Centre for Climate and Safety, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Rydstedt Nyman, Monika
    Centre for Climate and Safety, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Rhodes, Emma
    Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Troll, Valentin
    Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Young, Stephanie
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Walch, Colin
    5Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Political Science, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA.
    Parker, Charles F
    Department of Government, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    An integrative research framework to unravel the interplay of natural hazards and vulnerabilities2018In: Earth's Future, ISSN 1384-5160, E-ISSN 2328-4277, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 305-310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change, globalization, urbanization, social isolation, and increased interconnectednessbetween physical, human, and technological systems pose major challenges to disaster risk reduction(DRR). Subsequently, economic losses caused by natural hazards are increasing in many regions of theworld, despite scientific progress, persistent policy action, and international cooperation. We argue thatthese dramatic figures call for novel scientific approaches and new types of data collection to integratethe two main approaches that still dominate the science underpinning DRR: the hazard paradigm and thevulnerability paradigm. Building from these two approaches, here we propose a research framework thatspecifies the scope of enquiry, concepts, and general relations among phenomena. We then discuss theessential steps to advance systematic empirical research and evidence-based DRR policy action.

  • 113.
    Dückers, Michel L. A.
    et al.
    National knowledge and advice centre for psychosocial care concerning critical incidents, Diemen, The Netherlands; NIVEL – Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Arq Psychotrauma Expert Group, Diemen, The Netherlands.
    Thormar, Sigridur B.
    Department of Psychiatry, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Juen, Barbara
    Department of Psychology, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Ajdukovic, Dean
    Department of Psychology, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Newlove-Eriksson, Lindy
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training). Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olff, Miranda
    Arq Psychotrauma Expert Group, Diemen, The Netherlands; Department of Psychiatry, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands .
    Measuring and modelling the quality of 40 post-disaster mental health and psychosocial support programmes2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 2, article id e0193285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Disasters can have an enormous impact on the health and well-being of those affected. Internationally, governments and service providers are often challenged to address complex psychosocial problems. Ideally, the potentially broad range of support activities include a coherent, high-quality mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) programme. We present a theory-driven quantitative analysis of the quality of 40 MHPSS programmes, mostly implemented in European disaster settings. The objective is to measure quality domains recognized as relevant in the literature and to empirically test associations. During the EU project “Operationalizing Psychosocial Support in Crisis” (OPSIC) an evaluation survey was designed and developed for this purpose and completed by 40 MHPSS programme coordinators involved in different mass emergencies and disasters. We analysed the survey data in two steps. Firstly, we used the data to operationalize quality domains of a MHPSS programme, tested constructs and assessed their internal consistency reliability. A total of 26 out of 44 survey items clustered into three of the four domains identified within the theoretical framework: “planning and delivery system” (Cronbach’s alpha 0.82); “general evaluation criteria” (Cronbach’s alpha 0.82); and “essential psychosocial principles” (Cronbach’s alpha 0.75). “Measures and interventions applied”, theoretically a potential fourth domain, could not be confirmed to empirically cluster together. Secondly, several models with associations between domains and measures and interventions were tested and compared. The model with the best fit suggests that in MHPSS programmes with a higher planning and delivery systems score, a larger number of measures and interventions from evidence-informed guidelines are applied. In such programmes, coordinators are more positive about general evaluation criteria and the realization of essential psychosocial principles. Moreover, the analyses showed that some measures and interventions are more likely to be applied in programmes with more evolved planning and delivery systems, yet for most measures and interventions the likelihood of being applied is not linked to planning and delivery system status, nor to coordinator perceptions concerning psychosocial principles and evaluation criteria. Further research is necessary to validate and expand the findings and to learn more about success factors and obstacles for MHPSS programme implementation.

  • 114.
    Ekengren, Magnus
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Simons, GregSwedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    The Politics of Security Sector Reform: Challenges and Opportunities for the European Union’s Global Role2011Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Security Sector Reform (SSR) is increasingly becoming a cornerstone in international security and development cooperation. Indeed, the concept has often been seen as a panacea for many of the biggest threats to the world such as failed states, terrorism and poverty. In particular, this book focuses on the complexities of implementation of SSR across the globe and the actual and potential role for the European Union (EU) to play in SSR. As suggested in the title of the book, this involves not only opportunities, but challenges to be overcome as well. There are three core themes to this book: Policy, Policies and Practice. By presenting the themes in this particular order, a greater appreciation of the influences on the process of SSR, from conception to implementation, is relayed to the reader. This volume appeals to audiences interested in the EU as a global actor and the interrelationships between foreign, security, defence and development policies.

  • 115.
    Enander, Ann
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Baez Ullberg, Susann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Hobbins, Jennifer
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Scorched communities: recovery and learning after wildfire2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2014, towards the end of a hot and very dry summer in Sweden, a fire broke out in the forests of the county of Västmanland. Fanned by high winds, this forest fire rapidly swept out of control, developing into a major disaster and national emergency. The acute phase continued for eleven days, resulting in one death, one seriously injured, 71 buildings and over 13,800 hectares of forest destroyed. Approximately 1000 persons and 1700 livestock were evacuated. In the aftermath of the fire, considerable criticism has been raised regarding the firefighting operation, communication with the affected communities and the functioning of the Swedish crisis management system in general. A number of inquiries and analyses have been initiated, some of which are still in progress. The fire has had dramatic effects on the environment, which will be clearly visible in the landscape for many years to come. Less visible, but equally far-reaching are the psychological and social consequences for the affected communities. This paper describes a project initiated in 2015 to study the impact of the Västmanland fire in affected local communities, focusing temporally on the first two years after the event. The impact is conceived of as deriving from the experience of the fire itself and its immediate physical consequences, and from adjusting to physical and social changes in the local environment, but it is also taken to stem from the multiple perceptions and varying understandings among different social actors of how the event has been managed and how it has been framed in the media. In the project these different perspectives are reflected in analyses of reporting in the media, examination of inquiry reports and other materials, observations and interviews with key actors, various stakeholders and community representatives. The purpose of the project is to understand how people and organizations have coped with and recovered from this particular environmental disaster in order to identify factors that support or prevent short term recovery and medium term resilience at the individual and community level. An overall outline of the project will be presented, together with some preliminary findings relating to implications of the post-fire period for recovery and learning processes. 

  • 116.
    Eriksson, Johan
    et al.
    Utrikespolitiska institutet.
    Newlove-Eriksson, Lindy
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Rymden: en privat affär?2012In: Internationella Studier, ISSN 0020-952X, no 3, p. 12-14Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 117.
    Eriksson, Mats
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Örebro; Mittuniversitetet, Sundsvall.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Centre for Societal Security, CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training). Mittuniversitetet, Sundsvall.
    Facebook and Twitter in Crisis Communication: A Comparative Study of Crisis Communication Professionals and Citizens2016In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 198-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This mixed-methods study presents a comparative analysis of the use and perceived usefulness of Facebook and Twitter, among Swedish citizens and crisis communication professionals, as crisis communication tools and information sources. The use and perceived usefulness of Facebook and Twitter are not congruent and consistent between the two different groups, according to the overall study. Communication professionals, for example, report higher levels of perceived usefulness regarding Facebook’s potential as a crisis communication tool than do the citizens. Taken together, the results show that researchers (within social media and crisis communication) and crisis managers both need to deal with the fact that social media is not a homogenous phenomenon with a single coherent role in crisis management and communication research and practice.

  • 118.
    Falkheimer, Jesper
    et al.
    Campus Helsingborg, Lunds universitet.
    Johansson, Anders
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training). Örebro universitet.
    Kriskommunikation2015In: Perspektiv på krishantering / [ed] Deverell, Edward; Hansén, Dan; Olsson, Eva-Karin, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, 1, p. 73-98Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 119.
    Falkheimer, Jesper
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Dept Strateg Commun, Strateg Commun, Helsingborg, Sweden.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Depoliticizing terror: The news framing of the terrorist attacks in Norway, 22 July 20112015In: Media, War & Conflict, ISSN 1750-6352, E-ISSN 1750-6360, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 70-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes how the Norwegian news media framed the terrorist attacks in Oslo and the island of Utöya, which killed 77 mainly young people on 22 July 2011. Did the news media favour or counteract the propaganda of the terrorist? After discussing earlier research about terrorism and media and presenting theories on news framing, results from a content analysis of 924 news articles in two major Norwegian newspapers during the first two weeks after the attacks are analyzed. The coverage of the attacks is found to be very descriptive, focused on the perpetrator as an individual, giving him questionable political exposure and not analyzing reasons and consequences on a political–societal level. The news framing functioned as a way of depoliticizing the terror attacks by portraying the attack as conducted by a lone lunatic in contrast to a politically motivated terrorist linked to right-wing extremism.

  • 120.
    Florin, Sofie
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Blomgren, Ebbe
    En modell för utveckling av samverkan i offentlig verksamhet: exemplet civil-militära aktörer2008Report (Other academic)
  • 121.
    Fornstedt, Anna
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Civil Security and Crisis Management in the Baltic Sea Region: The 1999 Strömsborg Workshop in Stockholm and the 2000 Tallinn Conference2001Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 122.
    Fors, Fredrik
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Anpassning och asymmetri: En fallstudie om den brittiska armén under konflikten i Nordirland2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En militärt starkare makt har ofta överraskande svårt att ”besegra” eller ”hantera” en betyd-ligt svagare part i en konflikt, inbördes såväl som internationella. Övermakten uppvisar inte sällan en oförmåga att anpassa sig till nya omständigheter, medan den svagare aktören tvingas förändra sig. Vad beror detta på?

    Jag ska i denna uppsats undersöka en starkare aktörs förmåga, eller oförmåga, att hantera en militärt underlägsen moståndare. För att tydliggöra frågeställningen har jag valt att göra en fallstudie med fokus på den brittiska arméns förändringsbenägenhet under konflikten i Nordirland.

  • 123.
    Fors, Fredrik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Bombattentat i London: Terrorism och institutionaliserad krishantering2005Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    CRiSMART, Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier vid Försvarshögskolan i Stockholm, forskar, utbildar inför och sprider kunskap om nationell och internationell krishantering. Forskningen vid CRiSMART handlar om att ta reda på hur beslut fattas och kommuniceras under extrem press i politiska, polisiära eller militära kriser samt vid andra extraordinära situationer. CRiSMART bygger broar mellan praktiker och forskare i syfte att stärka den nationella och internationella europeiska krishanteringsförmågan.

    Studien ”Bombattentat i London: Terrorism och institutionaliserad krishantering” syftar till att ge insikter i det brittiska systemet för kontraterrorism, mer specifikt hur bombattentat hanteras. Därför genomförs två fallstudier av framförallt polisens arbete med terrorattacker i den brittiska huvudstaden. Vidare ska studien fungera som en omvärldsanalys för svensk räkning.

    Dels studeras ett bombdåd i Docklands den 9 februari 1996, dels ett attentat i Ealing i västra London i augusti 2001. Attentatet i Docklands blev ett abrupt slut på en 17 månader lång vapenvila. Den kraftiga bomben orsakade omfattande förödelse. Två människor dödades och över hundra skadades, medan materiella värden för 170 miljoner pund förstördes. 2001 exploderade en betydligt mindre sprängladdning i stadsdelen Ealing. Ett tiotal människor skadades, men inga dödades.

    Båda attentaten utfördes i mångmiljonstaden London, med de många utmaningar som det innebar för polisen; svårigheter att utrymma områden, symboliska värden,omfattande massmedial bevakning, samt stora kommersiella och politiska intressen som stod på spel. Dessa faktorer är även en del av orsaken till att terrororganisationerna väljer att utföra attentat i London och också ursprunget till uttrycket ”en bomb i London är värd tio i Nordirland”.

    Polisens arbete med bombattentaten följde diverse rutiner som mejslats fram under decennier av konflikt. Procedurerna användes både i det operativa arbetet innan bomberna exploderade och i det efterföljande utredningsarbetet.

    I studiens avslutande kapitel pekas på möjliga svenska lärdomar från de brittiska erfarenheterna. Vad kan Sverige lära från ett land med mångårig erfarenhet av terrorism?

    Andra relaterade studier inom CRiSMARTs CM Europe-program är I krisen prövas ordningsmakten (Hansén och Hagström, Jure förlag 2004), Bombattentatet i Myyrmanni köpcentrum 2002 (Deverell m fl 2004), Bombkrisen i Frankrike 1995 (Sundberg 1998) och Mc-krig i Sverige och Norden 1994 – 1997: krishantering vid en transnationell utmaning (Svedin 1998).

    Fredrik Fors är analytiker vid CRiSMART vid Försvarshögskolan i Stockholm.

  • 124.
    Fors, Fredrik
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Crisis Management in the United Kingdom: The London Bombings of July 7, 20052009Report (Other academic)
  • 125.
    Fors, Fredrik
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Crisis Management in United Kingdom2008Report (Other academic)
  • 126.
    Fors, Fredrik
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Intelligence-led policing against organized crime – a case study2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intelligence-led policing against organized crime – a case study

    Intelligence-led policing has been criticized for being mostly improved rhetoric describing traditional reactive police work, rather than something truly new and pro-active. In this paper, an in-depth case study is used in order to determine whether or not there are examples that real change has taken place. For example: among huge amounts of information, how do the police determine what intelligence that should be taken seriously and acted upon?

    The paper will cover what resulted in the shoot-out between the Swedish National Counter-Terrorism Unit and heavily armed criminals targeting a cash depot in Umeå in May, 2009. The police operation was initiated and guided by intelligence material, and can be seen as an example of pro-active, intelligence-led police work against organized crime. Based on a rich materiel, and by applying case methodology it will be possible to gain a deeper knowledge about intelligence-led police work. By that, theories concerning how the police try to apply intelligence-based methods in order to deal with organized crime might be tested.

    The paper will thus give a description of one of the most violent fire fights in Swedish police history; interesting given the restricted use of weapons by the Swedish police and the very rare case of stand-offs between the police and criminals. Thereby, the paper will provide a contribution to criminology research by doing a case study of one example of how the Swedish police deal with organized crime; in contrast to the more common macro/statistical methods within criminology.

  • 127.
    Fors, Fredrik
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Militär terrorismbekämpning2005In: Vårt försvar, ISSN 0042-2800, no 4, p. 20-22Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Försvarsmakten ska kunna stödja polisen vid terroristbekämpning, enligt Olof Egerstedts utredning. Här skildras utredningens förslag och bakgrund. Författaren drar slutsatsen att det nu är dags att utreda reformbehov inom Säkerhetspolisen, den öppna polisen och andra centrala myndigheter som berörs av terrorismbekämpning.

  • 128.
    Fors, Fredrik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training). Stockholms universitet, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Often too late to the party?: About the difficulties in intelligence-based policing against organized crime2013In: The Stockholm Criminology Symposium: Program & Abstracts, Stockholm, 2013, p. 93-94Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines two cases of the Swedish police working with intelligence concerning organized criminals preparing a large-scale robbery. One of the key issues in the paper is to describe how the police used certain intelligence information and to explain why. As is seen in the two case studies, a late intervention against organized criminals from the police’s part can lead to critical situations or the escape by the robbers. Dangerous situations, like a firefight, exposes crime victims, bystanders, police officers and criminals to potentially lethal danger; while a successful robbery where criminals escape with lots of money, functions as a motivating factor for future robberies.

     

    When studied closely, the two cases show a few key differences, potentially vital to the outcomes of the heists. In the first case, the police work is more obviously intelligence-led: Here, the police had received information about a planned robbery of a cash depot beforehand and tracked the suspects closely. Despite this, the police occasionally lost the robbers. It was not until they started the robbery in the northern Swedish city of Umeå, that the police knew for sure what the robber’s final target was. The police had kept the target under surveillance and the Swedish National Counter Terrorism Unit moved in with a fierce fire fight as a result. In the second case, the police operation is mostly intelligence-initiated. In the spectacular helicopter robbery south of Stockholm, also in 2009, the police had been tipped off beforehand by foreign counterparts, but had failed to share the intelligence to the concerned parts. When the criminals landed a helicopter on a cash depot roof the police realized that a heist was ongoing. Late intervention forced the police to stand by while the robbers escaped with a huge sum of money.

  • 129.
    Fors, Fredrik
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Regional samverkan inom krisberedskap. Dalarnas län, Jönköpings län och Kalmar län 2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport visar på hur samverkan fungerar på regional nivå inför ett krisförlopp, i Kalmar, Jönköpings och Dalarnas län. På uppdrag av Krisberedskapsmyndigheten studeras i rapporten ett antal krishanteringsråd för regional samverkan. Rapportens målsättning är att stödja regionala aktörer i utvecklandet av samverkansformer. I studien presenteras därför olika modeller för hur samverkan kan bedrivas, pekas på vinster med samverkan, vilka svårigheter som finns och hur framgångsfaktorerna ser ut.

    Länsstyrelserna i Kalmar, Jönköpings respektive Dalarnas län har sedan några år tillbaka bedrivit regional samverkan med inriktning på krishantering. Generellt sett har arbetet drivits framåt och fördjupats efter olika typer av kriser och andra påfrestningar. Händelser som förberedelserna inför millennieskiftet, stormen Gudrun, översvämningar, tsunamin och befarade utbrott av fågelinfluensan har understrukit och förtydligat vikten av att företrädare på den regionala nivån är samövade och ger samlad information till allmänheten.

  • 130.
    Fors, Fredrik
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    ”Soldater, inte poliser”: Den amerikanska försvarsmaktens politiska roll2003Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    We are soldiers, not policemen.

    Denna uppsats rör det vakuum som ofta uppstår när en regim faller samman på grund av krig, och dess ordningsmakt upplöses, eller av annat skäl inte förmår upprätta ordningen. Ofta inträffar plundring och upplopp i det ”polisiära” tomrum som inträffar från det att den tidigare regimens ordningsmakt drar sig undan, till dess att en ny poliskår träder in och bör-jar återupprätta lag och ordning. Av olika skäl frånsäger sig den intervenerande makten inte sällan arbetsuppgifter av mer ”polisiär” natur, alltifrån att bevaka samhällsviktiga byggnader till att dirigera trafik.

    I stor utsträckning följde kriget i Irak våren 2003 detta mönster från tidigare konflikter; ordningsmakten drog sig undan, plundring utbröt och koalitionen, bestående främst av USA och Storbritannien, nekade inledningsvis till att det var deras uppgift att ingripa mot laglösheten. Denna uppsats försöker beskriva och förklara varför militären inte vill vara polis, i ett läge när ingen annan kan utföra denna uppgift.

  • 131.
    Fors, Fredrik
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    The police can and do learn: Tracing policy changes in the police work against organized crime2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The police can and do learn. Tracing policy changes in the police work against organized crime

    Bureaucracies in general, and the police in particular, are slow moving creatures, often unable to learn or improve their work. This is a common topic in criminological literature and other research covering the police. This paper will exemplify the opposite. By looking at a few case studies of aggravated robberies in 2005 and in 2008/2009, respectively, the paper will illustrate how the police actually learned or changed police policies. In particular, the paper will analyze change in the form of systematized intelligence analysis and the use of “target lists” of individuals participating in organized crime.

    A wide range of armed robberies against cash-in-transit vehicles were carried out in Sweden during the 1990s and the early 2000s. Two of the most spectacular ones occurred in August 2005. In one case, the robbers blocked off a highway, causing a massive traffic jam, and carried out the robbery in broad daylight. In the other, the robbers forced their way into a cash depot using a construction vehicle.

    After that, the Swedish police started to systematize the information they had about the criminals committing these robberies. The work involved the police at the national level, the regional police, security companies, and civil authorities with the aim of reducing the number of robberies by successfully coordinating information about suspects and have them convicted.

    Another example of how the Swedish police changed is the use of “target lists.” These lists consist of the names of criminals convicted and/or suspected of participating in organized crime, not least armed robberies against cash-in-transit vehicles and cash depots.

    In 2008 and 2009, other spectacular robberies occurred in Sweden. This paper argues that the way the Swedish police acted against those crimes can actually be seen as concrete examples of how the police have implemented policy changes, partially influenced by the aforementioned robberies in 2005.

     

  • 132.
    Fors, Fredrik
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    The Routine Activity Robber: Learnings from a total study of cash-in-transit robberies and opportunity structures2015In: The Stockholm Criminology Symposium: Program & Abstracts 2015 / [ed] Brottsförebyggande rådet, Stockhom, 2015, p. 162-162Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With this total study it is shown how opportunity structures influence criminals in the case of cash-in-transit (CIT) robberies. Sweden was one of the countries hit hardest by robberies of CITs in the early 2000s, in relationship to the population. Robbers, often armed with automatic weapons and explosives, could get away with lots of money, with the justice system initially unable to stabilize the situation.

    Likely offenders saw suitable targets and the lack of capable guardians, as discussed by the Routine Activity Theory. This applies to the situation in Sweden in the late 1990s when robbers moved away from bank robberies and chose CITs for their relatively lower safety (lack of capable guardians) and the higher amount of money available (suitable targets). It also explains how the target hardening processes strengthened the security of banks and CITS, respectively, hence making them less suitable targets. This displacement effect once again showed in 2007-2008, with a brief spike of bank robberies, when the robbers moved away from the CITs.

    The total study provides an overview of every CIT/cash depot robbery in Sweden since the late 1990s. By mapping out these aggravated robberies, it offers knowledge about how such robberies actually look like: the number of perpetrators, their level of organization, their armament and methods, and often their “success” rate. A total study is a rare opportunity for criminologists to study a subject without having to deal with the usual restrictions of selection bias. If the crime studied at the same time is rare, compared to every day crime, but not rare enough to be statistically problematic, then the researcher should be able to come up with a solid description of opportunity structures influence the development of crime.

     

  • 133.
    Fors, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Brown, Christer
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Terrorhotet mot Sverige överdrivet2008In: Göteborgsposten, ISSN 1103-9345, Vol. 9 februari, p. 55-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Regeringen presenterar en samlad svensk strategi mot terrorism, trots få belägg för att hotbilden mot Sverige har förvärrats. Under senare tid har en rad spektakulära brott genomförts av grovt kriminella, inte minst mot posten och polisen i Göteborg. Den här sortens systemhotande brottslighet utgör en fara för rättsväsendet och allmänheten. Däremot bedömer Säpo att terrorhotet riktat mot Sverige är lågt. Trots en ytterst begränsad risk för terrordåd, har omfattande förändringar genomförts och föreslagits, bland annat när det gäller lagar och förordningar. Lägger staten resurserna på fel område?

  • 134.
    Fors, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Deverell, Edward
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Hjelm, Johan
    Krisberedskapsmyndigheten.
    Sjölund, Sara
    Krisberedskapsmyndigheten.
    Terrorattackerna i London den 7 juli 2005 : Brittiska lokala och regionala myndigheters agerande och lärdomar för det svenska krishanteringssystemet2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Strax före klockan nio på morgonen den 7 juli 2005 inträffade de första självmordsbombningarnanågonsin i Västeuropa. Tre tunnelbanetåg i centrala Londonsprängdes i en samtidig attack klockan 08.50. Ungefär en timme senare skeddeden fjärde attacken, då en bomb detonerade på en buss. Sammanlagt dödades56 människor i terrorattentatet och 755 människor skadades.

    Denna observatörsrapport syftar till att identifiera erfarenheter och lärdomarfrån hanteringen av terrorattentatet i London som är relevanta för det svenskakrishanteringssystemet. Detta görs genom att kartlägga händelseförloppet samtbeskriva och förklara de regionala och lokala myndigheternas agerande,beslutsfattande, samverkande och lärande i samband med terrorattentatet.

    I ett inledande kapitel sammanfattas lärdomar för det svenska krishanteringssystemet.Två frågor står i fokus: Vad kan svenska krishanterare lära av händelsernaden 7 juli 2005? Vilka av erfarenheterna från London är väsentligaatt ta med i den fortsatta utvecklingen av det svenska krishanteringssystemet?

    Andra delar av rapporten ger bakgrundsinformation kring krishantering iLondon och Storbritannien, redovisar händelseförloppet under terrorattacken,samt analyserar de brittiska organisationernas agerande.

  • 135.
    Fors, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Hansén, Dan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Pressured to learn? Swedish police experiences of curbing organized crime2014In: Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention, ISSN 1404-3858, E-ISSN 1651-2340, ISSN 1404-3858, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research takes an interest in the police’s capacity to learn and adapt in an ongoing policy failure. Using the literature on organizational learning and adaptation, it investigates how the police combine exploration of new possibilities and exploitation of old certainties. This article delves into the Swedish police’s adaptation to a wave of organized and aggravated robberies that in the years around 2005 seemed out of control. It argues that the Swedish police need to create organizational ambidexterity by implementing a mix of exploitation and exploration, as well as engaging societal actors external to the police when old practices run dry. This means that the law and order sector needs to refine their competences, utilize new ideas, and promote innovation from companies and other authorities for dealing with the tasks at hand. Furthermore, the organizational theory tool-box has proven that it has great potential for diagnosing current learning and adaptation efforts within the law and order sector, as they happen.

  • 136.
    Fors, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Hermansson, Helena
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Koraeus, Mats
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Fördjupad uppföljning av anslag 2:4 Krisberedskap: Tema Inriktning och Samordning2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Crismart har genomfört en effektutvärdering av tolv 2:4-projekt med olika löptider. Projekten har bland annat genomförts av länsstyrelser, MSB och andra myndigheter. Syftet var att stödja MSB:s uppföljning av 2:4-projekt utförda inom åtgärden inriktning och samordning. Detta ska ske genom att projektens påverkan på krisberedskapsförmågan utvärderas.

    I vår analys av de resultat och effekter som uppnåtts i de studerade 2:4-projekten framkommer ett antal större mönster rörande förutsättningarna för projekten att resultera i någon slags systemeffekt. Vi kan se:

    - att det finns en inneboende problematik i hur effekter kan och bör mätas och utvärderas på systemnivå, inte bara ur ett utvärderingsmetodologiskt perspektiv utan även på ett mer praktiskt plan i hur 2:4-projekt drivs och kvalitetssäkras,

    - att 2:4-anslagets avgränsning skapar problem för långsiktighet och förvaltning av de resultat som projekten mynnar ut i,

    - att det samtidigt finns en risk att anslaget över tid får en skev inriktning på grund av hur denna systemnytta kan mätas och värderas,

    - och att anslagets utformning skapar hinder för vilken slags systemnytta som går att uppnå baserat på vilka aktörer som har möjlighet att bidra till och dra nytta av projekten.

  • 137.
    Fors, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Newlove Eriksson, Lindy
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Deverell, Edward
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Stern, Eric
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Shaken, not stunned: The London Bombings of July 20052006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Executive summary - The bombings of July 2005

    On July 7th, the morning rush hours in London formed the backdrop for the first suicidebombings in Western Europe in modern times. Three different parts of the London subwaysystem were attacked around 08.50: Aldgate, Edgware Road, and Russell Square. The three Tube trains were all hit within 50 seconds time. A bomb on the upper floor of a double-deckerbus at Tavistock Square was detonated at 09.47.

    In the terrorist attacks, four suicide bombers detonated one charge each, killing 52 people. Seven people were killed by the blasts at Aldgate, six at Edgware Road, 13 at Tavistock Square, and 26 at Russel Square – in addition to the suicide bombers themselves. More than 700 people were injured. Hundreds of rescue workers were engaged in coping with the aftermath. Over 200 staff from the London Fire Brigade, 450 staff and 186 vehicles from the London Ambulance Service, several hundred police officers from the Metropolitan Police and from the City of London Police, as well as over 130 staff from the British Transport Police were involved. Patients were sent to 7 area hospitals.

  • 138.
    Fredriksson, Magnus
    et al.
    Göteborgs Universitet .
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    A Model for Evaluating Corporate Environmental Communication2014In: Communicating Corporate Social Responsibility: Perspectives and Practice / [ed] Ralph Tench, William Sun, Brian Jones, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2014Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The chapter proposes a model for evaluating environmental information based on informativity as a measurement of whether corporate environmental disclosures provide readers with information relevant for making reasonable assessments of companies’ environmental work.

    Methodology/approach

    On a general level, informativity denotes a set of universal principles for information qualities. In order to make informed assessments, information ought to provide readers with information on specific projects, outcome, and long-term impact. The model proposed herein allows researchers and practitioners to quantify corporate environmental information based on a set of key textual variables. By allowing for the quantification of qualitative information, the model allows for comparative studies of CSR communication across, for example, companies, sectors, and nations.

    Research implications

    The model is applicable for corporations with an interest to evaluate their performance by applying standardized and set principles.

    Practical implications

    The model can be used as a tool for consumers and investors alike in making better and more informed assessments about a corporation’s environmental initiatives and performances. This application is particularly relevant for stakeholders with an interest in developing statistical data for assessing and benchmarking environmental communication.

    Originality

    The chapter proposes a model for evaluating environmental information as a measurement of whether corporate environmental disclosures provide readers with information relevant for making reasonable assessments of companies’ environmental work.

  • 139.
    Fredriksson, Magnus
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Pallas, Josef
    Uppsala universitet.
    Creativity caged in translation: a neo-institutional perspective on crisis communication2014In: Revista Internacional de Relaciones Públicas, ISSN 2174-3681, Vol. 4, no 8, p. 65-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Crisis communication research has primarily focused on universal models guiding managers of various organisations in times of crisis. Even though this is about to change, a tendency remains for research in the field to overlook the impact of structural conditions on organisation’s crisis communication. In order to add to the emergent discussion on new theoretical and empirical venues within the field of crisis communication, this paper proposes a framework based on new institutional theory for analysing crisis communication practices as a societal phenomenon. New institutionalism is advocated due to its ability to shift the focus from agency to structure and in doing so emphasise the social preconditions for organisational activities. In line with this, this conceptual paper discusses crisis communication as an institution, i.e., as a set of more or less conscious ideas about formats (the organisational structures developed for crisis communication work), contents (the content of organisations’ communication in times of crisis) and contexts (the situations during which organisations are expected to perform crisis communication). Moreover, we discuss how these ideas become translated (i.e., modified) as they travel (i.e., become legitimate, popular and get widely spread) across organisational and institutional contexts. In order to illustrate the framework described above, the Swedish authorities’ communication in connection to the A/H1N1 outbreak is used as a case study.

  • 140.
    Fredriksson, Magnus
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Pallas, Josef
    Uppsala Universitet .
    Creativity Caged in Translation: A Neo-Institutional Perspective on Crisis Communication2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    After early attempts to create universal models guiding managers in times of crisis - more recent attempts have focused on situational factors and the relationships between organizations and stakeholders in times of crises. Albeit this shift, structural conditions are often overlooked in the main bulk of research on crisis communication and if they are integrated they are defined as context and as such often excluded in the analysis. This is our point of departure for bringing neo-institutional theory into crisis communication research recognizing the importance of cultural, political, technological, and institutional environments of organizations. By this we shift focus from agency to structure and the social preconditions for organizational activities. However this is not to say that institutions are static or deterministic in the way they influence organizations and their behavior. On the contrary, institutions are open for innovations and interpretations. In this paper we put forward the concept of translation to illustrate and explain how organizations actively relate to and handle institutional pressure, thereby escaping the legal and moral/normative boundaries of institutions. Hereby we aim to contribute to the growing debate within the crisis communication field on new theoretical venues in understanding crisis communication as a practice but also as societal phenomenon. In our conclusion we suggest that the appliance of neo-institutional frameworks will help us understand the conditions under which crisis communication is carried out and in doing so allow researchers and practitioners to have a realistic stance on the limitations and possibility on communication in crises. Further, the framework will increase our abilities to understand the development of crisis communication, its institutionalization and the conditions for these developments.

  • 141.
    Fursova, Valentina
    et al.
    Sociology Department, Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Russia.
    Simons, Greg
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training). Uppsala universitet.
    Social Problems of Modern Russian Higher Education: The Example of Corruption2014In: International Education Studies, ISSN 1913-9020, E-ISSN 1913-9039, Vol. 7, no 10, p. 25-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Higher education is an essential element in developing a country’s innovative potential, and this has been recognised as such by politicians and those who work in the industry. However, one of the blights of contemporary Russian society, corruption threatens the potential of the next generation. Corruption has permeated all levels of society, including the education sector. It is having a profound effect and is replicating the physical and psychological conditions. This article details the scale and nature of corruption in higher education in Russia, and offers some insight into the various proposals that seek to change the situation for the better.

  • 142.
    Galaz, Victor
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Moberg, Fredrik
    Stockholms universitet.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Paglia, Eric
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Parker, Charles
    Uppsala universitet.
    Institutional and political leadership dimensions of cascading ecological crises2011In: Public Administration, ISSN 0033-3298, E-ISSN 1467-9299, Vol. 89, no 2, p. 361-380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While some of the future impacts of global environmental change such as some aspects of climate change can be projected and prepared for in advance, other effects are likely to surface as surprises - that is situations in which the behaviour in a system, or across systems, differs qualitatively from expectations. Here we analyse a set of institutional and political leadership challenges posed by 'cascading' ecological crises: abrupt ecological changes that propagate into societal crises that move through systems and spatial scales. We illustrate their underlying social and ecological drivers, and a range of institutional and political leadership challenges, which have been insufficiently elaborated by either crisis management researchers or institutional scholars. We conclude that even though these sorts of crises have parallels to other contingencies, there are a number of major differences resulting from the combination of a lack of early warnings, abrupt ecological change, and the mismatch between decision-making capabilities and the cross-scale dynamics of social-ecological change.

  • 143.
    Greg, Simons
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Mass Media and Modern Warfare: Reporting on the Russian War on Terrorism2010Book (Other academic)
  • 144.
    Halldin, Sven
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Earth Sci, SE-75263 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bynander, Fredrik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    van Groningen, Ernst
    Uppsala Univ, ISP, SE-75121 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Preface: Natural disaster science: a Nordic approach to integrated research on disaster risk2015In: Geografiska Annaler. Series A, Physical Geography, ISSN 0435-3676, E-ISSN 1468-0459, Vol. 97, no 1, p. 1-7Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 145.
    Hansén, Dan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Beliefs that make sense and critical reflections that don’t2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 146.
    Hansén, Dan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Crisis and Perspectives on Policy Change: Swedish Counter-terrorism Policymaking2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 147.
    Hansén, Dan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Crisis Policymaking: Traceable Processes of Multiple Streams2016In: Decision-Making under Ambiguity and Time Constraints: Assessing the Multiple Streams Framework / [ed] Reimut Zohlnhöfer and Friedbert Rüb, ECPR Press, 2016, p. 213-231Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 148.
    Hansén, Dan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Den svenska hanteringen av tsunamikatastrofen: fokus på Regeringskansliet2005Report (Other academic)
  • 149.
    Hansén, Dan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Effects of Buzzwords on Experiential Learning: the Swedish Case of ‘Shared Situation Awareness’.2009In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 169-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article takes an interest in the effects of buzzwords in the lesson-drawing efforts of governmental bureaucracy. Buzzwords are viewed here as policy ideas for which policy makers are enthusiastic beyond subjecting them to critical scrutiny. They are in that sense detrimental to policy-oriented learning and lesson-drawing in the long run. They can, however, serve as heuristic devices in the short run; the reason for their usage and spreading may be that they pinpoint recurring structural problems (however, not solutions). This argument is corroborated by a case study on the effects of the buzzword ‘shared situation awareness’, which has been overly tractable in the Swedish crisis management system for a number of years.

  • 150.
    Hansén, Dan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Houkutteliko radikalismin integrointi terrorismia Ruotsin?2014In: Poliittisen Väkivallan Poluilla / [ed] Anssi Kullberg, Turku: Turun yliopisto , 2014, p. 27-40Chapter in book (Other academic)
1234567 101 - 150 of 353
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