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  • 101.
    Pettersson, Ulrica
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Improving incident reports in the swedish armed forces2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is generally maintained that learning should be a part of the daily routines of many organizations; this is often referred to as lesson learned processes. The purpose of organizational learning is to foster improvements that seek to both reduce incidents and accidents and reduce their consequences when they nevertheless happen. Safety work is widespread among many organizations, e.g. aviation, hospitals, process industry, fire departments and several armed forces. A considerable part of safety work involves accident prevention, and aims to investigate why and how previous accidents and incidents happened, in order to learn how to avoid them, or minimize losses when they do occur. The collection of information after incidents represents one of the first steps in a lessons learned process, and the result is crucial for further work. Unfortunately, incident reports often tend to be unfocused (they represent a very wide area of issues) and, for that reason, cannot be clustered. They also frequently lack by analysts required information. The overall research objective in this thesis was to develop a report structure that enables the individuals who participated in or observed an incident to provide more information that is relevant about that incident. The first research question seeks to identify whether the Swedish Armed Forces face the kinds of problems that have been identified in earlier research on attempts to learn from accidents and incidents. The second and third research questions aim to ascertain whether the scope and quality of collected information in incident reports can be improved and if the number of incident reports can be increased. The results agree with earlier research and show that many of the problems that are common in other organizations (e.g. aviation, hospitals and the process industry) can also be observed and are a reality within the SwAF. In addition, the results showed that both scope and quality of collected information can be influenced. Group reporting using a consensus process neither had an appreciable effect on the quality of collected information, nor on the quantity of the reports. On the other hand, the new reporting form, which was based on interview and questionnaire methodology, and to some extent witness psychology, significantly improved the quality of the information collected after incidents. The new form proved to be superior, regardless of the character and context of the incidents. The information collected was also in accordance with what had actually happened and, finally, the form proved to be useful when various military “real world” incidents were reported. Finally, the results also provide new insights into the problems and possibilities associated with acquiring useful incident reports. The problem seems not only to be that people may be unwilling to report incidents that they have participated in or witnessed; it is also that they may be unable to do so. Consequently, it may not be sufficient to change the culture of the organization into a learning culture to receive by analysts required information. It is also necessary to help people report what they actually know by means of an improved report structure.

  • 102.
    Pettersson, Ulrica
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Sharing Knowledge: How to Highlight Proven Experience in the Swedish Armed Forces2011In: Journal of Communication and Computer, ISSN 1548-7709, ISSN 1548-7709, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 410-414Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 103.
    Pettersson, Ulrica
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Success and Failure Factors for KM: The Utilization of Knowledge in the Swedish Armed Forces2009In: Journal of universal computer science (Online), ISSN 0948-695X, E-ISSN 0948-6968, Vol. 15, no 8, p. 1735-1743Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 104.
    Pettersson, Ulrica
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Utilization of Commanders Individual Experiences in the Swedish Armed Forces2015In: Proceedings of The 12th International Conference on Intellectual Capital and Knowledge Management & Organisational Learning ICICKM 2015 / [ed] Ribière, Vincent & Worasinchai, Lugkana, Reading, UK: Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited, 2015, p. 441-443Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizations which operate in changing environments ought to collect process and create new knowledge frequently, to make improvements and adapt. Due to a combination of international engagements and assignments of territorial defense in the Baltic Sea region, the Swedish Armed Forces is frequently exposed to new tasks, geographical territories and environments. The requirement to transform and adjust to new and, perhaps unknown, duties, give topical interest to organizational learning. The effort to reform and improve military organizations is not a new phenomenon, and is generally maintained as a part of the daily routines (similar to civilian organizations) and is often referred to as lesson learned processes. A learning organization is able to learn and improve through numerous of activities viz. safety board work, formal training, follow-up procedures, incident investigations, briefings and risk analysis. Organisational learning is achieved by the learning of its own members or incorporation of new members who will bring new knowledge with them into the organization. This indicates that it is most important to include the organisations members in a learning process, since the organization itself cannot know or learn anything.

    The aim of this work in progress paper is to visualize and share a work in progress case, accomplished in cooperation between the Swedish Defence University and the Swedish Armed Forces. Our research involves is an attempt to actually develop and test a method for transforming individual experience into sharable and operational knowledge in the Swedish Armed Forces.

  • 105.
    Pettersson, Ulrica
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Ekdahl, Stefan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Årsrapport 2008 Forskning och utveckling2009Report (Other academic)
  • 106.
    Pettersson, Ulrica
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Nyce, M. James
    Ball State University.
    Hierarchy and Tacit Knowledge in the Swedish Armed Forces; an Organisational Approach2011In: ECIC 2011 3rd European Conference on Intellectual Capital / [ed] Geoff Turner and Clemente Minnone, 2011, p. 328-332Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 107.
    Pullen, J. Mark
    et al.
    George Mason University C4I Center.
    Gustavsson, Per M.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Grönkvist, Magnus
    Saab AB.
    Incorporating C2-Simulation Interoperability Services Into an Operational C2 System2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 108. Rawski, A. A.
    et al.
    Brehmer, Berndt
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Knutsson, K.
    Petersson, K.
    Reit, C.
    Rohlin, M.
    The major factors that influence endodontic retreatment decisions2003In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 23-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of a new or persistent periapical radiolucency adjacent to a rootfilled tooth is often used as a criterion of endodontic treatment "failure". However, clinicians' suggested management of such cases is subject to substantial interindividual variation. Several components that might influence endodontic retreatment decision making have been explored, but data on which factors dentists actually think they consider, are missing. The aim was to interview 20 general dental practitioners (GDPs) and 20 endodontists about factors they thought would influence the prescription of endodontic retreatment. Six simulated cases were presented as cartoons accompanied with a clinical history. In two of the cases the teeth were planned to serve as an abutment tooth in a fixed prosthodontic construction. The status of the periapical bone tissue and the quality of rootfilling seal were varied. Between 1 and 6 factors per case were reported to influence decision making. In cases not planned to serve as abutment teeth most dentists considered that the periapical condition was the most important factor, whilst they considered the fixed prosthodontic construction to be the most important factor in cases planned as abutment teeth. Generally, endodontists seem to be more inclined to retreat and act on the mere presence of a periapical lesion regardless of size than GDPs. In a real clinical setting in direct contact with patients, additional factors like economy and patients' preferences might be expected to exert a major influence. The majority of the dentists stated that they thought that their colleagues would make similar decisions as they did themselves.

  • 109. Rigas, G
    et al.
    Carling, E
    Brehmer, Berndt
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Reliability and validity of performance measures in microworlds2002In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 463-480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research with microworlds enable us to study complex mental processes in semantically rich but standardized environments, under more realistic conditions than ordinary tests do. Moreover, adapting the microworlds to the needs of mental testing may increase our ability to predict success in real life pursuits [Rigas, G., & Brehmer, B. (1999). Mental processes in intelligence tests and dynamic decision making tasks. In P. Juslin & H. Montgomery (Eds.), Judgement and decision making: Neo-Brunswikean and process-tracing approaches (pp. 45-65). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.]. Yet earlier studies have found no relations between intelligence test scores and microworld performance. The relationships between two real time dynamic decision making tasks (microworlds) and one intelligence test were investigated. The participants interacted with eight NEWFIRE scenarios, four COLDSTORE scenarios, and completed Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM). The composite scores of performance in the two microworlds were sufficiently reliable. APM was a predictor of success in these two microworlds. Statistically significant increases in R 2 were obtained. Methodological problems in research with microworlds are discussed and changes related to the adaptation of microworlds to the needs of mental testing are proposed.

  • 110.
    Rydmark, Joacim
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division. Förvaltningshögskolan, Göteborg universitet.
    Beslut under osäkerhet: En experimentell milkrovärldsstudie av metoder för att hantera osäkerhet vid ledning och beslutsfattande i komplexa och dynamsika miljöer2002Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 111.
    Rydmark, Joacim
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Bättre med färre nivåer?: En litteraturstudie om effekter vid en minskning av antalet ledningsnivåer i det militära ledningssystemet2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport diskuterar möjliga effekter av att ta bort en ledningsnivå samt hur detta påverkar ledningssystemets förmåga att uppfylla de tre övergripende designkriterierna; förmåga att hantera tidsfaktorn, komplexitet samt friktioner. Diskussionen sker inom ett designvetenskapligt ramverk i form av ett yttre system, ett inre system samt ett gränssnitt. Slutsatsen av diskussionen är att en minsk-ning eller hopslagning av antalet ledningsnivåer skulle ha både positiva och negativa effekter på ledningssystemets förmåga att uppfylla de tre designkriterierna. En minskning av antalet ledningsnivåer skulle kunna ha en viss positiv effekt på förmågan att kunna fatta snabbare beslut, förmågan att kunna erhålla informat-ion snabbare samt förmågan att kunna ominrikta verksamheten, men samtidigt riskerar dessa effekter att motverkas av att mer information måste bearbetas, analyseras och anpassas på de nivåer som blir kvar. Andra negativa effekter kan ses i form av ökat kontrollspann samt större staber med risk för ökad tröghet, ef-tersom allt fler och allt mer differentierade uppgifter med olika perspektiv, komplexitet och målsättningar måste hanteras på de kvarvarande ledningsnivåerna. Sammantaget visar diskussionen att vid en förändring av detta slag så måste vinsterna med att ta bort eller slå ihop ledningsnivåer vägas och balanseras mot förlusterna av en sådan åtgärd.

    Diskussionen i denna rapport är av principiell natur, vilket innebär att vi inte med säkerhet kan uttala oss om hur stora de ovan redovisade effekterna skulle bli av en minskning eller hopslagning av antalet ledningsnivåer på förmågan att uppfylla de tre designkriterierna. För att få kunskap om detta krävs empiriska undersökningar och några sådana finns i dagsläget inte att tillgå. För att åstadkomma sådana skulle en möjlig väg framåt kunna vara att genomföra datorsimuleringar för olika scenarier. Sådana undersökningar behövde dock inte begränsas till att enbart undersöka vad som händer om man tar bort en ledningsnivå, utan istället skulle fokus kunna vara på att undersöka vad som är rätt antal ledningsnivåer för de uppgifter som skall lösas.

  • 112.
    Rydmark, Joacim
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Stöd för hantering av antaganden i ledningsprocessen2016In: Operativ ledning: Slutrapport 2013-2015 / [ed] Isabell Andersson, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan (FHS), 2016Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 113.
    Rydmark, Joacim
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Supporting the Assessment of Assumtions in Command and Control2016In: 21th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium (ICCRTS): C2 in a Complex Connected Battlespace, International Command and Control Institute , 2016, Vol. Topic 7, article id 028Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two interconnected challenges in C2 are to cope with uncertainty and to make timely deci-sions. From the standpoint of a commander these challenges may easily come into conflict with each other. Uncertainty, i.e. gaps in knowledge, may be reduced by collecting and processing additional information - but this takes time. To handle this dilemma the com-mander and his/her staff may have to make assumptions. An assumption is "a supposition on the current situation or a presupposition on the future course of events". If the assump-tions being made are invalid it may have negative consequences for the ability to reach the mission objectives. It is therefore important to assess and to follow up the assumptions during mission planning and execution, in order to make it possible for timely re-planning if necessary. However, even though the handling of assumptions is considered to be im-portant in both NATO´s planning directive COPD and in the Swedish counterpart SPL, nei-ther COPD nor SPL gives a clear guidance on how to assess the assumptions - apart from an exhortation to use a risk evaluation template. To date there is no theoretically grounded and systematically tested technique for assessing assumptions in C2. By using a design logic framework and techniques from the area of risk assessment this paper presents the initial step to a possible solution to these problems. The results are a design logic scheme and a design proposition for a technique that is potentially suitable for assessing assump-tions, to be tested in forthcoming empirical studies.

  • 114.
    Rydmark, Joacim
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Till nytta eller skada när klockan tickar?: Om effekter av att presentera osäkerhet i riskbeskrivningar i tidskritiska beslutssituationer2018In: Ledning och samverkan: Slutrapport 2015-2018 / [ed] Martin Schuler, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan (FHS) , 2018Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 115.
    Rydmark, Joacim
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Kuylenstierna, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Hantering av osäkerhet i beslutsprocessen: Rapport nr 142003Report (Other academic)
  • 116.
    Rydmark, Joacim
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Kuylenstierna, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Årsrapport från delprojektet Ledningskulturer2010Report (Other academic)
  • 117.
    Rydmark, Joacim
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Kuylenstierna, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Fåhraeus, Tonie
    Fallstudie: Information och tempo i beslutsprocessen, Rapport nr 112002Report (Other academic)
  • 118.
    Rydmark, Joacim
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Kuylenstierna, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Fåhraeus, Tonie
    Sandström, Hans
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Värdet av överlägsen sensorräckvidd vid olika nivåer på osäkerhet om läget i stridsrummet: Rapport nr 72001Report (Other academic)
  • 119.
    Råman, Mikael
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Thunholm, Peter
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Att utnyttja en möjlighet – eller inte?2009In: Tankar om fälttåg / [ed] Peter Ahlström & Ulf Högström, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan , 2009, p. 81-96Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 120.
    Spak, Ulrik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division. Uppsala universitet, Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Change Detection of the Unexpected: Enhancing change detection of the unexpected in a complex and high risk context – guiding visual attention in a digital display environment2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Change detection of objects and events in our visual surroundings is sometimes severely difficult, especially if these changes are unexpected. Such failures in change detection may cause huge malicious outcomes in contexts characterized by high levels of complexity and risk. For operators within organizations active in such contexts, effective change detection is a necessary step for functional feedback control in the pursuit of achieving specified goals. This thesis demonstrates examples of change detection failures from aviation, defence, healthcare, and road traffic.

    The purpose of the thesis is to present a support concept for enhanced change detection in complex and high risk contexts. The design requirements are primarily provided by the field of command and control. The main mechanisms behind the problems of change detection are identified as the psychological phenomena of change blindness and inattentional blindness. A theoretical foundation is presented regarding these phenomena, complemented with a review concerning orientation and capture of visual attention. The solution space for enhanced change detection is explored and a gap in the literature is identified; there is a need for a support concept which considers both blindness phenomena simultaneously. The thesis elaborates on a conceptual design; an adaptive attention aware system (A3S), based on cuing of visual attention.

    The thesis includes four experimental studies. The first examines the effects of instruction on change detection performance. The remaining studies evaluate the possibilities to orient visual attention by a non-obtrusive flash cue in a radar-like display, to compensate for inadequate expectations in a situation characterized by high levels of uncertainty. The participants’ performance is measured in accuracy (hit frequencies) and response times.

    The results indicate that; (a) instructions can affect change detection performance, (b) the bottom-up flash cue enhance change detection independent of perceptual load, (c) the flash cue enhance change detection in both static and dynamic environments, and (d) the flash cue is beneficial for change detection even when its position is outside foveal vision in relation to the changed target object. Design propositions for an A3S are presented, derived from the results of the thesis.

  • 121.
    Spak, Ulrik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Förändringsdetektering2016In: Operativ ledning: Slutrapport 2013-2015 / [ed] Isabell Andersson, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan (FHS), 2016, p. 176-199Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 122.
    Spak, Ulrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Lind, Mats
    Institutionen för informatik och media , Department of Informatics and Media.
    Change blindness in intelligence: Effects of attention guidance by instructions2011In: European Intelligence & Security Informatics Conference: The Premier European Conference on Counterterrorism and Criminology / [ed] Nasrullah Memon and Daniel Zeng, IEEE Press, 2011, p. 142-148Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a first effort to experimentally evaluate if, and how, the instructions given to an operator can cause significant effects regarding his/her change detection performance. The operator monitors a display looking for changes associated with specified target objects. The results show that a more differentiated monitoring instruction can cause a raised level of change blindness to occur for some of the displayed target object classes. We argue that the result will have implications for the intelligence function within military command and control.

  • 123.
    Spak, Ulrik
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Nygren, Else
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Enhancing change detection of the unexpected in monitoring tasks: guiding visual attention in command and control assessment2016In: 21st International Command and Control Reserach and Technology Symposium (ICCRTS): C2 in a Complex Connected Battlespace, International Command and Control Institute , 2016, Vol. Topic 5, p. 1-18, article id 054Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many surveillance tasks in military command and control involve monitoring for change in a visual display environment in order to discover potential hazards or new opportunities. Effective change detection in various situational pictures is a requisite for battlespace understanding. The detection of unexpected events is particularly difficult and missed events may cause malicious outcomes in contexts characterized by high levels of complexity and risk. We present examples of change detection failures in the military domain, and explain why and how the psychological phenomena of change blindness and inattentional blindness can generate such failures. We further give an overview of existing solutions to these problems and point out a specific issue, coping with unexpected events, where effective solutions are missing today. Inadequate expectations may be a result of misdirection by the enemy. This article demonstrates a new concept – an adaptive attention aware system (A3S) for enhanced change detection. The A3S is a concept of gentle support. It is based on cuing of visual attention by a non-obtrusive flash cue in the display (bottom-up), to compensate for guidance by inadequate expectations (top-down) in situations influenced by high levels of uncertainty.

  • 124. Tan, D.
    et al.
    Thunholm, Peter
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Lee, T. H.
    Wikberg, P
    Ng, Ee Chong
    Chng, R
    Tan, E
    Tey, F
    Hallberg, M
    Larsson, S. Å.
    Edge Organization: Testing a New C2 Model of Battlefield Information Sharing and Coordination2009In: Information Sharing and Collaboration Processes and Behaviors, Washington, D.C., 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 125.
    Thunholm, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Military Leaders and Followers: Do They Have Different Decision Styles?2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 317-325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are five different, although not mutually exclusive, styles exhibited by military officers when making decisions: rational, intuitive, dependent, avoidant, and spontaneous (Scott & Bruce, 1995). The purpose was to investigate if elected leaders of military planning teams had a different configuration of decision-making styles than their team members. Participants were 98 army captains organized in 16 brigade-level planning teams. The results indicate that team leaders tended to be more spontaneous and less rational, dependent and avoidant in their style configuration than their team members. One possible explanation is that the style configuration exhibited by many of the elected leaders comes through to others as forcefulness and decisiveness and that such a profile is in line with a general leadership culture. The results also provide support for the General Decision-Making Style inventory as a measurement of decision styles, because they suggest that the self-reports coincide with displayed, observable behavior.

  • 126.
    Thunholm, Peter
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Providing Battlespace Information to Reduce Uncertainty: Will More Information Lead to Better Plans?2008In: Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making, ISSN 1555-3434, E-ISSN 2169-5032, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 295-310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One basic assumption behind network-centric warfare (NCW) is that increased supply of information will reduce battlespace uncertainty and increase decision quality. The purpose of this study was to test this assumption. Swedish army captains formed 16 brigade-level planning teams and performed in a realistic planning task. Eight teams planned with access to NCW-similar (abundant) information on the enemy situation, and 8 teams planned using the information supply of today. Results showed a significant reduction in perceived uncertainty for the NCW-condition teams but no substantial differences in plan quality, plan confidence, plan variability, or planning time between the two conditions. These results indicate that even though more information may result in less perceived uncertainty among future military decision makers, an increased information supply needs to be coupled with changes in doctrine and training to provide a maximum benefit to the military planner.

  • 127.
    Thunholm, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Cheah, Mervyn
    Chua, Ching Lian
    Chua, Nency
    Ng, Ee Chong
    Tan, Kin Yong
    Exploring alternative Edge versus Hierarchy C2 Organizations using the ELICIT platform with Configurable Chat System2009In: The International C2 Journal, ISSN 1938-6044, Vol. 3, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 128.
    Tremblay, Sébastien
    et al.
    Université Laval, Québec, Canada.
    Granlund, Rego
    Santa Anna Research Institute, Sweden.
    Berggren, Peter
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Jobidon, Marie-Eve
    Defence R&D Canada – Toronto, Canada.
    Holmberg, Martin
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Turner, Paddy
    Cranfield University, Defence Academy, UK.
    A multiteam international simulation of joint operations in crisis response2012In: ISCRAM 2012 Conference Proceedings: Book of Papers / [ed] Leon Rothkrantz, Jozef Ristvej, and Zeno Franco, Vancouver, Canada: Simon Fraser University , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of distributed experiments will address teamwork and its social, organizational and cognitive dimensions within the context of multinational joint operations in crisis response and management.

  • 129.
    Uhr, Christian
    et al.
    Lund University Centre for Risk Assessment and Management (LUCRAM), Lund.
    Johansson, Björn J. E.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI).
    Landgren, Jonas
    Department of Applied Information Technology, Chalmers University of Technology & University of Gothenburg.
    Holmberg, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Bynander, Fredrik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Koelega, Samuel
    Division of Risk Management and Societal Safety, Lund University Centre for Risk Assessment and Management (LUCRAM), Lund.
    Trnka, Jiri
    Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI).
    Once upon a time in Västmanland: the power of narratives or how the “truth” unfolds2016In: ISCRAM 2016 Conference Proceedings: 13th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management / [ed] Andrea H. Tapia, Pedro Antunes, Victor A. Bañuls, Kathleen Moore & João Porto de Albuquerque, ISCRAM, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2014 a small fire started in a forest in central Sweden. Within a few days it developed into the largest wildfire in Sweden in the last 50 years. As the scale of the fire increased, so did the need for direction and coordination of the resources engaged in the response operation. Both official investigators and the research community have studied the challenges and come up with recommendations for improvements of the Swedish crisis management system. All authors of this paper have been involved in such efforts. This paper is a result of us trying to formulate lessons learnt based on several written reports and official discussions. The development of the narratives constructed by individuals involved in the response, investigators and researchers is analyzed. We conclude that researchers need to pay attention to their own role in this development. Maybe there is a need for a game changer on the methodological side?

  • 130.
    Vretblad, Bengt
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Kuylenstierna, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Protection of Key Installations2008In: Stockholm Contributions in Military-Technology 2007 / [ed] Martin Norsell, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan , 2008, p. 255-261Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 131.
    Waldenström, Christofer
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    A Microworld for Investigating the Effects of Visualizing Expanding Search Areas in Naturalistic Naval Warfare Tasks2012In: Proceedings of 2012 Cognitive Methods in Situation Awareness and Decision Support (CogSiMA), New Orleans, LA, 2012, p. 146-149Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Presents an microworld for investigating the effects of visualizing expanding search areas to support the building of a naval force's common operational picture. The microworld simulates naval warfare operations, and in it, two participants can play against each other in an operations area where both own units and neutrals may be present. The participants control combat vessels used to locate and attack the enemy, and high value objects that should be protected. The map of the operations area is configurable and the units' weapons and sensors can be defined by the experimenter. The microworld displays an individual operational picture to each player complied from the sensor information provided by that player's units. To investigate visualization, expanding search areas can be added to enhance the operational picture, and algorithms based on these areas can be used to let the computer help the participant identify enemies from neutrals. The integration of expanding search areas into the operational picture is illustrated. The unit classification algorithms based on expanding search areas are explained, and examples of how they work are presented. Experimental setups are presented together with initial evaluations of the microworld.

  • 132.
    Waldenström, Christofer
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    A Microworld Study of Task Force Commanders Executing a Maritime Escort Mission2010In: Proceedings of the 15th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an exploratory microworld study with the aim to identify individual dierences between participants, and relate those dierence to how well the participant solves the task. Six ocers, rank from lieutenant commander to flotilla admiral, were studied when they commanded a maritime escort mission. The experiment was conducted using a microworld where the participant had to control all own units while the computer controlled enemy and neutral units. Data collection consisted of think-aloud protocols, screen captures of the microworld’s tactical screen, questionnaires, and battle outcomes. Performance was determined using a measure of mission success and a general model of the participants’ decision making process was constructed. This model was used to identify individual dierences and relate those to task performance. The results suggest that there is no correlation between how often the participants perform a certain decision making activity, and how well they perform in the microworld. On the other hand, the results suggest a strong correlation between how well the participants perform in the microworld and how many dierent decision making activities they visit during one coherent reasoning chain. The result seems to suggest that it is more important to consider many aspects of a problem at the same time, and that no decision making activity is more important that another.

  • 133.
    Waldenström, Christofer
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Constraint Visualization Decreases Search Time for Novices and Navy Officers in a Naval Search Task2011In: Proceedings of the 10th Conference on Naturalistic Decision Making, Orlando, FL, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Investigated a visualization aid to support naval search tasks. 20 officers and 20 students completed 12 trials in an experiment that contrasted with and without the visualization aid and controlled for learning effects. The aid improved performance in both groups, and there were no effects of learning or task difficulty.

  • 134.
    Waldenström, Christofer
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    För att förstå vad som ska göras måste man se möjlighetsrummet2016In: Operativ ledning: Slutrapport 2013-2015 / [ed] Isabell Andersson, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan (FHS), 2016Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 135.
    Waldenström, Christofer
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Sea control through the eyes of the person who does it: A theoretical field analysis2013In: Naval War College Review, ISSN 0028-1484, Vol. 66, no 1, p. 81-104Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 136.
    Waldenström, Christofer
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Supporting Dynamic Decision Making in Naval Search and Evasion Tasks2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 137.
    Waldenström, Christofer
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Threat and Control in Naval Tactical Decision Making2009Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 138.
    Waldenström, Christofer
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Using a Low-Fidelity Wargame for Training Fleet-level Command and Control in the Classroom2012In: Proceedings of the 17th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium, Washington, DC, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, the military increasingly rely on simulators to support training and education. One reason for this is simulators are seen as a cost-effective to achieve realistic training. Modern simulators can replicate almost any aspect of the real world, a development in part driven by the implicit assumption that the better the simulator, the better the training. But does higher fidelity necessarily lead to better learning? Recent research point in an alternative direction - it is not the quality of the simulator that determines the quality of training, but rather how well the simulator is integrated in a larger training setting. This paper presents an attempt along these lines - the simple surface warfare model (SSM). SSM is a low-fidelity naval wargame that has been used for several years to train fleet-level decision making skills at courses on both junior and senior officers levels. The paper begins by discussing the use of simulators in training and education. The SSM is introduced, and its integration in fleetlevel decision-making courses is presented. Evaluations of the use of the wargame are presented. The paper finishes off with a discussion of how low-fidelity simulators can be used to support training and education.

  • 139.
    Waldenström, Christofer
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Using uncertainties as basis for evaluating plans2007In: Proceedings of the 11th international conference, KES 2007 and XVII Italian workshop on neural networks conference on Knowledge-based intelligent information and engineering systems: Part I / [ed] Bruno Apolloni, Robert J. Howlett, Lakhmi Jain, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag Berlin , 2007, p. 254-261Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 140.
    Waldenström, Christofer
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Visualizing a time-space constraint increases performance in a dynamic search task2010In: Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making, ISSN 1555-3434, E-ISSN 2169-5032, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 275-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a display manipulation designed to support search tasks in which the location of the target is unknown and changes over time. The problem is analogous to that of a naval search task when there is an initial sighting and then the naval force must guide its search vehicles to reestablish contact with the fleeing target. The display manipulation visualizes a dynamic constraint on the area where a fleeing target can be found and adjusts its shape to the environment and to the search efforts. Forty participants without prior knowledge of search tactics completed 12 trials in an experiment that compared performance with and without the visualization aid and controlled for learning effects. The results suggest that this visualization improves performance in the dynamic search task. They further suggest that the visualization was easy to learn but that the learning effect did not transfer to a condition without visualization. The results have practical utility for both military and civil search tasks, and they are consistent with other research that emphasizes that control interfaces should make constraints in the task environment perceptually available.

  • 141.
    Waldenström, Christofer
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Visualizing the Field of Safe Travel Increases Performance in a Naval Movement Task2011In: Proceedings of IEEE International Multi-Disciplinary Conference on Cognitive Methods in Situation Awareness and Decision Support (CogSIMA), Miami, FL, 2011, p. 252-256Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates a display manipulation designed to support movement tasks where the location of a threat is uncertain and dynamic. The problem is analogous to that of a naval transportation task, where a ship has to move from one port to another under threat from several enemies of which only the initial positions are known. The display manipulation visualizes a time-dependent constraint on the area where an enemy can be, given its initial position and maximum speed, and adjusts the shape to the environment. The region outside this area represents a field of safe travel where the transport ship can move safely. Forty participants without prior knowledge of the task completed sixteen trials in an experiment that contrasted with and without visualization, and controlled for learning effects. The results suggest that the visualization significantly improved performance in the movement task and that it had a large effect. The visualization also significantly reduced variance in performance, which suggests that it generated a more consistent behavior among participants. It was also easy for the participants to make effective use of the visualization, and once exposed to the visualization, the learning transferred to a condition without the visualization. This study have practical utility for designers of combat information systems as the results indirectly suggest that people have difficulties in inferring the locations of targets of which they only have fragmentary information. Including similar visualizations in the design may consequently increase overall system performance.

  • 142.
    Waldenström, Christofer
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    What is Difficult in Naval Sensemaking?2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 143.
    Waldenström, Christofer
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Ekenberg, L
    Danielsson, M
    Threat and control in military decision making2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 144.
    Wallinius, Martin
    et al.
    Combitech.
    Nilsson, Jonas
    Swedish Armed Forces.
    Gustavsson, Per M.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Johansson Nawaz, Emelie
    University of Skövde.
    Enhanced Training by a Systemic Governance of Force Capabilities, Tasks, and Processes2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Army has transformed from 31 brigades in to two in 20 years. At the same time the Swedish area of interest has increased from 60 km from the Swedish borders to 6000 km from Brussels. The type of missions for the armed forces has changed from invasion defending operations to international interoperable operations. This overall change also has increased the necessity to become more interoperable with the partners in the Nordic, European Union, NATO and PfP countries. The NATO methods (OCC) and Core team Effectiveness (CTEF) together with the alignment of the Swedish MARTA provides the basis to assess, evaluate and accredit the Swedish forces. This paper presents a Systemic Governance of Capabilities, Tasks, and Processes applied to the requirement specification for the core battalion in Nordic Battle Group 2015. The method consists of analyzing and compiling the battalion's capabilities, tasks, activities and processes in their context and in relation to each other down to platoon level. The paper then continues to describe the development of a system providing support for assessment, evaluation and accreditation which entail that the commander and staff better can govern the education and training efforts for the force. Authors note: This work is conducted with funding and support from the Swedish Armed Forces and Swedish Strategic Foundation (grant SM12-0052). The information in this publication is the one of the authors and is not the official voice of the Swedish Armed Forces, Combitech, SAAB, Swedish National Defence College, George Mason University and University of Skövde.

  • 145.
    Yano, Edgar Toshiro
    et al.
    Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, Brasilien.
    Bhatt, Parth
    Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, Brasilien.
    Gustavsson, Per
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Åhlfeldt, Rose-Mharie
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Towards a Methodology for Cybersecurity Risk Management Using Agents Paradigm2014In: JISIC 2014: 2014 IEEE Joint Intelligence and Security Informatics Conference: The Hague, The Netherlands 24-26 September 2014, Piscataway: IEEE, 2014, p. 325-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to deal with shortcomings of security management systems, this work proposes a methodology based on agents paradigm for cybersecurity risk management. In this approach a system is decomposed in agents that may be used to attain goals established by attackers. Threats to business are achieved by attacker's goals in service and deployment agents. To support a proactive behavior, sensors linked to security mechanisms are analyzed accordingly with a model for Situational Awareness(SA)[4].

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