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  • 101.
    Larsdotter, Kersti
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Military Interventions in Internal Wars: The Study of Peace or the Study of War?2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis sets out to increase our understanding on how to conduct successful military interventions in internal wars, such as the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan. But, instead of investigating different variables which might contribute to success, the focus is on the practice of knowledge production.

    Numerous scholars have focused on how to conduct military interventions in internal wars successfully. However, research is conducted in different disciplines, such as Peace Studies and War Studies. According to interdisciplinary advocates, this might impede a rational advancement of knowledge. The aim of this thesis, therefore, is to scrutinise whether military interventions in internal wars are understood and approached differently in different disciplines, and to investigate whether these differences result in different knowledge about how to conduct successful military interventions in internal wars. The investigation has been conducted in two steps.

    In the first step – focusing on theory – research on peace operations and counterinsurgencies was compared, regarding underlying assumptions, independ­ent and dependent variables, causal mechanisms and methodology. Several differences were identified. Not only are the underlying assumptions, theories, and variables different between the two research areas of peace operations and counterinsurgencies, there are also differences in methodological approaches, such as the unit of analysis. These differences could imply that disciplines frame the way we understand the object of study and how we conduct research.

    In the second step – focusing on practice – the ISAF mission in Afghanistan was interpreted from the two disciplinary perspectives. Several differences were identified here as well, suggesting that disciplinary approaches influence our knowledge of how to conduct successful military interventions in internal wars. Departing from the differences found between the two research areas in the first part of the thesis, different ways to overcome these differences are suggested. Following these suggestions, research on military interventions in internal wars might become more rational, potentially increasing our understanding of how to conduct these operations successfully.

  • 102.
    Larsdotter, Kersti
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    New Wars, Old Warfare?: Comparing US Tactics in Afghanistan and Vietnam2005In: Rethinking the nature of war: Clausewitz and His Critics Revisited / [ed] Jan Angstrom & Isabelle Duyvesteyn, London: Frank Cass Publishers, 2005Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 103.
    Larsdotter, Kersti
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för luftoperationer (KV Luft).
    Politiske konsekvenser av robotiserte systemer2016In: Når dronene våkner: autonome våpensystemer og robotisering av krig / [ed] Tor Arne Schjander Berntsen, Gjert Lage Dyndal & Sigrid Redse Johansen, Oslo: Cappelen Damm AS, 2016, p. 305-326Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 104.
    Larsdotter, Kersti
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för luftoperationer (KV Luft).
    Security Assistance in Africa: The Case for Less2015In: Parameters, ISSN 0031-1723, E-ISSN 2158-2106, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 25-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    US strategic approaches in the African Great Lakes region are primarily based on security assistance for training and equipping African forces for operations in East, North, and West Africa. This assistance risks causing more incidents of violence. A new strategy, based on a comprehensive approach to the security challenges in the region, as well as the deployment of international "boots on the ground" - American or others - is needed to reduce violence and to minimze the risk of new terrorist safe havens appearing in central Africa.

  • 105.
    Larsdotter, Kersti
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    The Changing Character of Peace Operations: The Use of Force at the Tactical Level2009In: War and Peace in Transition: Changing Roles of External Actors / [ed] Karin Aggestam & Annika Björkdahl, Lund: Nordic Academic Press , 2009, p. 90-106Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 106.
    Larsdotter, Kersti
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    Avslutning: att välja rätt bland rivaliserande kunskaper om operation och krigsvetenskap2008In: Krigsvetenskaplig årsbok 2007 / [ed] Dan Öberg, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan , 2008, p. 215-232Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 107.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Sjöberg, Misa
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Vrbanjac, Aida
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Björkman, Torsten
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Indirect leadership in a military context: A qualitative study on how to do it2005In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 215-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – To develop a theoretical understanding of how indirect leadership is done in a military context.

    Design/methodology/approach – A grounded theory approach was used. Twenty-two high-level Swedish commanders, and six of their subordinates were interviewed.

    Findings – A model was developed which suggests that indirect leadership can be understood as consisting of two simultaneous processes. One is action-oriented and consists of interacting with a link (usually a small group of directly subordinate managers) which passes the messages down to lower organisational levels. The other influence process is image-oriented and consists of being a role model. Both processes are filtered through a “lens” which consists of the relative impact of a safety culture on the activities. In the favourable case, the employees at the lower levels trust both the link and the higher management. This appears to be a necessary condition for commitment and active participation. In the unfavourable case, there is a lack of trust. This breeds redefinitions of the messages and a necessity for relying on reward and punishment to obtain obedience.

    Research limitations/implications – Lack of representativeness, indirect influence from lower to higher levels, as well as possible gender-related aspects, not studied.

    Practical implications – The suggested model may be a valuable tool in higher management education.

    Originality/value – The identification of two co-occurring pathways of influence.

  • 108.
    Lindahl, Per
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Militärteorins inflytande på doktriner: William S. Linds påverkan på svensk doktrin för markoperationer.2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Influences from military theory are a part of the development of military doctrines. This thesis has, by using a method with three different dichotomies, traced and classified influences from William S Lind’s theories regarding manoeuvre warfare in the Swedish military doctrine, for land operations. The purpose has been to discuss the connection between military theory and how the Swedish doctrine for land operations (DMarkO) has been formulated. It has also been to show what this influence depends on and what consequences it will present.

    The examination has shown that William S. Lind’s theory regarding manoeuvre warfare has a great impact and influence on the content of DMarkO. This used through direct literal use of the theory and also through an indirect influence. It has, however, been difficult to reconstruct and to show awareness from the authors’ perspective that William S. Lind has been a deliberate choice to use regarding what to write in the doctrine. On the other hand, the parts that together constitute the theory are known as classical military maxims, and they are therefore as such, hard to relate only to Lind and his theory regarding manoeuvre warfare. “Main effort” or “Schwerpunkt” is such an example, used by Lind as a part of his theory but also known as a military maxim.

  • 109.
    Liwång, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division. Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sörenson, Karl
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin). Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Kalmar Maritime Academy, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Ship security challenges in high-risk areas: manageable or insurmountable?2015In: WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs (JoMA), ISSN 1651-436X, E-ISSN 1654-1642, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 201-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Piracy can lead to risks so high that they, according to the International Maritime Organization, are tolerable only if risk reduction is not practicable or is disproportionate to the benefits achieved. Therefore, there is a need for reducing ship security risks in relation to antagonistic threats such as piracy. The aim of this study is to identify challenges for ship operators when developing their ship security management. Furthermore, this study also investigates two central aspects in the analysis: understanding the threat and understanding how a security threat affects the crew and operation of the ship. It is clear from the analysis that the importance of subjective aspects beyond a ship operators’ direct control is high. This seems to be the fact for all aspects of the risk management process. The situation is also dynamic as the security risk, as well as the risk perception, can change dramatically even though there are no actual operational changes. As a result, the ship security management process is highly iterative and depends on situations on board as well as conditions out of the ship operator’s control. In order to make ship security manageable, the risk management has to put particular focus on methodological understanding, relevant system understanding and well-defined risk acceptance criteria as well as on including all levels of the organization in the risk reduction implementation and on a continuous monitoring.

  • 110.
    Lundqvist, Stefan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Att säkra en domän: en studie av maritim säkerhets förändrade innebörd2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 111.
    Lundqvist, Stefan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Continuity and change in US post-Cold War maritime security strategy2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 112.
    Lundqvist, Stefan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    From Protection of Shipping to Protection of Citizens and National Economies: Current Changes in Maritime Security2013In: Journal of Defence Studies, ISSN 0976-1004, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 57-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses the alteration of the referent object for maritime security from protection of shipping and port facilities to protection of citizens and national economies. It presents a tentative answer on the extent and consequences of this alteration applied by states in a global perspective, and focuses on validating four explanatory factors on why the alteration has occurred. The time period of study is between 1991 and 2013. Its results illustrate a transition in states’ security policies from traditional expressions of maritime security to broader security perspectives, and also indicates radically altered maritime strategic perspectives among states.

  • 113.
    Lundqvist, Stefan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Maritim säkerhet: En översikt av begrepp, lagstiftning och forskning för Försvarsmaktens behov2010Report (Other academic)
  • 114.
    Lundqvist, Stefan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    The Benefits of Three-corner-fights in Maritime Security Studies2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 115.
    Lundqvist, Stefan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Why teaching comprehensive operations planning requires transformational learning2015In: Defence Studies, ISSN 1470-2436, E-ISSN 1743-9698, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 175-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article argues that the method outlined in NATO’s Comprehensive Operations Planning Directive (COPD) manual is entirely based on systems theory and describes how to apply the principles for managing system change through comprehensive operations projects. Such systems thinking is based on conceptually different principles than traditional military planning methods. Students must therefore be provided with new conceptual tools to understand and handle the complex planning process outlined in the COPD manual. Thereto, they require knowledge of its founding scientific theories to meet academic standards. The concluding message is that military teachers and students must widen their individual mental frames of reference through a transformational learning process to obtain the comprehensive understanding required to fully manage the COPD process. Moreover, they need to prepare for facilitating dialogues in the less mature comprehensive operations planning teams of real-life situations.

  • 116.
    Lundqvist, Stefan
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Widen, Jerker
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Cultivating Regional Maritime Security: Swedish-Finnish Naval Cooperation in the Baltic Sea2015In: Strengthening Maritime Security Through Cooperation / [ed] Ioannis Chapsos & Cassie Kitchen, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2015, p. 63-73Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maritime security is increasingly important for the coastal states of the Baltic Sea, which collaborate on sea surveillance in pursuit of maritime domain awareness. Finland and Sweden operate a bilateral system and assume lead roles in multilateral projects; Russia’s increasingly aggressive behavior has led them to substantially deepen their defense cooperation by creating a standing bilateral Naval Task Group. We examine this cooperation from a security policy perspective. For the project to succeed, it must operate in harmony with other cooperative strategies and it will also require substantial legislative changes. If Finland and Sweden succeed in adopting new policies, common structures, and organizational norms in their navies, a deep integration is conceivable.

  • 117.
    Lundqvist, Stefan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Widén, Jerker
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Swedish–Finnish naval cooperation in the Baltic Sea: motives, prospects and challenges2016In: Defence Studies, ISSN 1470-2436, E-ISSN 1743-9698, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 346-373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, Finland and Sweden decided to substantially deepen their defence cooperation and this project involves creating a bilateral standing Naval Task Group (SFNTG). The present article aims at examining the deepening naval cooperation between Finland and Sweden from a regional integration perspective, focusing on its motives, current challenges and future prospects. Driven by perceptions of common challenges and desires for cost-effectiveness, and strengthened by recent successes on sea surveillance and a combined Amphibious Task Unit, the bilateral project has considerable potential to achieve success. To fulfil its objectives, substantial legal changes in both countries are required to allow the use of force on each other’s territorial waters. To cater for the requirement of not conflicting with EU, NORDEFCO or NATO cooperations, the bilateral Task Group must operate according to NATO standards and by using English as the language in command and control. The costs of adjusting the naval units to NATO’s technical requirements are far from negligible and this issue still remains to be solved. If Finland and Sweden manage to incorporate new policies, common structures and common organisational norms among their navies, an even deeper integration, as in Belgium and the Netherlands, are conceivable.

  • 118.
    Lundqvist, Stefan
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Widén, Jerker
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Swedish-Finnish Naval Co-operation in the Baltic Sea: Motives, Prospects and Challenges2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 119.
    Lundqvist, Stefan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Widén, Jerker
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    The New US Maritime Strategy: Implications for the Baltic Sea region2015In: RUSI Journal, ISSN 0307-1847, E-ISSN 1744-0378, Vol. 160, no 6, p. 42-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The new US maritime strategy has received praise from many corners of the world. As a manual it is well suited to guide the efforts of its three sea services in navigating a challenging global security environment in the years ahead. The strategy emphasises maritime presence, both where conflict threatens the global system and US national interests, and where allies require reassurance, particularly in the Indo-Pacific region. However, Stefan Lundqvist and J J Widen argue that the document fails, to some extent, to address Russia’s increasingly challenging conduct and its implications for Northeast Europe and the Baltic Sea region.

  • 120.
    Lyckman, Markus
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Weissmann, Mikael
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Global shadow war: conceptual analysis2015In: Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict, ISSN 1746-7586, E-ISSN 1746-7594, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 251-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The US strategic shift from nation-building to what has been labelled “light footprint” has carried with it a number of changes in the practices used when waging war on terrorism. These activities include covert and clandestine action by special operations and paramilitary forces, and others, operating under a shadowy mandate. It is essential to analyse these changes, due to the nature of the actions taken and the global reach and consequences of US foreign policies. The concept of “global shadow war” has been used by scholars and journalists alike to describe the practices associated with the light footprint framework, although the concept is ambiguous, lacks clear conceptual boundaries and is yet to be defined. This article attempts to resolve the problem of ambiguity through a systematic analysis of how and when the concept is used, in the process establishing its conceptual boundaries and definitional qualities. Using a method for concept analysis developed by Giovanni Sartori, the article provides a conceptual definition which is more clearly delineated, encompasses the characteristics found in the sources studied, and can be used when theorizing about the many practices taking place within the light footprint framework.

  • 121.
    Mattsson, Peter A
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för operationskonst (KV Opkonst).
    Det italienska fälttåget 1943-452009In: Tankar om fälttåg / [ed] Peter Ahlström & Ulf Högström, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan , 2009, p. 21-45Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 122.
    Maxwell, Rohan
    et al.
    NATO Headquarters Sarajevo.
    Olsen, John Andreas
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för luftoperationer (KV Luft).
    Destination Nato: Defence Reform in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2003-20132013Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Defence reform has been a major component of Bosnia’s stabilisation and nation-building. Though true for many cases of post-conflict transition, it is especially so for Bosnia, which arguably has the most complex state structure in Europe. Ten years on from the start of Bosnia’s defence-reform process, Destination NATO records and reviews the Bosnian experience of defence reform. The monograph offers policy-makers, practitioners and academics knowledge of the specific case of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and makes these insights relevant to defence-reform efforts in other contexts.

    The research is based on original sources and an extensive set of interviews and talks with key individuals including ambassadors, ministers and civil servants, and other senior national and international actors, in addition to discussions with several hundred politicians at local levels, students and NGO representatives. The authors also use their first-hand knowledge and insights to complement the documentation, interviews and discussions.

  • 123.
    Molander, Pia
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för operationskonst (KV Opkonst).
    Intelligence, Diplomacy and the Swedish Dilemma: The Special Operations Executive in Neutral Sweden 1939-452007In: Intelligence and national security, ISSN 0268-4527, E-ISSN 1743-9019, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 722-744Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article will survey the activities of Special Operations Executive (SOE) in Sweden during the course of the Second World War. Under the constraints of a foreign policy that sought to gradually encourage the government of Sweden to become more pro-allied rather than pro-axis and ‘non-belligerent’, SOE nonetheless entered Sweden with hopes of developing a series of contacts with groups and individuals that could be turned into active resistance if Sweden joined the axis, or if Nazi Germany either invaded or occupied Sweden and the whole of Scandinavia. Once the possibility of an axis invasion of Sweden was decisively dismissed, SOE had to find a different role. In Sweden, the successful development of SOE's intelligence gathering capabilities in the economic sphere, especially in the allied campaign against German iron-ore traffic and ball-bearings, provided the organization with a purpose that definitely took another course when compared to intelligence activities in other regions and countries. With these constraints in view, this article focuses on three major aspects of SOE involvement in Sweden. First, the article will examine SOE's role, and war aims in Sweden, linking these to the very different requirements of the Foreign Office. Second, the article will explore British and Swedish intelligence relations. Third, it will consider the Swedish security police response to British intelligence.

  • 124.
    Munoz Mosquera, Andres B.
    et al.
    Tufts Univ, Fletcher Sch Law & Diplomacy, Medford, MA 02155 USA.;Bar Assoc Madrid, Madrid, Spain.;SHAPE, Mons, Belgium..
    Bachmann, Sascha Dov
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division. Bournemouth Univ, Int Law, Poole, Dorset, England..
    Lawfare in Hybrid Wars: The 21st Century Warfare2016In: International Journal of Humanitarian Legal Studies, ISSN 1878-1373, E-ISSN 1878-1527, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 63-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the context of 'Hybrid Warfare' as 21st Century's threat to peace and security, this paper intends to address the role of Lawfare. The use of law as a weapon, Lawfare,(1) can have a tangible impact on democratic States when their adversaries use it in an exploitative way. Lawfare can be used in the context of Hybrid War.(2) Examples of Hybrid Warfare as witnessed in the Russian/Ukrainian conflict of 2014/2015 and the ongoing conflict with Daesh are particularly sensitive to Lawfare due to an apparent asymmetric adherence to the international rule of law among involved actors. The different legal and ethical approach of democratic States in warfare and their - non-democratic opponents in Hybrid War scenarios has the potential to impact negatively on the eventual prompt success of Western military actions. The authors argue that against this backdrop it is essential for law-abiding nations to adapt an approach which uses counter-Lawfare means in support of its own legitimate objectives and to prevent opponents from using it law as a weapon for their own strategic purposes.

  • 125.
    Nilsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, The Military History Division.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Natoanpassning ökar säkerheten2008Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 126.
    Nilsson, Niklas
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark). Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Role Conceptions, Crises, and Georgia's Foreign Policy2018In: Cooperation and Conflict, ISSN 0010-8367, E-ISSN 1460-3691, ISSN 0010-8367, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the scope conditions of national role conceptions as reference points for foreign policy decision making during crises. It aims to contribute to a refined perspective of the agency of new states undergoing socialization processes in relations with significant others. Drawing on a primary material consisting of interviews with Georgian and US officials, the article analyzes the significance of Georgia’s role conceptions in the country’s relations with the USA in relation to two major crises: the 2007 riots in Tbilisi and the 2008 war with Russia. The article posits that crises provide situational circumstances where the requirements of appropriate behavior associated with role expectations may enter into conflict with the demands of the immediate situation. In order to resolve ensuing role conflicts, actors face the need to both rationalize role expectations, and to compensate for departures from them. In turn, these strategies relate to the possibility for change and stability in role conceptions, and by extension their enactment in foreign policy. The analysis of the Georgian government’s management of the two crises demonstrates actions that implied both rationalization and compensation, aiming to retain the credibility of its existing role conceptions in the eyes of its US counterparts.

  • 127.
    Nilsson, Niklas
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark). Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Michalski, Anna
    Department of Government, Uppsala University.
    Resistant to Change? The EU as a Normative Power and Its Troubled Relations with Russia and China2018In: Foreign Policy Analysis, ISSN 1743-8586, E-ISSN 1743-8594Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we investigate the European Union's (EU) role as a normative foreign policy actor and its troubled relations to Russia and China. We contend that the lack of preparedness of the EU to foresee the increasingly tense relations with these countries can be explained through a role theoretical perspective. We show that the attachment of the EU to its role as a normative international actor reduced its awareness of Russia's and China's growing refusal to accept the EU's ambition to diffuse liberal norms and principles. The EU's inability to read the changing role expectations of China and Russia hampered the shaping of an appropriate foreign policy leading up the diplomatic crises with these two countries in the late 2000s and early 2010s, respectively. Theoretically, the findings contribute with a novel understanding of role conceptions in terms of reducing an actor's preparedness to acknowledge changes to its international role position caused by challenges raised by antagonistic partners.

  • 128.
    Nolan, Annette
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för språk (KV Språk).
    Assessing Professional Military English Language Skills in Sweden and its Neighbouring States2014In: Baltic Security and Defence Review, ISSN 1736-3772, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 234-253Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 129.
    Nolan, Annette
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för språk (KV Språk).
    Design - Is it all in your head?: Shaping classroom discourse with Advanced Learners of Military English2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A presentation about a series of military English lessons conducted with a group of advanced military professionals studying English through CBLT techniques.

  • 130.
    Nolan, Annette
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för språk (KV Språk).
    Techniques for Teaching Advanced Learners of Military English through Content-Based Language Courses2015In: Language in Uniform: Language Analysis and Training for Defence and Policing Purposes / [ed] Helen de Silva Joyce, Elizabeth A. Thomson, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2015, 1, p. 150-177Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter discusses the challenges of facilitating the development of advanced learners of English in the Scandinavian military context. It focuses on meaningful interaction, which relates to military students’ professional language needs and the immediate context of their learning in university programs. These programs include content instruction and military exercises in English on topics relevant to war studies within a Masters degree. The paper describes a series of lessons taught at the Swedish National Defence College that bring together two program components, namely the students need to understand the military content of their subjects in English and their professional English language workplace requirements. It describes how the author used reading comprehension and the genre of presentation to develop a repertoire of questioning strategies for application in the defence workplace.

  • 131.
    Nolan, Annette
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för språk (KV Språk).
    Farr, Keith
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för språk (KV Språk).
    Responding to a complex advanced teaching environment at the SNDC2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A presentation about techniques for promoting learner agency and languaging at advanced level when teaching military professionals on CBLT courses.

  • 132.
    Nordin, Astrid H.M.
    et al.
    Lancaster University, UK.
    Öberg, Dan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för luftoperationer (KV Luft).
    Targeting the Ontology of War: From Clausewitz to Baudrillard2015In: Millennium: Journal of International Studies, ISSN 0305-8298, E-ISSN 1477-9021, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 392-410Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Against a surprising level of agreement between Clausewitz, contemporary military doctrines and critical war studies on an ontology of war as fighting, we suggest that the study of contemporary warfare needs to focus more on war as processing. Through Jean Baudrillard we argue that at least some of what is referred to as ‘war’ is no longer characterised by encounters through fighting. We exemplify our argument by how the repetitive battle-rhythm of military targeting strives for perfect war. What remains is not war as an object in itself, but a reified ‘war’ that obscures the disappearance of that very object. The debate on war contributes to the reification of such a war, as an imperative telling us: ‘we have a concept, you must learn to think through it’.

  • 133.
    Olsen, John Andreas
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för luftoperationer (KV Luft).
    A History of Air Warfare2010Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 134.
    Olsen, John Andreas
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för luftoperationer (KV Luft).
    Air Commanders2012Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Air Commanders combines short military biographies and operational analyses to reveal how the personalities, attitudes, and life experiences of twelve outstanding U.S. airmen shaped the central air campaigns in American history. From Gen. Carl “Tooey” Spaatz, who began his career in World War I, to the recently retired Gen. T. Michael “Buzz” Moseley, the case studies illuminate the character of these airmen, the challenges they confronted in widely disparate armed conflicts, and the solutions that they crafted and implemented. Their achievements proved decisive not only in the campaigns they led, but also in shaping the U.S. Air Force and the dominant role of airpower in modern warfare. Air Commanders will be of interest to both general readers and students of military history—particularly those who wish to explore the use and development of airpower as a national instrument of force. With contributions from leading military experts and historians, this book demonstrates how personal qualities and leadership styles translate into battlespace outcomes.

  • 135.
    Olsen, John Andreas
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för luftoperationer (KV Luft).
    European Air Power: Challenges and Opportunities2014Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 136.
    Olsen, John Andreas
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för luftoperationer (KV Luft). Norwegian Defence University College.
    Global Air Power2011Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What influences have shaped air power since human flight became a reality more than a hundred years ago? Global Air Power provides insight into the evolution of air power theory and practice by examining the experience of six of the world’s largest air forces—those of the United Kingdom, the United States, Israel, Russia, India, and China—and of representative smaller air forces in Pacific Asia, Latin America, and continental Europe. The chapters, written by highly regarded scholars and military leaders, explore how various nations have integrated air power into their armed forces and how they have applied air power in both regular and irregular warfare and in peacetime operations. They cover the organizational, professional, and doctrinal issues that air forces confronted in the past, the lessons learned from victory and defeat, and emerging challenges and opportunities. Further, Global Air Powersupplements the traditional military perspective with examinations of the ideological, economic, and cultural factors that give air forces their distinctive characters. Chapters show how the interplay among these internal factors, together with external challenges, determines the structure, role, and effectiveness of air forces. Together, these chapters illuminate universal trends as well as similarities and differences among the world’s air forces. Its combination of military history and sociopolitical analysis makes Global Air Power especially valuable to a broad range of historians, air power specialists, and general readers interested in national defense and international relations.

  • 137.
    Olsen, John Andreas
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för luftoperationer (KV Luft).
    Gray, ColinUniversity of Reading, UK.
    The Practice of Strategy: From Alexander the Great to the Present2011Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Practice of Strategy focuses on grand strategy and military strategy as practiced over an extended period of time and under very different circumstances, from the campaigns of Alexander the Great to insurgencies and counter-insurgencies in present-day Afghanistan and Iraq. It presents strategy as it pertained not only to wars, campaigns, and battles, but also to times of peace that were over-shadowed by the threat of war. The book is intended to deepen understanding of the phenomena and logic of strategy by reconstructing the considerations and factors that shaped imperial and nation-state policies.

    Through historical case studies, the book sheds light on a fundamental question: is there a unity to all strategic experience? Adopting the working definition of strategy as 'the art of winning by purposely matching ends, ways and means,' these chapters deal with the intrinsic nature of war and strategy and the characteristics of a particular strategy in a given conflict. They show that a specific convergence of political objectives, operational schemes of manoeuvre, tactical moves and countermoves, technological innovations and limitations, geographic settings, transient emotions and more made each conflict studied unique. Yet, despite the extraordinary variety of the people, circumstances, and motives discussed in this book, there is a strong case for continuity in the application of strategy from the olden days to the present. 

    Together, these chapters reveal that grand strategy and military strategy have elements of continuity and change, art and science. They further suggest that the element of continuity lies in the essential nature of strategy and war, while the element of change lies in the character of individual strategies and wars.

  • 138.
    Olsen, John Andreas
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    van Creveld, Martin
    The Evolution of Operational Art: From Napoleon to the Present2010Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 139.
    Olsson, David
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    USA:s invasion av Irak: EN studie av hur Bushadministrationen motiverade invasionen av Irak 2003, och hur motiveringen förhåller sig till FN-stadgan2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    2003 invaderade USA tillsammans med ett antal av dess allierade Irak. Invasionen genomfördes utan mandat från FN:s säkerhetsråd. Uppsatsen handlar om hur USA och Bushadministrationen motiverade den invasionen och om hur FN:s och FN-stadgans regelverk reglerar internationell våldsanvändning.Syfte med uppsatsen är att se hur Bushadministrationens motiveringar förhåller sig till FN-stadgan och till den tillhörande resolutioner.Detta har gjorts genom en kvalitativ textanalys där tal och officiella dokument analyserats. Som teoretisk grund har realismen använts. Realismen har även använts som en förklaringsmodell för varför USA handlade som de gjorde.Resultatet i uppsatsen visar att USA:s invasion av Irak 2003 ej var förenlig med FN-stadgan och till den tillhörande resolutioner. Men tydliga kopplingar mellan USA:s aggerande och Realismen kan identifieras.

  • 140.
    Palmgren, Anders
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för operationskonst (KV Opkonst).
    Center of Gravity och Schwerpunkt: problemet att tänka strategi mellan teori och praktik2010In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 3, p. 29-42Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 141.
    Palmgren, Anders
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för operationskonst (KV Opkonst).
    Clausewitz's Interweaving of Krieg and Politik2011In: Clausewitz: The State and War / [ed] Andreas Herberg-Rothe, Jan Willem Honig, and Daniel Moran, Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2011, p. 49-69Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 142.
    Palmgren, Anders
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för operationskonst (KV Opkonst).
    On Interpretation: Clausewitz in German strategic thought from “Sedan” towards “Verdun”2011In: British International Studies Association, Manchester 27-29 April 2011, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 143.
    Palmgren, Anders
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för operationskonst (KV Opkonst). National Defence University, Finland.
    Visions of Strategy: Following Clausewitz's Train of Thought2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 144.
    Palmgren, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för operationskonst (KV Opkonst).
    Wikström, Niklas
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Auftragstaktik och uppdragstaktik2016In: Uppdragstaktik på svenska: en vän- och debattbok tillägnad överste Jan Mörtberg, Kungl. Krigsvetenskapsakademien och Försvarshögskolan , 2016, p. 35-66Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 145.
    Pappila, Ove
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för operationskonst (KV Opkonst).
    Command and Control2009In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 2, p. 145-148Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 146.
    Pappila, Ove
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för operationskonst (KV Opkonst).
    Rommel and the 7th Panzer Division in France 19402009In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 2, p. 73-101Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 147.
    Pappila, Ove
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för operationskonst (KV Opkonst).
    The birth of operational art2014In: Baltic Security & Defence Review, ISSN 1736-3772, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 113-144Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 148.
    Pappila, Ove
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för operationskonst (KV Opkonst).
    The Nature of War today2008In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 4, p. 69-73Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 149.
    Pappila, Ove
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för operationskonst (KV Opkonst).
    Cedergren, Anders
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för luftoperationer (KV Luft).
    Tid, rum rörlighet och position2009In: Tankar om fälttåg: en bok om fälttåg och den gemensamma stridens komplexitet / [ed] Peter Ahlström och Ulf Högström, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan , 2009, p. 163-185Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 150.
    Persson Tyrling, Stephan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för luftoperationer (KV Luft).
    En försvarsmakt i förändring och anpassning: Ofreden vinns mellan krigen2012In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 3, p. 141-148Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Israels erfarenheter efter det andra Libanonkriget år 2006 ledde omedelbart till ett beslut om att reformera hela den israeliska försvarsmakten, IDF. Tidigare vald väg, där lågintensiv krigföring var tydligt framträdande inom utbildning och materielanskaffning, visade sig under nämnda krig vara felaktig[1]. Förbanden saknade förmåga att strida mot en organiserad fiende med avancerad taktik och effektiva kort- och långräckviddiga vapen. Försvarsmakten inledde direkt efter kriget en omfattande reform som initialt genomfördes under två år, men som är under fortsatt utveckling.

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