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  • 1.
    Alvinius, Aida
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Emotions- och salutogenesstrategier och resurser hos resilienta barn: En förutsättning för ledarskapsförmåga. En kvalitativt grundad teori av två skönlitterära böcker av Marléne Lund Kopparklint2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2.
    Alvinius, Aida
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Chefens roll i ledningsprocessen: Balansgång mellan informella och formella processer vid stabsarbete - fallstudie vid Marintaktiska staben (MTS)2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 3.
    Brehmer, Berndt
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Ledningsvetenskapliga avdelningen (LVA).
    Harmony Rather than Unity:  A Command Concept for Complex Endeavours2011Inngår i: 16th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposia (ICCRTS): Collective C2 in Multinational Civil-Military Operations / [ed] CCRP, 2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses concepts of command for complex endeavors. The traditional concepts of Unity of Command and Unity of Effort are found wanting, the former because there is no single individual in command of a complex endeavor, the latter because there is often no time to develop the comprehensive plan required, and if there is time, it is nevertheless difficult because different organizations have different planning methods and different planning cultures. A new command concept, based on our experience from studies of peace support operations is proposed. It is called Harmony of Efforts and it is a C2 concept for complex endeavors that involve a number of organizations, each of which does what it usually does, and for which there is no one commander with authority to enforce unity of command or unity of effort. Under these circumstances, Harmony of Efforts is all that one can hope for. The command concept of Harmony of Efforts specifies the spirit in which C2 issues should be approached, which is cooperation, the method to be used, which is negotiation, and the substance of C2, i.e., what C2 can usefully be concerned with in complex endeavors, which is the management of interfaces between organizations.

  • 4.
    Brehmer, Berndt
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Ledningsvetenskapliga avdelningen (LVA).
    Kuylenstierna, Jan
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Ledningsvetenskapliga avdelningen (LVA).
    Rydmark, Joacim
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Ledningsvetenskapliga avdelningen (LVA).
    Olsson, Sten-Olof
    Försvarsmakten, Markstridsskolan.
    Towards Understanding the Commander´s "Coup d´Oeil". Part 22011Inngår i: 16th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposia (ICCRTS).: Collective C2 in Multinational Civil-Military Operations, 2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the second paper in a series where we try to understand what Clausewitz called the commander’s “coup d’oeil”, i.e., the ability to understand the situation on the battle field at a glance. We employ a standard paradigm from research on expertise where participants study a scenario and then reproduce it from memory. Last year we reported results consistent with other results from studies of expertise, viz., that experts recall meaningful scenarios better than meaningless scenarios whereas novices recall both types of scenarios equally badly. This year, we report four follow-up experiments. The first two study ex-perts’ and novices’ recall of scenarios after having seen how the scenario de-veloped over time and we do so under two conditions, one where the scenario develops violating constraints on how military units should move and one where they do not in an attempt to distinguish between two possible explana-tions for last year’s results: The constraints hypothesis and the pattern match-ing hypothesis. The results show that both experts perform better than novices but that both groups recall scenarios where the development did not violate constraints better than scenarios where the development violated constraints. We interpret these results as support for the constraints hypothesis. In Experi-ments 2 and 3 we vary the time allowed for inspecting static scenarios on the interpretation of these scenarios with both expert and novice participants. The results show that a short time for inspection affects the interpretation by novic-es to a greater extent than it affects the interpretation by experts, as was pre-dicted by Clausewitz. We interpret this to mean that novices and experts achieve their understanding of a military scenario in different ways.

  • 5.
    Enander, Ann
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Kassandra möter dr Pangloss: om krisberedskapens psykologi2013Inngår i: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, nr 2, s. 6-15Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 6.
    Hedlund, Erik
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum.
    Börjesson, Marcus
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Team learning and leadership in a military staff exercis2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 7.
    Hedlund, Erik
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Börjesson, Marcus
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Österberg, Johan
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Team Learning in a Multinational Military Staff Exercise2015Inngår i: Small Group Research, ISSN 1046-4964, E-ISSN 1552-8278, Vol. 46, nr 2, s. 179-203Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    International operations have become one of the main tasks for the Swedish Armed Forces (SAF). The SAF and Swedish National Defence College organize annual international staff exercises with the purpose of training officers to carry out effective staff work. This study analyzed a staff exercise using Edmondson's team learning model in a military setting. The model was developed by including group cohesion. As defensive routines are a threat to team learning behavior, the possible presence of these was examined. The results indicate that team leader coaching is crucial to support all the variables in the model. The added variable of group cohesion contributed with insights on how the commander used task solving to create group cohesion. Some examples of defensive routines were also revealed but there seemed to be challenges in identifying such routines in this type of exercise setting.

  • 8.
    Jensen, Eva
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Ledningsvetenskapliga avdelningen (LVA).
    Good sensemaking is more important than information quality for the quality of plans2006Inngår i: Proceedings of the 11th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium, 2006Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 9.
    Jensen, Eva
    Örebro universitet.
    Is explicit information important for performance in dynamic systems?2002Inngår i: Proceedings of the 20th International Conference of the System Dynamics Society, 2002Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 10.
    Jensen, Eva
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Ledningsvetenskapliga avdelningen (LVA).
    Mission design: fitting the solution to the problem2010Inngår i: Proceding of the 15th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium, 2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 11.
    Jensen, Eva
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Ledningsvetenskapliga avdelningen (LVA).
    Brehmer, Berndt
    Sensemaking in the fog of war:  an experimental study of how command teams arrive at a basis for action2005Inngår i: Proceedings of the 10th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium, 2005Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 12.
    Jensen, Eva
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Brehmer, Berndt
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Ledningsvetenskapliga avdelningen (LVA).
    Understanding and control of a simple dynamic system2003Inngår i: System Dynamics Review, ISSN 0883-7066, E-ISSN 1099-1727, Vol. 19, nr 2, s. 119-137Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined laypeople's understanding of a simple dynamic system, expressed in reasoning and strategies used by the subjects, and how it affected performance. Participants were 15 undergraduate psychology students. 4 male and 11 female; median age was 24 years, ranging from 21 to 31 years. The subjects' task was to establish equilibrium in a simple predator-and-prey system. A task analysis was performed to identify the problem structure, the vital aspects of the task, and the ideal strategies to perform the task. The subjects' actual performance was compared to these strategies. The results revealed that, even though the task was structurally simple, it was still difficult. Much of these difficulties seemed to stem from a low ability to apply indirect reasoning and thinking in terms of discrete time steps instead of in terms of continuous time.

  • 13.
    Jonsson, Emma
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Österberg, Johan
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Bortfall i rekryteringsprocessen: Orsaker till att inte antagningspröva2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 14.
    Jonsson, Emma
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Österberg, Johan
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Potential för att antas till Officersprogrammet bland sökande till grundläggande militär utbildning2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 15.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Alvinius, Aida
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Enander, Ann
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Frames of public reaction in crisis2016Inngår i: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 24, nr 1, s. 14-26Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to identify and analyze the ways in which images and reactions of the public are described and framed in media articles and reports. Reporting from six major events affecting the Swedish public was studied using a thematic method of analysis. The results show three dynamic interrelated processes at work simultaneously in framing the public: identification, characterization and evaluation. A significant contribution of this study is the emphasis on how this often subtle and implicit framing influences the portrayal of human reactions, thus possibly influencing the expectations and evaluations of both the public in general and crisis managers in particular.

  • 16.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Brandow, Carina
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Olsson, Alicia
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Alvinius, Aida
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Militärt ledarskap och emotionshantering i akuta situationer som innehåller moraliska dilemman2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Militärt ledarskap i en insatsmiljö präglad av svårförutsägbar irreguljär krigföring ställer stora krav på officersprofessionen. Etiskt komplexa insatser kan bidra till starka stressrelaterade emotioner hos enskilda soldater och officerare. Förmågan att hantera dessa känslor är central för att bibehålla operativ effektivitet. Kraven ökar samtidigt på den militära organisationen att anpassa sina normer för vad som är acceptabla emotionella uttrycksformer. Studien belyser en militär emotionskultur som ger begränsat utrymme åt emotionella uttryck då det är nödvändigt att vara bestämd, kall och ”professionell” i akuta situationer som innehåller moraliska dilemman. Ledare kan genom att härbergera starka känslor bidra till operativ effektivitet (benämnd containerförmåga). Potentiella konflikter mellan en god containerförmåga i akuta situationer å ena sidan och långsiktig anpassning i vardagen efter insatser å andra sidan belyses.

  • 17.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Alvinius, Aida
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Shadow structure within higher-level military staff: A qualitative study2017Inngår i: Res Militaris, E-ISSN 2265-6294, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 1-20Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The study's aim was to elucidate the role played by leadership in the relationship between informal organizational influencers and the formal organization in a military context. A qualitative study was conducted by interviewing eleven high-level military officers and analyzing the data according to the grounded theory method. The analysis resulted in an identification of a core variable : Organization Influencers, which are composed of two sub-core variables (Shadow Factors and Formal Factors) that interact with one another. Therefore challenges arise for the leader to balance varying shadow and formal factors for individuals, groups and the organization. Previously research has defined the shadow organisation as a negative force ; however, our results indicate that this is not always the case. This study contributes by mapping out specific shadow factors in relationship with formal factors of a military organization, along with pointing out that shadow factors can be beneficial forces for organisations if balanced appropriately by the leader.

  • 18. Rawski, A. A.
    et al.
    Brehmer, Berndt
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Ledningsvetenskapliga avdelningen (LVA).
    Knutsson, K.
    Petersson, K.
    Reit, C.
    Rohlin, M.
    The major factors that influence endodontic retreatment decisions2003Inngår i: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 27, nr 1, s. 23-29Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of a new or persistent periapical radiolucency adjacent to a rootfilled tooth is often used as a criterion of endodontic treatment "failure". However, clinicians' suggested management of such cases is subject to substantial interindividual variation. Several components that might influence endodontic retreatment decision making have been explored, but data on which factors dentists actually think they consider, are missing. The aim was to interview 20 general dental practitioners (GDPs) and 20 endodontists about factors they thought would influence the prescription of endodontic retreatment. Six simulated cases were presented as cartoons accompanied with a clinical history. In two of the cases the teeth were planned to serve as an abutment tooth in a fixed prosthodontic construction. The status of the periapical bone tissue and the quality of rootfilling seal were varied. Between 1 and 6 factors per case were reported to influence decision making. In cases not planned to serve as abutment teeth most dentists considered that the periapical condition was the most important factor, whilst they considered the fixed prosthodontic construction to be the most important factor in cases planned as abutment teeth. Generally, endodontists seem to be more inclined to retreat and act on the mere presence of a periapical lesion regardless of size than GDPs. In a real clinical setting in direct contact with patients, additional factors like economy and patients' preferences might be expected to exert a major influence. The majority of the dentists stated that they thought that their colleagues would make similar decisions as they did themselves.

  • 19. Rigas, G
    et al.
    Carling, E
    Brehmer, Berndt
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Ledningsvetenskapliga avdelningen (LVA).
    Reliability and validity of performance measures in microworlds2002Inngår i: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 30, nr 5, s. 463-480Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research with microworlds enable us to study complex mental processes in semantically rich but standardized environments, under more realistic conditions than ordinary tests do. Moreover, adapting the microworlds to the needs of mental testing may increase our ability to predict success in real life pursuits [Rigas, G., & Brehmer, B. (1999). Mental processes in intelligence tests and dynamic decision making tasks. In P. Juslin & H. Montgomery (Eds.), Judgement and decision making: Neo-Brunswikean and process-tracing approaches (pp. 45-65). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.]. Yet earlier studies have found no relations between intelligence test scores and microworld performance. The relationships between two real time dynamic decision making tasks (microworlds) and one intelligence test were investigated. The participants interacted with eight NEWFIRE scenarios, four COLDSTORE scenarios, and completed Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM). The composite scores of performance in the two microworlds were sufficiently reliable. APM was a predictor of success in these two microworlds. Statistically significant increases in R 2 were obtained. Methodological problems in research with microworlds are discussed and changes related to the adaptation of microworlds to the needs of mental testing are proposed.

  • 20.
    Wallenius, Claes
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Att lära sig stresshantering vid tillämpade övningar: Ett utbildningskoncept2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 21.
    Wallenius, Claes
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Människans illusoriska rationalitet: om kampen mellan känsla och förnuft i samhälle och politik2014Bok (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Är vi människor rationella? Väljer vi det alternativ med den bästa balansen mellan kostnad och nytta när vi fattar beslut? Eller styrs vi mer av våra känslor och impulser? Claes Wallenius menar att det kan vara både och, men oftare än vi vill tro det senare. Våra känslor - och våra sätt att hantera dessa - är viktiga orsaker till att beslut inte får förväntat resultat, såväl som till fiendebilder, våld och ondska.

     

    Det kan vara fullt rimligt att använda magkänsla vid vardagliga beslut som bara berör en själv och inte får några dramatiska konsekvenser. Men fokus i denna bok är främst på olika sammanhang där beslut får - eller förväntas få - stora effekter. Den första delen tar upp frågor om vi är rationella i relation till olika typer av hot – alltifrån risker i samhället till livshotande situationer och krig. I den andra delen analyseras om politiska beslutsfattare och olika politiska rörelser är rationella – alltifrån ”vanliga” kommunalpolitiker till mer extrema och våldsbejakande rörelser. Boken innehåller också en teoretisk del där det förs en diskussion om hur vår bristande rationalitet kan förklaras och förstås.

  • 22.
    Wallenius, Claes
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Brandow, Carina
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    How (Not) to Implement an Unpopular Decision: A Case-Study of the Swedish Armed Forces2017Inngår i: Res Militaris, E-ISSN 2265-6294, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 1-12Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the armed forces' ability to implement an unpopular decision while maintaining commitment and job satisfaction among its personnel, as well as examine what factors affect the perceived outcome of a decision process in a military context. In line with earlier research, it was hypothesized that a fair process, knowledge (about the circumstances and objectives of the decision) and trust (in the decision-makers) will promote decision acceptance. An additional hypothesis was that a higher hierarchal position will promote understanding of the decision. A specific decision process was chosen - that which led to the 2010 choice to make service on international military missions mandatory for all personnel in the Swedish Armed Forces. An ad hoc questionnaire was constructed with the intention to measure the perception of the decision's input values, the decision process, the organization and decision-makers, as well as of the outcome. The questionnaire response rate was 48% (N = 229 respondents). The respondents were (predominantly middle-aged, mid-career, male) Swedish military officers and civilian employees. Knowledge about the decision, its perceived timing, and trust in the decision makers - but not the respondents' hierarchical position - significantly contributed to the outcome : its degree of acceptance. The study shows much dissatisfaction with the decision and its implications, but also a lack of knowledge about the decision-making process involved.

  • 23.
    Wallenius, Claes
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Bäccman, Charlotte
    Karlstad universitet.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Examining the impact of personality and situational factors on decision making among military staffs2014Inngår i: Journal of Military Studies, ISSN 1799-3350, Vol. 5, nr 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Military staff performance may be inferior due to several reasons. The purpose of the present survey was to study the impact of stress reactions, personality factors, situation awareness, and maladaptive group dynamics on the quality of the decision-making in Swedish high-level military staffs. Participants were mainly captains and majors, but also lieutenant colonels and colonels took part (n = 256, 61 % response rate). A mainly self-made questionnaire was administered in two staff exercises. Maladaptive group dynamics, stress exposure, lack of situation awareness, and negative stress reactions were the strongest predictors of poor staff performance, while personality had less impact.

  • 24.
    Wallenius, Claes
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    A Lack of Effect Studies and of Effects: The Use of Strategic Communication in the Military Domain2019Inngår i: International Journal of Strategic Communication, ISSN 1553-1198Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychological operations (PSYOP) implies a purposeful use of communication by a government or military organization to fulfill its mission and is one understanding of strategic communication. The present study focuses on PSYOP effects. The few studies available on this area indicate that the effects of PSYOP generally tend to be on a minor scale, while PSYOP may have a stronger impact in specific contexts. We discuss possible explanations and suggest that a number of psychological factors inhibit PSYOP success. One major example is that of human cognitive conservatism. Other psychological mechanisms, mostly emotional ones, may promote PSYOP, for example, strong identification with one’s own (national, ethnic or religious) group, a sense of threat to the resources, status and/or survival of own group, a perception of hostility from other groups, and the experience that another group has devalued or offended the in-group.

  • 25.
    Weber, Megan
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet.
    Österberg, Johan
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    A Principal Component Analysis of Swedish Conscripts’ Values and Attitudes towards their Military Education2015Inngår i: Res Militaris, E-ISSN 2265-6294, ISSN 2265-6294, Vol. 5, nr 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    By identifying components relevant to conscripts' success in and positive attitudes towards the military, we may be able to make it a more attractive employment option for current and future age-cohorts, thus solving the recruitment crisis not only in Sweden, but in several other European countries that have recently made the shift from conscription to an all-volunteer force. Precisely, this study aims to identify and examine conscripts' values and attitudes towards their mandatory tour of duty. The objective of this study is to analyze the components important to Swedish conscripts in order to determine what components should be included or emphasized in future military education programmes. Data were collected from 55,239 conscripts between 2002 and 2010 (when conscription was suspended in Sweden), using an anonymous course evaluation questionnaire. Data from 2002-2005 were combined and used as a baseline to compare against data from later years. Principal component analysis was conducted and resulted in 3 components being extracted for each year (except 2008, a year for which only 2 components were extracted). Those components were individual development, group cohesion, and competence/ state of readiness. The study's most important conclusion was that conscripts' attitudes and values were in line with those of younger generations and that a focus on these values may lead to the development of more attractive educational and career opportunities for today's youth.

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