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  • 1.
    Aalto, Janne
    et al.
    Finnish Defence Research Agency, (FIN).
    De Reya, Anthony
    United Kingdom Royal Navy, (GBR).
    Garb, Maja
    University of Ljubljana, (SVN).
    Giga, Sabir
    Lancaster University, (GBR).
    Goyne, Anne
    Australian Defence College, (AUS).
    Kalantzis, Eugenia
    Royal Military College of Canada, (CAN).
    Kucera, Tomás
    Charles University, (CZE).
    Lekea, Ioanne
    Hellenic Air Forces Academy, (GRC) .
    MacIntyre, Allister
    Royal Military College of Canada, (CAN).
    MacVean, Allyson
    Bath Spa University, (GBR).
    Morales, John
    US Centre for Army Profession and Ethics, (USA).
    Ness, Alisha
    US Army Research Institute, (USA) .
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    O´Keefe, Damian
    Royal Military College of Canada, (CAN) .
    Olsthoorn, Peter
    Netherlands Defence Academy, (NLD).
    Reed, Esther
    University of Exeter, (GBR).
    Robertsson, Magna
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm.
    Shackleton, Scott
    United Kingdom Royal Navy, (GBR).
    Shaughnessy, Stefanie
    US Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, (GBR) .
    van der Linden, Naomi
    Australian Defence College, (NLD).
    Factors Affecting Ethical Leadership: Final report of Task Group HFM-3042023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    "Factors Affecting Ethical Leadership” shows that the ethical behavior of leaders is the most important factor in shaping an organization’s ethical climate. Representatives from ten countries, Canada, Australia, Czech Republic, Finland, Greece, Netherlands, Slovenia, Sweden, United Kingdom and United States of America participated in the research, with six (Canada, Australia, Finland, Netherlands, Sweden and the USA) able to collect data. The goals of RTG HFM-304 included identifying the individual, situational, and organizational variables predictive of ethical leadership, developing a model of ethical leadership, and collating best practice in military ethics education amongst NATO and Partner for Peace (PfP) countries. Findings evidence that ethical leadership is strongly associated with values, in particular with value achievement (e.g., setting high standards and striving for excellence) and person-environment fit. Leaders who have the ability to address an ethical dilemma tend also to be those with high standards, a firm foundation in values (such as helping others and generosity) and belief that their institution shares these values. To engender ethical cultures and attract, train and sustain principled leaders, there is a need for military institutions to emphasize values, reinforce ethical decision-making and promote and value-informed ethical leadership from the beginning.

  • 2.
    Alvinius, Aida
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    “It will be difficult for you to move on from this…” An Autoethnographic Study of Hitting the Glass Ceiling in an Academic Recruitment Process2022In: Croatian Sociological Review, ISSN 0350-154X, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 7-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This narrative is an autoethnographic study of how discrimination and prejudice counteract the academic meritocratic system. In Sweden, which is one of the most gender-equal countries in the world, opposition to gender equality and prejudices against what is considered the Other can be hidden and thus reproduced in decision-making processes and structures. This narrative shows how a professorial recruitment process bypassed the meritocratic system i.e., the system in which qualifications and educational results in combination with the individual’s achievements should play the greatest role in the promotion process. This is a story about how the supposed meritocracy is twisted and manipulated within university contexts and how the “temperament” of a foreign female researcher is utilized to exclude her from entering through the coveted doors of academic departments. Different experiences, characterized by demanding conditions, have been analyzed with the help of gender theoretical perspectives, opposition to gender equality, intercultural perspectives, and a number of social psychological perspectives linked to prejudice. The description is interwoven with previous experiences from younger years, which together contribute to an increased understanding of the individual narrative and its specific context. 

  • 3.
    Alvinius, Aida
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Borglund, Anders
    Försvarsmakten, Sweden, (SWE).
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Tematisk analys: Din handbok till fascinerande vetenskap2023Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vill du använda dig av tematisk analys i din forskning eller uppsats, men vet inte riktigt hur det går till? Här får du hjälp – hands-on! Tematisk analys är en av de mest använda metoderna vid analys av data som genereras från intervjuer, litteratur och officiella dokument. Men trots att metoden är så populär har det hittills saknats en lärobok på svenska som särskilt fokuserar på den tematiska analysens olika steg. Den här boken behandlar alla delar vid undersökningar och uppsatsskrivande som tar sin utgångspunkt i tematisk analys, och på så sätt kompletterar den mer generella metodböcker. Den fungerar också som stöd för lärare vid handledning av examensarbeten på alla nivåer. Boken är av praktisk karaktär och innehåller ett stort antal illustrerande exempel och steg-för-steg-instruktioner.

  • 4.
    Alvinius, Aida
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad. Department of Leadership and Command & Control, Swedish Defence University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Holmberg, Arita
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Political Science and Law, Political Science Division. Department of Political Science and Law, Swedish Defence University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    External, non-governmental resistance in relation to interstate war: an analytical framework2023In: European Security, ISSN 0966-2839, E-ISSN 1746-1545, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Russian war against Ukraine in February 2022, unleashed an unprecedented wave of non-governmental, external resistance directed against Russia. In many ways, previous literature on war and resistance does not capture the characteristics of this phenomenon. Besides noting the presence of civilian war protests outside of the warzone, most research has focused on internal resistance during war. In this article, we draw on a wider array of resistance literature and present an analytical framework that allows us to capture the broad elements of non-governmental, external resistance during war – including the power-resistance nexus at work. The analytical framework sorts the various kinds of resisters, it categorises the form of resistance and the targets pursued. The usefulness of the analytical framework is demonstrated through an exploration of empirical examples and illustrations drawn from media reports gathered during the first 10 days of the war in Ukraine. It is concluded that new analytical tools are necessary in order to capture non-governmental, external resistance during war as it is waged in Europe in the 2020s.

  • 5.
    Alvinius, Aida
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Sjölén, Camilla
    Swedish Armed Forces, Sweden, (SWE).
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Organizational Changes and their Presumptive Effect on the Military Families2023In: Scandinavian Journal of Military Studies, ISSN 2596-3856, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 225-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the role of work-life balance in a recent relocation decision made by the Swedish Armed Forces. Applying the “What is the problem represented to be?” (WPR) discourse analysis method to documents concerning budget submissions over a five-year period (2020–2024) and a relocation decision from 2017, this study identifies a common focus on the reduction of organizational vulnerability. The way the problem of organizational vulnerability is presented, however, neglects considerations of employees’ work-life balance and serves to make effects of organizational changes at the individual level invisible. Founded on a social constructivist perspective, the study therefore argues that this neglect of work-life balance in official discourse on organizational change may be counterproductive to the proposed aim of a reduction in organizational vulnerability.

  • 6.
    Alvinius, Aida
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad. Göteborgs universitet, (SWE).
    Starrin, Bengt
    Karlstads universitet, (SWE).
    Hotet mot det sociala självet till följd av covid-19 pandemin – En sonderande analys2022In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, E-ISSN 2002-343X, Vol. 28, no 3-4, p. 67-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In connection with Covid-19 pandemic, employers were forced to change their behavior and adjust to new working life challenges. Firstly, the pandemic became a healthcare disaster, and secondly a crisis with social and emotional consequences for workers. The purpose of this article is to investigate the presence of threats to the social self in the working life context. We are looking for shame or shame-related feelings and behaviors, which can be linked to the pandemic. The threat to the social self can be intentional or unintentional and consist of behaviors and gestures that are perceived as derogatory and in terms of bullying, violations, humiliations, harassment, or organizational changes. 

  • 7.
    Alvinius, Aida
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Starrin, Bengt
    Karlstads universitet (SWE).
    Hotet mot det sociala självet till följd av covid-19 pandemin - en sonderande analys2022In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, E-ISSN 2002-343X, Vol. 28, no 3-4, p. 67-86, article id https://journals.lub.lu.se/aoa/article/view/23896Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In connection with the Covid-19 pandemic, employers were forced to change their behavior and adjust to new working life challenges. Firstly, the pandemic became a healthcare disaster and secondly a crisis with social and emotional consequences for workers. The purpose of this article is to investigate the presence of threats to the social self in the working life context. We are looking for shame or shame-related feelings and behaviors, which can be linked to the pandemic. The threat to the social self can be intentional or unintentional and consist of behaviors and gestures that are perceived as derogatory and in terms of bullying, violations, humiliations, harassment or organizational changes. 

  • 8.
    Bekesiene, Svajone
    et al.
    General Jonas Zemaitis Military Academy of Lithuania, (LTU).
    Smaliukiene, Rasa
    General Jonas Zemaitis Military Academy of Lithuania, (LTU); Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, (LTU).
    Vaicaitiene, Ramute
    General Jonas Zemaitis Military Academy of Lithuania, (LTU).
    Mazeikiene, Asta
    Vilnius University, (LTU).
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad. Vilnius University, (LTU); Inland University College of Applied Sciences. (NOR).
    Karciauskaite, Dovile
    Vilnius University, (LTU).
    Mazgelyte, Egle
    Vilnius University, (LTU).
    Three-Faceted Approach to Perceived Stress: A Longitudinal Study of Stress Hormones, Personality, and Group Cohesion in the Real-Life Setting of Compulsory Basic Military Training2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 3, article id 1046Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Compulsory basic military training is characterized not only by being challenging but also by being stressful. Assuming a high frequency of perceived stress events as a negative outcome of training, this article provides evidence on how the perceived frequency of stressful situations is affected by three types of factors: (i) biological stress response variables measured by hair steroid hormone levels, (ii) personality traits measured using the Big Five personality test, and (iii) group cohesion measures in military squads. A total of 112 conscripts in 11 squads participated in the research at the beginning (T1), in the middle (T2), and at the end (T3) of compulsory basic military training. Hair steroid hormone levels (cortisol, cortisone, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)) levels were measured by liquid mass spectrometry; other data were collected using self-report questionnaires. The results of the Poisson regression analysis indicated that hair steroid hormone cortisol had a statistically significantly impact and could increase the perceived frequency of stressful situations by up to 1.317 (e(0.275), T2) times. The concentrations of other hormones (cortisone = 1.157, e(0.146), T3 and DHEA = 1.020, e(0.020), T3) also had a statistically significant effect. Other factors had a decreasing effect on the frequency. Extraversion was significant with an effect of 0.907 (e(-0.098), T2) and 0.847 (e(-0.166), T3), while task cohesion had an effect of 0.946 (e(-0.056)) and norm cohesion of 0.954 (e(-0.047)). The research indicates that the three groups of factors affect the perceived frequency of stressful situations during compulsory basic military training, but their impacts are considerably different.

  • 9.
    Bencker, Andreas
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad. Halmstad University, (SWE).
    Fors Brandebo, Maria
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, (SWE).
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, (SWE).
    Common demanding conditions among professional high-level military and sport leaders: a cross-contextual qualitative reflexive thematic analysis2022In: Scandinavian Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, E-ISSN 2596-741X, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 27-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Military and sport have attracted increased research interest separately as two distinctly demanding performance- and leadership-driven contexts. However, cross-contextual psychological research in leadership is lacking. Such research has potential to expose unique cross-fertilising insights into resemblances in leadership challenges among military and sport leaders, transferable to a broader range of contexts. Thus, the current study simultaneously explored high-level military and sport leaders’ real-life experiences of similarities in demanding conditions and their psychological manifestations. Sixteen participants - eight Swedish high-level military leaders and eight Swedish high-level sport leaders, participated in the study. Using a qualitative inductive cross-contextual design enabled in-depth knowledge and transferability. A reflexive thematic analysis (RTA) of sixteen interview transcripts generated four common themes of demanding conditions: (1) Developing organisations: Leading under an extensive workload and responsibility, (2) Managing destructive superiors and subordinates: Standing up for oneself, (3) Taking care of the minds and moods of others: Leading deliberated difficult conversations, and (4) Periods of extreme concentration: Leading critical coordination, decisions, and timing. The findings tie high-level military and sports leaders together into a high-stress and high-stakes leader role invoked to manoeuvre a complex buildup of demanding conditions. Implications are presented.

  • 10.
    Bencker, Andreas
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Fors Brandebo, Maria
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Johnson, U
    Ivarsson, A
    High-level military and sport leaders' everyday challanges and psychological skills: A cross-contextual repeated measures study2023In: Military Psychology, ISSN 0899-5605, E-ISSN 1532-7876Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Bergh, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, (SWE).
    Oskarsson, Emma
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Analysis of the psychometric properties of a dice test - strategies for item difficulty and targeting improvements2022Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Berndtsson, Joakim
    et al.
    a School of Global Studies, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, (SWE).
    Österberg, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    A question of time? Deployments, dwell time, and work-life balance for military personnel in Scandinavia2023In: Military Psychology, ISSN 0899-5605, E-ISSN 1532-7876, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 157-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, interest in the different ways in which military employment affects individuals’ work-life balance (WLB) has grown. At the same time, research on military organizations and personnel has increasingly included time-related factors such as deploy-to-dwell (D2D) ratios to help explain adverse health effects of overseas deployments. The aim of this article is to explore connections between organizational systems for regulating deployment frequency and dwell (or respite) time with a particular focus on potential consequences for work-life balance. We focus on personal and organizational factors that shape the nature and outcome of work-life balance, including stress, mental health problems, job satisfaction, and turnover intentions. To explore these links, we first provide an overview of research on the impact of deploy-to-dwell ratios on mental health and social relations. We then turn to the regulation and organization of deployment and dwell time in Scandinavia. Here, the ambition is to identify potential sources of work-life conflict and associated effects for deployed personnel. The results provide a basis for further research into time-related effects of military deployments.

  • 13.
    Björklund, Christina
    et al.
    Institutet för miljömedicin, Karolinska Institutet, (SWE).
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Institutionen för psykologi, Umeå universitet, (SWE).
    Bolander, Pernilla
    Institutionen för företagande och ledning, Handelshögskolan i Stockholm, (SWE).
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Akademin för Hälsa och arbetsliv, Högskolan i Gävle samt Institutet för miljömedicin, Karolinska Institutet, (SWE).
    Lundmark, Robert
    Institutionen för psykologi, Umeå universitet, (SWE).
    Irehill, Hanna
    Institutionen för psykologi, Umeå universitet, (SWE).
    Ung och chef: En guide till organisationer som vill tillvarata unga chefers potential2023Report (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Bäckström, Denise
    et al.
    Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden, (SWE).
    Alvinius, Aida
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Physicians’ challenges when working in the prehospital environment: a qualitative study using grounded theory2024In: International Journal of Emergency Medicine, ISSN 1865-1372, E-ISSN 1865-1380, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    In the rapid development in prehospital medicine the awareness of the many challenges in prehospital care is important as it highlights which areas need improvement and where special attention during education and training should be focused. The purpose of this study is to identify challenges that physicians face when working in the prehospital environment. The research question is thus; what challenges do physicians face when working in prehospital care?

    Method

    This is a qualitative study with an inductive approach and is based on individual interviews. The interviews were analyzed using the Classic Grounded Theory (GT) method as an approach. The interviews were conducted as semi-structured interviews via the digital platform Zoom during winter / early spring 2022.

    Results

    Challenges for prehospital physicians can be understood as a process that involves a balancing act between different factors linked to the extreme environment in which they operate. This environment creates unique challenges not usually encountered in routine hospital practice, which results in trade-offs that they would not otherwise be faced with. Their individual situation needs to be balanced against organizational conditions, which means, among other things, that their medical decisions must be made based on limited information as a result of the constraints that exist in the prehospital environment. They must, both as individuals and as part of a team, maneuver in time and space for decision-making and practical tasks. This theory of balancing different entities is based on four themes; thus the theory is the relation between the four themes: leadership, environment, emotion management and organization.

    Conclusions

    With the help of previous studies and what we have found, it is reasonable to review what training is needed before starting to work prehospital as a physician. This should include components of the themes we have described: organization, environment, leadership and emotional management.

  • 15.
    Börjesson, Marcus
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Espevik, Roar
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm.
    Bergman, David
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm.
    Stress i teori och praktik2022Report (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Darr, Wendy
    et al.
    Director General Military Personnel Research & Analysis, Department of National Defence, Ottawa, (CAN).
    Fors Brandebo, Maria
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Zajicova, Marketa
    Military University Hospital, Czech Armed Forces, Prague, (CZE).
    Verboom, Marjolein
    Department for Recruitment & Selection, Netherlands Armed Forces, Amsterdam, (NLD).
    Kai, Nyman
    Human Performance Division, Finnish Defence Research Agency, Tuusula, (FIN).
    Wolgers, Gerhard
    Swedish Armed Forces, Human Resources Centre, Swedish Armed Forces, Stockholm, (SWE).
    Defining integrity: An approach and military application2022In: Military Psychology, ISSN 0899-5605, E-ISSN 1532-7876, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 591-603Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Personnel selection research has seen an increasing interest in integrity tests. Although these tests have been found to predict a variety of workplace criteria, a long-standing criticism of integrity tests is their criterion-focussed nature. A construct-oriented approach to integrity test development involves identifying important elements of integrity and developing content to reflect those elements. Drawing upon earlier attempts to define integrity, this paper conceptualizes integrity as a behavior, and elaborates on two definitional elements, nature of standards and their referent. Undertaking a content analysis of the high-level codes of conduct of 13 military nations, this paper illustrates the application of an approach to defining integrity for use in the military context. It includes a discussion on the operationalization of integrity for assessment purposes, highlighting considerations that must be given to all aspects of the assessment development process.

  • 17.
    Enander, Ann
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Psychology of crisis and trauma2022In: Oxford Encyclopedia of Crisis Analysis / [ed] Erik Stern, Denis Fischbacher-Smith, Sanneke Kuipers, Allan McConnell, Daniel Nohrstedt, Thomas Preston, Oxford University Press, 2022Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Engelkes, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm.
    Hedlund, Erik
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Loyal to the end: Examining the meaning of loyalty among high-ranking military officers2023In: Res Militaris, E-ISSN 2265-6294, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 936-953Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizations need co-workers who are committed to common goals and that are loyal to the core values of the organization.[1] The conscious fostering of organizational core values is seen as an important tool in creating loyal co-workers and hence an effective organization.[2] Professions with a strong vocational calling such as medicine (Kallin, 2010), the police (Ewin, 1990 ; Foust, 2018) or the military[3] have particular demands on loyalty to certain core values, and individuals are expected to adopt these as their own. However, organizational core values can be contradictive (Billig, 1988) and sometimes in conflict with the individual´s own core values which – when incompatible – can in turn cause severe moral stress and mental illness.[4] This implies a need for clarification about what is expected from members of an organization concerning the objectives and manifestations of core values. In terms of loyalty, the military profession is possibly one of the most demanding, expecting individuals to risk their own lives and to kill other human beings for the benefit of the organizational goals. However, since misplaced loyalty can cause destructive,[5] and unethical behaviour[6] with enormous consequences – especially in the military (Winslow, 1998) – there is a need to be clear about what kind of loyalty behaviour is constructive and vice versa. Although loyalty is a concept that seems to be defined in many different ways, the number of studies of loyalty and its meaning are quite limited - especially in military research.[7] The overall purpose of this study is to broaden understanding of the meaning of loyalty within the military. Because important core values of an organization are set – or strongly influenced[8] – by its leaders,[9] the aim of this study was to explore how high-ranking officers in the Swedish Armed Forces (SAF) give meaning to their own personal experiences of loyalty and to describe possible common patterns within the participant group.

     [1] Wieseke, Alavi & Habel, 2014.[2] Berghaus & Cartagena, 2013.[3] Huntington, 1985 ; Moskos & Wood, 1988 ; Kirkhaug, 2009 ; Olsthoorn, 2011 ; Beard, 2014.[4] Molendijk, Kramer & Verweij, 2018.[5] Gabriel, 1982 ; Connor, 2010.)[6] Umphress & Bingham, 2011.[7] Olsthoorn, 2011 ; Connor, Andrews, Noack-Lundberg & Wadham, 2019.[8] Larsson, Haerem, Sjöberg, Alvinius & Bakken, 2007.[9] Fergusson & Milliman, 2008 ; Oh, Cho & Lim, 2018.

  • 19. Espluga, Josep
    et al.
    Konrad, Wilfried
    Enander, Ann
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Medina, Beatriz
    Prades, Ana
    Cools, Pieter
    Risky or beneficial? Exploring perceptions of nuclear energy over time in a cross-country perspective2021In: Engaging the atom: The History of Nuclear Energy and Society in Europe from the 1950s to the Present / [ed] Arne Kaijser, Markku Lehtonen, Jan-Henrik Meyer, Mar Rubio-Varas, West Virginia University Press, 2021, p. 147-169Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Fors Brandebo, Maria
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Van Baalen, Miriam
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Hantering av destruktivt ledarskap ur ett ledar- och medarbetarperpektiv2022Report (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Grimmer, Bettina
    et al.
    Pädagogische Hochschule Zürich.
    Hobbins, Jennifer
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Neue Subjektpositionen – alte Klassismen? Übergangsregime und aktivierende Arbeitsmarktpolitik in Deutschland und Schweden2023In: Übergänge mit Klasse / [ed] Handelmann, Antje & Siegert, Karolina, Verlag Julius Klinkhardt, 2023Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Hobbins, Jennifer
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Kristiansen, Elsa
    School of Business, University of South-Eastern Norway, Drammen, (NOR).
    Carlström, Eric
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Goteborg, (SWE).
    Women, Leadership, and Change: Navigating between Contradictory Cultures2023In: NORA: Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, ISSN 0803-8740, E-ISSN 1502-394X, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 209-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores how women in top leader positions navigate between the two contradictory cultures of masculinity and femininity and, in particular, if and how these positionings and negotiations develop over time. Drawing on working-life biographical interviews with women on the top of organizational hierarchies within the crisis management systems in the Nordic countries, the article illustrates women top leaders relating to norms of masculinity and femininity, demonstrating how these have shaped their roles as top leaders, and how these have shifted along their careers. It shows how, in the beginning of their careers, women in organizations marked by cultures of masculinity conform to these gendered norms, while in their roles as top leaders, they do gender differently and assume roles as change agents. The findings suggest that processes of navigation between organizational cultures of masculinity and societal cultures of femininity can be better understood when individual experiences are situated within their gendered social and cultural expectations.

  • 23.
    Holmberg, Arita
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Political Science and Law, Political Science Division.
    External, non-governmental resistance in relation to interstate war: an analytical frameworkIn: European Security, ISSN 0966-2839, E-ISSN 1746-1545Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

  • 24.
    Holmberg, Arita
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Political Science and Law, Political Science Division.
    Alvinius, Aida
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Organizational resistance through organizing principles: the case of gender equality in the military2024In: Gender in Management, ISSN 1754-2413, E-ISSN 1754-2421, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 313-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Previous studies show that the implementation of gender equality encounters resistance in military organizations, but it is often invisible or seen as confined to anonymous structures or troubled individuals. This paper aims to show how the Swedish Armed Forces (SAF) use organizational principles to resist implementing gender equality measures.

    Design/methodology/approach – The study is a qualitative analysis of discursive strategies in the SAF’s 2013–2018 annual reports to government.

    Findings – The organizing principles of instrumentality and distance, while existing in parallel with gender equality efforts, actually pursue logics that prevents the SAF from implementing gender equality. The principle of instrumentality in this context means that gender equality in the SAF is of secondary interest to organizational members. The principle of distancing from the problem includes strategies that alienate female from male officers.

    Originality/value – The contribution of this paper is the finding that the use of organizing principles represents conscious organizational resistance to go gender equality efforts. This kind of use needs to be revealed and criticized to change military organizations.

  • 25.
    Holmberg, Arita
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Political Science and Law, Political Science Division.
    Holmberg, Miranda
    (SWE).
    Alvinius, Aida
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Människans sociala relationer med djur: En utmaning för totalförsvaret?2023In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, E-ISSN 2002-066X, Vol. 59, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kriget i Ukraina har redan fått många återverkningar, även i samhällen som inte direkt skakas av de fruktansvärda krigshandlingarna. I traditionella och sociala medier funderar människor kring vad som skulle hända om det blev krig i Sverige och hur detta skulle påverka vår vardag och våra relationer. En ofta förbisedd fråga i detta sammanhang är relationen mellan människor och djur. I denna artikel diskuteras hur totalförsvaret som samhällsorganisation och verksamhet kan utmanas av 2020-talets normer om förhållandet mellan människor och djur och djurs status som säkerhetssubjekt. Mot bakgrund av den traditionella totalförsvarstanken presenterar vi ett antal områden där djurens relationer med människor kan tänkas väcka frågor och komma i konflikt med delar av totalförsvaret: synen på säkerhet, juridiken i kris och krig samt utvecklingen av den sociala relationen mellan människor och djur. Artikeln avslutas med tankar kring hur ett totalförsvar som inkluderar djur skulle kunna se ut samt kring hur dagens totalförsvar i så fall skulle behöva förändras.

  • 26.
    Jonsson, Emma
    Swedish Defence University, Centre for Societal Security, Leadership Concepts Division. Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Rekryteringsunderlaget 20222023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att beskriva och analysera utvecklingen av rekryteringsunderlaget, kvantitativt och kvalitativt. I rekryteringsunderlaget 2022 ingår pliktade och frivilligt sökande. De pliktade 2022 består av svarande på mönstringsunderlaget vilket är individer som är födda 2004. De frivilligt sökande består av individer som har besvarat prövningsunderlaget under januari – december 2022. Resultat från mönstringen har kopplats samman med respektive individ och inrymmer tidsperioden januari 2022 till april 2023.

    Rekryteringsunderlaget 2022 består av 114 577 individer, av vilka huvuddelen (89 %) är pliktade. Av de nomineringsbara är andelen pliktade också 89 procent, vilket är högre än tidigare år. Den könsneutrala plikten innebär att 46 procent av det totala underlaget består av kvinnor; 49 procent av de pliktade och 20 procent av de frivilligt sökande. Genom antagningsprocessen minskar andelen kvinnor till 20 procent av de nomineringsbara. Andelen är något högre än 2018-2019 men något lägre än 2021.

    Jämfört med pliktåren 2018-2021 är kvaliteten bland de mönstrande och nomineringsbara något lägre i de psykologiska variablerna. De mönstrades värden i pliktförmåga och befälslämplighet är de lägsta sedan värnpliktens återinförande, medan värdet i fysisk kapacitet är det högsta under dessa fem år. Ökningen i generell begåvning och minskningen i muskelkapacitet har avtagit.

    Generellt sett presterar de mönstrade och nomineringsbara individerna i rekryteringsunderlaget 2022 lägre värden på mönstringen än åren med endast frivilligt sökande, med undantag för de nomineringsbaras generella begåvning som är högre. Resultatet ses som en konsekvens av att fler kallas till mönstring, vilket bör innebära att värdena mer bör avspegla en normalpopulation.

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  • 27.
    Jonsson, Emma
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Centre for Societal Security, Leadership Concepts Division.
    Lundin, Josi
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    How leadership course trainers cope with difficult course situations2023In: Nordic Psychology, ISSN 1901-2276, E-ISSN 1904-0016Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract

    This study aimed to explore how facilitators of group dynamic and structured leadership courses cope with difficult situations during the course, and to relate their coping strategies to general individual characteristics and situation-specific appraisals. The study group consisted of facilitators of two of the most widespread leadership courses in Sweden: 110 facilitators of the course Understanding Group and Leader (UGL) and 111 facilitators of Developmental leadership (DL). A web-based questionnaire included descriptions of two difficult interpersonal course situations and questions on personality, general leadership style as well as situation-specific appraisal and coping. Three coping strategies were identified (factor analyses): Focus on course structure, Focus on psychological safety and Focus on own reflection. These factors were positively correlated. Weak associations were observed between the coping strategies and personality and general leadership style. Situation-specific appraisals covaried more strongly with the coping strategies. The findings suggest that reflection based on these coping strategies can lead to increased self-awareness and self-confidence on part of the facilitator. The findings may also help leadership course facilitators to cope more effectively, which in turn creates trust in the group that they are leading. The study contributes to the understanding of a limited research area; how leadership course facilitators cope with difficult course situations. The results provide guidance on how to cope more effectively. Practical implications include aspects to focus on in the training of leadership course facilitators.

  • 28.
    Jonsson, Emma
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Centre for Societal Security, Leadership Concepts Division.
    Salo, Mikael
    Finnish Defence Forces and Military Sociological Society of Finland, Finland, (FIN).
    Lillemäe, Eleri
    Estonian Military Academy and University of Tartu, Estonia, (EST).
    Bruntland Steder, Frank
    Norwegian Defence Research Establishment, FFI, Norway, (NOR).
    Ferst, Thomas
    Military Academy at the ETH Zurich, Switzerland, (CHE).
    Kasearu, Kairi
    University of Tartu, Estonia, (EST).
    Novagrockiene, Jurate
    Military Academy of Lithuania, Lithuania, (LTU).
    Österberg, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Sederholm, Teija
    Finnish National Defence University, Finland, (FIN).
    Svensén, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Szvircsev Tresch, Tibor
    Military Academy at the ETH, Zurich, Switzerland, (CHE).
    Truusa, Tiia-Triin
    Baltic Defence College, Estonia, and University of Tartu, Estonia, (EST).
    Multifaceted Conscription: A Comparative Study of Six European Countries2024In: Scandinavian Journal of Military Studies, E-ISSN 2596-3856, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 19-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the last few decades have witnessed a shift from conscription to all-volunteer forces in many European countries, recent changes in the European security environment have raised new concerns and prompted several countries to reconsider conscription. However, modern conscription systems have also had to adapt to changing societies and an increasing emphasis on individualistic and neoliberal values. This study aims to examine the various forms of military conscription and illuminate the continuing viability of the conscription model in six European countries: Estonia, Finland, Lithuania, Norway, Sweden, and Switzerland. Four of these countries have consistently maintained conscription (Estonia, Finland, Norway, and Switzerland), while Lithuania and Sweden have recently reinstated conscription. Although conscription systems differ among these countries, there is overall an increasing emphasis on conscript motivation and female participation. Three key aspects are identified to describe different conscription systems: the proportion of conscripted individuals in the birth cohort, motivation to serve, and the approach to female conscripts. Combining these aspects, the study identifies three types of conscription system in these six countries. This article demonstrates that conscription has evolved and adapted to changing societies and security situations instead of merely retaining its traditional form.

  • 29.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad. Inland University College of Applied Sciences, Elverum, Norway, (NOR).
    Leadership under stress2023Book (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Ledarskapsövningen ”Ledarskap och självkännedom” (LoS): Litteraturgenomgång och förslag på utveckling av övningen2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna rapport är att redovisa en litteraturgenomgång gjord i juli 2023 i databaserna PsycInfo och ERIC kring begreppen självkännedom och självledarskap i första hand, och begreppen empati och kommunikationsförmåga i andra hand, samt att relatera analysens resultat till hur ledarskapsövningen ”Ledarskap och Självkännedom” (LoS) kan vidareutvecklas. Litteraturgenomgången kring självkännedom och självledarskap kom i stor utsträckning att baseras på tre aktuella meta-analyser. Inom såväl självkännedom som självledarskap framkom ett antal teoretiska aspekter som kan berika LoS i sin nuvarande form. Vidare framkom att begreppet självledarskap är teoretiskt tveksamt ur ett LoS-perspektiv. Däremot kan interventioner som lyfts fram inom litteratur om självledarskap vara värdefulla för LoS men då relaterade till deras ursprungliga källor. Risker med överdriven introspektiv reflektion, mindfulness med mera behöver beaktas vid urval av övningar i en reviderad LoS. Litteratursökningen relaterad till empati och kommunikationsförmåga gav ingen grund för revision av LoS i dessa avseenden. Slutligen påtalas behov av att revidera befintlig handledarmanual för LoS med denna rapport som grund, liksom behov av handledarutbildning och utvärdering av utfall av en reviderad LoS.

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  • 31.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Svar på UL handledarfrågor: Nr 1 20232023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    FHS möts regelbundet av frågor från UL handledare. Syftet med denna PM är att ge svar och kommentarer till dessa frågor. Det handlar främst om frågor som inte direkt går att besvara med hjälp av den befintliga handledarpärmen. Det övergripande syftet är att stärka handledarna i samband med deras utbildningar. Ambitionen är att uppdatera denna PM när ett antal nya frågor dykt upp. Texten förutsätter god förtrogenhet med den teoretiska Ledarskapsmodellen och med gällande handledarpärm. Ordningsföljden mellan frågorna följer ingen systematik. De kommer i den följd jag fick ta del av dem.

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  • 32.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Leadership Division, Karlstad. Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Alvinius, Aida
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Leadership Division, Karlstad. Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Bakken, Bjorn
    Inland School of Business and Social Sciences, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Elverum, (NOR).
    Hoerem, Thorvald
    Inland School of Business and Social Sciences, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Elverum, (NOR).
    Social psychological aspects of inter-organizational collaboration in a total defense context: a literature review2023In: International Journal of Organizational Analysis, ISSN 1934-8835, E-ISSN 1758-8561, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 693-709Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    This paper aims to systematically review the extant research on social psychological aspects of civil-military inter-organizational collaboration, particularly in a total defense context.

    Design/methodology/approach

    A systematic scoping studies review was performed. Peer-reviewed articles were searched in PsycInfo and Sociological Abstracts. Inclusion criteria were met by 25 articles.

    Findings

    Four higher-order categories with underpinning categories were derived in the analysis. They were modeled as follows: antecedent conditions affect, informal processes and practical efforts, which, in turn, affect inter-organizational trust and collaboration. These higher-order categories are all influenced by formal organizational aspects and the society in which they are found.

    Research limitations/implications

    The existing literature covering the chosen study focus is limited. Further studies are needed and the presented model can serve as a road map. Practical implications A series of questions derived from the categories of the model is presented. The questions are included as a tool for practical reflection for collaborating actors in common education, training or exercise settings or in after-action reviews.

    Originality/value

    The focus on social psychological aspects of civil-military inter-organizational collaboration, particularly in a total defense context, is new. The suggested relationship between superior themes adds knowledge to a research field dominated by sociological and political science approaches.

  • 33.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad. Department of Health and Welfare, Inland University College of Applied Science, Elverum, Norway, (NOR).
    Höglund, Madelene
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Henrysson, Jonas
    Swedish Defence University, Centre for Societal Security, Leadership Concepts Division.
    Test of brief scale designed to measure high-level managers' indirect leadership2024In: Management Research Review, ISSN 2040-8269, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 86-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The Indirect Leadership Questionnaire (ILQ) is constructed to measure important parts of a theoretical model of indirect leadership to be used in leadership courses for high-level managers. The ILQ consists of 15 model-derived items plus extra space that provides for free-text comments. This study aims to evaluate the psychometric properties of the ILQ, its predictive power and practical usefulness in indirect leadership courses and to evaluate the indirect leadership model in the light of new data.

    Design/methodology/approach – The study sample consisted of 225 higher managers and 6–10 of their subordinates (total: 1,703). The latter were working at least two hierarchical levels below their higher manager. The managers made self-ratings, and the subordinates rated their respective higher manager using the ILQ.

    Findings – Results showed that the ILQ has acceptable psychometric properties in terms of dimensionality(two model-compatible factors were obtained), reliability, discriminability and predictive power. Previousproblems with many “Don’t know” responses from subordinates working two or more hierarchical levels below their higher manager were considerably reduced. A qualitative analysis of the free-text responsess howed that indirect leadership behaviors that can be seen as inspirational influence and communication skills should be more emphasized in future indirect leadership courses. The leaders’ personality, task-related competence and performance-orientation were also highlighted more than in the indirect leadership model.

    Research limitations/implications – It was concluded that the ILQ is a useful tool in indirect leadership courses but that it is too limited to be used as a basis for theory development of indirect leadership.

    Originality/value – The ILQ has acceptable psychometric properties and provides an easy-to-use tool togain practical, usable knowledge of the “how’s” of indirect leadership

  • 34.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Mazeikiene, Asta
    Department of Physiology, Biochemistry, Microbiology and Laboratory Medicine, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Vilnius University, Vilnius, (LTU).
    Smaliukiene, Rasa
    The General Jonas Zemaitis Military Academy of Lithuania, Vilnius, Lithuania;5 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Vilnius, Lithuania, (LTU).
    Psychological prediction of stress-related hair stereoid hormone levels in young men: A person-centered approache2023In: Nordic Psychology, ISSN 1901-2276, E-ISSN 1904-0016Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to: (1) identify individual profiles in young men regarding personality and cognitive appraisal style employing easy-to-use instruments, and (2) to explore how such profiles relate to biological stress indicators. The sample consisted of 173 male Lithuanian conscripts. An assessment was made after one month into their basic military training. Levels of cortisol, cortisone and testosterone were established through analysis of hair samples. Psychological assessments included the Big Five model of personality as well as cognitive appraisal style and perceived stress during the previous month of service. Four unique personality profiles were identified in a cluster analysis that differed significantly as theoretically expected on the Perceived Stress Scale. Statistically significant between-profile differences were found on cortisol and cortisone but not on testosterone. The personality profile with the highest scores on all three biological markers was characterized by high scores on Extraversion and Openness and low scores on Agreeableness. Second, three distinct cognitive appraisal style profiles emerged. They were related as theoretically expected to perceived stress, but they were unrelated to the hair steroid hormone concentration levels. Third, the combination of the most psychologically vulnerable personality profile, which included low scores on Emotional stability, and the most stressed cognitive appraisal style profile, yielded the clearest result and showed that it was possible to detect individuals with significantly higher stress-related hair steroid hormone levels using psychological instruments. Practical potential implications include identification of individuals who are most psychologically vulnerable and in need of close monitoring.

  • 35.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad. Department of Health and Social Science, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Elverum, Norway, (NOR).
    Molnar, Malin
    Unit of Intervention and Implementation Research for Worker Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden, (SWE).
    Tinnerholm Ljungberg, Helena
    Unit of Intervention and Implementation Research for Worker Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden, (SWE).
    Björklund, Christina
    Unit of Intervention and Implementation Research for Worker Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden, (SWE).
    Leadership through the subordinates' eye: perceptions of leader behaviors in relation to age and gender2023In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 44, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The study represents a theory-based leadership approach in exploring the subordinate's perceptions of leadership behaviors in relation to age, gender and type of work environment. The aim was (1) to compare subordinates' ratings of their respective leaders' leadership behaviors based on of the leaders' age and gender, controlling for type of work environment and (2) to analyze the relationship between the subordinates' ratings of their leaders' leadership behaviors and their ratings of the outcome of these leadership behaviors.

    Design/methodology/approach

    Data were collected using the Developmental Leadership Questionnaire (DLQ) from a sample of Swedish leadership course participants (n = 10,869) and their respective subordinates (n = 97,943). The DLQ measures leadership behaviors designed to reflect the following leadership styles: developmental leadership, conventional-positive leadership, conventional-negative leadership and destructive leadership.

    Findings

    Results showed that older leaders (51 years or older) were rated less favorably than younger (29 years or younger) and mid-aged leaders. Female leaders received more positive ratings than male leaders. A 3-way analysis-of-variance showed strong main effects for age, gender, and type of work environment and no significant interaction effects. A significant model with high equivalents of R2 coefficients (Cox and Snell, 1989; Nagelkerke, 1991) was obtained in a logistic regression analysis. Developmental leadership and conventional-positive leadership made significant positive contributions to the subordinates' ratings of the outcome of their leaders' leadership behaviors. Destructive leadership behaviors contributed negatively to the outcome ratings.

    Research limitations/implications

    Weaknesses include the cross-sectional study design. The large sample size is a strength, and the results have novel implications for leadership theory related to subordinates' view on leadership.

    Practical implications

    Counter-stereotype age and gender findings may have implications for organizational decisions and processes regarding selection of managers. Development programs are suggested for all categories but for older, male leaders with a focus on reducing their use of leadership behaviors perceived negatively by their subordinates, whereas younger female leaders should be encouraged to continue to develop their positive leadership behaviors.Originality/valueThe theory-based approach on subordinates' perceptions of leadership behaviors with a simultaneous focus on age, gender and type of work environment, based on a large-scale data set, is new.

  • 36.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad. Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, (NOR).
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Bandlitz-Johansen, Rino
    Norweigan Defence University College, (NOR).
    Waller, Gudmund
    Norwegian Royal Naval Academy, (NOR).
    Hyllengren, Peder
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Moral stress and coping: Relationship with long-term postitive reactions and PTSD indication in military personnel2022In: Ethics & behavior, ISSN 1050-8422, E-ISSN 1532-7019, Vol. 33, no 8, p. 672-683Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the relationship between moral stress reactions and resulting coping efforts in severely morally challenging situations. Long-term positive reactions and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) indicators following morally challenging situations are also studied. The sample consisted of cadets and officers (n = 332) from Norway and Sweden. Long-term positive reactions were found to be associated with limited moral stress reactions during the challenging episode and frequent use of acceptance and positive reappraisal coping strategies. Long-term high scores on a PTSD indicator scale covaried with high scores on Openness, a strong moral stress reaction, and frequent use of instrumental coping strategies. The main conclusion is that the immediate moral stress reaction and coping strategies following morally challenging situations appear to be related to both positive long-term reactions and to indicators of PTSD.

  • 37.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad. Inland University College of Applied Sciences, Elverum, Norway.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Daily uplifts, daily hassles, and coping in military veterans: post-deployment reintegration2024In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 65, no 1, p. 16-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our first aim was to explore the relationship between daily uplifts, daily hassles, and coping styles the first year after returning from international military missions and post-deployment work, family, and private reintegration in military veterans. Our second aim was to identify individual patterns regarding daily uplifts, daily hassles, and coping styles and to explore how they relate to the above-mentioned aspects of post-deployment reintegration. Questionnaire responses were received from 446 Swedish military veterans. Regression analyses showed that daily hassles and an escape-avoidance coping style made significant contributions in the predicted, negative direction to the amount of explained variance on reintegration indicator scales. A high level of perceived threat during the last mission also contributed to more negative integration. Using a person-centered approach, three unique profiles of response patterns were identified using a cluster analysis based on the uplift, hassles, and coping style scores. One profile was labeled “resilient and well-functioning”; its members showed favorable reintegration scores. A second profile was called “ambitious and struggling.” These individuals scored medium-high on the reintegration scales. The third profile consistently indicated the least favorable reintegration scores and was labeled “worried and avoidant.” The results confirm and deepen our existing knowledge.

  • 38.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad. Inland University College of Applied Sciences, Elverum, Norway.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Svensén, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad. Inland University College of Applied Sciences, Elverum, Norway.
    Military veterans' perception of quality of care following international operations2024In: Cogent Psychology, E-ISSN 2331-1908, Vol. 11, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A high number of military veterans seek professional help at primary healthcare centers for mental health problems. The main aim of this study was to map veterans’ perception of the quality of the care they received when seeking such help after their last tour of duty. A secondary aim was to explore personality and mission-related characteristics of veterans who seek professional help for mental health problems after missions. Questionnaire responses were obtained from 2512 Swedish veterans (43.4% response rate). Among the responders, 210 individuals had sought help for mental health problems at primary healthcare centers. Their perception of the quality of the healthcare was measured using the Quality from the Patient’s Perspective (QPP) questionnaire, which is derived from a theoretical model. Comparisons between the military help seekers and an age and gender matched group of civilian outpatients showed that the military group perceived the information they had received, and the commitment, empathy and respect shown by the physicians, considerably more negatively than the civilian patients. Comparisons between the help-seeking veterans and those who had not sought help, showed that the help seekers were younger and scored significantly lower on emotional stability and higher on conscientiousness. In addition, they perceived the leadership of their immediate commander during the last tour of duty more negatively and they reported fewer daily uplifts and more daily hassles during the tour. It was concluded that a more extensive collaboration between the armed forces and the healthcare system is strongly recommended and that it is necessary to provide education to healthcare providers.

  • 39.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Svensén, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Uplifts and functional coping versus hassles and dysfunctional coping: A balance model test of health outcomes2023In: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, ISSN 1061-5806, E-ISSN 1477-2205Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad. The Inland University College of Applied Sciences, (NOR).
    Zander, Ann
    Lönngren, Marianne
    Lidingo Town, (SWE).
    Co-workership: development of an assessment tool2022In: International Journal of Organizational Analysis, ISSN 1934-8835, E-ISSN 1758-8561, Vol. 30, no 7, p. 184-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this study was to develop an easy-to-use, theoretically well-founded and psychometrically sound assessment tool of the concept co-workership.

    Design/methodology/approach

    Firstly, inductively generated examples of favourable and unfavourable co-worker behaviours were collected, clustered and then expressed as frequency-based Likert-type scale items. Data were obtained from 825 Swedish white collar workers and military personnel. A factor analysis (principal axis factoring with oblique rotation) resulted in a seven-factor solution built up by 30 items and forming the instrument Co-Worker Questionnaire (Co-Worker Q).

    Findings

    The factors have a strong resemblance to the content of dominating models of leadership, followership, organizational citizenship behaviour and leader–member exchange. The factor scales had relatively high reliability (high Cronbach’s alpha coefficients and low standard errors of measurement). Regarding discriminability, women scored more favourably on five of the factors, men on one factor and age differences were noted on two factors.

    Research limitations/implications

    Shortcomings include the lack of data on possibly related aspects including person factors, such as personality and socio-economic status, and contextual factors such as more detailed data on the type of work environment and organizational culture.

    Practical implications

    The instrument has an easy-to-use format and can be used in organization development interventions with a co-workership focus and in individualized coaching or mentoring programmes.

    Originality/value

    The co-workership concept has so far mainly been used in the Nordic countries. The development of the Co-Worker Q opens up for broader applications.

  • 41.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Leadership Division, Karlstad. Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Zander, Ann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Leadership Division, Karlstad.
    Lönngren, Marianne
    Lidingö stad (SWE).
    Co-Workership: Preliminary Development of an Assessment Tool2021Report (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Zander, Ann
    (SWE).
    Lönngren, Marianne
    (SWE).
    Malmquist Johansson, Madelene
    (SWE).
    Utvecklande medarbetarskap: När medarbetarskap och ledarskap samspelar2022Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Förr talade man om chefer och underlydande. Cheferna bestämde och de underlydande lydde. I dagens globaliserade samhälle, med avancerad teknologi och högutbildade kompetenta medarbetare, ser det annorlunda ut. Enskilda medarbetare och grupper av medarbetare förväntas aktivt ansvara för att tänka ut och planera vad som ska göras, sedan göra detta självständigt och därefter värdera resultatet i en lärande spiral. Ett utvecklande medarbetarskap med stor självständighet och stort ansvarstagande är därmed en viktig faktor för organisatorisk framgång.

    I denna bok summeras teori om medarbetarskap och därefter presenteras detaljerade förslag på hur man kan arbeta praktiskt i en organisation med att utveckla medarbetarskapet så att det samspelar med ett modernt, utvecklande ledarskap.

  • 43. Lindqvist, Anne
    et al.
    Jonsson, Emma
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad. Swedish Defence University, Centre for Societal Security, Leadership Concepts Division.
    Lantz, J
    Lindgren, R-M
    Systematic follow-up of the psychological selection to the Swedish Armed Forces2022Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Lundell, Emil
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Analys av PsychoSomatic Problem (PSP)-scales konstuktvaliditet och reliabilitet2022Report (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Lundell, Emil
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Att utforma samhällsvetenskapliga metodkurser: Pedagogisk utveckling av undervisning inom kvantitativ analys 2017-20192022Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This report was a presentation of the pedagogical development conducted within method courses in the subject Leadership under demanding conditions, and analyses of examinations validity and reliability. Analysis of course evaluations for previous method teaching, syllabuses and literature consisted the basis for the planning of the courses Behavioral Science Methods I and II. A pedagogical model for methods teaching was developed based on the students’ prior knowledge, needs and attitudes; in the planning, some critical aspects of the subject content were also didactically analyzed. The new method courses were evaluated through a new course evaluation, Rasch analysis and statistical analysis of data from the examinations. The whole report is structured based on a process model developed for this purpose and which describes the steps in the work process.

    Results indicates that the pedagogical development contributed to students passing the examinations and being satisfied with the learning activities. However, the problem of retaining and consolidating methodological knowledge over time, and a possible risk for surface learning, remains. The Rasch analysis revealed that the assessment criteria for academic writing could distinguish between the grades Passed and Passed with distinction, although the reliability otherwise was non-existent, and that organizing the text was the single most important assessment criterion. None of the assessment criteria showed Differential Item Functioning (DIF) depending on gender, which means that the assessment of academic writing does not disadvantage female or male students. The statistical analysis revealed that methodological knowledge had an impact on the assessment and determined the grade on the exams. The statistical power was consistently very low due to a small student base.

    Continued development areas are definition of technical concepts, elaboration of illustrative examples and modernization of teaching and implementing flipped classroom. Statistical thinking is emphasized rather than students being exercised in mechanically applying a specific set of statistical models. An educational progression based on embedding could be developed to improve the framework factors. It is also important to not emphasize quality assurance and control before pedagogical development in the design of course evaluations.

    Continued data collection and psychometric analysis of examinations can contribute information useful for developing assessment practices, selection and admission processes as well as teaching and examination.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 46.
    Lundell, Emil
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Österberg, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Sammanställning av svar för utryckningsenkät SOU2022Report (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Lundell, Emil
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Österberg, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Statistik uppföljning av professionsintervjuer: Resultat för testningsperioderna 2020 och 20212022Report (Other academic)
  • 48. Löfgren Rollof, Maria
    et al.
    Österberg, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Nilsson, Joel
    Oskarsson, Emma
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Reservofficerares upplevelser av sin utbildning och deras vidare engagemang i Försvarsmakten: En kvalitativ intervjustudie hösten 20212022Report (Other academic)
  • 49.
    MacKenzie, Robert
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden, (SWE).
    McLachlan, Christopher J
    Queen Mary University of London, London, UK, (GBR).
    Ahlstrand, Roland
    Dalarna University, Sweden, (SWE).
    Rydell, Alexis
    Dalarna University, Sweden, (SWE).
    Hobbins, Jennifer
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Strategic, episodic and truncated orientations to planning in post-redundancy career transitions2024In: Human Relations, ISSN 0018-7267, E-ISSN 1741-282XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines different orientations to planning in the context of the post-redundancy transition of workers in the Swedish steel industry. The aim of the article is to extend our understanding of the role of planning in careers transitions. Drawing on careers transitions theories, the article explores the qualitative experience of the journey between a redundancy event and the employment situation several years later. Within the careers literature planning is regarded as important to transitions, yet there is a tendency to present planning as an ongoing and lifelong process. By going beyond the prevalent focus within the career literature on managerial, professional or creative industries workers, the article raises the question of whether highly agential, ongoing, lifelong approaches to planning apply to everyone. Data are based on working-life biographical interviews conducted several years after redundancy. The findings show that although some participants resembled assumptions within the careers literature, there are key variations relating to ongoing planning, reflecting differences in the expectations of agency and perceptions of structural constraint. The analysis identifies three orientations to planning – strategic, episodic and truncated – and explores these in relation to both post-redundancy transition outcomes and, crucially, the experience of the transition journey.

  • 50.
    McLachlan, Christopher J.
    et al.
    Queen Mary University of London, (GBR).
    MacKenzie, Robert
    Karlstad University, (SWE).
    Rydell, Alexis
    Dalarna University, (SWE).
    Ahlstrand, Roland
    Dalarna University, (SWE).
    Hobbins, Jennifer
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    O'Brien, Martin
    University of Wollongong, (AUS).
    Frino, Betty
    University of Wollongong, (AUS).
    Restructuring, policy and practice: an international comparison of approaches2022In: International Human Resource Management: The Transformation of Work in a Global Context / [ed] Miguel Martínez Lucio; Robert MacKenzie, Los Angeles: Sage Publications, 2022, 2, p. 254-274-Chapter in book (Refereed)
12 1 - 50 of 72
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