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  • 1.
    Andersson, Ellen
    Swedish Defence University.
    The immoral legality of targeting child soldiers: A humanitarian dilemma2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis functions as an overview of the protection of children used in hostilities and their targetability under international law, primarly in international humanitarian law. The author questions the established presumption, that children directly participating in hostilities, shall be equally targetable as their adult colleges and counter parts. In times of conflicts, international humanitarian law offers children a special protection status. The prohibition against recruitment and use of children under the age of 15 illustrates two of the most relevant protective regimes. Despite these protective rules, children directly participating in hostilities remain lawful targets and their special protection status becomes severely less useful. For these reasons, the author argues, that the presumption of equal target ability hinders the Special protection of children to have the practical impact for children used on the battlefield it intened to.The tremendous amounts of child soldiers recruited by non-state armed groups shows that the prohibition against recruitment and use aren't respected. However, the author argues that the ICC juris prudence and national initiatives illustrate that the presumption of equal targetability can be challenged under international law. And, that the special protection for children in times of conflict, and international law as a whole does motivate differanting rules for targeting children versus adults participating in hostilities. For arguments presumably made on moral grounds, military personnel are willing to put themselves at greater risk to spare the life of a child soldiers forced to take part in a conflict, he or she definitely did not start. The Vancuver principles and the The Canadian Armed Forces Joint Doctrine Note shows that states are willing to follow in these footsteps by adding extra precautionary measures in the planning state of a military operation and to completely differentiate the rules for targeting children and adults. Lastly, the author argues that the rules for targeting cultural property ( set out in the 1954 Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property), could be an example on how to differentiate the rules for targeting children. In this regard the author argues that, like cultural property, children directly participating in hostilities should only be lawfully targeable, at last resort, when there is no other way to fulfill the military advantage.

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    The immoral legality of targeting child soldiers: A humanitarian dilemma
  • 2.
    Arnhjort, Daniella
    Swedish Defence University.
    Det delegerade ansvaret: en fallstudie om ansvarsutkrävande efter Transportstyrelsens IT-upphandling2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 3.
    Björelind, John
    Swedish Defence University.
    The Legality of Expanding Bullets in Non-International Armed Conflicts Under International Humanitarian Law: A Reassessment in Light of Law Enforcement Operations and Present-Day Conditions2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the performance of law enforcement tasks, military forces frequently use expanding bullets. Such bullets are prohibited in international armed conflicts (IAC:s) by treaty, but in non-international armed conflicts (NIAC:s), the matter is regulated by the principle prohibiting means and methods of a nature to cause superfluous injury or unnecessary suffering (SIrUS), and possibly by an independent rule of customary international humanitarian law.

    This essay looks first to a proposed solution in which the law enforcement legal paradigm takes precedence, and finds such a solution incomplete and its application limited.

    It proceeds to look at the prohibition of expanding bullets in NIAC:s as an independent rule,exploring the formation of customary law, the evidence value of military manuals, expanding bullets as a war crime, and the ICTY Tadíc ruling. It finds the evidence of the existence of such a rule unconvincing.

    It then looks to principle of SIrUS and explores the best approaches for its interpretation and application. Ultimately, it argues that the military utility, in the form of stopping power and decreased risk of collateral injury, provided by expanding bullets is of such a scale and nature that the use of such bullets could reasonably be argued to pass the assessment as required by the principle. In light of this, the essay emphasises the need for treaty-based rules in order create effective weapons prohibitions, and that armed forces are still obliged to properly assess which set of rules govern the use of force.

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  • 4.
    Boudabous, Nora
    Swedish Defence University.
    Human Shields and the gendered civilian: The principle of distinction and gender biases in International Armed Conflicts2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis has investigated the status of human shields in International Humanitarian Law (IHL) conventions regulating International Armed Conflicts (IAC). It has made an introduction starting with the history of human shields. Then it has noted the contemporary view of human shields. The IHL section has concluded that forced human shields are civilians and the attacking party in situations where forced shields are present need to make proper proportionality and precautions calculations. Voluntary shields are according to the ICRC interoperative guidance not civilians Directly Participating in Hostilities (DPH). Hence voluntary shields are still civilians and still protected and should be subjected to proper proportionality and precautions calculations. Other states have disagreed with this view and noted that voluntary shields are civilians DPH and hence lose their protection during the shielding act.

    The theoretical section has noted that contemporary shield allegations is mostly involving women and children. Women are assumed be civilians in war due to gender biases connected to their sexual and reproductive rights. This makes the shield classification of women in contemporary conflicts more likely to be involuntary than voluntary.

    This essay has included a case example of the Gaza Protest 2018. The case regards Razzan Al-Najjar who was classified as an involuntary shield by the Israelian Defense Force (IDF). I have argued that based on the situation, Al-Razzan was classified as an involuntary shield and not a voluntary one based on her gender.

    The thesis is concluded with an aim and purpose section, discussing the ethics related to the question reached. 

  • 5.
    Brenner, Björn
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Arabisk sedvanerätt i Palestina2016In: Advokaten, ISSN 0281-3505, Vol. 82, no 6, p. 50-51Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Dagens palestinska rättsväsende är ett resultat av de olika rättstraditioner som under årens lopp rått på Västbanken, Gazaremsan och i östra Jerusalem. De statsmakter som under olika perioder har administrerat dessa områden – ottomanerna, britterna, jordanierna, egyptierna och israelerna – har var och en på sina sätt satt djupa avtryck i såväl det allmänna rättsmedvetandet som i nu rådande rättsregler. Störst avtryck bland alla dessa har dock en annan ännu tidigare rättstradition gjort: den arabiska sedvanerätten.

  • 6.
    Bring, Ove
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), International Law Centre.
    Humanitarian Law and Literature: from Utopia to Slaughterhouse Five2009In: Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law: Volume 10, 2007, Hague: T.M.C. Asser Press , 2009, p. 3-44Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Bring, Ove
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), International Law Centre.
    Neutralitetens uppgång och fall: eller Den gemensamma säkerhetens historia2008Book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Carlson, Alfred
    Swedish Defence University.
    Tillit från soldat till officer: En förutsättning för att lyckas i ett yrkesförsvar2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Armed Forces as an organization are undergoing an exciting phase where the conversion to a professional military, with employed soldiers, is in full swing. In a recent study the Swedish National Defence College observed a problem in the interaction between officers and soldiers in the new organization. A term that is widely used in the military profession is trust, which forms the starting point in this paper to analyze the problem from the study. The purpose of this paper is to identify whether there are preconditions for building trust from the soldier to the officer in today’s Swedish professional military.

    In the paper the aforementioned study is summarized into four situations to provide a comprehensive overview of the problem. The study is analyzed out of the factors that create trust according to the theories from the Swedish and Canadian defence colleges. The analysis is structured by the factors from Swedish theory, while the factors from Canadian theory reinforce and develop the analysis further.

    From the trust perspective used in this paper, the result shows that the creation of trust is impeded in all factors of the Swedish theory. The conditions that inhibit trust are: an imperfect view of how the officer deals with soldier’s experience, the platoon commander’s increased administrative services and personnel turnovers. One conclusion is that if these preconditions are changed, there will be better opportunities to build trust.

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  • 9.
    de Waern, Henrik
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Computer Network Attack som olovligt våld: en fråga om association, effekt, aktör och mål2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I Estland 2007 utbröt vad som kommit att kallas ”Cyberwar I”, vari ett stort antal centrala myndigheters, tillika finansiella institutioners servrar attackerades av massiva så kallade Computer Network Attacks (CNA), utfört av framförallt ryska aktörer. Estland protesterade högljutt, men frågan huruvida CNA är att beteckna som olovligt är allt annat än klar. Prövningen sker mot den folkrättsliga regimen Jus ad Bellum, och huruvida metoden uppfyller vissa centrala begrepp. Men hur skall denna regim appliceras CNA?

    De frågeställningar som avses besvaras är: hur kan CNA utgöra våld eller hot om våld i enlighet med FN-stadgans artikel 2(4) samt hur kan CNA utgöra väpnat angrepp i enlighet med FN-stadgans artikel 51? Detta avses göras genom en studie inbegripande flertalet folkrättsliga experters teorier på området CNA och våldsanvändning, samt applicering av desamma på en fallstudie av händelserna i Estland 2007.

    Sammanfattningsvis konstateras att flertalet variabler har bärighet i hur CNA kan uppfylla artiklarnas centrala begrepp, vari frågan om association, effekt, aktör och mål tydligast faller ut. I en efterföljande diskussion påvisas dock hur variablerna endast är att betrakta som indicier på hur CNA kan klassas så som olovligt, varvid endast statspraxis kan ge den slutgiltiga bedömningen.

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  • 10.
    Ericson, Marika
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Centre for International and Operational Law. Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Centre for Societal Security.
    Krisberedskaps- och totalförsvarslagstiftning: en bilaga till Förutsättningar för krisberedskap och totalförsvar i Sverige2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten ”Förutsättningar för krisberedskap och totalförsvar i Sverige” ges ut årligen av Centrum för Totalförsvar och Samhällets Säkerhet (CTSS). Sedan 2018 har rapporten även inkluderat en fördjupande bilaga om rättsliga förutsättningar. Bilagan skapas i nära samarbete mellan CTSS och Centrum för operativ juridik och folkrätt som också finns på Försvarshögskolan. Bilagan har glädjande nog blivit efterfrågad av många och därför väljer vi nu att publicera den även i en pdf-version för enklare spridning. 

    Rapporten tar upp begrepp och termer ur juridiskt perspektiv och går igenom samhällets omställning från fred till krig - den administrativa beredskapen. 

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  • 11.
    Ericson, Marika
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Political Science and Law, Centre for International and Operational Law.
    Malm, Isak
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Political Science and Law, Centre for International and Operational Law.
    International Law and Accountability in Relation to the Protracted Conflicts in Eastern Europe2022In: Security and Human Rights in Eastern Europe:: New Empirical and Conceptual Perspectives on Conflict Resolution and Accountability / [ed] Kragh, Martin, Stuttgart: Ibidem-Verlag, 2022Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    More than three decades since the fall of the Soviet Union, several conflicts over territory and political influence in Eastern Europe persist. This volume gathers new empirical and conceptual perspectives on the situation regarding security and human rights in the EU's eastern neighborhood. The first part of this volume consists of five articles, detailing the origins and recent developments in the conflict areas of Donbas (Ukraine), Transnistria (Moldova), Abkhazia and South Ossetia (Georgia), and Nagorno-Karabakh (Armenia and Azerbaijan). The second part provides a comparative perspective, focusing on the implications of protracted conflicts for European security, the OSCE, and international law. The articles analyze the regional context, explain the role of regional powers such as Russia, Turkey, and the EU, and provide clear policy recommendations regarding conflict resolution and accountability.

  • 12.
    Erlandsson, Johan
    Swedish Defence University.
    Det teoretiska skyddsrummet: En studie i civilbefolkningens folkrättsliga skydd i nya tidens konflikter2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    After the Second World War, and the creation and ratification of the traditional international law, the majority of the armed clashes has had the character of non-international conflicts with an asymmetric set of actors. Meanwhile, the most affected actor has come to be the civilian population.

    The purpose of this study is to problematize the protection of civilians in the conflicts of the new era.

    A qualitative method is used in the study in order to analyze the Security Council’s resolutions and mission specific strategies for the protection of civilians in the three UN missions UNMIS, UNAMID and MONUC. The result of the analysis is then problematized with van Creveld’s non-trinitarian theory in order to investigate what problems there are in applying the international humanitarian legal protection of civilians in the conflicts of the new era.The aggregated result of the study show that there are problems in applying the traditional international legal protection of civilians in the conflicts of the new era, and that one of the main problems is that the protection only seems to be a subject for the international community.

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  • 13.
    Fors, Fredrik
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Intelligence-led policing against organized crime – a case study2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intelligence-led policing against organized crime – a case study

    Intelligence-led policing has been criticized for being mostly improved rhetoric describing traditional reactive police work, rather than something truly new and pro-active. In this paper, an in-depth case study is used in order to determine whether or not there are examples that real change has taken place. For example: among huge amounts of information, how do the police determine what intelligence that should be taken seriously and acted upon?

    The paper will cover what resulted in the shoot-out between the Swedish National Counter-Terrorism Unit and heavily armed criminals targeting a cash depot in Umeå in May, 2009. The police operation was initiated and guided by intelligence material, and can be seen as an example of pro-active, intelligence-led police work against organized crime. Based on a rich materiel, and by applying case methodology it will be possible to gain a deeper knowledge about intelligence-led police work. By that, theories concerning how the police try to apply intelligence-based methods in order to deal with organized crime might be tested.

    The paper will thus give a description of one of the most violent fire fights in Swedish police history; interesting given the restricted use of weapons by the Swedish police and the very rare case of stand-offs between the police and criminals. Thereby, the paper will provide a contribution to criminology research by doing a case study of one example of how the Swedish police deal with organized crime; in contrast to the more common macro/statistical methods within criminology.

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  • 14.
    Fors, Fredrik
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    The police can and do learn: Tracing policy changes in the police work against organized crime2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The police can and do learn. Tracing policy changes in the police work against organized crime

    Bureaucracies in general, and the police in particular, are slow moving creatures, often unable to learn or improve their work. This is a common topic in criminological literature and other research covering the police. This paper will exemplify the opposite. By looking at a few case studies of aggravated robberies in 2005 and in 2008/2009, respectively, the paper will illustrate how the police actually learned or changed police policies. In particular, the paper will analyze change in the form of systematized intelligence analysis and the use of “target lists” of individuals participating in organized crime.

    A wide range of armed robberies against cash-in-transit vehicles were carried out in Sweden during the 1990s and the early 2000s. Two of the most spectacular ones occurred in August 2005. In one case, the robbers blocked off a highway, causing a massive traffic jam, and carried out the robbery in broad daylight. In the other, the robbers forced their way into a cash depot using a construction vehicle.

    After that, the Swedish police started to systematize the information they had about the criminals committing these robberies. The work involved the police at the national level, the regional police, security companies, and civil authorities with the aim of reducing the number of robberies by successfully coordinating information about suspects and have them convicted.

    Another example of how the Swedish police changed is the use of “target lists.” These lists consist of the names of criminals convicted and/or suspected of participating in organized crime, not least armed robberies against cash-in-transit vehicles and cash depots.

    In 2008 and 2009, other spectacular robberies occurred in Sweden. This paper argues that the way the Swedish police acted against those crimes can actually be seen as concrete examples of how the police have implemented policy changes, partially influenced by the aforementioned robberies in 2005.

     

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  • 15.
    Gardefalk, Madeleine
    Swedish Defence University.
    Combatants or fighters in a UN peacekeeping operation? A critical analysis of the legal status of UN peacekeepers belonging to MONUSCO2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 16.
    Grimberg, Julia
    et al.
    Länstyrelsen Stockholm (SWE).
    Karlsson, Peter
    Fortifikationsverket (SWE).
    Koraeus, Mats
    Swedish Defence University, Centre for Societal Security, Analysis Support Division.
    Rispling, Ann-Louise
    Halmstad kommun (SWE).
    Simonsson, Thomas
    Transportstyrelsen (SWE).
    Svensson, Mikael
    (SWE).
    Tedenlind, Fredrik
    Region Uppsala (SWE).
    Wegnelius, Cecilia
    Sjöfartsverket (SWE).
    Östlund, Andreas
    Försvarsmakten (SWE).
    Få, fler, alla måste göra mer tillsammans: En färdplan mot ett totalt försvarManuscript (preprint) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Den svenska säkerhets- och försvarspolitiken kom snabbt att förändras under 2014 efter att Ryssland först ockuperat och sedan annekterat Krimhalvön. Sveriges verklighetsbild förändrades på några få månader, från det att Sveriges statsminister på Folk och Försvarskonferensen i Sälen i januari 2014 sagt att det var svårt att kunna tänka sig att det fanns något avgörande militära hot mot något europeiskt land. För något mer än sju år sedan, den 10 december 2015, beslutade regeringen om en återupptagen totalförsvarsplanering.

    Det är inom ramen för denna planering, och den svenska förmågeökning som den syftar till, som våra tankar här riktar sig till. Vi är långt ifrån klara i Sverige. Vi har precis kommit igång. Stora tankar behöver tänkas. Effekt behöver levereras.

    Vår uppgift är att lista utmaningar och problem i Sveriges säkerhets- och försvarspolitik inom den pågående totalförsvarsreformen och identifiera utvecklingsbehov inom svensk policy och strategi. Vi ska utmana status quo, vara framåtlutade och argumentera för de reformer som vi anser behövs.Våra slutsatser återfinns inom tre kapitel

    Demokratin, rättsstaten och de grundläggande fri- och rättigheterna är Sveriges främsta skyddsvärden.Ett starkt totalförsvar utifrån helhet, enkelhet och effekt.En vassare förmåga.

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    Simonsson (red) (2023) Få, fler, alla måste göra mer tillsammans - En färdplan mot ett totalt försvar
  • 17.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Bachmann, Sascha
    University of Bournemouth.
    Terrorism and Cyber Attacks as Hybrid Threats: Defining a Comprehensive Approach for Countering 21st Century Threats to Global Risk and Security2013In: A Multidisciplinary Conference on Cyberterrorism: Final Report / [ed] Macdonald, S., Jarvis, L. & Chen, T., Birmingham: Swansea University , 2013, p. 12-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Hayashi, Nobuo
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Centre for International and Operational Law.
    General Principles of International Humanitarian Law2021In: The Handbook of International Humanitarian Law / [ed] Dieter Fleck, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2021, 4, p. 81-92Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Hedström, Jenny
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Everyday Justice in Myanmar: Informal Resolutions and State Evasion in a Time of Contested Transition. Edited by Helene Maria Kyed. Copenhagen: NIAS Press, 2020. 367 pp.2021In: Sojourn, ISSN 0217-9520, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 358-361Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Heydarian Pashakhanlou, Arash
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Air Operations Section.
    The ethics of Carr and Wendt: Fairness and peace2018In: Journal of International Political Theory, ISSN 1755-0882, E-ISSN 1755-1722, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 314-330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The classical realist writings of E.H. Carr and constructivist publications of Alexander Wendt are extraordinarily influential. While they have provoked a great number of reactions within the discipline of International Relations, the ethical dimensions of their works have rarely been studied at length. This article seeks to remedy this lack of examination by engaging in an in-depth scrutiny of the moral concerns of these two mainstream International Relations scholars. On investigation, it is revealed that Carr demonstrates a strong commitment to the ethical principle of fairness and Wendt a moral concern for the prevention of the use of organized violence. These concerns are shared by Rawlsians and cosmopolitans in International Relations, and these findings may thereby encourage closer engagement between these diverse communities that rarely speak to one another and strengthen disciplinary research on morals.

  • 21.
    Jerfström, David
    Swedish Defence University.
    Tillgång och efterfrågan på anhörigstöd vid internationell insats2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The method used in this study is a qualitative questionnaire. 53 next of kin or relatives to soldiers, who is assigned internationally, were asked to answer a questionnaire. The questions were about how these persons are experiencing the support that the Swedish Armed Forces and external support organizations is providing the relatives with. The purpose of this study was to describe the available support provided by The Armed Forces and the external support organizations and then compare that to the actual need of support. Another aim of this study is to suggest possible improvements to the support of today.By analyzing the raw data from the questionnaire we can see a significant improvement of the family support in relation to how the former support looked like a couple of years ago. Officersförbundet and Synovate made a study in 2008 and the result of that study was a major dissatisfaction in the range of family support and according to that we can see a lot of positive developments. This developments has been taken place with the help of a balanced mix between psychosocial and practical measures. The ABC-X model that deals with families in stress and Hall’s book “Counseling military families” has in many ways worked as a frame for this study and also helped to explain how the developments of the family support has increased the group of satisfied relatives.

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  • 22.
    Johansson, Dan
    Swedish Defence University.
    Intervention kontra Statssuveränitet: "Responsibility to Protect" - En studie av principens nyttjande vid interventionen i Libyen 20112012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since the end of the Second World War there has been an international debate on how to address conflictsituations, where foreign populations are victims of abuse by actions perpetrated by their own government. Thetraditional norm of non-intervention has been confronted with growing support of global perspectives of humanrights.After several pleas from the UN Secretary-General to form international consensus on interventions for humanprotection purposes, the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty was formed in 2000.The commission’s work led to a report entitled The Responsibility to Protect. The report refers to a broadspectrum of recommendations on when and how intervention for human protection purposes should beauthorized and carried out.This study aims, through a qualitative text analysis, to find the extent to which international actions towardsLibya during 2011, complies with guidelines given within The Responsibility to Protect.The result shows partial conformable actions from international actors in an initial phase, and after Libyaprotests escaladed in early 2011, the study indicates that international measures and actions seems to reflect amajor part of recommendations given within the scope of The Responsibility to Protect.

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    Dan.Johansson.SA
  • 23.
    Kleffner, Jann K.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), International Law Centre.
    Auto-referrals and the complementary nature of the ICC2009In: The Emerging Practice of the International Criminal Court / [ed] Carsten Stahn and Göran Sluiter, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2009, p. 41-53Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Kleffner, Jann K.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), International Law Centre.
    Complementarity as a Catalyst for Compliance2006In: Complementary Views on Complementarity: Proceedings of the International Roundtable on the Complementary Nature of the International Criminal Court, Amsterdam 25/26 June 2004 / [ed] Jann Kleffner and Gerben Kor, T.M.C. Asser Press, 2006, p. 79-104Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Kleffner, Jann K.
    University of Amsterdam.
    Complementarity in the Rome Statute and National Criminal Jurisdictions2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Kleffner, Jann K.
    University of Amsterdam.
    Complementarity in the Rome Statute and National Criminal Jurisdictions2008Book (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Kleffner, Jann K.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), International Law Centre.
    Droit néerlandais2002In: Juridictions nationales et crimes internationaux / [ed] Antonio Cassese/Mireille Delmas-Marty, Presses Universitaires de France , 2002, p. 217-257Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Kleffner, Jann K.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), International Law Centre.
    From ‘Belligerents’ to ‘Fighters’ and Civilians Directly Participating in Hostilities : On the Principle of Distinction in Non-International Armed Conflicts One Hundred Years after the Second Peace Conference2007In: Netherlands International Law Review, ISSN 0165-070X, E-ISSN 1741-6191, Vol. 54, p. 315-336Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29. Kleffner, Jann K.
    Improving Compliance with International Humanitarian Law Through the Establishment of an Individual Complaints Procedure2002In: Leiden Journal of International Law, ISSN 0922-1565, E-ISSN 1478-9698, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 237-250Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Kleffner, Jann K.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), International Law Centre.
    National Enforcement of International Humanitarian Law: A Case Study of War Crimes Prosecutions in Bosnian Domestic Courts2001In: Thesaurus Acroasium Vol. No 30 (XXX), Thessaloniki: Sakkoulas Publications , 2001Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Kleffner, Jann K.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), International Law Centre.
    Peace Treaties2011In: Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law / [ed] Rüdiger Wolfrum, Oxford University Press, 2011Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Kleffner, Jann K.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), International Law Centre.
    Protection of the Wounded, Sick, and Shipwrecked2008In: The Handbook of International Humanitarian Law / [ed] D. Fleck, Oxford University Press, 2008, 2, p. 325-365Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Kleffner, Jann K.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), International Law Centre.
    Section IX of the ICRC Interpretive Guidance on Direct Participation in Hostilities: The End of Ius in Bello Proportionality as We Know It?2012In: Israel Law Review, ISSN 0021-2237, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 35-52Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Kleffner, Jann K.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), International Law Centre.
    SFOR’s Half-Hearted Compliance with its International Obligations to Execute Arrest Warrants of the ICTY1999In: International Peacekeeping (Dordrecht), ISSN 1380-748X, Vol. 5, p. 80-87Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Kleffner, Jann K.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), International Law Centre.
    Some preliminary thoughts on the position of the defence at the new International Criminal Court and the role of the Netherlands as the Host State2002In: The Position of the Defence at the International Criminal Court and the Role of the Netherlands as the Host State: including the proceedings of the Conference held in The Hague, 3-4 November 2000 / [ed] Martine Hallers/Chantal Joubert/Jan Sjöcrona, Amsterdam: Rozenberg , 2002, p. 1-8Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Kleffner, Jann K
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), International Law Centre.
    The Applicability of International Humanitarian Law to Organized Armed Groups2011In: International Review of the Red Cross, ISSN 1816-3831, E-ISSN 1607-5889, Vol. 93, no 882, p. 443-461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While it is generally accepted today that international humanitarian law (IHL) is binding on organized armed groups, it is less clear why that is so and how the binding force of IHL on organized armed groups is to be construed. A number of explanations for that binding force have been offered. The present contribution critically examines five such explanations, namely that organized armed groups are bound via the state on whose territory they operate; that organized armed groups are bound because their members are bound by IHL as individuals; that norms of IHL are binding on organized armed groups by virtue of the fact that they exercise de facto governmental functions; that customary IHL is applicable to organized armed groups because of the (limited) international legal personality that they possess; and that organized armed groups are bound by IHL because they have consented thereto.

  • 37.
    Kleffner, Jann K.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), International Law Centre.
    The Compatibility of National Legal Systems with the Statute of the Permanent International Criminal Court (ICC), Part I - Substantive Law2003In: Military Law and the Law of War Review / Revue de Droit Militaire et de Droit de la Guerre, ISSN 0556-7394, no 42, p. 45-88 (French), 119-158 (English)p. 45-88 (French)-119-158 (English)Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Kleffner, Jann K.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), International Law Centre.
    The Compatibility of National Legal Systems with the Statute of the Permanent International Criminal Court (ICC), Part II - Procedural Law2003In: Military Law and the Law of War Review / Revue de Droit Militaire et de Droit de la Guerre, ISSN 0556-7394, no 42, p. 89-118 (French), 159-185 (English)p. 89-118 (French),-159-185 (English)Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Kleffner, Jann K.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), International Law Centre.
    The Impact of Complementarity on National Implementation of Substantive International Criminal Law2003In: Journal of International Criminal Justice, ISSN 1478-1387, E-ISSN 1478-1395, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 86-113Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Kleffner, Jann K.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), International Law Centre.
    The law and policy of complementarity in relation to ‘criminal proceedings’ carried out by non-state organized armed groups2011In: The International Criminal Court and Complementarity: From Theory to Practice / [ed] Carsten Stahn and Mohamed El Zeidy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011, p. 707-720Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Kleffner, Jann K.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), International Law Centre.
    The Use of Depleted Uranium Weapons and the Prohibition of Poison Weapons2008In: Depleted Uranium Weapons and International Law : A Precautionary Approach / [ed] Avril McDonald, Jann K. Kleffner and Brigit Toebes, T.M.C. Asser Press, 2008, p. 155-160Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Kleffner, Jann K.
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), International Law Centre.
    Agirre, Antonio Cassese, Rolf Einar Fife, Håkan Friman, Christopher Hall, John T. Holmes, Hector Olasolo, Norul H. Rashid, Darryl Robinson, Elizabeth Wilmshurst and Andreas Zimmermann, Xabier
    Informal expert paper for the Office of the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court: ‘The principle of complementarity in practice’2003Report (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Kleffner, Jann K.
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), International Law Centre.
    Boutruche, Théo
    The Use of Depleted Uranium and the Principles of Distinction, Proportionality and Precaution2008In: Depleted Uranium Weapons and International Law: a Precautionary Approach / [ed] Avril McDonald, Jann K. Kleffner and Brigit Toebes, The Hague: T.M.C. Asser Press, 2008, p. 125-153Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Kleffner, Jann K.
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), International Law Centre.
    J.A.C. Bevers, M. Boot, M.M. Dolman, A.M. van Gorp, P. Th. Hebly, N. Keijzer, H.A. Marquart Scholtz, C.H. van der Meij, E. van Sliedregt, G.F. Walgemoed and Zwanenburg, Marten
    Report by the Netherlands group on “The Compatibility of National Legal Systems with the Statute of the Permanent International Criminal Court (ICC)"2003Report (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Kleffner, Jann K.
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), International Law Centre.
    Kor, Gerben
    Complementary Views on Complementarity : proceedings of the International Roundtable on the Complementary Nature of the International Criminal Court, Amsterdam 25/26 June 20042006Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Kleffner, Jann K.
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), International Law Centre.
    McCormack, Tim
    Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law: Volume 92008Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Kleffner, Jann K.
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), International Law Centre.
    McDonald, AvrilToebes, Brigit
    Depleted Uranium Weapons and International Law : A Precautionary Approach2008Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Kleffner, Jann K.
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), International Law Centre.
    Nollkaemper, André
    The Relationship between Internationalized Courts and National Courts2004In: Internationalized Criminal Courts: Sierra Leone, East Timor, Kosovo, and Cambodia / [ed] Cesare Romano, André Nollkaemper and Jann K. Kleffner, Oxford University Press, 2004, p. 359-378Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 49. Kleffner, Jann K.
    et al.
    Nollkaemper, André
    Ward, Ferdinandusse
    Originele of reproductie? : Internationale strafbaarstellingen in de Nederlandse Rechtsorde2002In: [Original or reproduction? International criminalisations in the Dutch legal order], NJA , 2002, no. 8, p. 341-349Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Kleffner, Jann K.
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), International Law Centre.
    Nystedt, Maria
    Axboe Nielsen, Christian
    A Handbook on Assisting International Criminal Investigations2011Book (Other academic)
12 1 - 50 of 69
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