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  • 1.
    Alvinius, Aida
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Bridging Boundaries in the Borderland of Bureaucracies: Individual Impact on Organisational Adaption to Demanding Situations in Civil and Military Contexts2013Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to reach a deeper understanding of how boundaryspanners are bridging boundaries between uniformed bureaucraticorganisations and their environment, characterised by demanding conditions.The main part of this thesis is based upon empirical data gathered through 71interviews with Swedish civil and military informants from several uniformedorganisations. Four articles have been included in this thesis in order to addressthe overarching aim.

    The results show that boundary spanners are crucial to the adaption ofuniformed organisations to demanding conditions. A number of aspects thatare included in the process of organisational adaption have been identified. Oneof the tasks is to balance between structuring and improvisation where much isat stake. The other task is to create confidence among the involved actors andcontribute in different ways to create a sense of symmetry between partners.Finally, the third task for boundary spanners is to recognise improvised rolessuch as spontaneous links in order to maintain stressful conditions and bridge agap in the bureaucratic organisation.

    The present thesis contributes to sociological theory of emotions, disastermanagement and military studies through a common denominator, namely thedemanding context. Taken together, the findings increase awareness of howorganisations act towards their environments and how individuals, especiallyboundary spanners, adapt the organisation to its environment. For leaders andmanagers, it is important to make decisions, provide mandates andauthorisation, as well as invest confidence in boundary spanners. Thehierarchical chain may remain in existence, but it can be made shorter and moretransparent through this kind of knowledge.

  • 2.
    Anctil Avoine, Priscyll
    Université du Québec à Montréal, Québec, Canada, (CAN).
    L'entre-deux mondes: Corps, émotions et militance dnas la réincorporation des farianas dans le nord-est de la Colombie2022Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 3.
    Andersson, Kent
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska system (MteS).
    On the Military Utility of Spectral Design in Signature Management: a Systems Approach2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an ongoing duel between military sensor development and developments in signature management. The last decade, with warfare characterized by joint expeditionary operations and asymmetry, has favored sensors. However, on account of the worsening security situation in Europe, there is now also an increasing interest in efforts to increase survivability of own military platforms. Spectral design is one of several promising technologies with extensive research potentially suitable for Low Observable platforms. It involves creating desired spectral optical responses from surfaces, in this case reducing contrast to background, by choosing suitable materials and structures. The challenge to a military decision-maker, faced with inherent uncertainties concerning the future and with limited resources, is how to choose among alternative capabilities, technologies or equipment. Correspondingly, on account of the system character of the signature attribute, researchers in technologies for signature management has difficulties communicating relevant basis for these decisions. The scope of this thesis is therefore to find and analyze patterns in decision situations involving technology or technical systems for military use, and the purpose is to propose conceptual and methodological contributions to support future decisionmaking. The technology focus is on spectral design and the application in focus is signature management of Low Observable military platforms. The research objective is addressed from a military system and capability centric perspective using methods from several disciplines in the military sciences domain. The result is synthesized from four separate studies: 1) on spectral design using systematic review of literature, 2) on military utility using a concept formation method, 3) on modeling for how to operationalize a link between spectral design and measures of military utility using methods of military operations research, and, 4) on cases of systems engineering of military Low Observable platform designs. In summary, the result of the work presented in this thesis is a compilation of related work in military sciences, systems engineering and material optics into a framework to support effective decision-making in relevant contexts. The major contribution to theory is a proposed concept called Military Utility, capturing how to communicate the utility of technical systems, or technology, in a military context. It is a compound measure of Military Effectiveness, Military Suitability and Affordability. Other contributions can be expected to support decision-making in practice; - the so-called Ladder-model is a template for how to quantitatively operationalize the military effectiveness dimension of Military Utility regarding the use of spectral design; - an applied Ladder-model is demonstrated, useful for analyzing the military utility of spectral designs in Low Observable attack aircraft; - a probabilistic framework for survivability assessments is adopted into a methodology for doing the analysis, and lastly; - a generic workflow is identified, from relevant development programs, including decision-situations that can benefit from the adopted methodology.

  • 4.
    Andrén, Rasmus
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för statsvetenskap och juridik, Statsvetenskapliga avdelningen.
    Anxiety and (In)Security in Times of Calamity: The 2014 flood and the Kashmir conflict2024Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Miljökriser och katastrofer påverkar politisk stabilitet och konflikter. Men trots omfattande forskning inom en rad olika discipliner så saknas fortfarande tillfredsställande förklaringar. De teoretiska bristerna i den tidigare forskningen gäller främst det övergripande problemet hur man ska förstå att katastrofer påverkar konflikter genom de störningar de orsakar i olika identiteter. Jag hävdar att frågan om hur identiteter präglas av katastrofer och påverkar konflikter kan utvecklas tydligare genom att utgå från ontologiska säkerhets-studier (OSS). Genom en undersökning av den katastrofala översvämningen i Kashmirdalen 2014 och dess roll i separatistkonflikten i Kashmir, hävdar jag att katastrofer påverkar konflikter genom ontologiska processer som antingen förstärker eller utmanar föreställningar om hot mot det egna jaget (securitization och desecuritization). Det vill säga att sökandet efter stabila och sammanhängande identiteter efter katastrofer kan förstärka eller mildra konflikter. Inbäddade i detta argument finns avhandlingens tre huvudsakliga bidrag. Först visar jag hur identiteter utmanas och bekräftas under katastrofer och konflikter genom mångfacetterade dynamiska processer, vilket hjälper oss att förstå hur katastrofer kan störa identiteter i redan pågående kriser. För det andra visar jag hur sökandet efter stabila och ontologiskt säkra identiteter kan ge upphov till att olika delar av en konflikt kan förvärras och mildras samtidigt. För det tredje föreslår jag i avhandlingen att framtida forskning om katastrofer, och miljöutmaningar mer allmänt, bör lägga mindre fokus på en binär förståelse av deras inverkan på konflikter och istället utgå från undersökningar av katastrofers mångfacetterade relationer till konflikter. 

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  • 5.
    Avila-Zuñiga-Nordfjeld, Adriana
    World Maritime University, (SWE).
    Building a national maritime security policy2018Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The issue of port security raised concerns at the highest levels after the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 against the United States. Security threats against ports and vessels acquired a new perspective and in 2002 the International Maritime Organization (IMO) adopted amendments to the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), 1974, introducing Chapter XI-2 - Special measures to enhance maritime security. This set of regulations enshrines the International Ship and Port Facilities Security Code (ISPS Code), which entered into force on 1 July 2004.

    This Code establishes a set of measures to enhance the security of ships and port facilities. It encompasses two parts. Part A establishes the mandatory provisions, the non-mandatory (“recommended”) and part B provides guidelines about how to comply with the obligatory requirements of part A. Together with a critical analysis of the national legislation about the enactment of the ISPS Code into national law, this dissertation examines the level of implementation and compliance of this instrument in Mexico with special focus on port security. This dissertation also provides a transparent incident-reporting instrument developed and tested through this research effort in Mexico for reporting of port and maritime security incidents.

    This tool joins three primary port/maritime security functions:

     a) Reporting of port and maritime security incidents;

     b) Classification and investigation of serious security incidents that require reassessments of the Port Security Assessments, (PSA), Port Facility Security Assessments (PFSA), and amendments to Port Security Plans (PSP) and Port Facility Security Plans (PFSP) and finally;

     c) Collection of evidence material related to the security incident.

    This instrument, combined with statistics, provides nations with crucial information, about threats, needs and challenges for allocation of economic, material and human resources. It also provides essential information material to set up strategies for the development of a National Maritime Security Policy. Its flexibility and adaptability makes possible its implementation at any State of the world.

    The results of this analysis reflect the conflictive cooperation between the Secretaría de Marina (SEMAR) and the Secretaría de Comunicaciones y Transportes, (SCT). This, together with the ambiguities and contradictions of the National Maritime Regime, even though the extensive reforms of 2016 limits the exercise of authority of SEMAR and the operation of the CUMAR(s), the organ responsible for implementation and compliance of the ISPS Code, at all ports across the country. This doctoral dissertation comprises six introductory chapters, which are referred to as the kappa and five annexed papers. It aims to contribute to the maritime realm within the area of maritime security, with special focus on port security through the following general objectives:

     • Elaborate a critical analysis of the current port security situation of Mexico, with special focus on implementation and compliance of the ISPS Code, including the state of the art and harmonization of international legislation with national law;

     • Identify the most relevant security threats to port facilities in Mexico, including oil terminals and offshore installations;

     • Develop an analytical instrument for security incidents-reporting & incident investigation, to strengthen the continual evolution of PSA/PFSA and PSP/PFSP and useful for setting up the strategies of a national maritime security policy with possibility for implementation worldwide.

    The approach adopted in this study is mainly based on qualitative methods, combined with action research and a limited use of statistics. The research objectives call for classical documental analyses examining the elements of relevant international legislation against its implementation into national legislation in the referred nation-state. The methods were selected on their usefulness and efficacy for analysis of law and policy. Action Research was used for implementation test and improvement of the reporting incident instrument, which can also be used for setting up the strategies for the development of a National Maritime Security Policy. Action Research is recommended when it is intended to improve understanding, develop his/others learning and influence other’s learning, taking action for social improvement.

    The findings related to serious deficiencies in the implementation and compliance of the ISPS Code in Mexico, concerning reporting of security incidents and its re- evaluation with the PFSA and respective amendments to PFSP, the poor exercise of authority from the representatives of SEMAR at the CUMARs in respect of fulfilling its obligations and responsibilities concerning port and maritime security; and the identification of necessary legal amendments to national law, as well as the remarkable improvement in reporting security incidents after the implementation of the “transparent security-incident-reporting tool”, that enables port/maritime security incident investigation and can serve to identify the problem areas; contributing to set up the strategies for the development of a national maritime security policy, together with the instrument itself, are some of the most relevant contributions of this dissertation.

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  • 6.
    Bang, Martin
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska tillämpningar (MteT).
    Military intelligence analysis: institutional influence2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Underrättelse är en avgörande komponent för utfallet av väpnad strid. Så länge människor krigar, kommer det att finnas ett behov av beslutsstöd till militära och civila ledare angående dess motståndare och potentiella motståndare. Produktionen av underrättelse är dock inte lätt eller utan fallgropar. Det finns där för ett behov av att öka förståelsen för de predikamenten kopplade till underrättelseanalys.

    Underrättelse som produkt är byråkratiskt såväl som socialt konstruerad och skapas i ett distinkt kulturellt sammanhang. Konceptet "Institution" kan ses fånga alla dessa tre aspekter. Därför handlar det speciellt om militär intelligens, som handlar om att förstå det institutionella inflytandet på intelligensbedömningar. Den tillgängliga underrättelselitteraturen har ökat stadigt under de senaste tre decennierna. Dock gällande teorier och ramverk på området som syftar till att förstå fenomenet är det emellertid fortfarande lite gjort. Detta gäller i än högre utsträckning för det specifika området modern militärunderrättelse verksamhet. Avhandlingen avser att bidra till att överbrygga dessa forskningsgap. Detta görs genom att studera den svenska militärunderrättelseinstitutionen ur flera perspektiv. Dess regler-i-bruk, delad trossystem/övertygelser samt den inkommande stimuli(data/information) primärt kopplade till hur hotbedömningar genomförs. Mer exakt granskar avhandlingen användningen av kvantitativa metoder, doktriner (dvs de formella reglerna) och delade föreställningar kopplade till epistemologiska antaganden och hotbedömningar.

    Huvudresultatet av denna avhandling är att det etablerar och beskriver en länk mellan en militärunderrättelseinstitution och de bedömningar som görs. Det går att se en direkt länk mellan de regler-i-bruk samt institutionens trossystem och deras inverkan på individens mentalmodellen. Detta sker genom att de rådande reglerna påverkar förekomesten av kognitivt bias vilket där med påverkar analytikerns uppfattning av en given situation. Avhandlingen har där med en ambition att göra studier i underrättelseanalys mer generaliserbara, genom att applicera och utveckla ramverket för institutionell analys och utveckling (IAD). Det metadeteoretiska språket i IAD är en lovande aveny för att förklara och beskriva det institutionella inflytandet på intelligensbedömningar.

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  • 7.
    Bjarnesen, Mariam
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen.
    From Perpetrator to Protector?: Post-War Rebel Networks as Informal Security Providers in Liberia2016Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The dismantling of rebel structures at the end of civil war is often considered to be one of the most important aspects of a successful transition to peace. Combatants are expected to lay down their weapons, but also to abandon their wartime networks. Yet, peace agreements and subsequent Disarmament Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR) processes do not automatically, or necessarily, destroy rebel networks. In Liberia such structures have lingered since the war came to an end in 2003 and networks of ex-combatants are still active, though maintained and mobilised for new purposes.

    The security political situation in Liberia, with weak formal security institutions and a history of predatory behaviour, has created an environment where informal initiatives for security and protection are called upon. In such an environment informal security groups have a natural platform. Based on original interview material and findings from fieldwork this thesis examines how post-war rebel networks are organised and operate in the informal security arena, while describing the rationale behind these lingering features of war. By doing so this thesis sheds light on how the adaptive capacity of former rebel soldiers is utilised by various Liberian actors, and the risks, but also possible positive outcomes, of such a development.

    This dissertation follows individuals, former rebel commanders in particular, in post-war rebel networks from the time of war to 2013. We will see them, and ex-combatants around them, mobilised as ‘recycled’ warriors in times of regional wars and crisis, as vigilantes and informal security providers for economic and political purposes. Yet, we will also meet them when there are no specific event ex-combatants could be mobilised to fully examine the relevance of post-war rebel networks and ex-combatant identity in contemporary Liberia. In the conclusions basic underlying aims and purposes with the processes of demobilisation and reintegration are challenged. And as this thesis finds, one might even argue that these ex-combatants have succeeded in reintegrating themselves due to, not despite, the fact that they have not been demobilised.

  • 8.
    Bondesson, Sara
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier). Department of Government, Uppsala University.
    Vulnerability and Power: Social Justice Organizing in Rockaway, New York City, after Hurricane Sandy2017Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här är en studie om katastrofer, sårbarhet och makt. Avhandlingenspringer ur ett forskningsproblem: främjandet av marginaliserade gruppersegenmakt (empowerment) tros fungera bäst om den sker inifrån den egnagruppen och utifrån självorganiserande principer, men trots detta initierasoch styrs emancipatoriska projekt ofta av aktörer som inte själva tillhör marginaliseradegrupper. Genom en etnografisk studie av gräsrotsorganiseringinom Occupy Sandy efter orkanen Sandy i Rockaway, New York City, 2012,undersöks utomstående aktivisters försök att främja utsatta gruppers egenmakt.Detta spåras över tid från akut katastrofhantering till långsiktigt förändringsarbete,utifrån tre organiseringsideal som aktivisterna försökte omsättai praktiken; inkludering, flexibilitet och horisontalitet. Samarbetsprocessenkännetecknades av att den priviligierade aktören sökte främja denicke-priviligierade aktörens egenmakt genom att gradvis lämna över kontrollenöver organisationens målformuleringar och arbetssätt. Analysen visar attsamverkan mellan aktivister och boende fungerade bra i den akuta hanteringsfasenmen sämre i återhämtningsfasen. De tre organiseringsidealen sågut att resultera i främjande av de boendes egenmakt inledningsvis. I denlångsiktiga fasen däremot kom de boendes egenmakt att villkoras av de utomståendeaktivisternas agenda; endast de som höll med främjades. Dettaledde till spänningar, konflikter, och motstånd från de boende. Utifrån dettadras slutsatsen att längden på samarbetsprojekt inte är enda faktorn som ärrelevant för huruvida tillit utvecklas, utan också graden av komplexitet iarbetsuppgifterna. Ju mer komplexa frågor som deltagare behöver kommaöverens om, desto svårare blir det att samarbeta, och desto svårare blir detför priviligierade aktörer att lämna över kontroll. Analysen visar vidare påkopplingar mellan internt inflytande för sårbara grupper inom organisationenoch organisationens externa möjligheter till politisk påverkan, vilket flätarsamman de undersökta mikroprocesserna med bredare frågor om förändringav strukturellt differentierad sårbarhet.

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  • 9.
    Brenner, Björn
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen. Göteborgs universitet. Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten.
    Islamist governance Hamas style: readings from the Palestinian experiment in Islamic democracy2015Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates how the Palestinian Islamists in Hamas came to govern following theirsuccess in the 2006 parliamentary elections. The study poses the overarching research question:How can Hamas's governance in the Gaza Strip between 2006 and 2012 be characterised andunderstood? Hamas has attracted particular research interest, partly due to its seeminglycontradictory nature and actions, and partly due to the fact that this was the first case of Islamistsin the Arab world to ascend to power by democratic means. On the one hand, Hamas has led anarmed struggle against Israel which has even included suicide bombings against the Israelicivilian population. On the other hand, Hamas has more recently shown both the will and theability to participate in electoral processes in a peaceful and democratic fashion.

    As a result of this, the case of Hamas relates to two scholarly debates in particular. The firstdebate concerns the nature of Islamism - whether Islamist ideals can be considered fullycompatible with democracy. Ultimately, this debate has come to focus on what the democraticpotential of Islamists would mean in practice, should they get the chance to hold power. Thesecond debate concerns the nature of Hamas - how to comprehend the paradoxal conduct of thisactor and in what direction it is heading politically. There is also a strong extra-scientificrelevance to the study, as Hamas remains a powerful force in the Israeli-Palestinian arena. HowHamas is dealt with, both by Israel and the international community and by the Palestiniansthemselves, will have repercussions on when and in what shape the pending Palestinian state willmaterialise.

    Based on existing scholarship on this subject, the aim of this study holds theoretical,methodological and empirical ambitions: Theoretically, the study seeks to contribute to the twodebates mentioned above. Methodologically, it seeks to contribute by suggesting a newframework for the analysis of Islamist governance. Empirically, it contributes by adding a newcase study to the existing research on Islamists in power.

    The study addresses the research question by focusing on how the new government perceivedand reacted to three key challenges to its exercise of power: relating to the political system and themain opposition party; countering violent radicalisation and local splinter groups; and reestablishingsocietal order and reforming the legal system. The analysis is based on a recentlycollected set of primary data consisting of both observations and interviews. The respondentsinclude ministers, advisors and civil servants in the government, as well as military commanders,internal security personnel and members of the Qassam Brigades. They also include some of theHamas government's fiercest critics, notably Salafi-Jihadis, youth dissidents and members of theFatah party.

    The study finds that the Hamas government lacked the necessary organisation, knowledge andexperience to carry out its duties. It also finds that the government perceived itself to be subjectedto an imminent threat of being overthrown. The study shows that while the Hamas governmentwas far from fulfilling the democratic promises it had set out in its reform programme, it did notproceed to change the political system into any sort of Islamic theocracy governed by sharia. Asthe analysis concludes, Hamas's governance could be characterised neither as singularlyauthoritarian and Islamic, nor as merely democratic and secular. Rather, Islamist governanceHamas style has been a blurred combination of all these traits together, firmly guided by a farreachingideological pragmatism and a continuously perceived necessity for further powerconsolidation.

  • 10.
    Britz, Malena
    Stockholms Universitet.
    The Europeanization of Defence Industry Policy2004Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 11.
    Brown, Christer
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier). Radbouds universitet Nederländerna.
    The 2005 Hurricane Katrina response failure: Seeing preparedness for foreseeable complex problems through a neo-institutional lens2015Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Governmental organisations often fail to prepare themselves adequately for complex problems such as natural disasters. This is remarkable because these threats are usually studied intensively and governments do develop plans for such situations. Christer Brown demonstrates in his thesis that the complexity of governmental systems and the mutual interdependence of various government organisations hinder the preparations for something like a natural disaster. This particularly applies to government organisations which have to operate in a many-layered administrative system. Brown investigated the case of the American Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), which appeared to be insufficiently prepared to respond adequately during the disaster caused by hurricane Katrina in Louisiana in 2005. This was apparently due to a shift in political attention from natural disasters to terrorism within the FEMA, and this forced the agency to establish different priorities for its policies.

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  • 12.
    Brändström, Annika
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier). Utrecht University.
    Crisis, Accountability and Blame Management: Strategies and Survival of Political Office-Holders2016Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Crises are an integral part of our modern world; they are breaking points that disturb our sense of normalcy. While some of them are treated as ‘normal incidents’ that are bound to occur in a vast and complex array of governmental activities, others spark a blaze of media attention, public emotions, and political upheaval. This thesis explores how political office-holders respond to incidents that are perceived as blameworthy and how crisis-induced accountability processes affect their political careers. In an attempt to determine this, a series of case studies containing elements of high-pressure crisis-induced accountability were examined. Strategies employed by top political actors in coping with accountability and blame are identified and discussed. Crises often trigger discussions on accountability and top political actors engage in a framing contest over defining the causes of the crisis and who or what should be held responsible. This is a staged and dynamic process in which key actors employ different strategies in several arenas for managing and ultimately assigning blame for the unwanted event. These processes are shaped in relation to issues regarding causality, agency, and responsibility. In addition to the fact that crises can be managed on different ‘levels’ and arenas, we can also see that certain contextual and situational factors (such as personal experience and the constitutional framework of the cabinet) can constrain or enable how blame is managed and ultimately what the consequences will be for the careers of top political office-holders.

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  • 13.
    Bynander, Fredrik
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    The Rise and Fall of the Submarine Threat: Threat Politics and Submarine Intrusions in Sweden 1980-20022003Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 14.
    Christiansson, Magnus
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen. Stockholms universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Defence transformation in Sweden: The strategic governance of pivoting projects 2000-20102020Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis investigates the political control of the Swedish defence transformation in the second decade after the end of the Cold War. It focuses on high-level political and administrative processes and methods used in governing the Swedish Armed Forces. The existing understanding of political control in civil-military relations theory has two main shortcomings: it confuses the unique role of the military as sui generis with an exceptional(ist) theory for higher government, and its view of higher government is limited/partly misleading. The thesis presents a more elaborate conceptual framework -- strategic governance -- based on contemporary governance theory. The latter features two governance dimensions, organizing and microsteering, which are investigated in three within-case studies of “pivoting projects” for defence transformation: 1) the EU’s Nordic Battle Group 08 under Swedish leadership; 2) the development of a market-based acquisition system; and, lastly, 3) the governance of Sweden’s contribution to Afghanistan. An important finding of the thesis is that higher government in Sweden is not a hierarchical “machine” as depicted in civil-military relations research, but that military and civilian officials alike should be viewed as “servants”, or officarius. In fact, military officers and civilians often work under a "hands-off" mandate without direct supervision. Another finding is the ability of the Swedish Armed Forces to act according to the norms of higher government, rather than in conformity with military professional skills. Since neither reliance on military expertise nor active political involvement is a crucial factor for control, the theoretical implication is that other case studies should employ a governance approach rather than civil-military relations theory. The normative challenges that follow from the research include a) the need to develop a skill set adjusted to higher government in the military officer corps; b) the problem of identifying distinct areas of responsibility/accountability in strategic governance; and, ultimately, c) the necessity of improving coordination between different sectors relevant for national security, as the Swedish model for higher government in some respects is incompatible with strict requirements for generating a “grand strategy”.

  • 15.
    Daléus, Pär
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Politisk ledarskapsstil: Om interaktionen mellan personlighet och institutioner i utövandet av det svenska statsministerämbetet2012Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 16.
    Danielsson, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    On the Power of Informal Economies and the Informal Economies of Power: Rethinking Informality, Resilience and Violence in Kosovo2014Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 1970s, the concept of “economic informality” has served as focal point for a comprehensive scholarly thinking and the development of policy initiatives enhanced by international organisations. Yet, informality displays a puzzling resilience. The problematique of this book concerns the lenses through which informality has been constituted, studied and acted upon as an empirical phenomenon. By developing a critical understanding of informality as object of study, the book uncovers the historical, scholarly and practitioner contexts in which contemporary conceptualisations of informality are constituted.

    The author argues that three dominant and conventional approaches to informality systematically fail to account for how the reasons behind people's participation in informal economic activities are constituted by an internal and hierarchically structured social order. To transcend the identified shortcomings of the established approaches, the book rethinks informality through a comprehensive power analysis and highlights the importance of hierarchy, covert violence and domination. A central assumption of this rethinking is that informality constitutes a social phenomenon that emerges and is expressed through social practices, which over time and across space have become institutionalised to the point that informality is considered commonsensical and unchangeable. By putting the reconceptualisation to use through the thinking of Pierre Bourdieu, the book performs an empirical analysis of the nexus between resilience, symbolic violence and informal economic practices in Kosovo from the late 1980s until 2011. Based on primary research material, the analysis offers a unique insight into informal dynamics and illuminates the workings of an intrinsic, circular, malleable and ambiguous system of domination that would otherwise remain hidden.

    By engaging the empirical, theoretical and meta-theoretical level at the same time, the book explores the twofold constitution of informality as a social phenomenon and brings to light a new understanding of the resilience of the informal. As such, the reconceptualisation forms a critical intervention into scholarly and practitioner discussions about informality. By revealing mechanisms of domination, the book offers an alternative and fruitful account of the socio-historical weave within which practices of informality in Kosovo crystallise. 

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  • 17.
    Deiaco, Hanna
    Försvarshögskolan, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Rethinking Civil-Military Collaboration: A Relational Practice Approach to Total Defense in Sweden2024Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande avhandling tar avstamp i observationen att såväl politiska som vetenskapliga diskurser om civil-militär samverkan förhåller sig relativt oreflekterat till relationer, trots att den mångvetenskapliga samverkanslitteraturen tillskriver relationella beroenden en stor betydelse. I den litteratur som behandlar civil-militär samverkan råder det en brist på empiriskt djup i fråga om de underliggande relationella dynamiker som uppstår i faktiska aktiviteter. Syftet med denna monografi är därför att närmare undersöka de underliggande relationella dynamiker som formar civil-militär samverkan i Sverige, vilket är angeläget givet återuppbyggandet av totalförsvar. Studien bidrar med en omfattande empirisk analys av hur Sveriges totalförsvar praktiseras med hjälp av Pierre Bourdieus relationella ansats till praktik. Framför allt har inspiration hämtats från hans begrepp, eller tankeverktyg, fält, kapital och habitus. Genom dessa har intervjumaterial och observationer av olika praktiker analyserats. Ur analysen framträder hur totalförsvaret utvecklats som ett fält med subfält, hur symboliskt, kulturellt och ekonomiskt kapital fördelats samt hur praktikers (o)delade dispositioner, eller habitus, spelar in. Flera underliggande och sällan studerade relationella dynamiker av betydelse för vad som formar civil-militär samverkan synliggörs. Resultaten indikerar att kamper mellan militära aktörer och civila krishanteringsaktörer utspelar sig i fråga om hur totalförsvaret borde praktiseras, och att dessa kan härledas till två konkurrerande praktiklogiker: en militär logik och en civil krishanteringslogik. Studien drar slutsatsen att dessa praktiklogiker ligger till grund för de spänningar och motsättningar som kommit att prägla återuppbyggandet av Sveriges totalförsvar. Slutsatserna kompletterar etablerade och välkända förutsättningar för civil-militär samverkan i tidigare forskning. En lärdom från denna studie är att relationella dynamiker spelar en avgörande roll för den praktiker eller akademiker som undrar varför samarbeten emellanåt inte tycks röra sig framåt.

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  • 18.
    Deverell, Edward
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Crisis-induced learning in public sector organizations2010Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    How do public organizations manage crises? How do public organizations learnfrom crises? These seemingly basic questions still pose virtual puzzles for crisismanagement researchers. Yet, the interest of the academic and practitionerrealms in crisis management has grown in recent years. In this doctoral dissertationEdward Deverell sheds light on the problems regarding the lack ofknowledge on how public organizations manage and learn from crises, with anumber of critical knowledge gaps in contemporary crisis management as thestarting point. 

    In the last few decades the interest in crisis management as a scholarly fieldhas grown. This developing field is composed of an increasing number of looselyconnected social science scholars concerned with issues of extraordinary events,their repercussions and the way in which they are managed by authorities,organizations, policy makers and other key actors. However, there are severallacunae to be dealt with in the emerging field of crisis management research.This dissertation sets the spotlight on four of these limitations of the crisis managementliterature to date. 

    First, influential scholars within the field call for increased structuration andfeasible models to help us understand and explain various important factorsinfluencing the crisis management process. In this dissertation I try to bridgethis gap by developing theory on crisis response and learning. Crisis responsesignifies organized activities undertaken by a stakeholder when a community ofpeople – an organization, a town, or a nation – perceives an urgent threat to corevalues which must be dealt with under conditions of uncertainty. Crisis-inducedlearning refers to purposeful efforts, triggered by a crisis event and carried out bymembers of an organization working within a community of inquiry, that leadto new understanding and behavior on the basis of that understanding. 

    Second, organizations play a key role in crisis management. Surprisinglyenough, however, crisis management research have only occasionally built theoryon how organizations respond to crisis. So far, the literature tells us moreabout crises as events than on how these events are actually managed. One reasonis the focus within crisis management research on highly unusual, big catastrophicevents and industrial accidents. Therefore, this dissertation explorescrisis episodes that affect specific organizations rather than entire communitiesor national governments. In addition, the dissertation brings together debateson crisis management and crisis-induced learning from a public managementand organizational perspective. 

    Third, crisis management researchers have to date dealt mostly with acutecrisis response and issues of preparedness, while the issues of crisis aftermathsand crisis-induced learning are still relatively unknown. However, althoughthis study recognizes the importance of crisis planning and sense-making, thisshould not lead to a relative neglect of the issue of learning from crisis. Crisisinducedlearning is important as crises are rare events with huge repercussions.Thus crises are opportunities to draw lessons in order to improve future managementand crisis response, and to mitigate the risk of future crises. 

    Fourth, the relatively few studies that have dealt with crisis-induced learninghave focused on learning after the crisis (intercrisis learning), while theoryon learning during crisis (intracrisis learning) is not as developed. My interestin both inter- and intracrisis learning obligates me to study crisis response andcrisis learning in conjunction. This means studying how organizations respondto crises and how they learn during and from these episodes. By focusing onprocesses of crisis response and learning under pressure – rather than pre-crisisplanning, threat perception, risk management and preparedness – the dissertationlooks into how organizations and their members manage the challenge ofcrises and how they take on, make use of and implement lessons learned fromone crisis to the next. 

    The lacunae outlined above are theoretical points of departure for this dissertation’sinterest in the extent to which public organizations learn from crises.Accordingly, the overall objective of the dissertation is to increase understandingof crisis response and crisis learning in public organizations. In doing so, Iconduct an abductive study of how public organizations respond to crises andhow they learn during and after these events. The term ‘abductive’ refers toa research strategy which is characterized by continuous movement back andforth between theory and empirical data. 

    The first step of the research process was grounded in the empirical world.The empirical contribution is a careful process tracing and case reconstructionof six cases involving Swedish public sector organizations. In the methodologychapter (Chapter 3) I describe the basis of the empirically bounded case study approach and case reconstruction and process tracing method. Six case studiesof organizational crisis management and learning were selected for furtheranalysis. The case studies were based on a variety of sources including posthoc accident investigations, articles, organizational documents and 129 extensivesemi-structured interviews with key crisis managers. The process tracingand reconstruction efforts led to case narratives, which were then dissected byidentifying dilemmas and critical decision-making occasions that were studiedin more detail. The following cases are explored in the dissertation: TheSwedish energy utility Birka Energi’s management of two cable fires that causedlarge-scale blackouts in Stockholm in March 2001 and May 2002; The cityof Stockholm’s management of the 2001 blackout and the repeated incidentin 2002; The Swedish Defence Research Agency’s (FOI) management of hoaxanthrax letters in 2001; and three Swedish media organizations’ (the Swedishpublic service radio Sveriges Radio, the Swedish private TV station with publicservice tasks TV4, and the Swedish public service TV station Sveriges Television)management of news work and broadcasting challenges on 11 September 2001(and to some extent following the murder of the Swedish Foreign MinisterAnna Lindh in September 2003). 

    As the case selection reveals, all organizations under study are not puregovernment organizations. Rather three organizations (Birka Energi, SverigesRadio and Sveriges Television) are publically owned corporations, while one(TV4) is a privately owned media organization. Accordingly, this dissertationclaims that ownership is not the only measure of ‘publicness’. Media organizations,for instance, are of great importance for democratic societies. The term‘public organization’ is thus in this dissertation not used in the sense of equatingto government, but rather in reference to the degree of which political authorityand influence impacts on the organization. 

    The theory generating approach that this dissertation takes on impliesthat the case studies are ‘heuristic’ case studies. The dissertation aims to promotenew hypotheses for further research rather than to produce generalizedknowledge. To this end the case studies are further analyzed by specific theoreticalapproaches suggested by prior research. This second step of the researchprocess is dealt with in some detail in the literature review. The literature reviewin Chapter 2 aims to bring an injection of organizational studies into the fieldof crisis management research. The review presents relevant studies from thefields of crisis management studies, organization studies (with special attentiongiven to organizational learning theory) and public administration and management.The review puts forth a twofold argument: There is a need of increasedknowledge not only about crises and how they develop, but also about how theyare actually managed by public organizations. However, prior crisis managementresearch with bearing on public management organizations are mostly based on either political executive foreign policy decision making or on veryspecific high reliability organizations operating in the pre-crisis phase. Hence,organization studies and public management studies should play a greater partin crisis management research. 

    The review also provides an overview frame for the study by highlightingrelevant research. The chapter discusses the problems of defining, categorizingand operationalizing key concepts such as crisis, crisis management and organizationallearning. 

    In the third step of the research process, the case studies are further analyzedusing theoretical approaches aimed at proposing propositions on how publicsector organizations may respond to crises, and how they may learn from theircrisis experiences. These analyses have been carried out with an aim to producestand-alone articles aimed for publication in international scholarly journals.Thus this dissertation differs somewhat from the typical public administrationdissertation as it is comprised of an analysis of several articles, as opposed to amonograph. The journal articles are published or accepted for publication inthe Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, the Journal of HomelandSecurity and Emergency Management, Public Management Review, and RiskManagement. The articles are reprinted in four empirical chapters (Chapters4-7), which make up the core of the dissertation. Introductory and concludingchapters aimed at bringing the discussion together have then been added.I present the first empirical analysis in Chapter 4. It looks into how organizationalculture affects strategy and adaptability in crisis management. The keyresearch question is: What mechanisms affect organizations’ ability to restructurein order to cope with acute crisis management challenges? In the study I propose atypology of temporal organizational responses to crises in public perception. Thetypology is based on organizations’ abilities to change strategy and adapt theirmanagerial and operational levels to deal with crises. The empirical data used toconstruct the typology covers three organizational crisis responses: 1) The utilityBirka Energi’s response to a cable fire that caused a thirty-seven hour blackoutin Stockholm in 2001; 2) The TV station TV4’s response in terms of how toreorganize and broadcast during the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks; 3)FOI, the Swedish National Defence Research Agency’s response to the anthraxletter scare of 2001 and 2002. The different organizational outcomes featuredby the typology reveal distinct aspects of organizational crisis management.According to the typology, the Fully Adapting Organization (TV4) managesto adapt both its strategy and its managerial and operational levels to deal withthe crisis. The Semi-Adapting Organization (FOI) changes its strategy but lacksthe capacity to change managerial and operational levels according to the newstrategy. The Non-Adapting Organization (Birka Energi) does not grasp theimportance of strategy change in the first place. Based on three inductive case studies, the study concludes that organizational culture plays an important rolein this process where the Semi-Adapting Organization and the Non-AdaptingOrganization were dominated by strong expert cultures which proved to be lessinclined to change. In contrast, the Fully Adapting organization had deliberatelyfostered an organizational culture in which flexibility – understood as thecapacity to readily adapt to changing demands – was a cornerstone. 

    The second empirical analysis is presented in Chapter 5. It deals with theissue of flexibility and rigidity in crisis response and crisis learning at two Swedishpublic organizations. The point of departure for the study is that the relationshipbetween crises, organizational crisis management response and learning hasto date been understudied. In an effort to broaden theoretical knowledge on therelation between crisis and learning, the study analyzes the crisis responses oftwo public organizations during a sequence of two failures. The empirical datais grounded in thorough process tracing and case reconstruction analyses ofhow the utility Birka Energi and the city of Stockholm managed two comprehensiveblackouts in March 2001 and in May 2002. The key research questionis: How does organizational rigidity and flexibility affect public organizations’ crisisresponse and crisis learning? A framework of rigidity versus flexibility in responseis utilized in the analysis. The findings are then discussed in relation to theirimplications for the nexus between crisis and learning. The study concludes byraising four propositions for further research. 

    The third empirical analysis is presented in Chapter 6. This study aims tocontribute to the debate on organizational learning from crisis by sheddinglight on the phenomenon of crises as learning triggers. In the study I pose thefollowing key research question: How can we analyze organizational learningduring and after crisis and what criteria should be part of the analysis? In an effortto unveil patterns of how organizational crisis-induced learning may appearand develop, I suggest a conceptual framework based on conceptual categoriesand answers to four fundamental questions: what lessons are learned (single- ordouble-loop)?; what is the focus of the lessons (prevention or response)?; whenare lessons learned (intra- or intercrisis)?; is learning carried out or blocked fromimplementation (distilled or implemented)? In the analysis section I explorethe practical applicability of the framework by using the same empirical casestudies as in Chapter 5. The final section suggests four propositions for furtherresearch. 

    The last empirical study is presented in Chapter 7. There I construct aframework of management, learning and implementation in response to crisis.My point of departure is a proposition from previous crisis managementresearch which posits that previous experience can shape crisis response as away of repeating former routines or as a precondition for improvisation. Thekey research question is: How do organizational management structures affect crisis response, learning and implementation? In the study I argue that flexibilityis closely connected to the way organizations learn – in behavioral or cognitivemodes. Moreover, these learning modes are connected to the role of managerialgroups, where I differentiate between centralized and decentralized top managerialgroups. In addition, two case studies of how two bureaucratic media organizations(Sveriges Radio and SVT) managed and learned from extraordinarynews events – most notably 9/11 and the assassination of the Swedish ForeignMinister Anna Lindh – are conducted. The findings show how the decentralizedmanagerial group learned in a behavioral fashion, by creating new formalpolicies and structures, while organizational members in the centralized managerialgroup relied on individual cognitive structures as a way of ‘storing’ lessonslearned. The study ends by discussing the findings from a crisis managementperspective, where I propose that the two modes of learning profoundly affectthe crucial issue of flexibility in organizational crisis response.The concluding Chapter 8 discusses and contrasts the findings and propositionsgenerated from the four separate empirical analyses. Here the role oforganizational structure and culture are highlighted by revisiting specific organizationalfactors that seem to impact on organizational crisis management andlearning processes, such as previous experience, flexibility and rigidity in crisisresponse and learning, and centralization and decentralization. These factorswere also outlined in the literature review. Further empirical evidence of howthe factors affect crisis response and crisis learning in organizations was foundin the four empirical analyses. 

    In addition, findings from the empirical studies also related to different types of learning processes such as intra- and intercrisis learning and singleand double-loop learning. Consequently these concepts are also deliberated upon in the concluding sections of the dissertation. As a final attempt to bring the propositions and arguments together, a framework of the crisis management and learning process is proposed. In regard to this venture, it is important to acknowledge the limitations of the framework, and of the dissertation as a whole. As it is only based on data from six cases of Swedish public organizational responses to crisis, the framework is merely a visual schematic of a number of propositions to be further tested and validated by further research. However, the framework also has a few virtues. It is an attempt to approach the ambiguous nature of crises and crisis management processes. The framework may also assist in providing more sensible and practical conceptualizations, and thus bring us closer to definitions that remain close to everyday operations of practitioners involved in crisis management. This dissertation thus makes an effort to bridge the gap between crisis management scholars and practitioners. This is also an overall goal guiding research activities at the National Center for Crisis Management Studies (CRISMART) at the Swedish National Defence College, where the research behind this dissertation has been conducted.

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  • 19.
    Doeser, Fredrik
    Department of Political Science, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    In Search of Security After the Collapse of the Soviet Union: Foreign Policy Change in Denmark, Finland and Sweden, 1988-19932008Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to explain the evolution of foreign policy in Denmark, Finland and Sweden with regard to Western security cooperation between 1988 and 1993. The study sets out to test two theoretical perspectives on the security cooperation policies of these three small states. The external political perspective is based on the idea that foreign policy is determined by the challenges of a state’s external political environment. The domestic political perspective is based on the idea that phenomena at the domestic level of the state have an impact on how governments cope with external constraints. The primary theoretical ambition is to integrate the findings from these two analyses in order to further an understanding of the mechanisms of foreign policy change in small states.

    In order to study the relationship between the environment and foreign policy change, the author applies a perceptual approach, which means that his intention is to explain foreign policy action on the basis of the perceptions actors have of the environment.

    The author draws a number of conclusions with regard to the mechanisms of foreign policy change. First, a perceptual approach is needed in order to analyze a state’s specific responses to international political change. Second, domestic factors are not only important for foreign policy in general but also for the evolution of security cooperation policy in small states under conditions of fundamental shift in the international system. Third, it is possible to attribute some degree of relative explanatory power to external factors and to assign a range of different roles to domestic factors. Fourth, governments of Western democratic small states pay relatively equal attention to external and domestic considerations when making their foreign policies. However, depending on the situation, the relative potency of external and domestic factors can vary.

  • 20.
    Edström, Håkan
    Umeå universitet.
    Hur styrs Försvarsmakten?: Politisk och militär syn på försvarsdoktrin under 1990-talet2003Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 21.
    Egnell, Robert
    Departmant of War Studies, King's College, London.
    The missing link: Civil-military aspects of effectiveness in complex irregular warfare2007Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 22.
    Ekström, Thomas
    Jönköping University, (SWE).
    Segmentation and differentiation in defence supply chain design: A dynamic purchasing portfolio model for defence procurement2020Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att öka den operativa krigföringsförmågan har hög prioritet i den nuvarande försvarspolitiska inriktningen, vilket har implikationer för militära försörj-ningskedjor. I en färsk studie rekommenderas Försvarsmakten att utnyttja segmentering av förnödenheter och differentiering av försörjningskedjor för att möjliggöra utformning av försörjningskedjor till ett överkomligt pris. Detta föranleder frågor avseende vilken segmenteringsmodell och vilka försörj-ningsstrategier som Försvarsmakten bör använda.

    Syftet med denna avhandling är att utforma och utveckla en portföljmodell för försvarsanskaffning som är praktiskt användbar för försvarsmyndigheter. Enligt författarens definition inkluderar portföljmodellen en segmenterings-modell, taktiska hävstänger, differentieringsstrategier och vägledning för ledningsbeslut. Forskningen bygger på en Delphistudie med tjugo experter från försvarsmyndigheterna. Studien hanterar de operativa kraven på tillgänglighet, beredskap och uthållighet, samt forskningsgap och öppna frågor i litteraturen avseende utformning och användning av en sådan modell.

    Resultaten innefattar flera nyheter. Författaren förslår en dynamisk portfölj-modell för försvarsanskaffning, inklusive en segmenteringsmodell i två steg, ett försteg och en tvådimensionell modell. Den senare slår samman sexton element till ett kvadratiskt och tre andra segment. En annan originalitet är att portföljmodellen är både preskriptiv och en katalysator för djuplodande diskussioner. Författaren utvecklar också vägledning för ledningsbeslut, inklusive tolv taktiska hävstänger och åtta differentieringsstrategier.

    Forskningen bidrar till teorin genom att kombinera koncept från inköps- och affärslogistiklitteraturen, samt applicera dessa i den militära logistik- och försvarsanskaffningskontexten. Den bidrar till praktiken genom att utveckla en portföljmodell som är relevant för praktiker inom försvarsanskaffning och tillfredsställer Försvarsmaktens operativa krav. Den bidrar också till metod-utveckling genom att undersöka hur forskare kan utnyttja två paneler i Delphistudier för att förbättra forskningens validitet.

  • 23.
    Elg, Johan
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Taktikavdelningen (TA), Marksektionen (Mark). King's College London.
    Wargaming in Military Education for Army Officers and Officer Cadets2017Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Wargaming has been part of military curricula for about 200 years since the introduction of Kriegsspiel, but it is still something of an art form. This thesis attempts to theorise the practice of military educational wargaming, and specifically to explore why such wargaming takes the form it does.

    The thesis is limited to army educational wargaming for officers and officer cadets. Wargaming for analytical purposes, and political and strategic gaming, are excluded.  Instead, the focus is on army educational wargaming at the tactical level, which is arguably more comparable between countries. The research method combines an exploratory approach influenced by grounded theory with a comparative case study approach encompassing three successive levels of army officer education in five countries: Sweden, Germany, the United Kingdom, the United States and Japan.

    The research indicates the central importance of individual game directors. This is particularly evident when wargaming forms evolve. The main concern of the individual game director is how to achieve instructor buy-in. This core category encompasses control, credibility and comfort. Three methods, or strategies, were discovered regarding how to achieve instructor buy-in. Those three strategies are: innovative active learning, simple standardising and control & veiling. This discovery contributes to new substantive theory, as it explains how specific army educational wargaming forms commence, evolve and are discontinued.

  • 24.
    Engdahl, Ola
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Folkrättscentrum (upphört). Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten, Juridiska institutionen.
    Protection of Personnel in Peace Operations: The Role of the 'Safety Convention' against the Background of General International Law2005Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The 1994 Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel (Safety Convention) was the first multilateral convention to deal specifically with the protection of personnel engaged in peace operations. It should be viewed against the background of the increasingly volatile environments in which peace operation personnel were required to operate at the beginning of the 1990s.

    Protection, for which a host government is responsible for securing for personnel in peace operations, may be categorised as a general and a special protection. The former includes, for example, human rights law and international humanitarian law. The latter comprises privileges and immunities accorded to agents of states or organisations.

    The contribution of the Safety Convention is mainly one of interstate penal law co-operation. States parties are obligated to co-operate in order to effectively prosecute the perpetrators of stipulated crimes. The protection afforded by the Safety Convention may therefore be categorised as being part of an emerging legal regime against impunity. The Safety Convention’s scope of application, however, has been criticised and at the time of writing an additional protocol was being discussed within the framework of an Ad Hoc Committee. This committee has met annually since 2002.

    Current peace operations often include a regional dimension. The multifunctional character of such operations requires a wide range of personnel, from military forces to civilian contractors. They are often based upon Chapter VII of the UN Charter and charged with enforcement capabilities.

    An effective protection needs to address the specific challenges surrounding such operations. Some of these challenges, identified in this study, include the need to broaden the scope of application of the Safety Convention and the interplay between the rules of peace and war as well as responsibility and accountability of protected personnel. It is also contended that there is a need for an effective implementation of existing rules, and a careful development of so-called status-of-forces agreements applicable in peace operations.

  • 25.
    Ericson, Marika
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Centrum för operativ juridik och folkrätt. Uppsala universitet, Juridiska institutionen.
    On the Virtual Borderline: Cyber Operations and their Impact on the Paradigms for Peace and War: Aspects of International and Swedish Domestic Law2020Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary disputes between states contain elements of psychological and information operations, intelligence operations and cyber operations as well as methods for physical use of force. Cyber operations may use, or contribute to, all of these different techniques and methods combined and can be focused on intelligence gathering, preparation of networks for future attacks, sabotage or on preventing access to information. States are also not alone as actors in cyberspace, non-state actors are continuously updating and reinforcing their abilities and capabilities and the dividing line between cyber operations that are a crime conducted by a non-state criminal and operations conducted by states have become increasingly blurred.

    International law, and Swedish domestic law, is built up around two foundational paradigms for peace and war. The paradigms are founded on the concepts of statehood, sovereignty and security. Situations, especially threats to states, are to be sorted into either the paradigm for peace or the paradigm for war and are through the division into paradigms also regulated by separate legal frameworks. There is in law no acknowledged state in between.

    This thesis explores the virtual borderlines of the paradigms for peace and war. It suggests that cyber operations is one development challenging the paradigms for peace and war. It further suggests that states are beginning to form their responses to cyber operations. States are defining cyberspace in terms of territory and sovereignty and they play on thresholds for breaches of sovereignty, interventions and use of force. They in essence structure and argue for a legal space in between the paradigms for peace and war.

    The thesis also takes the findings from research conducted on international law and views the findings from a Swedish domestic law perspective. Sweden adheres to a strict division of threats and situations into paradigms for peace and war. There is no state of emergency in Swedish constitutional law, the paradigm for peace is applied fully until a situation is defined as war or danger of war. The question for law is how to make this bipolar system function where threats cannot be sorted into either peace or war anymore.

  • 26.
    Eriksson, Gunilla
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Krigsvetenskapliga avdelningen (KVA), Sektionen för operationskonst (KV Opkonst). Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    The intelligence discourse: the Swedish military intelligence (MUST) as a producer of knowledge2013Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Military Intelligence and Security Directorate (MUST) is a producer of knowledge, a knowledge that is fundamental for decisionmaking in foreign and security policy. The intelligence knowledge production is often held as objective, value neutral, and with the intention of ‘speaking truth onto power’. However, this study holds that such a perspective on intelligence knowledge production calls for a revision. Hence, the overall purpose of this study is to examine the characteristics of knowledge in intelligence analysis and also to investigate how that knowledge is affected by the social context of its production, the military intelligence service. The source material is of three kinds; first texts and documents, second interviews with intelligence analysts and managers, and third observations of seminars and meetings during the production process of estimates.

    The results are that there is a strong presence of an implicit interpretive framework that continuously influences and guides the knowledge production and thereby makes the knowledge dependent on one specific perspective contrary to the intentional objectivity within the intelligence service. Further, the study reveals that the social and discursive practices for intelligence knowledge production include a ‘logic of appropriateness’ suggesting the presence of a structured Denkkollektiv with a structuredDenkstil. The actions and choices of the individuals are transformed to create conformity to the norms within the social discursive practices. Thus, the inherited frame of interpretation, as well as the socialised norm of staying within the existing accepted frames ofthinking and acting ends up to the stability and duration of the not always accurate and fruitful Denkstil.

    At the core of political science resides the question of how policy is shaped. Even though this study has focused merely on one organisation in a specific policy field in one country it brings insights to the knowledge and policy nexus.

  • 27.
    Fors Brandebo, Maria
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum. Karlstads universitet.
    Military Leaders and Trust2015Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to study trust in military leaders. Empirical data was gathered through interviews and questionnaires with military personnel mostly from Sweden, but also from four other European countries.

    Paper I illustrates that trust in military leaders can be theoretically understood in terms of a hierarchical system of categories, higher-level categories and two superior categories labelled Individual-related and Communication- and relationship-related characteristics.

    Paper II examines how trust between military leaders and their subordinates is related to negative critical incidents in international operations. The results show that trust can be affected by pre-existing influences, of both an individual and contextual nature. The level of trust that develops between leaders and subordinates appears to have an influence on perceptions and re-evaluations of leaders’ trustworthiness during and after involvement in critical incidents.

    In Paper III, an instrument, Destrudo-L, was developed to measure destructive leadership behaviours on five different dimensions: Arrogant, unfair, Threats, punishments, overdemands, Ego-oriented, false, Passive, cowardly, and Uncertain, unclear, messy.

    In Paper IV the relationship between constructive and destructive leadership behaviours and trust is examined. The results show that constructive leadership contributed most to trust in the immediate supervisor. A great deal of trust in immediate supervisors can be understood by evaluating both constructive and destructive leadership behaviours.

    This thesis contributes with context-specific knowledge on trust in leaders in a military context and knowledge of psychological processes and individual dispositions that shape and change the willingness to trust leaders. The main findings presented in this thesis are the identification of characteristics of the trustor, the trustee, and the context which influences trust in military leaders.

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  • 28.
    Foyer, Pernilla
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA). Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Early Experience, Maternal Care and Behavioural Test Design: Effects on the Temperament of Military Working Dogs2015Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    För över 15 000 år sedan började våra anfäder avla på vargar och lade då grunden för den uppsjö av olika hundraser vi ser idag. Exakt hur den här processen såg ut, när eller vart den startade vet vi faktiskt inte med säkerhet, men att vargen/hunden var det första djur att påbörja en sådan förändring, det vet vi.

    Att aktivt välja ut och avla på önskvärda egenskaper påverkar och förändrar gradvis djuret. Den här förändringen styrs i hög grad av gener, vilket medför att ett djurs s.k. genotyp förändras. Den här förändringsprocessen, där ett djur gradvis anpassas till ett liv som tamdjur, kallas för domesticering och innebär inte bara att djuret förändras genetiskt, utan också att den ändrar utseende och beteende, dvs. djurets fenotyp ändras också. Det är därför vi bl. a. ser så många olika hundraser som vi gör idag, allt från en liten hårlös Chihuahua till en stor raggig St. Bernard. Alla är de hundar, men de ser väldigt olika ut och har delvis olika egenskaper eller temperament. Det medför att de passar till att göra olika saker och därför också kan vara till stor nytta i samhället i allt från sällskapshunden som kan lära sig leta kantareller, till olika typer av tjänstehundar. Bra ledarhundar åt synskadade, polishundar som söker försvunna människor och narkotika, och försvarsmaktens tjänstehundar som kan förhindra angrepp eller terrorverksamhet genom att leta efter t ex. bomber och vapen - alla kan i förlängningen innebära ökad livskvalité och räddade människoliv. Men för det krävs att hunden passar för jobbet.

    Det är både generna, arvet och olika miljöfaktorer i den tidiga uppväxten som avgör egenskaperna hos en individ. Det är något som har visat sig gälla till exempel för råttor och primater. Studier på råttor har exempelvis pekat på att mängden omvårdnad en råtta får som liten (t ex hur mycket mamman slickar sina barn) påverkar dess egenskaper som vuxen. Och att ju mer omvårdnad de fått, desto mer stresståliga, mindre nervösa och mer nyfikna blev de. Även i studier på människor pekar resultaten i samma riktning. Men gäller detta även för våra hundar? För att öka kunskapen om och förståelsen för hur tidiga erfarenheter påverkar temperament, stress och arbetsförmåga hos våra blivande tjänstehundar i försvarsmakten har därför en rad olika studier på området genomförts.

    Den här avhandlingen fokuserar således på att undersöka vilka generella tidiga erfarenheter och faktorer i den tidiga uppväxtmiljön som tycks kunna vara med och påverka temperamentet hos våra tjänstehundar. Specifikt undersöker den hur tikens omvårdnad påverkar vissa egenskaper. Avhandlingen undersöker vidare hur stresståliga våra hundar är och hur detta yttrar sig i samband med de lämplighets test som hundarna genomgår i syfte att bedöma vilka individer som bör gå vidare till fortsatt träning efter ett och ett halvt års ålder.

    Resultaten i en studie visar att de hundar som bedömts som lämpliga vid lämplighetstestet något oväntat uppvisade ett högre påslag av stresshormonet kortisol, och i en annan studie att lämpliga hundar bedömts vara hyperaktiva/rastlösa och ha vissa svårigheter att ta det lugnt i hemmiljö. Detta samtidigt som de uppvisade en önskvärd temperamentsprofil vid uttagningsprovet, vilket kan antyda att dessa hundar är mer flexibla och motståndskraftiga mot stress, vilket skulle kunna vara resultatet av en lyckad avel.

    Vidare visade resultaten att det finns generella faktorer i den tidiga uppväxtmiljön, såsom tikens tidigare erfarenhet av att vara mamma, kullstorlek och när på året kullen föds, som är med och påverkar olika egenskaper. Den visar också att tikarnas sätt att ta hand om sina valpar varierade men var konsekvent under den första omvårdnadstiden på tre veckor och att det finns en koppling mellan mammans omvårdnads-stil och hur deras valpar blir som vuxna.

    Sammantaget visar avhandlingen att det finns faktorer i den tidiga uppväxtmiljön som påverkar temperamentet senare i livet på våra tjänstehundar.

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  • 29.
    Frank, Anders
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Ledningsvetenskapliga avdelningen (LVA), Sektionen för krigsspel. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID.
    Gamer mode: Identifying and managing unwanted behaviour in military educational wargaming2014Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Games are rule-governed systems at the same time as they are fiction, simulating or representing a real or an abstract world. This defining characteristic may create for different forms of tensions, that is, at different times players may focus on the rules, the fiction or on both during game play. In military education with games, this poses a problem when the learner becomes too focused on the rules, trying to win at any price rather than taking the representation and what it implies in terms of permissible behaviour seriously. In here we attempt to understand how participants in a wargaming situation act out this tension by studying the interaction between the player and the game in military tactical training.

    The results first of all confirm that there is a tension – there are occasions where players are mainly concerned with winning the wargame, disregarding what the theme is meant to represent. I propose the term gamer mode to refer to this player orientation: players in gamer mode have an extreme rule-focused interaction, meaning they behave rationally with respect to game rules but irrationally with respect to the portrayed real-life situation they are training for. Gamer mode can probably occur for many reasons. This thesis documents two contributing factors. The first concerns whenever the game does not match players’ expectation on mimicking warfare. In these situations players may find that the game breaks the fragile contract of upholding an accurate representation of warfare. The other factor that may lead to gamer mode are game design features such as explicit reward structures or victory conditions.

    To remedy the situation, the instructor can, in real-time, actively support players’ orientation towards the game and explain in-game events, keeping them on track. When gamer mode occur I argue that the conditions for learning are compromised as the gaming activity becomes its own learning subject, blurring and overshadowing the learning objective. Although the results suggest that gamer mode is mainly detrimental to learning I conclude that gamer mode is a natural way students will approach games and as such, needs to be dealt with by the instructor.

  • 30.
    Granberg, Magnus
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum. Uppsala universitet.
    Kognitivt stöd för lärande i arbetet: en teoretisk modell baserad på en fallstudie av ett svenskt militärt förband i Kosovo2013Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 31.
    Gustafson, Michael
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Krigsvetenskapliga avdelningen (KVA), Sektionen för operationskonst (KV Opkonst). National Defence University, Department of Tactics and Operational Art, Finland.
    The Duality of Tactical Thought: A Study of how Swedish Land Forces’ Commanders view Tactics in Irregular Warfare2014Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a sociological study of the views of officers in the Swedish Army and its Amphibious Forces on tactics in Irregular Warfare (IW), in particular, Counterinsurgency (COIN). IW comprises struggles, where the military weaker part uses an indirect approach with smaller units and integrates the civilian and military dimensions in a violence spectrum including subversion, terrorism, Guerrilla Warfare and infantry actions. IW is the main armed warfare style in insurgencies. COIN is the combined political, military, economic, social and legal actions in counter insurgencies.

    Data has been collected by means of interviews with almost all (n =43) officers, who were either commanding battalions or rifle and manoeuvre companies while undergoing training for general warfare and international operations. The main theoretical and methodological inspiration is the traditional one for research on social fields, inaugurated by the French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu. The statistical technique used is Multiple Correspondence Analysis. As a background and context base, an inquiry inspired by the Begriffsgechichte (Conceptual History) tradition explores the genesis and development of understandings of the term Irregular Warfare. The research question is outlined as; “how can contemporary Swedish military thought on tactics in Irregular Warfare be characterized using descriptive patterns, mapped in relation to background factors and normative standards?

    The most significant findings are that there are two main opposing notions separating the officers’ views on tactics in Irregular Warfare: (1) a focus on larger, combat oriented and collectively operating military units versus smaller and larger, more intelligence oriented and dispersed operating units, and (2) a focus on military tasks and kinetic effects versus military and civilian tasks as well as “soft” effects. The distribution of these views can be presented as a two-dimensional space structured by the two axes. This space represents four categories of tactics, partly diverging from normative military standards for Counterinsurgency. This social space of standpoints shows different structural tendencies for background factors of social and cultural character, particularly dominant concerning military backgrounds, international mission experiences and civilian education. Compared to military standards for Counterinsurgency, the two tactical types characterized by a Regular Warfare mind-set stands out as counter-normative.

    Signs of creative thought on military practice and theory, as well as a still persistent Regular Warfare doxa are apparent. Power struggles might thus develop, effecting the transformation to a broadened warfare culture with an enhanced focus also on Irregular Warfare. The result does not support research results arguing for a convergence of military thought in the European transformation of Armed Forces. The main argument goes beyond tactics and suggests sociological analysis on reciprocal effects regarding strategy, operational art, tactics as well as leadership, concerning the mind-set and preferences for Regular, Irregular and Hybrid Warfare.

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  • 32.
    Hansén, Dan
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Crisis and Perspectives on Policy Change: Swedish Counter-terrorism Policymaking2007Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 33.
    Hede, Susanne
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum. Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier, Karlstads universitet.
    Crisis management: psychological challenges for leaders2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige liksom i många andra länder har fokus på krishantering ökat. Detta beror till stor del på kriser som har inträffat nationellt och internationellt. Dessa kriser har bland annat föranlett nya lagar inom krishantering. I Sverige är ansvaret decentraliserat till den kommunala nivån och principerna i krishanteringssystemet innebär att kommunala chefer ska planera för och kunna hantera de kriser som inträffar.  Efter krisen förväntas de också lära av händelsen. Totalt har ansvaret och  förväntningarna ökat på dom som ska hantera kriser. Krishantering är dock bara en av många  uppgifter som kommunala chefer har.

    Syftet med denna avhandling var att få kunskap om hur chefer på den kommunala nivån uppfattar och upplever krishantering (crisis management) i olika faser.

    Avhandlingen består av fyra artiklar (Paper I-IV) med empiriska data som  underlag. Datamaterialet (bland annat intervjuer) i Paper I, II och IV har analyserats med  kvalitativa metoder, medan Paper III (enkätstudie) har analyserats kvantitativt.  Paper I har bidragit med en teoretisk modell som belyser de komplexa bedömningar och värderingar som ligger till grund för chefernas beslut och agerande i en  verklig krishändelse. Paper II bidrar med en ökad kunskap om hur  utvärderingar för  lärande efter en kris kan utvecklas. Analysen visar på att reflektion i grupp  tillför  andra aspekter än gängse myndighetsutvärderingar. I Paper II identifieras också motivations faktorer under en kris. I Paper III har tre olika faktorer av upplevd  beredskap analyserats: upplevelse av kommunens beredskap, upplevelsen av den  individuella  beredskapen samt motivation för beredskap. Dessa faktorer förklaras med olika psyko logiska  teorier och koncept. Resultatet bidrar till förståelsen för drivkrafter för motivation att arbeta med och utveckla krisberedskap. I Paper IV fokuseras motivation för beredskapsarbete. Artikeln bidrar med en modell som visar de nära kopplingarna mellan olika motivationsfaktorer och hur de påverkar varandra. Vidare synliggörs erfaren hetens centrala roll samt betydelsen av personliga faktorer för motivationen.

    Sammantaget visar avhandlingen hur psykologiska teorier och begrepp kan bidra till förståelsen för de kommunala ledarnas uppfattning om sin roll som krishanterare. Kunskap framtagen i avhandlingen är användbar vid utveckling av krishantering.

  • 34.
    Henåker, Lars
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för krigsvetenskap och militärhistoria. Finnish National Defence University .
    Mastering Tactics: Exploring and measuring victory in battle2023Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna avhandling undersöker dagens effektiva militära taktik i strid genom att mäta parametrar bakom framgångsrika och mindre framgångsrika taktiska prestationer. Som sådan ger det kunskap till forskningen om taktikens utövning inom krigsstudier en bättre förståelse för stridens utfall. Syftet med avhandlingen är att pröva befintliga teorier samt att skapa ny teori om vad som påverkar taktiska resultat i strid för att förklara vad som leder till taktisk seger. Seger kan förklaras genom taktiska element som påverkar framgång i striden. Segerrika strider kan delvis förklaras genom några av de färdigheter taktiker besitter i jämförelse med de som förlorar duellen. Vidare har avhandlingen ett förhållningssätt för att kritiskt utvärdera taktisk kompetens och identifiera vad som är framgångsrik taktik samt hur teorierna stämmer överens med praktiska erfarenheter. Med ökad insikt över vem och hur taktik påverkar stridens seger eller förlust har vi möjlighet att förbättra kompetensutvecklingen inom militär taktik för forskare, analytiker och för dem som utövar krigföring. Avhandlingen består av fyra fristående artiklar. Dessa artiklar söker samband mellan personliga förmågor som expertis, attityd, allmän intelligens och individuella beslutsstilar till olika nivåer av seger. När vi sammanfattar alla fyra artiklarna leder det till tre viktiga slutsatser: (1) Dagens manöverkrigföring innehåller framgångsrika mätbara element då en konventionell motståndare engageras i strid. (2) Taktiker som följer stegen från den ideala modellen som representerar "den bästa praxis för att utföra taktik" ökar sina chanser att vinna duellen, speciellt om motståndaren inte följer några eller färre av stegen samtidigt. (3) Personliga beslutsfattningsstilar påverkar taktiska resultat i strid. Dessa slutsatser är relevanta vid utarbetandet av effektiv taktik såväl som för taktikers profil i framtiden.

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  • 35.
    Hermansson, Helena
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier). Statsvetenskapliga institutionen, Uppsala universitet.
    Centralized Disaster Management Collaboration in Turkey2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Following unprecedented earthquakes in 1999, highly centralized Turkey initiated reforms that aimed to improve disaster management collaboration and to empower local authorities. In 2011, two earthquakes hit the country anew affecting the city of Van and town of Erciş in Turkey’s southeast.

    In attempts to reduce disaster risk, global disaster risk reduction frameworks and disaster scholars and practitioners advocate collaborative and decentralized disaster management strategies. This thesis investigates how such strategies are received in a centralized and hierarchical national political-administrative system that largely is the anti-thesis of the prescribed solutions. More specifically, this research investigates the barriers and prerequisites for disaster management collaboration between both public and civil society actors in Turkey (during preparedness, response, and recovery) as well as how Turkey’s political-administrative system affects disaster management collaboration and its outcomes. The challenges to decentralization of disaster management are also investigated.

    Based on forty-four interviews with actors ranging from national to village level and NGOs, the findings suggest that the political-administrative system can alter the relative importance, validity, and applicability of previously established enabling or constraining conditions for collaboration. This may in turn challenge previous theoretical assumptions regarding collaboration.

    By adopting a mode of collaboration that fit the wider political-administrative system, collaborative disaster management progress was achieved in Turkey’s national level activities. Although there were exceptions, collaboration spanning sectors and/or administrative levels were generally less forthcoming, partly due to the disjoint character of the political-administrative system. Political divergence between local and central actors made central-local collaboration difficult but these barriers were partly trumped by other prerequisites enabling collaboration like interdependence and pre-existing relations. The findings suggest that the specific attributes of disasters may both help and hinder disaster management collaboration. Such collaboration generally improved disaster response. The findings also indicate that the decentralization attempts may have been premature as the conditions for ensuring a functional decentralization of disaster management are presently lacking. Decentralization attempts are commonly suggested to increase local capacity and local participation but the findings of this dissertation suggest that in Turkey, these commodities may currently have better chances of being increased by refraining from decentralization.

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  • 36.
    Hobbins, Jennifer
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum. Karlstads universitet, Handelshögskolan.
    Samhälle, individ och ansvar: en studie om synen på arbetslöshet2016Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    ”Men alltså grejen är ju att i dagens samhälle, i min ålder... Det är så många som är arbetslösa så det är så godkänt nu liksom. Folk tänker bara ’jaha är du också arbetslös’... Liksom antingen är dom arbetslösa själva, eller så har dom i alla fall en kompis eller tre som också är arbetslösa.”

    Den bild som framkommer i intervjun med Fredrik skiljer sig betydligt från den bild som ofta återspeglas i medier och politiska debatter, där individens egna ansvar och skyldigheter för att befinna sig i arbetslöshet betonas i allt högre grad. Dessa skilda utgångspunkter kan få olika följder ifråga om exempelvis förväntningar på arbetslösa, arbetslösa människors självbild eller arbetslöshetspolitik. Denna avhandling ger en ökad kunskap om vilka föreställningar om arbetslöshet som finns i det svenska samhället idag. Genom analyser av rättslig reglering, civilsamhälleliga organisationers verksamheter samt intervjuer med arbetslösa människor söker denna avhandling att synliggöra och problematisera förståelser av arbetslöshet samt hur dessa förståelser hanteras av arbetslösa.

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  • 37.
    Hollis, Simon
    Hertie School of Governance .
    A rational response to natural disasters?: Explaining the global rise of regional disaster risk management2012Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural disasters pervade the certainty of social life. In a globalized world this truism increasingly calls for transnational solutions to prevent, prepare, and respond to these deadly disruptions. Regional Disaster Risk Management (DRM) has recently emerged to meet this concern. However, a number of observations question the expected motivation that compels states to cooperate in this important issue area. First, there has been only a moderate increase in the relative estimated economic costs from natural disasters in a majority of regional organizations, and the number of deaths related to natural disasters has consistently decreased. Second, after a tranquil period of cooperation from the mid 1970s, regional DRM rapidly developed and spread across the globe. This sudden rise in DRM cooperation seems difficult to explain if the costs from natural disasters have not considerably changed. Third, remarkable similarities appear in the goals and wording of regional DRM agreements despite the varied political, historical and cultural contexts that typify regional organizations. These empirical observations go against conventional expectations and question the core motivation of the state’s protection of its citizens. This thesis explains the emergence of regional Disaster Risk Management (DRM) globally. This is achieved by applying two alternative traditions of inquiry to ten regional organizations. The first is informed by a neopositive methodology and neoliberal institutional theory. It reveals that a combination of interdependence and asymmetrical risk are a sufficient explanation for the outcome. The second is informed through an analytical methodology and world society theory. It reveals that the UN and the international community are an adequate cause for motivating states through the mutual application of relational and cultural diffusion. An additional aspect of this thesis assesses the extent to which these contending approaches can provide a more complete explanation. This is achieved through a conservative translation of their different modes of knowledge production: an exercise that encourages additional ideal types and hypotheses for the purpose of fostering a richer explanation according to the terms set by each tradition of inquiry. This thesis contributes to the debate on the evolving function of the state in a globalized world. It provides an empirical contribution through a comprehensive comparison of 10 regional organizations; it delivers a theoretical contribution by inter alia questioning the scope conditions of neoliberal institutionalism; and it provides a metatheoretical contribution by offering an alternative avenue for thinking about stylized epistemological divides in the discipline of International Relations (IR). 

  • 38.
    Jensen, Eva
    Örebro universitet.
    (Mis)understanding and learning from feedback relations in a simple dynamic system2003Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 39.
    Johansson, Eva
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum. Karlstad universitet.
    UNknown soldier – A portrait of the Swedish peacekeeper at the threshold of the 21st century2001Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 40.
    Kim, Tae Hoon
    Faculty of History, University of Cambridge, (GBR).
    The Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) and the politics of fuel and power generation, 1961-89.2017Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 41.
    Kleffner, Jann K.
    University of Amsterdam.
    Complementarity in the Rome Statute and National Criminal Jurisdictions2007Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 42.
    Koraeus, Mats
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Stressing Knowledge: Organisational closed-ness and knowledge acquisition under pressure2017Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Organisations have been analytically conceptualised as being somewhat analogous to individuals for a long time. They have culture; they can learn; and they can behave in various odd ways. But how far can the simile be stretched? What other types of organisational cognition can we imagine? And what benefits can we gain by introducing new perspectives of this kind? 

    This study shows that organisations can exhibit familiar symptoms of stress, such as closing themselves to the outside world and becoming unreceptive to external stimuli and input. They retreat to what is familiar and safe and put on blinders to hide anything that does not already fit with how they feel things should be, often in situations where they would be best served by being as open to and perceptive of these external stimuli as possible. Using a model of organisational behaviour that connects external pressure to an internal mode of operation and to specific knowledge-seeking behaviours, the study examines two case pairs—two success stories and two catastrophic failures—to examine patterns of organisational cognition. By comparing and contrasting the failure of the FBI during the 1993 Waco siege with its subsequent success during the 1996 Montana Freemen standoff, and doing the same with the Swedish Foreign Ministry’s handling of the 2004 Southeast Asian tsunami and the 2006 evacuation from the war in Lebanon, a pattern emerges where certain types of knowledge proved to be the key to staying as open-minded, responsive, and dynamic as these crises demanded. This knowledge can be used both during a crisis to resolve some of the confusion and time pressure that is endemic to such situations, as well as before a crisis to mitigate or even stave off the approaching chaos.

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    Koraeus2017-StressingKnowledge.pdf
  • 43.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen. Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för freds- och konfliktforskning.
    Bush generals and small boy battalions: military cohesion in Liberia and beyond2016Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    All organizations involved in war are concerned with military cohesion. Yet previous studies have only investigated cohesion in a very narrow manner, focusing almost solely on Western state militaries or on micro-level explanations. This dissertation argues for the need to broaden this perspective. It focuses on three classic sources of cohesion – coercion, compensation and constructs (such as identity and ideology) – and investigates their relevance in the Second Liberian Civil War (1999-2003). More specifically, this dissertation consists of an inquiry of how the conflict's three main military organizations – Charles Taylor’s Government of Liberia (GoL), the Liberians United for Reconciliation and Democracy (LURD) and Movement for Democracy in Liberia (MODEL) – drew on these three sources to foster cohesion. Based on thirteen months of ethnographic fieldwork with former combatants, this dissertation contains five parts: an introduction, which focuses on issues of theory and method, and four essays that investigate the three sources of cohesion in the three organizations. Essay I focuses on the LURD rebels, and provides an insider account of their strategy. It shows that even decentralized movements like the LURD can execute strategy, and contends that the LURD fought its fiercest battles not against the government, but to keep itself together. Essay II focuses on coercion, and counters the prevailing view of African rebels’ extensive use of coercion to keep themselves together. Since extreme coercion in particular remained illegitimate, its use would have decreased, rather than increased, cohesion. Essay III investigates the government militias to whom warfighting was subcontracted. In a context characterized by a weak state and fragmented social organization, compensation may have remained the only available source of cohesion. Essay IV investigates identities as sources of cohesion. It argues that while identities are a powerful cohesive source, they must be both created and maintained to remain relevant. Taken together, this dissertation argues for a more comprehensive approach to the investigation of cohesion, and one that also takes into account mezzo- and macro-level factors.

  • 44.
    Larsdotter, Kersti
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Krigsvetenskapliga avdelningen (KVA), Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Military Interventions in Internal Wars: The Study of Peace or the Study of War?2011Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis sets out to increase our understanding on how to conduct successful military interventions in internal wars, such as the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan. But, instead of investigating different variables which might contribute to success, the focus is on the practice of knowledge production.

    Numerous scholars have focused on how to conduct military interventions in internal wars successfully. However, research is conducted in different disciplines, such as Peace Studies and War Studies. According to interdisciplinary advocates, this might impede a rational advancement of knowledge. The aim of this thesis, therefore, is to scrutinise whether military interventions in internal wars are understood and approached differently in different disciplines, and to investigate whether these differences result in different knowledge about how to conduct successful military interventions in internal wars. The investigation has been conducted in two steps.

    In the first step – focusing on theory – research on peace operations and counterinsurgencies was compared, regarding underlying assumptions, independ­ent and dependent variables, causal mechanisms and methodology. Several differences were identified. Not only are the underlying assumptions, theories, and variables different between the two research areas of peace operations and counterinsurgencies, there are also differences in methodological approaches, such as the unit of analysis. These differences could imply that disciplines frame the way we understand the object of study and how we conduct research.

    In the second step – focusing on practice – the ISAF mission in Afghanistan was interpreted from the two disciplinary perspectives. Several differences were identified here as well, suggesting that disciplinary approaches influence our knowledge of how to conduct successful military interventions in internal wars. Departing from the differences found between the two research areas in the first part of the thesis, different ways to overcome these differences are suggested. Following these suggestions, research on military interventions in internal wars might become more rational, potentially increasing our understanding of how to conduct these operations successfully.

  • 45.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Göteborg universitet, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Labelling and identity: The case of public labelling in late adolescence and self-labelling processes1983Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 46.
    Larsson, Oscar
    Department of Government, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    The Governmentality of Meta-governance: Identifying Theoretical and Empirical Challenges of Network Governance in the Political Field of Security and Beyond2015Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Meta-governance recently emerged in the field of governance as a new approach which claims that its use enables modern states to overcome problems associated with network governance. This thesis shares the view that networks are an important feature of contemporary politics which must be taken seriously, but it also maintains that networks pose substantial analytical and political challenges. It proceeds to investigate the potential possibilities and problems associated with meta-governance on both theoretical and empirical levels.

    The theoretical discussion examines meta-governance in relation to governmentality, and it puts forward the claim that meta-governance may be understood as a specific type of neo-liberal governmentality. The meta-governance perspective regards networks as a complementary structure to traditional administration that can be utilized in the implementation and realization of public policy, but which also preserves the self-regulating and flexible character of networks. This generates a contradiction between the goals of public management and the character of networks that requires further investigation.

    The combination of the specific dynamics of the political field of security, the diminishing role of sovereign powers, the emergence of security networks, and the meta-governance stance adopted by the Swedish state constitutes a situation that should have been favorable for the successful employment of meta-governance. The empirical investigation of meta-governance is divided into two parts. The first part reviews the historical process involved and shows how the Swedish government and public authorities have adopted a meta-governance stance. The second analyzes the specific instruments and strategies that have been deployed in the governance of security communications and in the management of Sweden’s new security communications system which is an important aspect of security networks. The historical study together with the analysis of the meta-governance tools deployed reveals that the meta-governors neither reached the goals specified, nor fulfilled the overall purpose of successful security communications.

    I argue on the basis of the theoretical and empirical findings obtained in the present study that it is very difficult to successfully employ meta-governance in respect to security and crisis management, and that we have sound reasons to suspect that meta-governance will run into similar difficulties in other political fields as well. I conclude that meta-governance is a far more difficult practice than has been anticipated by existing theories and policy recommendations. Turning to meta-governance as a way to govern and control organizations may in fact lead to further fragmentation and distortion of public politics.

    Ladda ner (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 47.
    Ledberg, Sofia Knöchel
    Department of Government, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Governing the military: Professional Autonomy in the People's LIberation Army2014Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The reform process that has been underway in China the past 30 years has affected most parts of Chinese society. In regard to core branches of the civilian state administration, public administration research provides evidence of far-reaching decentralization, marketization, and a relaxation of direct political control within many policy areas. Despite the fact that the military in any Marxist-Leninist state is an indispensable part of the state administration, it is rarely included in research on the Chinese state administrations. In this dissertation, it is argued that the military is intrinsically linked to the overall political stability of the Chinese state not only because it constitutes one of the most central branches of the Chinese cadre administration, but also given its close connection to the ruling communist party. Hence it deserves greater research focus.

    The overarching focus of this study is political control and governance vis-à-vis the Chinese military. Contrary to previous studies that have approached the issue of control by investigating military infringement on civilian policy making, the analysis here illustrates that the structures and the underlying logic of control are better captured by a study of the professional autonomy of the Chinese military officer corps. Professional autonomy is investigated within the military education system, given that education is a central undertaking for any profession.

    By suggesting a new approach to the study of the relationship between the political entities of the state and the military, an approach which makes use of insights from both the political science subfield of public administration and the sociology of professions, this dissertation makes important theoretical and analytical contributions to the field of civil-military relations. Yet the usefulness of the actor-centered approach put forward here, which focuses on the autonomy of the profession within the organization, reaches beyond the immediate study of the military and can be used in any analysis of power relations between the political entities of the state and its administrations. This dissertation also contributes to increase the understanding of Chinese military education, which is one of the military’s most important peace time undertakings.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    ledberg-Governing_the_military_2014
    Ladda ner (jpg)
    omslag
  • 48.
    Linehagen, Frida
    Avdelningen för Riskhantering och Samhällssäkerhet, Lunds universitet, (SWE).
    Gender (in)equality within the Swedish Armed Forces: Resistance and Functional Disinclination2023Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Historically and traditionally, military work has been closely associated with men. However, the post-Cold War normalization process has brought about a transformation in both the Swedish Armed Forces themselves and the perception of the organization. Normative concerns, including gender equality, have gained significant prominence, compelling the armed forces to embark onvarious initiatives aimed at achieving a more gender-balanced structure. Despite the extensive profiling and efforts made by the Swedish Armed Forces (SAF) over the past decades, women currently make up only 11.9% of the military personnel.

    This dissertation examines how (in)equality manifests itself in the military profession today, in view of the substantial changes that have occurred. The dissertation encompasses both the experiences of personnel and the actions of the organisation. By doing so, it sheds light on the gradual advancement of gender equality within the SAF, attributing this delay to resistance against change that becomes evident at the structural, organizational, and professional levels. This resistance is further explained through the concept of "functional disinclination," which emerges from the empirical studies presented in this dissertation.

    Utilizing a range of data and methodologies, the dissertation collectively highlights an organizational incapacity to align with the normative demands set forth. The barriers to achieving gender equality are not merely reflective of resistance; they also form a recurring pattern that impedes the implementation of normative changes

  • 49.
    Liwång, Hans
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA).
    Risk-based ship security analysis: a decision-support approach2015Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sjöfartsskydd bedrivs idag både av militära styrkor och civila redare. Det är inte ofarligt, men nödvändigt och viktigt. Med fokus på säkerhetshot undersöker denna avhandling hur fartyg ska förbereda sig inför potentiellt farlig verksamhet, det vill säga hur man skapar ett lämpligt riskmedvetande i förhållande till fartygsskydd. I avhandlingen undersöks både militära och civila förhållanden och därför kan erfarenheter från båda områdena användas.

    Inom sjösäkerhet har regler, rekommendationer och metoder systematiskt utvecklats under många år. Inom sjöfartsskydd är däremot frågorna inte lika belysta och angreppssätten och erfarenheterna är ofta dolda bakom hemligstämplar. Det är rimligt att anta att riskanalysmetoder från andra områden kan användas även för sjöfartsskyddsanalyser, men inte utan att metoderna anpassas till områdets specifika behov. Därför leder den begränsade forskningen och dokumentationen inom området till ett kunskapsgap.

    För att reducera de identifierade utmaningarna inom sjöfartsskydd undersöks i avhandling hur en lämplig analysstrategi för fartygsskydd ser ut. För att öka den övergripande säkerheten för de analyserade verksamheterna ska metoden kunna stötta nödvändiga kompromisser mellan sjösäkerhet och fartygsskydd. Syftet är att utveckla en analysstrategi som är systematisk och som ger beslutsfattaren en lämplig bild av de aktuella riskerna. För att undersöka detta område behandlas i avhandlingen både hot mot militära fartyg och hotet mot civila fartyg från sjöröveri. Därför kan resultatet användas för att utveckla både militära doktriner och civila riktlinjer.

    Studien visar att hur fartygets verksamhet beskrivs i analysen är centralt för resultatet och därmed förståelsen av riskerna. Inte bara skyddslösningar i sig, utan även besättningens riskförståelse och hur det implementerade skyddet förstås måste inkluderas i analysen.  Hur det implementerade skyddet förstås kommer också i stor utsträckning att påverka effektiviteten hos implementerade åtgärder. I avhandlingen konstateras också att om analysen görs utan att ta hänsyn till de osäkerheter som finns kan det innebära att resultatet är missvisande. Därför är den osäkerhetsanalys som är möjlig med ett kvantitativt angreppssätt nödvändig, speciellt om syftet är att identifiera robusta skyddsåtgärder.

  • 50.
    Lundmark, Martin
    Handelshögskolan, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Transatlantic defence industry integration - Discourse and action in the organizational field of the defence market2011Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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