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  • 1.
    Gustafsson, Linus
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CATS (Center for Asymmetric Threat Studies).
    Tal av Linus Gustafsson tisdagen den 19 januari 2016 vid konstitutionsutskottet och justitieutskottets hearing i Sveriges riksdag om radikalisering och rekrytering till våldsbejakande extremism i den digitala miljön.Manuscript (preprint) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2.
    Gustafsson, Linus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CATS (Center for Asymmetric Threat Studies).
    Terrorismresor2016Other (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Gustafsson, Linus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CATS (Center for Asymmetric Threat Studies).
    Våldsbejakande islamistisk extremism och sociala medier2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syrien och Irak har kommit att bli den globala jihadismens epicentrum och personer inom våldsbejakande islamistiska extremistgrupper och rörelser som Islamiska staten och al-Qaida sprider sina budskap på sociala medier. Denna rapport syftar till att beskriva hur sociala medier används för propagandaspridning samt vilka motiv och orsaker som går att skönja i några av de svenskspråkiga Facebook-grupperna och profilerna under perioden 2012-2014.

    Studien visar att Facebook används som en plattform för svenskspråkiga grupper och profiler för att (1) sprida officiell propaganda från terroristorganisationer som Islamiska staten och al-Qaida. Facebook används också för att (2) sprida inofficiell propaganda till fördel för terroristorganisationer som Islamiska staten och al-Qaida. Facebook används som en plattform för försök till rekrytering till IS.

    Informationen som sprids sker dels från personer i Sverige och dels från personer som rest från Sverige till Syrien och IS-kontrollerade områden. Hyllningar till våldsbejakande islamistiska ideologer och terroristorganisationers ledare sprids genom texter, bilder, fotografier och videos. Personer från Sverige som befinner sig i Syrien kommunicerar ”hem” till Sverige genom reseberättelser från IS-kontrollerade områden.

    Inom dessa profiler och grupper går att finna ett antal motiv och orsaker till varför någon sympatiserar med våldsbejakande islamistiska ideologier och rörelser, samt argument för att någon ska resa till Syrien för att ansluta sig till IS. Ett antal faktorer varvas och överlappas: humanitära, religiösa, ideologiska motiv tillsammans med martyrskap och något som kan ses som äventyr, våld, vapen och gemenskap.

    Orsakerna och motiven kan inte ses som hela förklaringen till varför någon radikaliseras, väljer att sympatisera med, eller ansluta sig till, terroristorganisationer som Islamiska staten eller al-Qaida. Rapporten är dock försök till ett bidrag till en djupare kunskap om motiv och orsaker.

  • 4.
    Gustafsson, Linus
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CATS (Center for Asymmetric Threat Studies).
    Hyllengren, Peder
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Allt fler från Sverige strider i Syrien och Irak2015In: Vårt Försvar, ISSN 0042-2800, no 2Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5.
    Gustafsson, Linus
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CATS (Center for Asymmetric Threat Studies).
    Hyllengren, Peder
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Ranstorp, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CATS (Center for Asymmetric Threat Studies).
    From the Welfare State to the Caliphate: How a Swedish suburb became a breeding ground for foreign fighters streaming into Syria and Iraq.2015In: Foreign policy, ISSN 0015-7228, E-ISSN 1945-2276Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6.
    Gustafsson, Linus
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CATS (Center for Asymmetric Threat Studies).
    Ranstorp, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CATS (Center for Asymmetric Threat Studies).
    Swedish Foreign Fighters in Syria and Iraq: An Analysis of open-source intelligence and statistical data2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The conflict in Syria and Iraq has resulted in an increase in the number of violent Islamist extremists in Sweden, and a significant increase of people from Sweden travelling to join terrorist groups abroad. Since 2012 it is estimated that about 300 people from Sweden have travelled to Syria and Iraq to join terrorist groups such as the Islamic State (IS) and, to a lesser extent, al-Qaeda affiliated groups such as Jabhat al-Nusra. Even though the foreign fighter issue has been on the political agenda for several years and received considerable media attention, very little is known about the Swedish contingent.

    The purpose of this study is to examine a set of variables of the foreign fighters that have travelled from Sweden to join jihadi terrorist groups in Syria and Iraq in the period of June 2012 to September 2016. Much of the statistical data analysed have been declassified and provided by the Swedish Security Service. The variables examined are: time of travel; age; gender; geographical concentration in Sweden; citizenship and country of origin; average time spent in the conflict area; numbers of individuals killed; number of returnees; number of fighters remaining in the conflict area; social media activities; and the financing of foreign fighters. The analysis includes 267 people that are or have been residents of Sweden.

    36 people (first-time travellers) travelled to Syria or Iraq in 2012, 98 in 2013, 78 in 2014, 36 in 2015, and 5 in 2016. In addition, some of the foreign fighters have travelled back and forth between the conflict area and Sweden. About 80 percent are associated with IS, and more than 30 percent are associated with Jabhat al-Nusra. 76 percent of the foreign fighters are men and 24 percent are women. The amount of women has significantly changed during the period, from “a few” in 2012 to 18 percent in 2013, and constituting about 40 percent of the foreign fighters in the conflict area in 2014 and 2015.

    The average age of the foreign fighters is 26, and there are no significant differences between the average age of men and women. Still, there is a great variation indicating there are very young travellers but also older ones, as the age ranges in a span of 50 years. 18 percent of the travellers (45 people) are 19 or younger, while about 60 percent (154 people) are between the ages of 20 to 29. Very few people above the age of forty seem to travel. The average age does not change over the period.

    A majority of the foreign fighters, an estimated 80 percent, come from four of Sweden’s 21 counties – Västra Götaland, Stockholm, Skåne and Örebro. About one third of the foreign fighters are, or have been, registered in Västra Götaland County, one quarter in Stockholm County, and a tenth in Örebro County and a tenth in Skåne County. More than seventy percent have been residents of an exposed area (socially deprived areas hit by high criminality and low socioeconomic status). There is information that there have been recruiters in some of the areas, but social media may also have played a role in the mobilisation of foreign fighters.

    75 percent of the foreign fighters are Swedish citizens, and 34 percent are born in Sweden. There are geographical concentrations to North Africa, the Horn of Africa and the Middle East, as was seen in the 1990’s and 2000’s. There are also concentrations to the Former Yugoslavia and Russia. 38 countries are represented when analysing country of birth, and most of the foreign fighters have at least one parent with country of birth outside of Sweden.

    The average time spent in the conflict area is 16 months, but there is great variation where some foreign fighters have been there for only a month and others for several years. The average time spent for men is 16 months, while the average for women is 21 months.

    At least 49 people from Sweden have died in Syria or Iraq. All of them are men. The data shows that there are no indications that a larger group of the Swedish foreign fighters has been killed in one single battle. Not more than three people have died during a single month. About half of those who have died are from the Västra Götaland region.

    As of September 2016, 106 foreign fighters (40 percent) had returned to Sweden, while 112 (42 percent) were still in Syria or Iraq. It is estimated that 49 of the 267 (18 percent) have died in the conflict.

  • 7.
    Gustafsson, Linus
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CATS (Center for Asymmetric Threat Studies).
    Ranstorp, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CATS (Center for Asymmetric Threat Studies).
    Hyllengren, Peder
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Vilken roll har polisen för att förebygga och förhindra våldsbejakande extremism?2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8.
    Ranstorp, Magnus
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CATS (Center for Asymmetric Threat Studies).
    Gustafsson, Linus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CATS (Center for Asymmetric Threat Studies).
    Hyllengren, Peder
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Förebyggande av våldsbejakande extremism på lokal nivå: Exempel och lärdomar från Sverige och Europa2015Report (Other academic)
1 - 8 of 8
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