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  • 1.
    Attina, Fulvio
    et al.
    Department of Political and Social Sciences, University of Cataniavia, Italy.
    Boin, Arjen
    Department of Political Science, Leiden University, The Netherlands; Public Administration Institute, Louisiana State University, USA.
    Ekengren, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Designing EU Crisis Management Capacities: Filling the Glass2014In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 129-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union (EU) has modest but promising capacities to assist member states overwhelmed by disaster through its Civil Protection Mechanism. The EU also routinely sends civil and military missions to hotspots outside EU territory. But these capacities do not suffice in the face of transboundary crises: threats that cross geographical and policy borders within the Union. Examples include epidemics, financial crises, floods, and cyber terrorism. Nation states cannot cope with these threats without international collaboration. In this article, we explore the EU's efforts to develop transboundary crisis management capacities. We describe these budding capacities, explain their policy origins, and explore their future potential.

  • 2.
    Boin, Arjen
    et al.
    Leiden University, The Netherlands.
    Bossong, Raphael
    Europe University Viadrina, Frankfurt, Germany.
    Brazova, Vera-Karin
    Adam Mickiewicz University, Poland.
    Di Camillo, Federica
    Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI), Italy.
    Coste, Frédéric
    Dorussen, Han
    Department of Government, University of Essex, UK.
    Ekengren, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Fanoulis, Evangelos
    Department of Government, University of Essex, UK.
    Hegemann, Hendrik
    University of Hamburg, Germany.
    Hellenberg, Timo
    Hellenberg International.
    Kesetovic, Zelimir
    Faculty of Security Studies, University of Belgrade, Serbia.
    Kirchner, Emil
    Department of Government, University of Essex, England.
    Kuipers, Sanneke
    Leiden University, The Netherlands.
    Marrone, Alessandro
    Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI), Italy.
    Matczak, Piotr
    Adam Mickiewicz University, Poland.
    Nexon, Elisande
    Fondation pour la Recherche Stratégique (FRS), Paris, France.
    Pettersson, Ylva
    Swedish Institute of International Affairs, Sweden.
    Rhinard, Mark
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Samardzija, Visnja
    Department for European Integration, Institute for Development and International Relations (IRMO), Croatia.
    Szalankiewicz, Dominika
    Swedish Defence University.
    Tessari, Paola
    Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI), Italy.
    Ungaro, Alessandro R.
    Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI), Italy.
    Visuri, Pekka
    National Defence University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Civil Security and the European Union: A Survey of European civil security systems and the role of the EU in building shared crisis management capacities2014Report (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Boin, Arjen
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Ekengren, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Preparing for the World Risk Society: Towards a New Security Paradigm for the European Union2009In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 285-294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The world of crises and disasters is changing rapidly. We are witnessing new types of adversity. In addition, modern societies have become increasingly vulnerable to disruptions, new and old. This new world demands new types of responses, which nation states cannot produce alone. Nation states will have to cooperate to protect their citizens from these threats. This article investigates the role of the European Union in the development of new safety and security arrangements. It identifies conceptual building blocks for a new security paradigm and offers design principles that can facilitate a shared way of thinking and acting in the safety and security domain

  • 4.
    Boin, Arjen
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Ekengren, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS).
    Myrdal, Sara
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS).
    Rhinard, Mark
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Gränsöverskridande hot och den nya kommissionens roll2009In: Internationella studier, ISSN 0020-952X, no 2, p. 36-46Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Boin, Arjen
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Ekengren, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS).
    Myrdal, Sara
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS).
    Rhinard, Mark
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Preparing for Transboundary Threats: what Role for the Next European Commission?2009Report (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Boin, Arjen
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Ekengren, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Rhinard, Mark
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Functional security and crisis management capacity in the European Union2006Book (Other academic)
    Download (jpg)
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  • 7.
    Boin, Arjen
    et al.
    Leiden University, Department of Political Science, Leiden, the Netherlands, (NLD).
    Ekengren, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section, Sektionen för krishantering och internationell samverkan.
    Rhinard, Mark
    Department of Economic History and International Relations, Stockholm University, Stockholm, (SWE).
    Hiding in Plain Sight: Conceptualizing the Creeping Crisis2020In: Risk, Hazards & Crisis in Public Policy, ISSN 1944-4079, E-ISSN 1944-4079, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 116-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The COVID‐19 crisis is a stark reminder that modern society is vulnerable to a special species of trouble: the creeping crisis. The creeping crisis poses a deep challenge to both academics and practitioners. In the crisis literature, it remains ill‐defined and understudied. It is even harder to manage. As a threat, it carries a potential for societal disruption—but that potential is not fully understood. An accumulation of these creeping crises can erode public trust in institutions. This paper proposes a definition of a creeping crisis, formulates research questions, and identifies the most relevant theoretical approaches. It provides the building blocks for the systematic study of creeping crises.

  • 8.
    Boin, Arjen
    et al.
    Leiden universitet.
    Ekengren, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Rhinard, Mark
    Utrikespolitiska institutet och Stockholms universitet.
    Making Sense of Sense-Making: The EU's Role in Collecting, Analysing, and Disseminating Information in Times of Crisis2014Report (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Boin, Arjen
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Ekengren, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Rhinard, Mark
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Making sense of sense-making: the EU's role in collecting, analysing, and disseminating information in times of crisis2014Book (Other academic)
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 10.
    Boin, Arjen
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Ekengren, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Rhinard, Mark
    Utrikespolitiska institutet.
    Security in transition: towards a new paradigm for the European Union2008Report (Other academic)
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 11.
    Boin, Arjen
    et al.
    Leiden universitet.
    Ekengren, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Rhinard, Mark
    Stockholms universitet.
    Sensemaking in crises: what role for the EU?2014In: Crisis Rooms: Towards a global network? / [ed] Patryk Pawlak & Andrea Ricci, Paris: EU Institute for Security Studies , 2014, 1, p. 117-128Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Boin, Arjen
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Ekengren, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS).
    Rhinard, Mark
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    The Study of Crisis Management2009In: The Routledge Handbook of Security Studies / [ed] Myriam Dunn Cavelty och Victor Mauer, London: Routledge , 2009, p. 452-462Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Boin, Arjen
    et al.
    Leiden universitet.
    Ekengren, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Rhinard, Mark
    Stockholms universitet.
    The European Union as Crisis Manager: Patterns and Prospects2013 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Boin, Arjen
    et al.
    Leiden universitet.
    Ekengren, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Rhinard, Mark
    Stockholms universitet.
    Transboundary Crisis Governance2014In: Handbook of Governance and Security / [ed] James Sperling, London: Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd , 2014, 1, p. 556-586Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Boin, Arjen
    et al.
    Department of Political Science, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands, (NLD).
    Ekengren, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section, Sektionen för krishantering och internationell samverkan.
    Rhinard, Mark
    Swedish Institute of International Affairs, Stockholm, (SWE). Stockholm University, Stockholm, (SWE).
    Understanding and Acting Upon a Creeping Crisis2021In: Understanding the Creeping Crisis / [ed] Boin, Arjen; Ekengren, Magnus; Rhinard, Mark, Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2021, p. 1-17Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The notion of a creeping crisis is a conceptual one, a heuristic device useful for helping to uncover hidden dimensions of today’s more pressing—some might say existential—societal problems. In this introductory chapter, we present our definition of creeping crisis and unpack the analytical dimensions of the concept. We review what existing research does and does not tell us about those dimensions. The chapter concludes by highlighting key research questions and outlining how the case studies in the book help to answer those questions.

  • 16.
    Boin, Arjen
    et al.
    Department of Political Science, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands, (NLD).
    Ekengren, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section, Sektionen för krishantering och internationell samverkan.
    Rhinard, Mark
    Swedish Institute of International Affairs, Stockholm, (SWE). Stockholm University, Stockholm, (SWE).
    Understanding Creeping Crises: Revisiting the Puzzle2021In: Understanding the Creeping Crisis / [ed] Boin, Arjen; Ekengren, Magnus; Rhinard, Mark, Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2021, p. 165-177Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter returns to the research question that animated the case studies and summarizes the findings of the chapters in this book. It offers provisional answers to our research question and formulates an agenda for future research. Much of the chapter is devoted to thinking through the implications of the creeping crisis perspective for the practitioner community. We build on our research findings to argue that the time for action is now and formulate a set of recommendations that can help jumpstart this agenda.

  • 17.
    Boin, Arjen
    et al.
    Department of Political Science, Leiden University, the Netherlands, (NLD).
    Ekengren, MagnusSwedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section, Sektionen för krishantering och internationell samverkan.Rhinard, MarkStockholm University, (SWE), and Swedish Institute of International Affairs, (SWE).
    Understanding the Creeping Crisis2021Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This open access book explores a special species of trouble afflicting modern societies: creeping crises. These crises evolve over time, reveal themselves in different ways, and resist comprehensive responses despite periodic public attention. As a result, these crises continue to creep in front of our eyes. This book begins by defining the concept of a creeping crisis, showing how existing literature fails to properly define and explore this phenomenon and outlining the challenges such crises pose to practitioners. Drawing on ongoing research, this book presents a diverse set of case studies on: antimicrobial resistance, climate change-induced migration, energy extraction, big data, Covid-19, migration, foreign fighters, and cyberattacks. Each chapter explores how creeping crises come into existence, why they can develop unimpeded, and the consequences they bring in terms of damage and legitimacy loss. The book provides a proof-of-concept to help launch the systematic study of creeping crises. Our analysis helps academics understand a new species of threat and practitioners recognize and prepare for creeping crises.

  • 18.
    Boin, Arjen
    et al.
    Department of Political Science, Leiden University, The Netherlands; Public Administration Institute, Louisiana State University, USA.
    Rhinard, Mark
    Swedish Institute of International Affairs, Sweden.
    Ekengren, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Managing Transboundary Crises: The Emergence of European Union Capacity2014In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 131-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union (EU) has modest but promising capacities to assist member states overwhelmed by disaster through its Civil Protection Mechanism. The EU also routinely sends civil and military missions to hotspots outside EU territory. But these capacities do not suffice in the face of transboundary crises: threats that cross geographical and policy borders within the Union. Examples include epidemics, financial crises, floods, and cyber terrorism. Nation states cannot cope with these threats without international collaboration. In this article, we explore the EU's efforts to develop transboundary crisis management capacities. We describe these budding capacities, explain their policy origins, and explore their future potential.

  • 19.
    Ekengren, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section, Sektionen för krishantering och internationell samverkan.
    A return to geopolitics? The future of the security community in the Baltic Sea Region2018In: Global Affairs, ISSN 2334-0460, E-ISSN 2334-0479, ISSN 2334-0479 (Online), p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One key question for the European security community is whether today’s confrontation between the EU member states and Russia is the end of its spread to the Baltic Sea region, including Russian districts, and the beginning of a return of geopolitical rivalry in the region. This article investigates the possibilities of avoiding such a negative downward spiral by drawing on security community theory and discussing two different methods of security community building – “top-down” and “bottom-up”. It points to the need for the EU institutions to return to the Monnet method to find a way out of the geopolitical “zero-sum” game increasingly played by the governments in the region. This implies not putting restrictions on participants from the north-west regions of Russia in strategically chosen areas of cooperation, and a more pronounced bottom-up, long-term and macro-regional approach built on joint problem-solving projects and people-topeople contacts that generate “win-win” games.

  • 20.
    Ekengren, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Agency and structure in EU foreign policy practices2013In: Rethinking Foreign Policy / [ed] Fredrik Bynander och Stefano Guzzini, Abingdon: Routledge , 2013, 1, p. 81-94Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Ekengren, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Beyond the external - internal security divide: Inter-pillar implications for EU policies of protection2008In: The European Union and Security Sector Reform / [ed] P. Fluri & D. Spence, London: John Harper Publishing , 2008, p. 151-172Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 22.
    Ekengren, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    EU, Sverige och samhällssäkerheten2015In: Svensk säkerhetspolitik i Europa och Världen / [ed] A. Eriksson, K. Engelbrekt, J. Ångström, Stockholm: Norstedts Juridik AB, 2015, 2a, p. 59-88Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Ekengren, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    EU, Sverige och samhällssäkerheten2010In: Svensk säkerhetspolitik i Europa och världen / [ed] K. Engelbrekt och J. Ångström, Stockholm:: Norstedts Juridik AB, 2010, p. 85-112Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Ekengren, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    EU:s säkerhetspolitiska roll: från säkerhetsgemenskap till säker gemenskap2010In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no Nr 2, p. 11-20Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Ekengren, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section, Sektionen för krishantering och internationell samverkan.
    Explaining the European Union's Foreign Policy: a Practice Theory of Translocal Action2018 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Ekengren, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Extending experimentalist governance in crisis management2015In: Extending experimentalist governance – the EU and Transnational Regulation / [ed] Jonathan Zeitlin, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015, p. 267-294Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Ekengren, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    From a European Security Community to a Secure European  Community: Tracing the New the Security Identity of the EU2008In: Globalization and Environmental Challen­ges: Reconceptualising Security in the 21st Century / [ed] Brauch, H.G. et. al., Berlin: Springer-Verlag , 2008, p. 695-704Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Ekengren, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    La Politique Européenne de Sécurité et de Défense: de la communauté de sécurité européenne à la communauté européenne sûre2009In: Quatre siècles de coopération militaire franco-suédoise = Svenskt-franskt militärt samarbete under fyra sekler: actes des journées d'études franco-suédoises organisées à Stockholm les 25 et 26 octobre 2005 et à Vincennes les 7 et 8 décembre 2006 = svenskt-franskt seminarium organiserad i Stockholm 25 och 26 oktober 2005 och i Vincennes 7 och 8 december 2006 / [ed] G. Åselius et Valérie Caniart, Paris et Stockholm.: .Service historique de la Défense et Försvarshögskolan , 2009, p. 159-168Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Ekengren, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    The challenge of a broadening security agenda for EU security sector reform2010In: The Politics of Security Sector Reform: Challenges and Opportunities for the European Union’s Global Role / [ed] M. Ekengren and G. Simons, Farnham: Ashgate, 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Ekengren, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    What Can EU Civil Security Governance Learn from the Common Security and Defence Policy and the European Defence Agency?2015In: EU Civil Security Governance: Diversity and cooperation in crisis and disaster management / [ed] H. Hegemann and R. Bossong, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015, p. 233-255Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Ekengren, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Political Science and Law, Political Science Division.
    Why are we surprised by extreme weather, pandemics and migration crises when we know they will happen? Exploring the added value of contingency thinking2024In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 32, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article attempts to explain why governments are surprised when extreme weather, pandemics and migration crisis hit their own country despite their good knowledge of these global threats. With the help of the contingency concept, the article explores the reasons behind these surprises by introducing a new category of threats that complements the ones in the existing literature on surprise. It adds the concept of ‘known—corporally unknown’ threats to the list of known-unknowns, unknown-unknowns as a way to emphasize the difference between abstract knowledge of ‘facts and figures’ (of e.g., global warming) and the acquiring of knowledge through personal, bodily experience (tangere) (of flooding and draughts). The article demonstrates how Swedish decision-makers—despite their good scientific knowledge and warning signals from abroad—were surprised by the migration crisis of 2015 and the Covid-19 pandemic in 2020 because they had not been in direct touch with massive flows of refugees or pandemics of that scale before. The article ends by discussing new ways of acquiring knowledge about global threats for a deeper, corporally anchored, preparedness for the surprises and contingencies to come.

  • 32.
    Ekengren, Magnus
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Boin, Arjen
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section. Leiden universitet.
    Rhinard, Mark
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section. Stockholms universitet.
    The study of crisis management2017In: Routledge Handbook of Security Studies (Second Edition) / [ed] M. Cavelty and T. Balzacq (eds), London and New York: Routledge, 2017, p. 447-456Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Ekengren, Magnus
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section, Sektionen för krishantering och internationell samverkan.
    Hollis, Simon
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section, Sektionen för krishantering och internationell samverkan.
    Explaining the European Union's security role in practice2020In: Journal of Common Market Studies, ISSN 0021-9886, E-ISSN 1468-5965, Vol. 58, no 3, p. 616-635Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    European states may no longer expect inter‐state violence, but they do expect complex threats emanating from storms, epidemics, terror attacks and earthquakes. The EU has answered these threats through the rapid and far‐reaching institutionalization of European security cooperation. However, member states hesitate to use their common capacities. While both intergovernmental and constructivist approaches treat this pattern as evidence of weak integration and as unimportant to the European security community, we examine this cooperation through the lens of practice theory and reveal how the growth of EU capacities is fully compatible with a critical and cautious approach to activating these resources in the everyday work of national officials. Using unique empirical data retrieved through participant observation in the first multisectoral crisis management exercise held by the EU, the findings of this analysis sketch the contours of a new type of security community.

  • 34.
    Ekengren, Magnus
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Matzén, Nina
    Svantesson, Monica
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    The new security role of the European Union: transnational crisis management and the protection of union citizens2006Book (Other academic)
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  • 35.
    Ekengren, Magnus
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section, Sektionen för krishantering och internationell samverkan.
    Rhinard, Mark
    Stockholm University.
    Barzanje, Costan
    The Swedish Institute of International Affairs.
    Working in the Same Direction?: Civil Protection Cooperation in the Baltic Sea Region2018Report (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Ekengren, Magnus
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section, Sektionen för krishantering och internationell samverkan.
    Rhinard, Mark
    Stockholms universitet, (SWE).
    Engström, Alina
    Utrikespolitiska institutet, (SWE).
    Coronapandemin-en smygande kris vintern 20202021In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 123, no 5, p. 33-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Why did the Swedish Government fail to act earlier against the Covid-19-virus in the light of the many foreshadowing outbreaks in China and in Italy and other EU Member States? With the help of the concept creeping crisis (smygande kris), this article analyses the tardiness with which the Swedish authorities acted to prevent the spread of the virus in the early stages of the pandemic (January – February 2020). The term refers to the phenomenon of belated measures despite extensive knowledge of slow-acting threats with sudden outbursts such as pandemics and global warming. The article explains the procrastination of Swedish actions as a result of psychological repression (“it couldn’t happen here in our country”), as well as cognitive delays that meant that understanding the threat evolution in the abstract did not spur action in proportion to the insight (“we saw it coming, but didn’t act until we felt it in our everyday life”). It ends by discussing possible ways to create more practically and temporally informed knowledge (“know-how”, “know-when”) of creeping crises for the generation of timely action able to stop these before they explode into acute crises.

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  • 37.
    Ekengren, Magnus
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Simons, GregSwedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    The Politics of Security Sector Reform: Challenges and Opportunities for the European Union’s Global Role2011Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Security Sector Reform (SSR) is increasingly becoming a cornerstone in international security and development cooperation. Indeed, the concept has often been seen as a panacea for many of the biggest threats to the world such as failed states, terrorism and poverty. In particular, this book focuses on the complexities of implementation of SSR across the globe and the actual and potential role for the European Union (EU) to play in SSR. As suggested in the title of the book, this involves not only opportunities, but challenges to be overcome as well. There are three core themes to this book: Policy, Policies and Practice. By presenting the themes in this particular order, a greater appreciation of the influences on the process of SSR, from conception to implementation, is relayed to the reader. This volume appeals to audiences interested in the EU as a global actor and the interrelationships between foreign, security, defence and development policies.

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  • 38.
    Engelbrekt, Kjell
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS).
    Ekengren, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS).
    The Impact of Enlargement on EU Actorness: Enhanced Capacity, Weakened Cohesiveness2006In: Chaning Transatlantic Security Relations: Do the US, the EU and Russia Form a New Strategic Triangle? / [ed] Jan Hallenberg and Håkan Karlsson, London and New York: Routledge , 2006, p. 18-43Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Hollis, Simon
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Ekengren, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Country Study: Norway2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Norwegian state has a long-standing tradition of protecting its citizens from a range of threats from natural disasters, infectious diseases, industrial accidents, critical infrastructure failure, to terrorist attacks. This case study provides a broad and detailed description on the main features of the modern Norwegian civil security system. It explains how it functions, it describes the system’s political and cultural context, and it addresses the changes that have occurred since the Oslo bombing and the Utøya shootings in 2011 July 22. The coordination of human and material resources to prevent, prepare, respond to, and recover from, various crises is constructed along three guiding principles of responsibility, decentralization, and conformity. This not only means that responsibility for crisis management should be at the lowest possible level, but that the state and its society must also operate under normal standards, regardless of the type or extent of a particular crisis. As this study shows, most areas of the civil security system are infused with these defining principles. This can be seen, for example, in the discussion on the cultural elements that inform Norwegian society, the production of legislation, or in operational procedures used in responding to crises. In addition to these areas, this study also provides detailed descriptions on Norway’s administrative and legal traditions, its external cooperative endeavours, as well as the way in which the private sector and citizens interact with civil security system. In order to further understand the system, this study investigates three quality measures based on the extent to which the system is effective, efficient, and legitimate. An annex is also included that depicts the principal descriptive features of the study, as well as a case study on the H1N1 virus. Set within the dark shadows of the events that took place on July 22 – that could have been avoided through existing security measures according to Norwegian state authorities – this study concludes by highlighting the need for an increase in vigilance and efficiency of the Norwegian civil security system.

  • 40.
    Hollis, Simon
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Ekengren, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Regional Organization Study: Barents Euro-Arctic Region2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This case study provides a comprehensive description of cooperation in the Barents Euro Arctic Region (BEAR). Regional cooperation in this area includes two inter-related organizations. The first is the Barents Euro-Arctic Regional Council (BEAC), which is as an intergovernmental forum that consists of Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Finland, and the Russian Federation. The second is the Barents Regional Council (BRC), which is an interregional forum that consists of 13 counties or provinces from northern Norway, Sweden and Finland and northwestern Russia. In the last 20 years this unique institutional framework has expanded to include cooperation not only on economic and social development, but also in the area of civil security. Building on and complementing existing cooperative endeavours in the field – such as cooperation in maritime and aeronautical search and rescue, existing bilateral agreements on emergency cooperation, and the 1986 Convention on Assistance in Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency – the members of the BEAC and the BRC institutionalized emergency management cooperation in 2008. This includes inter alia notification of emergencies, the establishment of a joint manual, simulation exercises, the exchange of personal, and training. While still young, this form of cooperation shows much promise in an increasingly important region of the world. This study describes civil security cooperation within the BEAR. In particular, it provides an overview of the regional organizations’ cultural, legal and institutional design and it describes the relationships between BEAR and its member states, citizens and stakeholder. The final section of this article also assesses the current state of play by analyzing the effectiveness, efficiency and legitimacy of BEAR in relation to its civil security activities.

  • 41.
    Hollis, Simon
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Ekengren, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Regional Organization Study: Council of the Baltic Sea States2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes the current state of play and historical context of intergovernmental cooperation through the Council of the Baltic Sea States (CBSS) and its engagement with civil security. It addresses the organizational, institutional, and cultural frameworks of the CBSS, as well as the international context within which it is embedded. This provides an important backdrop for describing the civil security system, which the CBSS has fostered for over 20 years. Beginning with the establishment of an expert group on nuclear and radiological safety in 1992, the CBSS now participates in a wide range of cooperative endeavours, such as information exchange on forest firefighting and environmental pollution. This study also assesses CBSS civil security along three indicators that highlight the extent to which the system is effective, efficient and legitimate. It is argued that the CBSS is a regional organization that finds its strength as a platform for facilitating and encouraging cooperation on civil security; however, its actual capacity as an actor in civil security area remains low.

  • 42.
    Landström, Yrsa
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section, Sektionen för krishantering och internationell samverkan.
    Ekengren, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section, Sektionen för krishantering och internationell samverkan.
    Migration, Borders, and Society2021In: Understanding the Creeping Crisis / [ed] Boin, Arjen; Ekengren, Magnus; Rhinard, Mark, Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2021, p. 87-104Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, we have learned that forced global migration pose a serious threat to international peace and societal values. Despite the many warnings and refugee crises across the world, most national governments have insufficiently addressed this threat. In this chapter, we try to explain this lack of action. The chapter explores possible explanations such as the denial mindset of “it probably won’t happen here (and if it does, it won’t affect my family and community)”. The chapter focuses on the border management crisis in Sweden in 2015. The Swedish government did not address the situation as a crisis until the refugees, who had been on the Mediterranean Sea and traversing north over the continent for months, ended up in Malmö in the south of Sweden in September 2015. This predictable set of events caused chaos for the unprepared Swedish police and the border and migration authorities who had to handle the situation under conditions of urgency and apparent uncertainty.

1 - 42 of 42
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