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  • 1.
    Olsson, Anna
    Swedish National Defence College.
    10 år med resolution 1325 i Sverige2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It’s been 10 years since Resolution 1325 on women, peace and security was adopted. It’s followed by various action plans to implement the Resolution. In addition, studies and experience in how to succeed with the implementation of Resolution 1325 have followed. The purpose of this paper is to compare the Government's Action Plan on Resolution 1325 and the Swedish Armed Forces work with Resolution 1325, to highlight similarities and differences. The aim is also to present experiences learned from studies on how to implement Resolution 1325 and how the Government's action plan and the Armed Forces work in line with those drawn experiences. This thesis presents the Resolution 1325 and different studies available on Resolution 1325. It presents The Government's action plan to implement Resolution 1325 and an interview with the person who is responsibility for implementation of the Resolution in the Armed Forces. The results of the document analysis and the interview show that there are some similarities between the Governments and the Armed Forces plans and the studies of Resolution 1325, but also that there are some differences. The result also proves where the focus lies in the implementation of Resolution1325 and how the work is monitored by the Government and the Armed Forces. The conclusion is that there are similarities but also differences between the Government's plan and the Armed Forces work and that both in many cases are linked to previous studies on Resolution 1325.

  • 2.
    Bergström, Helena
    Swedish National Defence College. Helmut Schmidt University.
    13 years - Freedom or Security?: A theory testing case study about how cultural dimensions of job motivation are related to organizational structure in the military2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In a world where multinational cooperation and cross-cultural challenges are part of daily life, understanding cultures has become increasingly important. That people and organizations develop together might seem obvious, but that culture can be studied to understand the structure and approach of organizations, is perhaps less so.

    In this paper, a major structural difference in the armed forces of Germany and Sweden is examined; having to sign a contract to serve for 13 years or not having to sign a contract with service length restrictions. Hofstede's theory Dimensions of National Culture is applied to the case to see whether the cadets' motivation and behavior is affected by this major difference in the two otherwise very similar organizations. The study aims also to explore whether the findings can be considered correct given that semi-structured interviews were conducted to see if the thoughts of the cadets are in line with what the theory claims.

    The conclusion is that the theory can be used to understand how cadets' motivation and behavior supports the structural organizations present in Germany and Sweden. However, the interviews show that the theory is very generalizing and that not all cadets' thoughts are consistent with what the theory states in every case.

  • 3.
    Ericson Wolke, Lars
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, The Military History Division.
    1312: bakgrunden till slaget ur ett svenskt perspektiv2010In: Iver Huitfeldt og slaget i Køge Bugt 1710 / [ed] Meilen, Tor Jørgen, Oslo: C. Huitfeldt forl. , 2010, p. 13-15Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Ericson Wolke, Lars
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, The Military History Division.
    1658: Tåget över Bält2008Book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Ericson Wolke, Lars
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, The Military History Division.
    1658: Tåget över Bält och Roskildefreden2008In: Karolinska Förbundets Årsbok. 2008, Lund: Karolinska förbundet , 2008, p. 149-178Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Berglund, Anna Karin
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    18 mjuka medel mot moralisk stress i militär miljö2015Book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Berglund, Anna Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    18 ways to improve military officers' management of moral stress2015In: 18 ways to improve military oficers' management of moral stress: 1-4 June 2015, Tartu, Estonia, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Berglund, Anna Karin
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    18 ways to improve military officers' management of moral stress2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Widén, Jerker
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    21st Century Mahan: Sound Military Considerations for the Modern Era2015In: Mariner´s mirror, ISSN 0025-3359, E-ISSN 2049-680X, Vol. 101, no 2, p. 252-253Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Modigh, Johan
    Swedish National Defence College.
    5,56 x 45 mm FMJ i Afghanistan: amerikanska och brittiska stridserfarenheter av kaliberns effekt2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose with this study is to investigate whether U.S. and British combat experience of the caliber 5.56 in Afghanistan is helping to develop the Armed Forces' tactical ability. The reason why I chose to rely on these countries is because they have more unclassified sources and has more combat experience than many others. This study was conducted through a qualitative text analysis of for example regulations, reports and articles. This essay shows that the Swedish Armed Forces standard caliber that is being used in today’s assault rifle (ak5c), were potent in battle tactics designed for the defence of Sweden. This is partly becauseof 5,56 own logistical advantages and also because light anti-tank weapons had priority over small arms weapons. This resulted in relatively short shooting distances. The study shows thereafter that the U.S. and British troops in today's conflict in Afghanistan, thinks that 5.56 is insufficient. Combat distances are generally too long for the caliber to deliver its optimum effect in the target. The study highlights what kind of actions these nations have taken, and what measures are planned to improve its combat tactical ability. The study reveals that the most optimal improvement, are to replace the 5.56 with a bigger medium sized caliber. Proposals to change the marksmanship training, optics development and to purchase new weapons are also mentioned. In the end of this essay there is a discussion on, or how the Swedish Armed Forces can implement U.S and British experiences. The reasoning in the final chapter gives the general answer that the Swedish Armed Forces indeed can develop their tactical combat skills by studying other nations. An example would be to implement the older ak4 with magnifying optics that could improve the longer range capabilities of the infantry units.

  • 11.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    9 noter om NBF2005Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Engelbrekt, Kjell
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section, Sektionen för säkerhet.
    A brief intellectual history of geopolitical thought and its relevance to the Baltic Sea region2018In: Global Affairs, ISSN 2334-0460, E-ISSN 2334-0479, Vol. 4, no 4-5, p. 475-485Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article outlines a general history of the intellectual origins and development of geopolitical thought. It provides categories for assessing contemporary expressions of this phenomenon, and then discusses the applicability of these tools to the Baltic Sea region. The article focuses on eliciting and juxtaposing contrasts between the three classical bodies of literature that evolved largely in parallel, and ends up briefly commenting on a fourth, partly “critical” approach. The main takeaway is that considering all four geopolitical approaches before applying any of them to the Baltic Sea realm encourages analysts to embrace a more holistic and dynamic viewpoint than each of the alternatives individually can offer. Such a conceptualization promises to forge analytical linkages between a series of relevant, geographically contingent circumstances including resources, arenas and communities that represent prerequisites and opportunities incrisis, conflict, or war.

  • 13.
    Andersson, Kent
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    A Case study report on signature engineering: The SEP multipurpose armored vehicle and the Visby class corvette2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this report is to present consolidated results from case studies of the development processes of the SEP multipurpose armored vehicle and the Visby class corvette respectively.

    The report is intended as an annex to a journal article named “Key requirements in the procurement of future Low Observable combat vehicles: A European perspective” published in the journal of Systems Engineering in 2017.

    Results filtered from interviews and document reviews are presented based on the structure of the Friedman-Sage framework (Friedman & Sage, 2004) for case studies on systems engineering. Firstly, data collected from the two case studies are presented and then the lessons identified consistent with both cases. The sources, an overview of the two cases studied and the application of the framework are described in the journal article.

  • 14.
    Noreen, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    A Catch-All Strategic Narrative: Target Audiences and Swedish Troop Contribution to ISAF in Afghanistan2015In: Strategic Narratives, Public Opinion and War: Winning Domestic Support for the Afghan War / [ed] Beatrice de Graaf,George Dimitriu & Jens Ringsmose, London: Routledge, 2015Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Sjöberg, Misa
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    A civil contingencies agency management system for disaster aid: a theoretical model2010In: International Journal of Organizational Analysis, ISSN 1934-8835, E-ISSN 1758-8561, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 412-429Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Sjöberg, Misa
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    A civil contingencies agency management system for disaster aid: Qualitative validation of an empirically grounded model2013In: International Journal of Organizational Analysis, ISSN 1934-8835, E-ISSN 1758-8561, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 154-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The aim of this article is twofold: validation of a theoretical model of a civil contingencies agency management system, and methodological development by employing qualitative means for analysis.

    Design/methodology/approach – The theoretical model to be validated serves as a starting point for a qualitative reanalysis of logic-deductive character, aimed at verification of the pre-existing theory that is already discovered and developed. Data from three previously published case studies were used as a frame of reference.

    Findings – The theoretical model of a civil contingencies management system for disaster aid is validated in most respects. The qualitative testing for high trustworthiness proves reasonable with regard to selected reference studies.

    Originality/value – The theoretical model of a civil contingencies agency management system for disaster aid was mostly confirmed and partly modified when being compared to empirical data and models from three previous case studies. Also, the qualitative approach to validating the theoretical model is, to the best knowledge of the authors, new.

  • 17. Dulanya, Zuze
    et al.
    Morales-Simfors, Nuri
    Sivertun, Åke
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    A Comparison Between Silica and Cation Geo-thermometry of the Malawi Hotsprings2010In: World Geothermal Congress 2010, Bali, Indonesia, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Löfgren, Lars
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    A Comparison of two Books on Systems of Systems2014In: Le Libellio, ISSN 1269-8644, E-ISSN 2268-1167, ISSN 2268-1167, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 59-60Article, book review (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this text is to carry out a comparative analysis of the general features regarding System of Systems (SoS) in the books System of Systems Engineering: Innovations for the Twenty-First Century (Jamshidi, 2009) and Systems of Systems (Luzeaux & Ruault, 2010).

  • 19.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Carlstedt, Leif
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Andersson, Jens
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Andersson, Lars
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Danielsson, Erna
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Johansson, Ann
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Johansson, Eva
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Robertson, Ingemar
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Michel, P-O.
    A comprehensive system for leader evaluation and development2003In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 16-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to describe the development of a theoretical model for leader evaluation and development, an instrument based on this model, and a strategy for large scale implementation in the Swedish armed forces. The model rests on an interactional person by situation paradigm. It emphasises “developmental leadership”, which is inspired by transformational and functionalistic leadership approaches. The developmental leadership questionnaire (DLQ) was operationalised from the model and refined through structural equation modelling. The model and the DLQ will be used for three purposes: yearly evaluation of all personnel in the Swedish armed forces; yearly planning dialogues between each employee and his or her nearest supervisor; and a tool for leadership training. The implementation strategy includes an initial course in developmental leadership for all colonels. This is followed by the selection and training of local trainers, who, in turn, initiate the comprehensive programme locally. The system should be fully implemented by 2005.

  • 20.
    Bäccman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Carlstedt, Berit
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    A Construct Validation of a Profession-Focused Personality Questionnaire (PQ) Versus the FFPI and the SIMP2010In: European Journal of Psychological Assessment, ISSN 1015-5759, E-ISSN 2151-2426, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 136-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a construct validation of a profession-focused personality questionnaire (PQ), based on the Big Five, and developed for a military population and military context. The sample (N = 363) consisted of participants selected for international services in the Swedish Armed Forces. The structure of the PQ was modeled by means of confirmatory factor analysis, and its convergent validity was tested against the Five Factor Personality Inventory (FFPI) (Hendricks, Hofstee, & de Raad, 1999, 2000) and the Single-Item Measures of Personality (SIMP) (Woods & Hampson, 2005) as correlations. The emergent structure of the PQ – 41 items and 7 aspects – showed good internal consistency and acceptable convergent validity with both criterion instruments. The only nonconvergence was found between the Agreeableness aspect of the PQ, Concern for Others, and Agreeableness of the SIMP, most likely because of the broader SIMP factor. The structure of PQ was tested on a new sample (N = 274) and was found stable regarding the factor loadings and the relations between the factors. While the PQ needs to be investigated further, it seems as if it may become a useful tool in the research of military teams and contexts.

  • 21. Starrín, B.
    et al.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, FOA 55, Beteendevetenskapliga institutionen.
    Willebrand, K.
    Boström, K.
    A contribution to the understanding of women's unemployment from a grounded theory approach1984Report (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Bhatt, Parth
    et al.
    Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, Brasilien.
    Yano, Edgar Toshiro
    Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, Brasilien.
    Amorim, Joni
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Gustavsson, Per
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division. George Mason University, USA.
    A Cyber Security Situational Awareness Framework to Track and Project Multistage Cyber Attacks2014In: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Cyber Warfare & Security, Academic Conferences Limited, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Finlan, Alastair
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Joint Operations Section.
    A dangerous pathway? Toward a theory of special forces2019In: Comparative Strategy, ISSN 0149-5933, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 255-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores what is considered by some to be a dangerous pathway:the development of a theory of special forces. The world is now inthe third age of special forces and these secret military units are atthe forefront of the use of force in international relations. This research identifies a large theory-knowledge gap concerning these military “first responders” for modern nation-states and offers a tentative theory of special forces that goes beyond traditional annihilation/attrition models of wartoward a new anaphylaxis model. It makes the case that the theory pathwayis not dangerous, but emancipatory.

  • 24.
    Holmberg, Arita
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    A demilitarization process under challenge: The example of Sweden2015In: Defence Studies, ISSN 1470-2436, E-ISSN 1743-9698, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the past decades, the process of militarization that characterized Sweden after the Second World War has been replaced by a process of demilitarization. With the debates following the war in Georgia 2008 and the Russian annexation of Crimea in 2014, this process of demilitarization appears under challenge. This raises questions about the nature of these processes and the problems facing the attempts at turning them around. The article introduces a framework for analysing the influence of the military upon politics and society in the twenty-first-century European context with the aim of better understanding the various traits, their interconnections and relation to broader trends in Europe and the West. The analysis shows that traits of demilitarization are still dominating in Sweden, although some indications of remilitarization can be found.

  • 25.
    Österberg, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Nilsson, Joel
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    A Diary-Based Case Study in the Development of Unit Cohesion during Basic Training in the Swedish Air Force2019In: Res Militaris, E-ISSN 2265-6294, Vol. 9, no 2, article id 1029926Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Military training is regarded as a life-changing experience and military service provides a vigorous set of norms and behaviour models. Esprit de corps, morale and cohesion are concepts that are strongly connected with the military context. The aim of this case study was to get a clearer insight into the social life and unit cohesion of Swedish Air Force recruits. Based on a digital diary approach, an exploratory design was used to collect data during military basic training. Four voluntary participants wrote a weekly diary throughout their nine-month basic training. Results indicate that the development of unit cohesion among recruits was a prominent feature during military basic training. They further show that an understanding of the development of unit cohesion could be based on the following four themes : positive adaptation to a new environment, constructive group development, qualitative leadership and challenge. These findings underline the importance of good leadership and positive group dynamics in fostering unit cohesion. Further studies should address the dark side of cohesion, where the military can develop norms and behaviours that are too strong and could be negative, leading to a conflict with the goals of the Armed Forces.

  • 26.
    Ekman, Lisa
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    A Duty to Save, Support, or Serve the Locals?: Swedish Military Members’ Notions of Military Duty in the FieldManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The notion of military duty is becoming increasingly complex in contemporary global security dynamics. Increasing regional instability has renewed focus on national security concerns and the reinstatement of conscription in several European states, nevertheless most European armed forces mainly conduct military operations elsewhere with a principal focus on addressing ‘population-oriented’ security concerns of host states. This dual nature of military duty raises a number of questions, including what contemporary understanding of duty guides the decision-making and behavior of military professionals. The article investigates how population-oriented objectives and responsibilities shape notions of military duty in the context of international military operations. Based on interviews with Swedish military personnel with experiences of international deployment, the article identifies a number of empirical tensions between general notions of military duty and the individual sense of responsibility and obligation in the field.

  • 27.
    Ries, Tomas
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    A European Perspective on Security 20202012In: British Army Yearbook 2012 / [ed] Chris Donnelly, London: Newsdeskmedia , 2012, 3, p. 18-20Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 28.
    Weissmann, Mikael
    Swedish Institute of International Affairs (UI).
    A European Strategy towards East Asia: moving from good intentions to action2013Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the global power shift from West to East and almost everyone in the EU recognising that the importance of Asia is growing, there has been a lacking willingness to devote time, energy and resources to deepening relations with the region. There has been a lack of a unified strategic vision for the region, and due to internal policy divisions and institutional squabbles, the EU has failed to become a strong, cohesive, actor. Thus, the EU needs to prioritise and focus if to be able to successfully pursue a strategy towards East Asia.

    East Asia is the home to the fastest growing economies in the world. It contains both like-minded partners, economic powerhouses, and a number of developing countries with an interest in learning from the EU experiences. The EU has a unique advantage in the region; besides having economic weight it is seen as a nonthreatening partner in the region, giving a comparative advantage over other major powers such as the US and China.  However, the success of the EU’s strategy requires a unified strategy with clear prioritisation of areas where the EU realistically can have an impact. Emphasise should be put on enhancing the bilateral trade and investment conditions, and to pursue principled polices in particular towards Southeast Asian nations that are going through a democratisation process. Being a region with widespread ecological problems, the impact of knowledge and technology transfers would benefit the EU’s global interests in the environment, energy and climate change areas, as a more sustainable East Asia have direct impact on a global scale.

    When designing an EU global strategy towards East Asia it is important to start form where we are, even if that is not where we would like to be. The European Union is not viewed as a serious political or security actor in East Asia among the regional countries. The EU is best understood as an outside-actor, with no hard power in the region. However, this is not necessary a bad thing. Instead, the EU has a unique position, being seen as a nonthreatening partner. If used wisely, the role as a nonthreatening partner can together with the EU’s economic weight secure a leading position together with China and the US not only in the region but in the world.

    There are many areas of shared concern between the EU and the US. However, the EU should be cautious when cooperating with the US ensuring not losing its credibility and becoming irrelevant as an independent actor. Despite sharing principles, there are major differences between the EU’s attempt to combine principled policies with economic and security concerns while the US policy, in contrast, focuses on the security first, almost always winning over democracy.

    The strengthening of bilateral trade and investment flows, including interlinked areas such as improved market access and investment conditions, should be the main focus of the EU’s strategy towards East Asia. The pursuit of FTAs with East Asian counterparts should be continued, with special emphasis on Japan and Indonesia. The EU should avoid making economic concessions in exchange for concessions on principles. The current practice of pursuing policies aimed at maximising European access and competiveness rather that pursuing multilateralism for its own sake should be continued.

    The EU should be selective in pursuing principled policies, creating more impact for the policies pursued and not to undermining either its role in region or the bilateral trade and investment relations. The EU should focus on cooperation with likeminded partners (Japan, South Korea and the ASEAN countries). Such a focus will have best possible spill-over effects in the region, and globally as East Asian partners will also benefit the EU’s work on the global level.

    To develop EU-China relations are essential, with China already being the world’s 2nd largest economy and the EU being Chinas largest trading partner. Being a country with widespread ecological problems, the impact of knowledge and technology transfers would benefit the EU’s global interests in the environment, energy and climate change areas, as a more sustainable China have direct impact on a global scale. The China strategy should stand on three legs; economic cooperation – with a focus of protecting European interests such as investments and intellectual property rights as well cooperation around green technology – people-to-people exchanges, and the strengthening of the strategic partnership. For the latter to succeed there is a need to overcoming diverging value expectation, trying to reach a pragmatic consensus on how to make Beijing and the EU’s policies complimentary. All the above needs to be accomplished while the EU continues to stay vocal concerning the human rights situation in China.

    It is important to recognise that East Asia is not only China. The EU should prioritise relations with the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN). After a long period of scepticism, ASEAN has opened up to learn from the EU experience making it a potentially major success in the EU’s global strategy. Particular emphasis should be put on Indonesia, one of the region’s most democratic countries and home to the largest Muslim population in the world. Relations with Japan, South Korea and Taiwan should be enhanced – there are partners that are not only major economic powers, but also ones with whom the EU are sharing similar values and similar challenges.

    It is in the EU’s interest to contribute to the safeguarding of regional peace and security. The EU should work together with regional partners, in particular ASEAN, and the US on issues concerning regional peace and security on all levels, including, but not limited to, forum such as the ASEAN Regional Forum and East Asia Summit.

  • 29.
    Pettersson, Ulrica
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    A Form to Collect Incident Report: Learning from incidents in the Swedish Armed Forces2013In: Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management, ISSN 1479-4411, E-ISSN 1479-4411, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 150-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the modern business environment a greater number of organizations act worldwide and regularly meet with new cultures and environments. The change calls for a more rapid learning process than previously, in order to adjust to new situations. In order to prevent incidents from recurring, organizations put effort into collecting information after incidents. Learning from experience is often associated with incidents and accidents, however it can also concern positive occurrence. The purpose of the collection is to explore knowledge, analyse what happened and find the root-cause (basic contributions facts and circumstantial conditions) of the incident. If the root-cause is found, the organisation has possibilities to make changes in order to avoid similar incidents and to respond to crises. The collection is regularly done through pre-printed forms, but the reports are seldom sufficient as they often tend to lack vital information. We state, the answers in incident reports are closely related to the form design and the questions arising in the form. To improve the collection method, we designed a structured incident reporting form, using interview and questionnaire research and focused on the aim of the information collection. Our new form was compared to the unstructured form (at present used in the Swedish Armed Forces and NATO) in two experiments. Forty participants from the Swedish National Defence College were recruited to watch film sequences displaying incidents, and in the time that followed report and describe the incident they had observed in writing. The new structured form led to significantly improved results in both experiments. Structured incident reports, with a focus on the customers’ requests, appear to significantly improve after incident reporting. As incident reports become more complete, analysts have an enhanced possibility to find the basic contributing factors and circumstances and there will be a better possibility to learn in the organization and to avoid similar incidents in the future.

  • 30.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section, Sektionen för säkerhet.
    Barzanje, Costan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section, Sektionen för krishantering och internationell samverkan.
    A framework for analysing antagonistic narrative strategies: A Russian tale of Swedish decline2019In: Media, War & Conflict, ISSN 1750-6352, E-ISSN 1750-6360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New information technologies and media consumption patterns have enabled aggressive practices that are qualitatively different from old-style propaganda. Actors no longer rely on secrecy, but can openly make use of social media and media outlets in foreign languages to destabilize other states and societies from within. Strategic narratives have become a key means in this endeavour. To expose the discursive (harmful) capacity of strategic narratives, the article suggests detailed analysis based on a narrative ontology. The analytical framework is applied in an exploratory case study of the Russian state-sponsored broadcasting company Sputnik’s strategic narrative about Sweden from 2014 to 2018. In addition to unmasking Sputnik’s strategic narrative, the article fills a gap in previous research in particular by exposing three antagonistic narrative strategies labelled ‘suppression’, ‘destruction’ and ‘direction’. These strategies reflect general driving forces in the security sphere and can inspire and structure future research into antagonistic strategic narration.

  • 31.
    Liwång, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Applications Section.
    Rosén, Anders
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    A framework for investigating the potential for operational measures in relation to intact stability2018In: Proceedings of the 13th International conference on stability of ships and ocean vehicles / [ed] Naoya Umeda, Toru Katayama, Atsuo Maki, Kobe, 2018, p. 488-499Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Operational safety measures are an important aspect of a holistic safety approach for intact stability. With the aim to facilitate and further investigate potential operational measures this researchaims to describe a framework for prioritizing intact stability issues suitable for being addressed withoperational safety measures. The proposed framework identifies that there are different potentialsand uncertainties in relation to operational safety measures dependent on the operation type understudy. It is demonstrated that there is not one solution that facilitates operational measures and thereliability of potential measures varies.

  • 32.
    Alvinius, Aida
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    A Gender Perspective on Teachers as Crisis Managers2019In: NORA: Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, ISSN 0803-8740, E-ISSN 1502-394X, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 5-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stressful conditions affect communities at different levels and may involve occupational groups not normally associated with issues of crisis and security. Teachers in the compulsory school system are members of such a group. The purpose of this study is to examine teachers’ view of their own role as crisis management actors in a female-dominated occupation. A Grounded Theory approach applying a gender perspective was used as an analytical tool for data processing. In total, 16 informants from four different schools in two different municipalities in Sweden were interviewed. The analysis of these interviews shows that teachers’ perceptions of risk, crisis, and security are influenced and characterized by social and emotional regulation aimed at (a) reducing vulnerability, (b) increasing the sense of security, and (c) regaining or restoring a sense of order and control. These strategies have been discussed froma gender perspective as teachers do not regard themselves as legitimate crisis management actors.

  • 33.
    Hedlund, Erik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    A Generic Pedagogic Model for Academically Based Professional Officer Education2019In: Armed forces and society, ISSN 0095-327X, E-ISSN 1556-0848, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 333-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    After the end of the Cold War, many European countries cut back so heavily on defense expenditure that they lost their capacity to defend themselves. This resulted in greater need for improved cooperation and interoperability among member states’ armed forces. One important attempt to improve the understanding and interoperability among the European Union (EU) nation’s armed forces was taken in 2008 by the creation of the European Initiative for exchange of young officers aimed to make the officer education in Europe more transparent and convergent with each other. This article presents a proposal for a generic pedagogic model for an academically professional officer education that can improve understanding and interoperability among the EU nation’s armed forces. The model helps to facilitate a process of professionalization of the military profession with an officer education that can meet the requirements of higher education systems as well as the demands of the military profession.

  • 34.
    Sdao, Francesco
    et al.
    University of Basilicata, Italy.
    Sivertun, Åke
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Sole, Aurelia
    University of Basilicata, Italy.
    Albano, Raffaele
    University of Basilicata, Italy.
    Pascale, Stefania
    University of Basilicata, Italy.
    Giosa, Luciana
    University of Basilicata, Italy.
    A GIS implementation of a model of systemic vulnerability assessment in urbanized areas exposed to combined risk of landslide and flood2012In: Geographic Information Analysis for Sustainable Development and Economic Planning / [ed] Giuseppe Borruso, Stefania Bertazzon, Andrea Favretto, Beniamino Murgante och Carmelo Maria Torre, IGI Global, 2012Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Kleffner, Jann K.
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), International Law Centre.
    Nystedt, Maria
    Axboe Nielsen, Christian
    A Handbook on Assisting International Criminal Investigations2011Book (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Wilkens, Markus
    Swedish National Defence College.
    A hard understanding of soft power: strategic narratives and representational force2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 37.
    Olsen, John Andreas
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för luftoperationer (KV Luft).
    A History of Air Warfare2010Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Wallenius, Claes
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    A Lack of Effect Studies and of Effects: The Use of Strategic Communication in the Military Domain2019In: International Journal of Strategic Communication, ISSN 1553-118X, E-ISSN 1553-1198, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 404-417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychological operations (PSYOP) implies a purposeful use of communication by a government or military organization to fulfill its mission and is one understanding of strategic communication. The present study focuses on PSYOP effects. The few studies available on this area indicate that the effects of PSYOP generally tend to be on a minor scale, while PSYOP may have a stronger impact in specific contexts. We discuss possible explanations and suggest that a number of psychological factors inhibit PSYOP success. One major example is that of human cognitive conservatism. Other psychological mechanisms, mostly emotional ones, may promote PSYOP, for example, strong identification with one’s own (national, ethnic or religious) group, a sense of threat to the resources, status and/or survival of own group, a perception of hostility from other groups, and the experience that another group has devalued or offended the in-group.

  • 39.
    Holst, Fredrik A.
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum.
    Fink, Martin D.
    Netherlands Defence Academy.
    A legal view on NATO's campaing in Libya2013In: The NATO Intervention in Libya: Lessons learned from the campaign / [ed] Kjell Engelbrekt, Marcus Mohlin and Charlotte Wagnsson, Abingdon: Routledge, 2013, 1, p. 63-99Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the winter and spring of 2011 the so-called Arab Spring reached Libya. An uprising among the population spread over the country and groups soon organized themselves and took up arms. The government – controlled for 42 years by Colonel Gaddafi – responded brutally with force. The issue was brought to the attention in the UN Security Council which at the end of February agreed upon resolution 1970. As the situation deteriorated and in effect becoming a non-international armed conflict the UN Security Council passed another resolution, numbered 1973. This resolution imposed a no-fly zone in Libyan airspace and allowed for “all necessary measures” to protect civilians. It also renewed or supplemented some aspects from resolution 1970 for instance enforcement of the arms embargo.

    Following an initial intervention through military strikes by a “Coalition of the willing”, NATO at the end of March assumed responsibility for the operations. The campaign came to last for seven months, to the end of October 2011. Given the short notice many challenges arose. One of them, naturally intertwined with operational aspects, was the legal framework that would apply. A legal branch was set up within the Combined Joint Task Force HQ, alongside with the ordinary legal support in the NATO chain-of-command, to support the Commander of Operation Unified Protector. As with the rest of the CJTF the bulk of this branch originated from the Joint Forces Command (JFC) in Naples, Italy.

    With the expressed purpose of protecting civilians, NATO had to take particular precaution neither to exceed its mandate nor to cause (excessive) collateral damage upon striking of its targets. Even if the latter follows the principles of International Humanitarian there is a question whether the standards become stricter when a campaign is based on such a mandate. These and many other challenges, including the implementation of the arms embargo at sea, were brought to the attention of the legal branch.

    Doctoral candidates Fredrik A. Holst (Sweden) and Martin D. Fink (Netherlands) both served as legal advisers in the CJTF legal branch during the first months of OUP. They have now contributed with a chapter in the cross-topic Routledge Volume “The NATO Intervention in Libya – Lessons learned from the campaign” edited by Kjell Engelbrekt, Marcus Mohlin and Charlotte Wagnsson from the Swedish National Defence College.

  • 40.
    Waldenström, Christofer
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    A Microworld for Investigating the Effects of Visualizing Expanding Search Areas in Naturalistic Naval Warfare Tasks2012In: Proceedings of 2012 Cognitive Methods in Situation Awareness and Decision Support (CogSiMA), New Orleans, LA, 2012, p. 146-149Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Presents an microworld for investigating the effects of visualizing expanding search areas to support the building of a naval force's common operational picture. The microworld simulates naval warfare operations, and in it, two participants can play against each other in an operations area where both own units and neutrals may be present. The participants control combat vessels used to locate and attack the enemy, and high value objects that should be protected. The map of the operations area is configurable and the units' weapons and sensors can be defined by the experimenter. The microworld displays an individual operational picture to each player complied from the sensor information provided by that player's units. To investigate visualization, expanding search areas can be added to enhance the operational picture, and algorithms based on these areas can be used to let the computer help the participant identify enemies from neutrals. The integration of expanding search areas into the operational picture is illustrated. The unit classification algorithms based on expanding search areas are explained, and examples of how they work are presented. Experimental setups are presented together with initial evaluations of the microworld.

  • 41.
    Waldenström, Christofer
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    A Microworld Study of Task Force Commanders Executing a Maritime Escort Mission2010In: Proceedings of the 15th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an exploratory microworld study with the aim to identify individual dierences between participants, and relate those dierence to how well the participant solves the task. Six ocers, rank from lieutenant commander to flotilla admiral, were studied when they commanded a maritime escort mission. The experiment was conducted using a microworld where the participant had to control all own units while the computer controlled enemy and neutral units. Data collection consisted of think-aloud protocols, screen captures of the microworld’s tactical screen, questionnaires, and battle outcomes. Performance was determined using a measure of mission success and a general model of the participants’ decision making process was constructed. This model was used to identify individual dierences and relate those to task performance. The results suggest that there is no correlation between how often the participants perform a certain decision making activity, and how well they perform in the microworld. On the other hand, the results suggest a strong correlation between how well the participants perform in the microworld and how many dierent decision making activities they visit during one coherent reasoning chain. The result seems to suggest that it is more important to consider many aspects of a problem at the same time, and that no decision making activity is more important that another.

  • 42.
    Fredriksson, Magnus
    et al.
    Göteborgs Universitet .
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    A Model for Evaluating Corporate Environmental Communication2014In: Communicating Corporate Social Responsibility: Perspectives and Practice / [ed] Ralph Tench, William Sun, Brian Jones, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2014Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The chapter proposes a model for evaluating environmental information based on informativity as a measurement of whether corporate environmental disclosures provide readers with information relevant for making reasonable assessments of companies’ environmental work.

    Methodology/approach

    On a general level, informativity denotes a set of universal principles for information qualities. In order to make informed assessments, information ought to provide readers with information on specific projects, outcome, and long-term impact. The model proposed herein allows researchers and practitioners to quantify corporate environmental information based on a set of key textual variables. By allowing for the quantification of qualitative information, the model allows for comparative studies of CSR communication across, for example, companies, sectors, and nations.

    Research implications

    The model is applicable for corporations with an interest to evaluate their performance by applying standardized and set principles.

    Practical implications

    The model can be used as a tool for consumers and investors alike in making better and more informed assessments about a corporation’s environmental initiatives and performances. This application is particularly relevant for stakeholders with an interest in developing statistical data for assessing and benchmarking environmental communication.

    Originality

    The chapter proposes a model for evaluating environmental information as a measurement of whether corporate environmental disclosures provide readers with information relevant for making reasonable assessments of companies’ environmental work.

  • 43.
    Johansson, Eva
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Ledarskapsinstitutionen.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Ledarskapsinstitutionen.
    A model for understanding stress and daily experiences among soldiers in peacekeeping operations1998In: International Peacekeeping, ISSN 1353-3312, E-ISSN 1743-906X, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 124-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is based on research that aimed to develop a deeper theoretical understanding of the UN peacekeeping soldiers’ experiences of their daily service, from their own perspective, using a grounded theory approach. Study participants were Swedish UN peacekeeping personnel who served in former Yugoslavia from Autumn 1993 to Autumn 1995. A model was developed, according to which UN peacekeeping soldiers’ experiences of their daily service are formed by the dynamic interplay between external influencing factors and internal peacekeeping force factors. The external factors comprise: the service environment including the parties to a dispute, the media and the soldier's private social network. Most of the soldiers’ responses concerning the environment were about low‐intensity stress and fear of losing control of their aggressiveness. The internal peacekeeping force factors include the recruitment principles, the preparatory training, leadership issues and personal characteristics of the individual soldiers. The model indicates that internal factors can be modified in ways that might make it possible to reduce the impact of the external factors. The generalizability of the model needs to be evaluated in future studies involving different kinds of peacekeeping missions.

  • 44.
    Cayirci, Erdal
    et al.
    Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department, University of Stavanger, Norway.
    Bruzzone, Agostino
    University of Genova, Italy.
    Longo, Francesco
    Mobile and Distributed Systems Lab, Dipartimento di Ingegneria, Universita di Messina, Italy.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    A Model to Describe Hybrid Conflict Environments2016In: 6th International Defense and Homeland Security Simulation Workshop (DHSS 2016) / [ed] Bruzzone, Agostino & Sottilare, Robert, Rende: CAL-TEK S.r.l. , 2016, p. 52-60Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on the definition, implementation and testing of a model to describe Hybrid Conflict Environments. Without the need of citing specific cases or countries, it is clear that hybrid strategy and warfare are becoming more important. A hybrid strategy can affect policy makers, military operations, economics and financial trends, intelligence and legal activities as well as information and media. A conceptual model is introduced to define and to gain further insight into hybrid environments. The model is then implemented and tested by running experiments to provide evidence on its relevance. Finally, results are presented and discussed.

  • 45.
    Holmberg, Martin
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Bynander, Fredrik
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    A multidisciplinary approach to studying a societal crisis2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Tremblay, Sébastien
    et al.
    Université Laval, Québec, Canada.
    Granlund, Rego
    Santa Anna Research Institute, Sweden.
    Berggren, Peter
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Jobidon, Marie-Eve
    Defence R&D Canada – Toronto, Canada.
    Holmberg, Martin
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Turner, Paddy
    Cranfield University, Defence Academy, UK.
    A multiteam international simulation of joint operations in crisis response2012In: ISCRAM 2012 Conference Proceedings: Book of Papers / [ed] Leon Rothkrantz, Jozef Ristvej, and Zeno Franco, Vancouver, Canada: Simon Fraser University , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of distributed experiments will address teamwork and its social, organizational and cognitive dimensions within the context of multinational joint operations in crisis response and management.

  • 47.
    Meleagrou-Hitchens, Alexander
    et al.
    International Centre for the Study of Radicalisation (ISCR), King's College, London.
    Brun, Hans
    International Centre for the Study of Radicalisation (ISCR), King's College, London.
    A Neo-Nationalist Network: The English Defence League and Europe’s Counter-Jihad Movement2013Report (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Pettersson, Ulrica
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    A New Incident Report Form Leads to Improved Foundation for the Lessons Learned Cycle2012In: International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISSN 1937-9390, E-ISSN 1937-9420, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 14-22Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Leander, Johan L.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    A note on transient underwater bubble sound1998In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 103, no 2, p. 1205-1208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This Letter considers scattered sound from transiently oscillating gas bubbles in liquids. The full transient problem including the finite duration of the excitation is analyzed. As a result, the wave front of the radiated sound pulse involving information about the excitation is also studied. The model presented is used to simulate sound pulses from sea-surface bubbles which have been generated by, for example, spilling breakers, capillary-gravity waves, and rain drops. Although very simple in relation to the actual physical process of excitation, this model enables us to predict some of the essential properties of scattered pulses observed experimentally. It is suggested that the time scale of duration of the initial driving that enters into the present analysis might be of some use in a further physical understanding of bubble generation and excitation.

  • 50.
    Brown, Christer
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Eriksson, Kerstin
    A Plan for (Certain) Failure: Possibilities for and Challenges of More Realistic Emergency Plans2008In: International Journal of Emergency Management, ISSN 1471-4825, E-ISSN 1741-5071, Vol. 5, no 3/4, p. 292-310Article in journal (Refereed)
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