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  • 1.
    Schüler, Martin
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Avdelningen för ledarskap och ledning i Stockholm. University West, (SWE).
    Planning for Safety when Preparing for War: Competition Brings Out the Wickedness of the Military2022Inngår i: 27th ICCRTS Proceedings, International Command and Control Institute , 2022, s. 1-16Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The study investigates how two-sided military exercises affect learning and participating personnel's ability to perform tasks safely when confronted with an equally matched opponent. Data were collected from two separate events the Northern Wind 2019 Final Planning Conference and the Northern Wind 2019 exercise using participatory observations and shadowing. The outline of the critical incident technique was used as a guide when designing the data collection and the activity theory framework was used for coding and analyzing the data. The results indicate that a driven desire to win two-sided military exercises can create unsafe work practices by performing work tasks without regard for occupational-, electrical- or fire safety. The results also indicate a need for reshaping the conception of a two-sided military exercise by treating the exercise as a learning opportunity and recognizing the impact of the participating unit on each other’s learning. The study is based on the results of one army exercise and requires further research to understand the activities that take place and how they affect learning and safety. However, it gives some insight into the learning problems occurring during military field exercises.

  • 2.
    Schüler, Martin
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Ledningssektionen (Ledn).
    Planning for safety when preparing for war: winning or learning2021Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Preventing accidents within a complex environment like a force on force military exercise ischallenging for the organization. The aim of this study is to investigate safety behavior by usingactivity theory in combination with critical incident technique in order to identify conditions effectingthe health and safety of individuals employed by the Swedish armed forces (SwAF) participating inmilitary exercises. The empirical data was collected from two separate events final planningconference of Northern Wind 2019 (FPC-NW19) and the exercise Northern Wind 2019 (NW19). Datawas collected using observations and conversations with military, medical and safety professionals.One researcher followed the FPC-NW19 and the observed the exercise NW19 by shadowing staffmembers and safety personnel.Data was analyzed, thematized and coded using the third generation of activity theory and its areas:tools, rules, community, division of labor, subject and object as a guide for identifying contradictions.Results indicate that the methods used for planning and the use of safety equipment whenconducting military tasks during the exercise is influenced by the desire of winning the exercise.The results also indicate that activity theory can be a useful tool to identify contradictions affectingsafety performance. However, the study is only limited to two events with a narrow scope from theArmy. Further refinement is needed to develop a functioning method for analyzing safety behavior.

  • 3.
    Schüler, Martin
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Ledningssektionen (Ledn). Högskolan Väst.
    Säkerhet och taktik: militär säkerhetskunskap2020Inngår i: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, nr 3, s. 171-174Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The article argues for a changed perspective on military tactics and safety. By seeing militarytactics as safety knowledge, a wider perspective can be applied to a military problem. Safety isin fact a military core capability impossible to exclude from any military operation. By ignoringsafety, one becomes susceptible to embedded safety flaws, increasing organizational hazards.This could cause mission failure and exposing military personnel to occupational safety risks.

  • 4.
    Schüler, Martin
    Högskolan Väst, (SWE).
    Säkerhetsklimat i en militär organisation2022Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Den militära organisationen inkluderar olika verksamheter vilket skiljer den fran civila organisationer. Den militära organisationen har sin motsvarighet i flera olika civila organisationer som sjöfart, luftfart, sjukvård och transport for att nämna några områden. Den allomfattande militära verksamheten regleras av samma lagar som övriga aktörer i samhället forhåller sig till. Det som är unikt med den militära organisationen är den kontinuerligt tränar och övar för krig. Organisationens personal exponeras för utmaningen att tankemässigt växla mellan individuell och kollektiv risktagning att tänka och träna (krig), Sveriges säkerhet. Samtidigt förvantas individen förebygga risker i de farliga situationer som påverkar den individuella säkerheten som individen möter i sitt arbete.

    Säkerhetsklimat ar organisationsmedlemmarnas kollektiva uppfattning om området säkerhet (Neal & Griffin, 2002; Zohar, 1980). Uppfattningarna skapas genom att gruppen ser hur säkerhet uttrycks, prioriteras och hanteras i organisationen till exempel i organisationens regler, rutiner, instruktioner och dokument (Kines et al., 2011). Uppfattningar ar särskilt viktiga i organisationens säkerhetsarbete och bidrar till att vissa säkerhetsomraden uppfattas som mer eller mindre viktiga i det dagliga arbetet (Fahlbruch & Wilpert, 1999; Flin, 1998; Flin et al., 2000). Dessa uppfattningar påverkar aven förekomsten av olyckor och tillbud som kan orsaka skador pa människor, utrustning och miljö (Beus et al., 2010; Christian et al., 2009; Fugas et al., 2012; Kuenzi & Schminke, 2009; Nahrgang et al., 2011; Tholen et al., 2013). For att kartlägga säkerhetsklimatet används olika enkätinstrument. Det finns inga säkerhetsklimatinstrument som är anpassade  till  hela  den  militära  organisationens verksamhet. De säkerhetsklimatinstrument som finns mäter säkerhetsklimat utifrån en specifik verksamhet som till exempel sjöfart. I den föreliggande avhandlingen har en modifierad version av instrumentet Nordic Safety Climate Questionnaire använts för att mäta säkerhetsklimat i flera olika delar av den militära organisationen. Ytterligare områden har adderats till instrumentet for att fånga de situationer som militär personal möter i den dagliga verksamheten dvs övning, etik, och fysikträning.

    Avhandlingens syfte är att utveckla ett verktyg för att undersöka säkerhetsklimat i en militär organisation samt att undersöka relationen mellan säkerhet och lärande i det militära arbetet.

    Resultaten visar att det anpassade instrumentet NOSACQ-50 diskriminerar mellan olika stridskrafter och nivåer i den militära organisationen. Resultaten visar att de nyskapade dimensionerna: Ledningens stöd, Kunskap om lagar, Etik, Prioritering av träning, Undvikande av träning, Rättvis utvärdering, Acceptans av vulnerabilitet mäter andra aspekter av säkerhet som har relevans for den miliära organisationen.

    Vidare har säkerhet undersökts under en militär övning. Datainsamlingen designades efter  metoden  kritiska  incidenter.  Deltagande  observationer genomfördes av planeringen inför övningen Northern Wind 2019 (NW19). Skuggning användes for att följa övningsdeltagarna under övningen NW19. Resultaten visar att begäret att vinna övningen påverkar hur deltagarna arbetar med säkerhet. Deltagande enheter blir med sina beslut och aktioner omedvetet varandras lärare. Övningsdeltagarna påverkas av ""gamer mode"" vilket medför att säkerhetsreglerna upplevs hindrande for övningsvinsten. Övningsscenariot skapar en situation där verklighetsliknande situationer sammanblandas med autentiska. Konkreta uppgifter går att imitera (flytta den gröna lådan) medan abstrakta uppgifter inte kan imiteras (samarbeta med andra myndigheter som Polisen). Problematiken skapar ett underlag som kan vilseleda organisationen och skapa kunskap som inte fungerar utanför övningen. Problem och svårigheter synliggörs inte utan bildar organisatoriska svagheter som kan orsaka farliga situationer för individen och organisationen.

    För att ytterligare förstå militar säkerhet behöver arbetet kompletteras med ytterligare studier riktade mot marina och flygvapenövningar. Vidare behöver instrumentet kompletteras med påståenden som fångar personalens uppfattning om säkerhetslösningens faktiska tillämpbarhet när den används i den militära verksamheten.

  • 5.
    Schüler, Martin
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Ledningssektionen (Ledn). Högskolan Väst.
    Vad är det som händer?2020Inngår i: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, nr 1, s. 176-180Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article the author identifies an educational problem. Officers lack the education toperform normal everyday work and to learn from large field exercises. By using previouslycollected quantitative data from a different study a mean value of seven days of educationis currently allocated to handle the normal work routines. Qualitative data have also beencollected from observations from military exercises. The article presents a brief presentationof the history of activity theory as a theoretical framework. Yrjö Engeströms third generationactivity theory is then used to analyze and design a new system for the military educationfor Swedish officer. The design focuses on four documents officers create in their profession:battle plans, risk analysis, educational plans and directives. The proposed new design for theeducation ties the military academic education together with work experience and militaryinhouse courses seeing the military education as a whole.

  • 6.
    Schüler, Martin
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Avdelningen för ledarskap och ledning i Stockholm. University West, (SWE).
    Bjurström, Erik
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Avdelningen för ledarskap och ledning i Stockholm.
    Blurring the lines: Merging aspects of human cognition and artificial intelligence2022Inngår i: 27th ICCRTS Proceedings, International Command and Control Institute , 2022, s. 1-6Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the transformation of Twitter from a usable tool for spreading information to a space for learning. When we talk about different software, we in many cases can’t phantom their outreach and connectivity. Specific software solutions have been integrated into our lives making them a part of ourselves. Specific tools can be designed to enhance specific functions within the software such as automatic accounts spreading keywords users write. Users are humans and perceive their cyber environment in the same way as they perceive human interaction in real life. The transformation changed the tool to an area of operation where different stakeholders can interact with each other. From an intelligence perspective, the distinction between technology and HUMINT no longer serves its purposes of classification – it has merged into one and the same. From the perspective of C2, information technology in itself is still emphasized at the cost of other dimensions, hence obscuring the very mechanisms of how what is only seen as social media in fact is a dimension of itself. While the human dimension is sometimes addressed, there is a dearth of research exploring its workings.

  • 7.
    Schüler, Martin
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Ledningssektionen (Ledn). Högskolan Väst.
    Bjurström, Erik
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Ledningssektionen (Ledn).
    Speed vs thought2021Inngår i: 26th ICCRTS International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium: Artificial Intelligence, Automation and Autonomy: C2 Implications, Opportunities and Challenges, 2021, Vol. Topic 3, s. 1-8Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the conception of speed in command and control (C2) systems’ impact on human thought and to introduce the notion of “Combat Integrated Learning” (CIL). In a context of increased complexity, unpredictability and ambiguity, adaptation not only concerns agility in terms of speed, but through resilience, self- healing and – in lack of calculable consequence ethics – an Aristotelian notion of virtue as a stable equilibrium of the soul as a basis for choice of action “knowingly and for its own sake”. As humans we have many cognitive functions which impact how we perceive information i.e., sensemaking and situation awareness. But the essence of thinking is a philosophical issue where philosophers like Arendt previously explained the emergence of banal evil as ordinary men having lost their ability to think. C2 systems that make us reactive to a piece of information, inciting speed to act, minimize human reflection and learning. Developing time effective C2 systems could in fact lead to the creation of military stupidity. Authority, organizational and administrative procedures may lead to normalization of risk, morally questionable attitudes and actions, routinized humiliation and behavior that ultimately break down sensemaking and the sense of “self” in degraded environments. C2 systems and their uses may hamper intelligent action through the loss of an active agency of the individual, thus impede understanding and management of the battlespace, especially in the light of deception and disinformation, and unclear causal relations of events in constrained environments.This paper points at potential good practices in the face of ambiguity.

  • 8.
    Schüler, Martin
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Ledningssektionen (Ledn). Högskolan Väst (SWE).
    Johansson, Kristina
    Högskolan Väst (SWE).
    Vega Matuszczyk, Josefa
    Högskolan Väst (SWE).
    Propper Planning and Preparation Prevents Piss Poor Performance (7P): Training for the fictive scenario or learning to deal with reality?2019Inngår i: : Abstracts, University West , 2019, s. 17-17Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate critical incidents in a large medical exercise (mass casualty incident) including the Swedish Armed Forces (SwAF) and a regional hospital using activity theory. A total of 96 individuals played injured patients with a variety of injuries from simple cuts and bruises to severe head injuries. Patients were evacuated by different means of transportation i.e. minivan, ambulance, military as well as civilian ambulance helicopter.We participated in the final planning of the exercise in order to obtain access for the research team. Data was collected through observations, shadowing technique and 20 semi structured interviews. Professionals from the regional hospital and SwAF as well as evaluating personnel were interviewed. The interviewees were asked to describe significant events experienced during the exercise. Two researchers observed the triage and registration process in the ambulance intake and the emergency room of the hospital. One researcher observed the command and control (C2) function within the mass casualty management (MCM).Two students from the Swedish Defense University and three from University West collected data by playing injured patients according to the determined injure play card provided by SwAF. The students were instructed to observe what they themselves would classify as critical incidents based on their own subject i.e. education, economics and command and control studies. Five questions guided the observations: What happened? Who were involved? What consequences did the incident have? How were these consequences handled by the organization? Did the incident affect other areas?Data was analyzed, thematized and coded using the third generation of activity theory and its areas: tools, rules, community, division of labor, subject and object as a guide for identifying contradictions within the regional hospital and the emergency medical plan developed for handling large casualty events.Preliminary results indicated that participating personnel were not faced with conditions mimicking real life but learned to deal with a corrected version of reality i.e. preparations before the start of the exercise created shortcuts affecting the veracity of the exercise. This was manifested through contradictions within and between the activity systems and the conflicting motives carried by the objects.The results might impact the future designs of large exercises, influencing the conditions that the participants will face in exercises and thereby increasing preparedness for authentic situations.

  • 9.
    Schüler, Martin
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Avdelningen för ledarskap och ledning i Stockholm.
    Matuszczyk, J. Vega
    University West, (SWE).
    A Multi-Domain instrument for safety Climate: Military safety climate questionnaire (MSCQ) and NOSACQ-502022Inngår i: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 154, artikkel-id 105851Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to adjust and develop Nordic Safety Climate Questionnaire (NOSACQ-50) specifically for the military domain. Many safety climate instruments have been developed for complex organizations but few with a military perspective including military exercises and physical training. Data were collected during two separate occasions, experiment one (n = 956) and experiment two (n = 377). The questionnaire was distributed to civilian and military personnel working in the Swedish Armed Forces and to military cadets. The results of experiment one was then analyzed using principal component analyses and confirmatory factor analyses, the factor structure was reproduced in experiment two. The results from the study confirmed the reliability and validity of NOSACQ-50 as a safety climate instrument in the military organization. However, several new factors were identified with the military safety climate questionnaire (MSCQ). Physical fitness and exercises are important activities in the military but are less important in other organizations which could explain why it isn’t present in traditional safety climate instruments. This study identifies several limitations one being the design of questions suitable for both military and civilian personnel. Another limitation is combat operations, this data collection recognizes the field but was unable to capture data from actual combat operations. Further research is needed to fully develop more dimensions for both exercises and combat operations.

  • 10.
    Schüler, Martin
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Avdelningen för ledarskap och ledning i Stockholm.
    Spak, UlrikFörsvarshögskolan, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Avdelningen för ledarskap och ledning i Stockholm.
    Carlerby, Mats ()
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Avdelningen för ledarskap och ledning i Stockholm.
    Granåsen, Magdalena ()
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut (FOI), (SWE).
    Rydmark, Joacim ()
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Avdelningen för ledarskap och ledning i Stockholm.
    Spak, Ulrik ()
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Avdelningen för ledarskap och ledning i Stockholm.
    Wikberg, Per ()
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut (FOI), (SWE).
    Perspektiv på ledning: Ledning och samverkan i totalförsvaret 2019 - 20212022Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Perspektiv på ledning: Ledning och samverkan i totalförsvaret 2019 - 2021
  • 11.
    Schüler, Martin
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Ledningssektionen (Ledn). Högskolan Väst.
    Vega Matuszczyk, Josefa
    Högskolan Väst, (SWE).
    Safety Climate in Military Organizations: A Pilot Study of an Adjusted Multi-Domain Instrument2019Inngår i: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, ISSN 1071-1813, E-ISSN 2169-5067, Vol. 63, nr 1, s. 1373-1377Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this pilot study is to adjust the NOSACQ-50 to the work environment of military organizations.NOSACQ-50 is a validated tool successfully used in several organizational domains to measure occupationalsafety climate (OSC). In general, few studies have been published investigating OSC in militaryorganizations. NOSACQ-50 consists of 50 items across 7 OSC dimensions, i.e. group members’ sharedperceptions of: 1) management safety priority, commitment and competence; 2) management safetyempowerment; 3) management safety justice; 4) workers’ safety commitment; 5) workers’ safety priority andrisk non-acceptance; 6) safety communication, learning, and trust in co-workers’ safety competence; 7)workers’ trust in the efficacy of safety systems. To assess the relevance of the NOSACQ-50 items, a revisedversion of the instrument was sent to 11 military safety experts. In addition, 19 items pertaining to areas notcovered by NOSACQ-50 were validated by the same experts. After contents validation, data from 517participants from 4 garrisons were collected. The results showed that NOSACQ-50 had acceptable reliabilityscores (.70-.89.), and the factor structure was confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Principalcomponent analyses (PCA) of the supplementary 19 items showed that 12 items grouped into threedimensions (alpha .74-.91): Management enabling safety performance, personnel’s knowledge of andcompetence in national laws regulating safety and Unit ethics. In conclusion, preliminary results showed theadjusted NOSACQ-50 instrument could be used to measure OSC in military organizations. However,additional studies must be performed to improve and develop military specific dimensions not covered byNOSACQ-50.

  • 12.
    Schüler, Martin
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Ledningssektionen (Ledn). Högskolan Väst, (SWE).
    Vega Matuszczyk, Josefa
    Högskolan Väst, (SWE).
    Johansson, Kriistina
    Högskolan Väst, (SWE).
    Yohan, Robinson
    Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, (SWE).
    The Swedish pandemic landscape on twitter: An exploratory study using statistical methods2021Inngår i: 26th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium (ICCRTS): Artificial Intelligence, Automation and Autonomy: C2 Implications, Opportunities and Challenges, 2021, Vol. Topic 2, s. 1-7, artikkel-id 10Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During the Covid-19 pandemic social media have become an important tool for spreading information from government agencies regarding restrictions. Government accounts and public health care organizations have used different social media platforms such as Twitter to communicate with the Swedish public. The Swedish public have interacted with the information, arguing for a stricter or a more relaxed approach to Covid-19 recommendations. This social network analysis aims at exploring statistical methods to investigate patterns made by twitter accounts commenting the Swedish Armed Forces field hospital activities and the national Covid-19 strategy during the Covid-19 pandemic. Data was collected using the twitter platform and the Ncapture add-on with Google Chrome. The interactions stored in the tweets and replies section (TRS) from 227 twitter accounts were collected and coded with the NVivo auto code function. Twitter usernames that occurred in less than 35 % of the 227 TRS were deleted. The 227 extracted TRS were treated as scale items and occurring twitter-names which interacted with the TRS as respondents n=761. Analysis of the factor structure with PCA and CFA indicated four factors: 1) Military policy, 2) Right wing politics, 3) Law enforcement, 4) Politics and strategy. Structural Equation Modelling revealed interrelationships between the factors. Thus, Military policy, Law enforcement and Politics and strategy had a direct effect on Right wing politics. Politics and strategy had a direct effect on Military policy and Law enforcement. This study revealed that PCA, CFA and SEM have the potential to discover the core of a thought collective. Despite the obvious dangers with misinformation and political extremism on social media, policymakers need to tackle misinformation and disinformation, protecting electoral processes and facilitating public discussion, built on the three fundamental democratic principles of equality, representation and participation.

  • 13.
    Vega Matuszczyk, Josefa
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst.
    Johansson, Kristina
    Högskolan Väst.
    Schüler, Martin
    Högskolan Väst.
    The student learning context during a pandemic2020Inngår i: VILÄR: 3–4 December 2020 University West,Trollhättan. Abstracts, Högskolan Väst , 2020, s. 28-30Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the midst of a semester the COVID-19 pandemic forced many universities to abruptly reorganize courses from being taught on campus to completely being imparted online. Therefore, the present study seeks to explore how students perceived the impact of COVID-19 on psychological well-being, stress, and satisfaction with their studies in a Swedish university. Participants were 560 university students in West Sweden attending courses during the spring semester of 2020. The study is part of a larger study involving eight different countries, including Sweden, with the objective to examine the impact of COVID-19 on university student’s well-being. Although this abstract only cover a small part of the collected data, the Swedish participants. The same questionnaire was sent to all fellow countries. In June 2020, 14571 students at a Swedish university received an e-mail including information about the study, an invitation to participate, and a link to the questionnaire. In total, 560 students chose to take part in the study. They were women (318) and men (242), mean age 29. 24 years (18-78) attending courses at undergraduate - (87.60%) and graduate levels. Most participants studied fulltime (87.60%), resided at home(71.60%) and stated they were following Governments recommendations about protection from COVID-19 (79.33%). The questionnaire was written in English, was administered with Qualtrics XM software, and took approximately 20 minutes to complete. The questionnaire included measures of Concerns about COVID-19, Perceived Stress, Well-being, Satisfaction with university information, University Support for Online Learning, having Sufficient Technical Requirements, Social Identification, and Satisfaction with studies. Cronbach’s alfa for the different scales ranged from .70 to .93. Spearman correlation analysis showed that satisfaction with studies was significantly related to all other measures. High concerns about Corona (-.096), low University support for Online Learning (-.638), low Satisfaction with University Information (-.549), low Social Identification (-.469), low Well-Being (-.494), High Stress (-.349), and insufficient Technical Preconditions (-.275) affected satisfaction with studies negatively. Mean comparisons with t-test showed significant differences between males and females. Males reported higher satisfaction with studies but significantly lower well-being, less satisfaction with university support for online learning and university information. The differences between males and females, although statistically significant, mean differences were small to moderate (.023-.044).It is concluded that University contributions to the change from campus- to online studies are significant factors affecting student’s well-being and satisfaction with studies. Furthermore, the role of Social Identification in students Well-being and Satisfaction with studies should be further investigated. The planes for the future is to write a comparative study in the European project.

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