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  • 1.
    Antai, Imoh
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Functions and Perspective Division.
    Hellberg, Roland
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Functions and Perspective Division.
    Skoglund, Per
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Functions and Perspective Division.
    Logistics growth in the armed forces: Development of a theoretical framework and research propositions2022In: The 34th ANNUAL NOFOMA CONFERENCE, June 8 – 10, 2022 - Reykjavík, Iceland: BOOK OF ABSTRACTS / [ed] Gunnar Stefánsson; Júlíus I. Guðmundsson, NOFOMA , 2022, p. 22-22Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Antai, Imoh
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Functions and Perspective Division.
    Hellberg, Roland
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Functions and Perspective Division.
    Skoglund, Per
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Functions and Perspective Division.
    Logistics growth in the armed forces: development of a theoretical framework and research propositions2024In: Defence Studies, ISSN 1470-2436, E-ISSN 1743-9698, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 84-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Considering the current instability within the European security landscape, militaries are seeking new ways to grow and counter emergent threats. However, there is a rarity of armed forces addressing logistics growth within literature. Thus, this paper investigates growth concepts that can enable military forces develop, conduct, and grow logistics to achieve its operational objectives. The paper undertakes extant literature analysis of three relevant theories of growth as a means to review for comprehending organizational growth. The relationships between logistics and three growth theories as well as industry growth practices are analysed. Argues that the development of the concept of logistics growth in the military require support not just from established growth theories but also from long-standing industrial practice in order to fully develop the best strategic-fit growth concept for the military. Nine propositions reflecting antecedent relationships amongst theoretical variables for growth are developed. Study serves as a point of departure for further research on military growth in general and military logistics growth in particular and provides military leaders with disciplinary options for evaluating logistics growth strategies for achieving operational objectives and goals.

  • 3.
    Antai, Imoh
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Functions and Perspective Division.
    Hellberg, Roland
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Functions and Perspective Division.
    Skoglund, Per
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Functions and Perspective Division.
    TO THINE OWN SELF BE TRUE… PERSPECTIVES ON THE SIGNALING OF LOGISTICS GROWTH AS POWER IN THE ARMED FORCES2023In: NOFOMA 2023 – Logistics During Global Crises / [ed] Aalto University School of Business & Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Ekström, Thomas
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Operational Functions Section.
    Hilletoft, Per
    University of Gävle and Jönköping University, (SWE).
    Skoglund, Per
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Operational Functions Section.
    Guidance for the application of a dynamic purchasing portfolio model for defence procurement: A Swedish perspective2020In: Necesse, ISSN 2464-353X, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 136-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop guidance, including tactical levers, for the application of a dynamic purchasing portfolio model (PPM) for defence procurement.

    Design/methodology/approach: The study uses a workshop and a literature review to identify suitable tactical levers for the application of a dynamic PPM for defence procurement. Based on application rules proposed in previous research (Ekström et al., 2021), the study then formulates guidance for application and validates the methodology in two desktop exercises.

    Findings: The study identifies tactical levers and proposes guidance for the application of a dynamic PPM for defence procurement.

    Research limitations/implications: The proposed guidance includes tactical levers, which will enable defence authorities to dynamically reposition in the segmentation model proposed by Ekström et al. (2021) and find an enhanced position to optimise. The presented results build on a study in the Swedish defence context. To determine generalisability, additional studies are required.

    Originality/value: The paper develops guidance, including tactical levers, for the application of a dynamic PPM for defence procurement, which is original in several aspects. The guidance addresses public procurement, which is a novelty. In contrast to most extant PPMs, the model is dynamic, which enables practitioners to reposition in the model. 

  • 5.
    Ekström, Thomas
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Operational Functions Section. Jönköping University, JTH, Industriell produktutveckling, produktion och design, Sweden.
    Hilletofth, Per
    Jönköping University, JTH, Logistik och verksamhetsledning, (SWE).
    Skoglund, Per
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Operational Functions Section.
    Differentiation strategies for defence supply chain design2020In: Journal of Defense Analytics and Logistics, ISSN 2399-6439, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 183-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Defence supply chains (SCs) aim at operational outcomes, and armed forces depend on them to provide availability and preparedness in peace and sustainability in war. Previous research has focussed on strategies for SCs aiming at financial outcomes. This raises the question of how suitable commercial supply chain strategies (SCSs) are for supply chain design (SCD) in defence. The purpose of this paper is to explain the constructs of SCSs that satisfy military operational requirements and to propose SCSs that are appropriate in defence. 

    Design/methodology/approach – This paper reports on a Delphi study with 20 experts from Swedish defence authorities. Through three Delphi rounds, two workshops and a validation round, these experts contributed to the reported findings. 

    Findings – The findings demonstrate that commercial SC constructs are acceptable and applicable in defence but not sufficient. An additional strategy is required to satisfy requirements on availability, preparedness and sustainability. The paper shows that different requirements in peace and war make it challenging to design suitable defence SCs and proposes eight SCSs that satisfy these requirements. 

    Research limitations/implications – The results emanate from the Swedish defence context and further research is required for generalisation.

    Originality/value – This paper extends theory by investigating SCs aiming at operational outcomes. For managers in companies and defence authorities, it explicates how the unique issues in defence must influence SCD to satisfy operational requirements.

  • 6.
    Ekström, Thomas
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Operational Functions Section. Jönköping University, JTH, Industriell produktutveckling, produktion och design.
    Hilletofth, Per
    Jönköping University, JTH, Logistik och verksamhetsledning.
    Skoglund, Per
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Operational Functions Section.
    Guidance for Management Decisions in the Application of a Dynamic Purchasing Portfolio ModelManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Ekström, Thomas
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Operational Functions Section. Jönköping University, JTH, Industriell produktutveckling, produktion och design, Sweden.
    Hilletofth, Per
    Jönköping University, JTH, Logistik och verksamhetsledning, (SWE).
    Skoglund, Per
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Operational Functions Section. Norwegian Defence University College, Norway.
    Towards a purchasing portfolio model for defence procurement: A Delphi study of Swedish defence authorities2021In: International Journal of Production Economics, ISSN 0925-5273, E-ISSN 1873-7579, Vol. 233, article id 107996Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explains the constructs of a purchasing portfolio model (PPM) that defence authorities can use in practice in defence procurement and designs a segmentation model. We identify open PPM design and application questions in the literature and conduct a Delphi study with twenty experts from Swedish defence authorities to design a segmentation model that is fit-for-purpose. The paper addresses the open design and application questions discussed in the literature and satisfies the operational requirements of the Swedish Armed Forces (SwAF). The proposed segmentation model builds on three dimensions: the operational requirements of the SwAF, the market's ability to deliver supplies on time, and limitations in the SwAF operational capability if the market does not deliver supplies on time. To reduce complexity, we propose a two-stage model in which we use one dimension as a precursor to a two-dimensional model. In the latter, we merge sixteen elements into one square along with three other segments which users should treat differently. The paper contributes to extant academic knowledge on PPMs by eliciting practitioners' views on open design and application questions. We develop the proposed segmentation model in cooperation with practitioners and believe that it will be of value in defence procurement practice.

  • 8.
    Ekström, Thomas
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, Kista, Sweden.
    Skoglund, Per
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Operational Functions Section.
    Ström, Mats
    Swedish Defence Materiel Administration, Stockholm, Sweden.
    An optimised defence supply system: Defining the principles2017In: NOFOMA 2017 - The 29th NOFOMA Conference: ”Taking on grand challenges” / [ed] Hellström, Daniel; Kembro, Joakim; Bodnar, Hajnalka, Lund: Lund University , 2017, p. 761-763Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of   this paper is to describe the first step in the process of optimising the   Swedish defence supply system. The first step entails defining principles for   distribution and storage.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The research   builds on literature reviews, archival records, Swedish military documents,   participatory observation at FMV and in the Swedish Armed Forces Head   Quarters, study visits to military units, presentations by Subject Matter   Experts (SMEs), and war gaming.

    Principles from   business logistics and Supply Chain Management (SCM) were identified and   analysed in order to assess their applicability in the Swedish military   context. Similarly, military logistics principles from other nations (US and   UK), as well as from multinational organisations (UN, NATO, and EU), were   identified and analysed. Finally, current and past Swedish logistics   principles from guiding documents and military practise were also identified.  

    Findings

    The newly dawned   political attention to operational effect, operational capabilities,   availability and preparedness must lead to a shift of paradigm in defence   logistics. Military logistics must move from the prevailing focus on   effectiveness and efficiency in production logistics to an effect based   operational logistics, supported by an effective and efficient production   logistics. This means that new military logistics principles must be applied.   The conducted research has suggested a set of new principles for distribution   and storage.

    The working group has identified and analysed principles in business logistics and SCM, as well as domestic and international principles in military logistics. The working group has found that there is no established set of principles that in and by itself meets the requirements for designing an optimised system for storage and distribution which satisfies the goal and the constraints. The working group has therefore selected principles from different sources and augmented these with a couple of principles constructed by the working group.

    The working group   proposes that the following principles should be established for distribution   and storage in the Swedish defence supply chain:

    •   Primacy   of operational requirements – It is the requirements of the operational   commander that must be satisfied.
    •   Adapted   protection – The requirements for protection must be considered in the   selection of system for distribution and storage.
    •   Categorisation,   segmentation and differentiation – Supplies should be categorised and   segmented, and the treatment of segments should be differentiated.
      •   Strategic   supplies should always be stored in sufficient quantities and volumes in   order to ensure initial availability and sustainability until external   delivery can be guaranteed.
      •   Risk   supplies should always be stored in sufficient quantities and volumes in   order to ensure initial availability and initial sustainability.
      •   Certain   leverage supplies may require storage to a certain degree in order not to   jeopardise initial availability and initial sustainability.
      •   Generally,   it is not necessary to store routine supplies.
      •   Storage   close to military units – Limiting supplies should be stored close to the   military units in order to ensure initial availability and initial   sustainability for activated and mobilised military units.
      •   Storage   close to the area of operations – Reserve supplies should be stored close to   the envisioned areas of operations in order to ensure operational   sustainability.
      •   The   requirement for redistribution and dispersion in higher levels of   preparedness should be minimised.
      •   Efficient   distribution solutions, which do not restrict operational effect, should be   used up until the area of operations.
      •   Military   units close to the area of operations should have organic distribution   capability to be able to handle all requirements for transportation.
      •   Postponement   – Products should be kept generic as long as possible, and value adding,   customising, activities should be postponed as long as possible.
      •   Modularisation   and bundling of goods and services – Components (goods, services, or   combinations of goods and services) should be grouped (bundled) together into   larger modules or systems, which at a later stage can be combined in order to   create customised end products.
      •   Efficient and lean in peace.
      •   Effective, agile and responsive in higher levels of preparedness.
      • ·           Flexibility to adapt the configuration of the supply chain to   different levels of threat, preparedness and conflict.

    Contrary   to most supply chains in business logistics, but akin to the reality of   supply chains in humanitarian logistics, supply chains in defence logistics   must have two distinct different modes: dormant and action. This means moving from applying the principles of efficiency and   lean in peace, to the application of the principles of effectiveness, agility   and responsiveness in higher levels of preparedness. To have the ability to   move between these two modes is an application of the principle of   flexibility.

    The working group   has found that several of the principles applied in business logistics are   better suited to be components in everyday improvement management within   defence logistics, rather than as principles suited for supply chain design   and supply chain configuration. Consequently, the working group proposes that   improvement management within defence logistics command and control should   always address the following issues:

    •   Eliminate,   reduce and/or redistribute lead-times – Non value adding activities should be   eliminated. Time should be allocated so that activities are executed in   parallel. It must be ensured that activities are not duplicated between   different organisations.
    •   Eliminate,   reduce and/or adapt to variations and uncertainties – Variations and   uncertainties must be identified and analysed, in order to enable elimination   or reduction, alternatively allow for required adaptations.
    •   Simplify   and compress structures and processes – The number of decision elements or   nodes in logistics systems, e.g. the number of different variations of   products, customers, suppliers, storage nodes, number of steps in   distribution channels, levels in product structures, etc. should be reduced.   Components, processes, and interfaces should be standardised.
    •   Simplify   administration and minimise transaction times – Administration should be   simplified and the extra lead time due to administrative processer should be   minimised.

    Several of the   proposed principles have been validated by SMEs within the Swedish Armed   Forces and FMV through war games which have been conducted at the tactical   and operational levels for this purpose. However, the working group   recommends that further validation activities be conducted, prior to any final   implementation and institutionalisation of the proposed principles.

    Original/value

    The presented work   is relevant for any defence organisation contemplating transformation of its   logistics system in the light of recent developments with implications for   the areas of defence and security policy.

  • 9.
    Listou, Tore
    et al.
    Norwegian Defence University College, (NOR).
    Ekström, Thomas
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Operational Functions Section.
    Skoglund, Per
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Operational Functions Section.
    Håbjørg, Gunn Elisabeth
    Norwegian Armed Forces HR and Conscription Centre, (NOR).
    Sørgaard, Per Erik
    312 Airwing / Norwegian Logistics Operations Center F-35, (NOR).
    Performance Based Logistics: A Norwegian-Swedish Perspective2020In: Necesse, ISSN 2464-353X, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 118-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Performance Based Logistics (PBL) as a support strategy for defence systems has been coined as a paradigmatic change within defence acquisition and maintenance. Originating from the defence industry, the concept has been adopted in many defence organisations. Although studies of its applicability has identified both enablers and barriers for implementation, these studies predominantly are performed in a few large nations. How the concept corresponds with a small state perspective needs to be addressed. Further on, perceived outputs of PBL practices would differ between the acquisition organisation, the supplier of PBL services, and the users of the services. Understanding these differences in perceptions would give valuable knowledge about how to design PBL contracts. Thirdly; assuming that PBL contracts indeed result in improved effectiveness, adapting the involved organisations to a new way of managing logistics should be accompanied by related organisational change processes. The purpose with this study is to contextualise the concept and define barriers and enablers for PBL in a small state perspective (represented by Norway and Sweden), identify different stakeholders’ expectations for output, and explore whether implementing such a concept is perceived as a significantly new way of organising defence supply chains with an accompanying organisational change strategy. 

  • 10.
    Listou, Tore
    et al.
    Norweigian Defence University College, (NOR).
    Skoglund, Per
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Operational Functions Section.
    Ekström, Thomas
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Operational Functions Section.
    Performance Based Logistics: Lessons from the Nordic countries2019In: The 31st Annual NOFOMA Conference: Supply Chain Designs and Sustainable Development of Societies - Extended abstracts, Oslo: BI Norwegian Business School; Norwegian Defence University College , 2019, p. 32-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    PBL is thought of as a novel way of designing defence supply chains, advocating long-term relations in which a 1st tier supplier assumes responsibility for the upstream supply chain, and is awarded or punished based on pre-set performance standards. Activities and resources could be lifted out of the defence hierarchy. PBL should lead to adjusted inter-organisational relations and intra-organisational activity structures. The purpose of this research is to explore a) what barriers and enablers to PBL are perceived as the most important in a Nordic perspective, b) how relations between the Defence and PBL suppliers are handled, and c) whether PBL leads to organisational change within the defence.

    Design/methodology/approach

    Because few PBL contracts exist within the Nordic countries a qualitative approach was chosen, based on document studies and semi-structured interviews. Primary data were collected from four units of analysis, each chosen to shed light to all one or more of the research questions.

    Findings

    Our study supports some of, but not all barriers and enablers found in previous research. Lack of supply chain orientation is the main barrier. Relationships seem to depend on trust developed over time, also prior to the PBL contract. Although PBL alters interorganisational activity structures, this only to a minor degree results in organisational change.

    Research limitations/implications

    Qualitative study of a few Nordic PBL contracts. Findings validated in a Nordic context, not necessarily for other small nations.

    Practical implications

    Our findings have implications when planning and implementing PBL contracts.

    Original/value

    This is the first reported study of PBL contracts in the Nordic countries.

  • 11.
    Skoglund, Per
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Operational Functions Section.
    Listou, Tore
    Norwegian Defence University College, Oslo, Norway.
    Host Nation Support: an evolving concept for military and humanitarian logistics2017In: NOFOMA 2017 - The 29th NOFOMA Conference: ”Taking on grand challenges” / [ed] Hellström, Daniel; Kembro, Joakim; Bodnar, Hajnalka, Lund: Lund Univeristy , 2017, p. 815-816Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Today Host Nation Support (HNS) is applied in most multinational military exercises and in multinational operations such as the Iraqi Wars, in Afghanistan and Mali. Processes and activities are tailored and adjusted according to the knowledge and capacity of the different Host Nations, although often at an ad-hoc basis (Tilson, 1997). On the civilian side, the concept became known at the turn of the century, when for example Croatia used HNS principles in the IDASSA exercise in 2007 (DUZS, 2007). HNS as an idea has evolved both in the military and the civilian sector. Academic research on HNS is limited, except from doctrines and principles developed by NATO, EU, and individual nations, few academic studies can be found. There exist a few papers discussing national capabilities (Rzadkowska & Ziółkowski, 2016; Škvařil, 2013). To our best knowledge, there are no previous studies concerning the needs of the Sending Organisations and the effects HNS will have on the logistics footprint of those organisations. Based on an open systems perspective, the purpose of this paper is therefor to explore and describe general principles of HNS, and to apply a theoretical framework for analysing logistics implications for the sending organisations receiving support.

    Design/methodology/approach

    Based on existing available strategy documents and research literature, an understanding for the basic concepts of HNS is developed, followed by a discussion on HNS as a preparedness strategy. Then a theoretical framework is developed to analyse the perspectives: permanent or temporary, central or de-central dimension, and vertical and horizontal coordination. The plan is to analyse the theoretical findings on two cases, one military and one humanitarian. Important aspects to look for is if HNS really makes responses more rapid or if HNS is one way to create binding commitments between sending organisation and receiving nation, when a need for rapid response exists.

    Findings

    Based on theory we conclude that HNS deals with employing resources available in a Host Nation in such a manner that a Sending Organisation can perform its tasks without having to bring own resources along. Such resources would encompass both infrastructure, means of transportation, subsistence, maintenance capacities, access to, and knowledge of local markets, and the ability to coordinate and deconflict needs of all relevant actors. HNS will be activated when a Host Nation requests assistance from other nations or from foreign based organisations. In this respect, it seems that the focus of HNS today has evolved from being mainly a question of minimising costs for deployed forces to also include the ability to add agility or responsiveness to Sending Organisations’ supply chains. Hence, HNS could be regarded a preparedness strategy serving both a Host Nation and Sending Organisations. The Host Nation controls resources and actors that the Sending Organisations, which could be classified as preparedness and emergency response organisations, depends on in order to perform their tasks efficiently.

    Research limitations/implications

    We delimit our study to HNS as a preparedness measure. That is, not the old fashioned, stable efficiency aim, instead primarily being able to conduct a rapid response or possibly the creation of commitment between sending organisations and Host Nations when a response is required.The study will have limitations since the concept only rarely has been used, except for military exercises. This limits the practical experiences and empirical data to validate conclusions from strategy documents, but even with limited amount of data where the concept is used, it is evident that there exists a political commitment to the concept in many nations.

    Practical implications

    The Norwegian Directorate for Civil Protection has developed guideline (DSB, 2014). Belgium state that they have developed a HNS system, according to the EU guidelines, if a need emergency assistance occurs (UNISDR, 2015). Today the HNS concept also has reached the Classrooms, e.g. UNDP held a training course in Beirut in 2015 (UNDP, 2015).This means that there is a growing awareness both in civil and military organisations, that HNS is an important concept both for receiving nations and sending organisations to give a rapid response to an emergency.

    Social implications 

    HNS can develop dormant relationships between organisations and nations. This means that the capability to react rapidly can be improved and developed during crises, which will reduce time to assist vulnerable populations.

    Original/value

    In this paper is the concept of HNS is analysed. The paper shows in what way HNS plays an important role to create preparedness for disaster relief or military assistance. The study discusses several aspects of HNS which creates the fundaments to theoretically understandand practically use the concept.

  • 12.
    Skoglund, Per
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Functions and Perspective Division. Norwegian Defence University College, (NOR).
    Listou, Tore
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Functions and Perspective Division. Norwegian Defence University College, (NOR).
    Ekström, Thomas
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies, Functions and Perspective Division.
    Russian Logistics in the Ukrainian War: Can Operational Failures be Attributed to logistics?2022In: Scandinavian Journal of Military Studies, E-ISSN 2596-3856, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 99-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The lacking Russian progress in war in Ukraine is often attributed to failing logistics, yet the logistics and its eventually failure is not explained. The purpose with this paper is to present some logistics principles that can be used to describe the Russian way of logistics planning, and to infer whether failing logistics slowed down the military operations or if failing operational conduct led to revised operational plans that could not be sustained logistically. The initial Russian Course of Action (COA) to take Kyiv was probably well supported logistically. When the COA failed, contingency plans most likely did not take into consideration the logistical challenges of supporting another type of operation, partly because of the logistics vacuum resulting from the preceding exercises. In the southeast the logistical concept seems to build on the echelon principle, which fits poorly with the lack of operational success. Adding to this is successful Ukrainian tactics of targeting Russian logistics resources which significantly reduces the Russian fighting power. This assessment is based on openly accessible information about the Russian campaign. Reporting from an ongoing war poses challenges of verifying data. Both warring parties and other stakeholders pursue their own interest through strategic communication. Yet, by combining different sources we believe that our findings are quite robust. For future research, archival studies both in Ukraine and Russia, combined with interviews with logistics personnel at both sides would add new dimensions to the research. We realise though that such data sources will not be accessible for quite some time.

  • 13.
    Skoglund, Per
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Operational Functions Section. Swedish Defence University.
    Walldén, Göran
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Joint Warfare Division.
    Logistikens betydelse i Östersjöregionen: Dåtid, nutid och framtid2021In: Mellan Neva och Nordsjön: förutsättningar för att genomföra väpnad strid i Östersjöområdet / [ed] Per Eliasson & Lars Ericson Wolke, Lund: Nordic Academic Press, 2021, p. 76-101Chapter in book (Refereed)
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