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  • 1.
    Hollis, Simon
    Hertie School of Governance .
    A rational response to natural disasters?: Explaining the global rise of regional disaster risk management2012Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural disasters pervade the certainty of social life. In a globalized world this truism increasingly calls for transnational solutions to prevent, prepare, and respond to these deadly disruptions. Regional Disaster Risk Management (DRM) has recently emerged to meet this concern. However, a number of observations question the expected motivation that compels states to cooperate in this important issue area. First, there has been only a moderate increase in the relative estimated economic costs from natural disasters in a majority of regional organizations, and the number of deaths related to natural disasters has consistently decreased. Second, after a tranquil period of cooperation from the mid 1970s, regional DRM rapidly developed and spread across the globe. This sudden rise in DRM cooperation seems difficult to explain if the costs from natural disasters have not considerably changed. Third, remarkable similarities appear in the goals and wording of regional DRM agreements despite the varied political, historical and cultural contexts that typify regional organizations. These empirical observations go against conventional expectations and question the core motivation of the state’s protection of its citizens. This thesis explains the emergence of regional Disaster Risk Management (DRM) globally. This is achieved by applying two alternative traditions of inquiry to ten regional organizations. The first is informed by a neopositive methodology and neoliberal institutional theory. It reveals that a combination of interdependence and asymmetrical risk are a sufficient explanation for the outcome. The second is informed through an analytical methodology and world society theory. It reveals that the UN and the international community are an adequate cause for motivating states through the mutual application of relational and cultural diffusion. An additional aspect of this thesis assesses the extent to which these contending approaches can provide a more complete explanation. This is achieved through a conservative translation of their different modes of knowledge production: an exercise that encourages additional ideal types and hypotheses for the purpose of fostering a richer explanation according to the terms set by each tradition of inquiry. This thesis contributes to the debate on the evolving function of the state in a globalized world. It provides an empirical contribution through a comprehensive comparison of 10 regional organizations; it delivers a theoretical contribution by inter alia questioning the scope conditions of neoliberal institutionalism; and it provides a metatheoretical contribution by offering an alternative avenue for thinking about stylized epistemological divides in the discipline of International Relations (IR). 

  • 2.
    Hollis, Simon
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Bridging International Relations with Disaster Studies: The case of disaster-conflict scholarship2018In: Disasters. The Journal of Disaster Studies, Policy and Management, ISSN 0361-3666, E-ISSN 1467-7717, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 19-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    International relations and disaster studies have much to gain by thinking critically about their respective theoretical and epistemological assumptions. Yet, few studies to date have sought to assess the potential value of linking these two disciplines. This paper begins to address this short-fall by examining the relationship between disasters and conflict as a research sphere that intersects international relations and disaster studies. Through an analysis of whether or not disasters contribute to intranational and international conflict, this paper not only provides a review of the state of the art, but also serves to invite scholars to reflect on related concepts from other fields to strengthen their own approaches to the study of disasters in an international setting. An evaluation of the conceptual and theoretical contributions of each subject area provides useful heuristics for the development of disaster–conflict scholarship and encourages alternative modes of knowledge production through interdisciplinarity.

  • 3.
    Hollis, Simon
    Berlin Graduate School for Transnational Studies, Berlin, Germany.
    Competing And Complementary Conceptions Of Trust In European Integration Theory2009In: Lcc Liberal Arts Studies / 2009 Volume II: Crisis As A Catalyst For Creativity And Innovation / [ed] JD Mininger and Eglë Zalatoriûtë, 2009, p. 123-140Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The notion of trust or distrust appears in most accounts of cooperation and is, at least implicitly, understood as a primary determining factor for any future collaboration. This is equally true for European integration theory which highlights the importance trust plays in shifting loyalties, reducing transaction costs or forming security communities. Given its importance in influencing cooperative outcomes, it is surprising how little attention trust has received and how seldom the conceptual foundations of trust have been examined. The purpose of this article is to begin to address this shortfall through exploring the concept of trust in European integration theory with a particular focus on the competing and complementing categories of strategic and moralistic trust. This is further complemented by the addition of a case study on EU civil protection as one of the fastest growing areas of European security integration in the European Union.

  • 4.
    Hollis, Simon
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Competing and Complimentary Discourses in Global Disaster Risk Management2014In: Risk, Hazards & Crisis in Public Policy, ISSN 1944-4079, E-ISSN 1944-4079, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 342-363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses the underlying structures that contribute to the boundaries of appropriate behavior in global Disaster Risk Management (DRM). Understood as a policy field committed to mitigating the effects of natural hazards and assisting states in responding to disasters, international dimensions of DRM have received increased attention by academics and practitioners. Yet, little reflection has been made on the ideational structures that define this field. Based on a discourse analysis on key texts, this study argues that three dominant categories—a humanitarian ethics of care, scientific rationality and sovereignty—demarcate the boundaries of cooperation on DRM. Understanding the relationship between these categories is considered vital for reflecting on the current and future trajectory of this important policy field.

  • 5.
    Hollis, Simon
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Disaster Risk Reduction in the Caribbean: Opportunities and Challenges for Achieving Greater Resilience2014In: Caribbean Journal of International Relationships & Diplomacy, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 121-132Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Caribbean experience of natural hazards and disasters has continued to increase over the last half-century. The intensity and number of weather-related disasters combined with existing social, political and economic vulnerabilities form a complex arrangement that threatens the livelihoods of individuals and communities. Global attention to at-risk regions, such as the Caribbean and the Pacific, has intensified in the last decade as an array of international and regional actors have advocated a set of prescriptive action points based on the Hyogo Framework Programme for Action (HFA). As the decade of HFA draws to a close, and as the international community prepare to negotiate the post-HFA in March 2015, it is timely to ask whether the HFA has reached the societal level as its targeted audience. Based on extensive interviews with members of the international community, local disaster managers and intellectuals in the Caribbean region, this paper emphasises the limited success of the HFA and the importance of culture as a long-term strategy for ensuring a safer future.

  • 6.
    Hollis, Simon
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Global and local re-presentations of resilience in the Caribbean: the role of art in the construction of the self2018In: Resilience - International Policies, Practices and Discourses, ISSN 2169-3293, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 35-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The global diffusion and reification of resilience – as the innate acceptance of vulnerability and suffering – has become an increasingly common feature in global development and humanitarian discourses. The advocacy of Disaster Risk Reduction represents a central technique of this global ontology of resilience that aims to influence the individual, the society and the state. This article explores how this global worldview of resilience is received by local rationalities of resilience in the Caribbean. This is achieved by examining Caribbean art as a re-presentational form of identity that shapes distinct ontological understandings of insecurity and vulnerability, which subsequently affects the possibilities of subjectivisation which lead towards local creative resistance or a global consent of suffering.

  • 7.
    Hollis, Simon
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Localized Development Gaps in Global Governance: The Case of Disaster Risk Reduction in Oceania2017In: Global Governance: A Review of Multilateralism and International Organizations, ISSN 1075-2846, E-ISSN 1942-6720, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 121-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global framework agreements on Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) aim to reduce the vulnerability of states from the effects of natural hazards and guide international development strategies. The effects of these agreements have surely saved lives and buffered shocks to economic systems. Yet, there remains a gap between global aims and envisioned outcomes in local communities. This paper argues that cultural determinants of risk, which shape the reception and translation of ideas on DRR, must be taken seriously if international organizations wish to enhance their efficacy and reduce vulnerability. Elucidating the importance indigenous practices of resilience, time and governance have for the global diffusion of DRR can help to reduce this gap and encourage more effective development policy in the future.

  • 8.
    Hollis, Simon
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    National participation in EU civil protection2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The devastating impact and trauma that cataclysmic events cause in an interdependent and globalized society set the backdrop of increasing civil protection cooperation in the European Union. In order to prevent and respond to future natural and manmade crises a number of initiatives have emerged such as sophisticated early-warning response systems to prevent the spread of communicable diseases, and a Monitoring and Information Centre to warn and facilitate national responses on major crises. These mechanisms have been used in several crises ranging from the Prestige tanker oil spill in 2002 to the Haiti earthquake in 2010. Key to a successful EU performance has been an active and efficient participation of EU member states.So far research has mainly paid attention to the functioning of the Brussels based organs. This fifth report from the European Societal Security Research Group (ESSRG) complements this focus with an in-depth study on the participation of member states in the EU Community Mechanism for Civil Protection. It gives an overview of variations in national engagement and investigates the ways the Union is strengthening participation through programmes for training, exercises and exchanges of experts. This report will be highly useful for practitioners who wish to obtain an overall vision of the current status of civil protection cooperation and encourages further and much needed research for scholars on European security, integration and crisis management.

  • 9.
    Hollis, Simon
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training). Geneva School of Governance.
    Preventing Disasters in Europe: Challenges and Opportunities for Translating Global Visions into Local Practices2015In: European Civil Security Governance: Diversity and Cooperation in Crisis and Disaster Management / [ed] Bossong, Raphael & Hegemann, Hendrik, Palgrave Macmillan, 2015, 1, p. 117-137Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Hollis, Simon
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    The Global Construction of EU Development Policy2014In: Journal of European Integration, ISSN 0703-6337, E-ISSN 1477-2280, Vol. 36, no 6, p. 567-583Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At the turn of the twentieth century, 191 countries agreed to realize the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The European Union (EU) has incorporated many of these goals into its development policies. However, the effect of the MDGs on the construction of EU development policy has not been achieved through a homogenous diffusion of global development norms, but through a heterogeneous process: some MDGs have had a greater impact on EU policy formation than others. By reconceptualizing the EU as a receiver of norms, this paper aims to locate the scope conditions of global norm convergence in EU development policy through a comparison of disaster risk reduction and urban development in slum dwellings. Informed through world society theory, the findings point to the importance of norm ‘theorization’ in explaining the scope conditions of norm diffusion.

  • 11.
    Hollis, Simon
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    The global standardization of regional disaster risk management2014In: Cambridge Review of International Affairs, ISSN 0955-7571, E-ISSN 1474-449X, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 319-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural disasters have become a heightened security issue in the last decade. Mitigating and responding to disasters, such as the 2004 tsunami in Southeast Asia and the 2011 earthquake in Japan, reflect a new security agenda that has spread across the globe and infiltrated most regional organizations. At first glance, the creation of regional programmes on disaster risk management (DRM) appears to be driven by the functional preferences of states. However, a comparison of ten regional organizations reveals some curious ambiguities. Despite different threat perceptions, financial budgets and geographical environments of regional organizations, a majority of states have formed DRM programmes that exhibit highly standardized features in terms of language, the referent points of protection and the apparent motivations for cooperation. World society theory is used to explain these striking similarities with reference to the global cultural system. This article also illustrates the analytical purchase of world society theory in understanding cooperation through regional organizations.

  • 12.
    Hollis, Simon
    Hertie Sch Governance, Quartier 110,Friedrichstr 180, D-10117 Berlin, Germany.
    The necessity of protection: Transgovernmental networks and EU security governance2010In: Cooperation and Conflict, ISSN 0010-8367, E-ISSN 1460-3691, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 312-330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The remarkable increase in European security and defence integration in the past decade has presented a challenge to traditional integration theories. Although they remain relevant, these theories fail to take full account of the changing security architecture of Europe, which includes the rise of transgovernmental networks (TGNs). With a focus on EU civil protection, this article critically examines established definitions of TGNs and investigates how these networks influence the supranational and national levels of security cooperation. Findings point toward the emergence of an alternative form of European security governance that addresses the lack of authority in EU security policy

  • 13.
    Hollis, Simon
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    The Role of Regional Organizations in Disaster Risk Management: A Strategy for Global Resilience2015Book (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Hollis, Simon
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Ekengren, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Country Study: Norway2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Norwegian state has a long-standing tradition of protecting its citizens from a range of threats from natural disasters, infectious diseases, industrial accidents, critical infrastructure failure, to terrorist attacks. This case study provides a broad and detailed description on the main features of the modern Norwegian civil security system. It explains how it functions, it describes the system’s political and cultural context, and it addresses the changes that have occurred since the Oslo bombing and the Utøya shootings in 2011 July 22. The coordination of human and material resources to prevent, prepare, respond to, and recover from, various crises is constructed along three guiding principles of responsibility, decentralization, and conformity. This not only means that responsibility for crisis management should be at the lowest possible level, but that the state and its society must also operate under normal standards, regardless of the type or extent of a particular crisis. As this study shows, most areas of the civil security system are infused with these defining principles. This can be seen, for example, in the discussion on the cultural elements that inform Norwegian society, the production of legislation, or in operational procedures used in responding to crises. In addition to these areas, this study also provides detailed descriptions on Norway’s administrative and legal traditions, its external cooperative endeavours, as well as the way in which the private sector and citizens interact with civil security system. In order to further understand the system, this study investigates three quality measures based on the extent to which the system is effective, efficient, and legitimate. An annex is also included that depicts the principal descriptive features of the study, as well as a case study on the H1N1 virus. Set within the dark shadows of the events that took place on July 22 – that could have been avoided through existing security measures according to Norwegian state authorities – this study concludes by highlighting the need for an increase in vigilance and efficiency of the Norwegian civil security system.

  • 15.
    Hollis, Simon
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Ekengren, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Regional Organization Study: Barents Euro-Arctic Region2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This case study provides a comprehensive description of cooperation in the Barents Euro Arctic Region (BEAR). Regional cooperation in this area includes two inter-related organizations. The first is the Barents Euro-Arctic Regional Council (BEAC), which is as an intergovernmental forum that consists of Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Finland, and the Russian Federation. The second is the Barents Regional Council (BRC), which is an interregional forum that consists of 13 counties or provinces from northern Norway, Sweden and Finland and northwestern Russia. In the last 20 years this unique institutional framework has expanded to include cooperation not only on economic and social development, but also in the area of civil security. Building on and complementing existing cooperative endeavours in the field – such as cooperation in maritime and aeronautical search and rescue, existing bilateral agreements on emergency cooperation, and the 1986 Convention on Assistance in Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency – the members of the BEAC and the BRC institutionalized emergency management cooperation in 2008. This includes inter alia notification of emergencies, the establishment of a joint manual, simulation exercises, the exchange of personal, and training. While still young, this form of cooperation shows much promise in an increasingly important region of the world. This study describes civil security cooperation within the BEAR. In particular, it provides an overview of the regional organizations’ cultural, legal and institutional design and it describes the relationships between BEAR and its member states, citizens and stakeholder. The final section of this article also assesses the current state of play by analyzing the effectiveness, efficiency and legitimacy of BEAR in relation to its civil security activities.

  • 16.
    Hollis, Simon
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Ekengren, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Regional Organization Study: Council of the Baltic Sea States2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes the current state of play and historical context of intergovernmental cooperation through the Council of the Baltic Sea States (CBSS) and its engagement with civil security. It addresses the organizational, institutional, and cultural frameworks of the CBSS, as well as the international context within which it is embedded. This provides an important backdrop for describing the civil security system, which the CBSS has fostered for over 20 years. Beginning with the establishment of an expert group on nuclear and radiological safety in 1992, the CBSS now participates in a wide range of cooperative endeavours, such as information exchange on forest firefighting and environmental pollution. This study also assesses CBSS civil security along three indicators that highlight the extent to which the system is effective, efficient and legitimate. It is argued that the CBSS is a regional organization that finds its strength as a platform for facilitating and encouraging cooperation on civil security; however, its actual capacity as an actor in civil security area remains low.

  • 17.
    Rhinard, Mark
    et al.
    Swedish Institute of International Affairs and Stockholm University, Box 27035, SE-102 51 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hollis, Simon
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Boin, Arjen
    School of Governance, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Explaining civil protection cooperation in the EU: the contribution of public goods theory2012In: European Security, ISSN 0966-2839, E-ISSN 1746-1545, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 248-269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years the European Union has taken a number of steps towards improving civil protection cooperation in Europe. European leaders regularly declare the importance of boosting cooperation to prepare for and respond to disasters and emergencies afflicting member states. Those declarations have been accompanied by a flourish of policy activity, the building of new structures, and even treaty changes. On the surface, this little-known area of European integration appears to be proceeding with great success. A closer look, however, reveals significant gaps between member states' general expressions of enthusiasm and problematic cooperation in practice. We draw upon public goods theory to explain why this might be the case; more specifically, we identify likely game-theoretic obstacles to cooperation in different areas of the civil protection field. We evaluate our theoretical propositions by examining the current state of cooperation in marine pollution response, chemical contamination management, and flood response. We find that cooperation success in practice corresponds generally, but not perfectly, with the predictions of public goods theory. Our findings offer a nuanced view of civil protection cooperation in Europe and illuminate options for improved cooperation in the future.

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