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  • 1.
    Waldenström, Christofer
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    A Microworld for Investigating the Effects of Visualizing Expanding Search Areas in Naturalistic Naval Warfare Tasks2012In: Proceedings of 2012 Cognitive Methods in Situation Awareness and Decision Support (CogSiMA), New Orleans, LA, 2012, p. 146-149Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Presents an microworld for investigating the effects of visualizing expanding search areas to support the building of a naval force's common operational picture. The microworld simulates naval warfare operations, and in it, two participants can play against each other in an operations area where both own units and neutrals may be present. The participants control combat vessels used to locate and attack the enemy, and high value objects that should be protected. The map of the operations area is configurable and the units' weapons and sensors can be defined by the experimenter. The microworld displays an individual operational picture to each player complied from the sensor information provided by that player's units. To investigate visualization, expanding search areas can be added to enhance the operational picture, and algorithms based on these areas can be used to let the computer help the participant identify enemies from neutrals. The integration of expanding search areas into the operational picture is illustrated. The unit classification algorithms based on expanding search areas are explained, and examples of how they work are presented. Experimental setups are presented together with initial evaluations of the microworld.

  • 2.
    Waldenström, Christofer
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    A Microworld Study of Task Force Commanders Executing a Maritime Escort Mission2010In: Proceedings of the 15th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an exploratory microworld study with the aim to identify individual dierences between participants, and relate those dierence to how well the participant solves the task. Six ocers, rank from lieutenant commander to flotilla admiral, were studied when they commanded a maritime escort mission. The experiment was conducted using a microworld where the participant had to control all own units while the computer controlled enemy and neutral units. Data collection consisted of think-aloud protocols, screen captures of the microworld’s tactical screen, questionnaires, and battle outcomes. Performance was determined using a measure of mission success and a general model of the participants’ decision making process was constructed. This model was used to identify individual dierences and relate those to task performance. The results suggest that there is no correlation between how often the participants perform a certain decision making activity, and how well they perform in the microworld. On the other hand, the results suggest a strong correlation between how well the participants perform in the microworld and how many dierent decision making activities they visit during one coherent reasoning chain. The result seems to suggest that it is more important to consider many aspects of a problem at the same time, and that no decision making activity is more important that another.

  • 3.
    Waldenström, Christofer
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Constraint Visualization Decreases Search Time for Novices and Navy Officers in a Naval Search Task2011In: Proceedings of the 10th Conference on Naturalistic Decision Making, Orlando, FL, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Investigated a visualization aid to support naval search tasks. 20 officers and 20 students completed 12 trials in an experiment that contrasted with and without the visualization aid and controlled for learning effects. The aid improved performance in both groups, and there were no effects of learning or task difficulty.

  • 4.
    Waldenström, Christofer
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    För att förstå vad som ska göras måste man se möjlighetsrummet2016In: Operativ ledning: Slutrapport 2013-2015 / [ed] Isabell Andersson, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan (FHS), 2016Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Waldenström, Christofer
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Sea control through the eyes of the person who does it: A theoretical field analysis2013In: Naval War College Review, ISSN 0028-1484, Vol. 66, no 1, p. 81-104Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Waldenström, Christofer
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Supporting Dynamic Decision Making in Naval Search and Evasion Tasks2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Waldenström, Christofer
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Threat and Control in Naval Tactical Decision Making2009Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Waldenström, Christofer
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Using a Low-Fidelity Wargame for Training Fleet-level Command and Control in the Classroom2012In: Proceedings of the 17th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium, Washington, DC, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, the military increasingly rely on simulators to support training and education. One reason for this is simulators are seen as a cost-effective to achieve realistic training. Modern simulators can replicate almost any aspect of the real world, a development in part driven by the implicit assumption that the better the simulator, the better the training. But does higher fidelity necessarily lead to better learning? Recent research point in an alternative direction - it is not the quality of the simulator that determines the quality of training, but rather how well the simulator is integrated in a larger training setting. This paper presents an attempt along these lines - the simple surface warfare model (SSM). SSM is a low-fidelity naval wargame that has been used for several years to train fleet-level decision making skills at courses on both junior and senior officers levels. The paper begins by discussing the use of simulators in training and education. The SSM is introduced, and its integration in fleetlevel decision-making courses is presented. Evaluations of the use of the wargame are presented. The paper finishes off with a discussion of how low-fidelity simulators can be used to support training and education.

  • 9.
    Waldenström, Christofer
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Using uncertainties as basis for evaluating plans2007In: Proceedings of the 11th international conference, KES 2007 and XVII Italian workshop on neural networks conference on Knowledge-based intelligent information and engineering systems: Part I / [ed] Bruno Apolloni, Robert J. Howlett, Lakhmi Jain, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag Berlin , 2007, p. 254-261Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Waldenström, Christofer
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Visualizing a time-space constraint increases performance in a dynamic search task2010In: Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making, ISSN 1555-3434, E-ISSN 2169-5032, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 275-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a display manipulation designed to support search tasks in which the location of the target is unknown and changes over time. The problem is analogous to that of a naval search task when there is an initial sighting and then the naval force must guide its search vehicles to reestablish contact with the fleeing target. The display manipulation visualizes a dynamic constraint on the area where a fleeing target can be found and adjusts its shape to the environment and to the search efforts. Forty participants without prior knowledge of search tactics completed 12 trials in an experiment that compared performance with and without the visualization aid and controlled for learning effects. The results suggest that this visualization improves performance in the dynamic search task. They further suggest that the visualization was easy to learn but that the learning effect did not transfer to a condition without visualization. The results have practical utility for both military and civil search tasks, and they are consistent with other research that emphasizes that control interfaces should make constraints in the task environment perceptually available.

  • 11.
    Waldenström, Christofer
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Visualizing the Field of Safe Travel Increases Performance in a Naval Movement Task2011In: Proceedings of IEEE International Multi-Disciplinary Conference on Cognitive Methods in Situation Awareness and Decision Support (CogSIMA), Miami, FL, 2011, p. 252-256Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates a display manipulation designed to support movement tasks where the location of a threat is uncertain and dynamic. The problem is analogous to that of a naval transportation task, where a ship has to move from one port to another under threat from several enemies of which only the initial positions are known. The display manipulation visualizes a time-dependent constraint on the area where an enemy can be, given its initial position and maximum speed, and adjusts the shape to the environment. The region outside this area represents a field of safe travel where the transport ship can move safely. Forty participants without prior knowledge of the task completed sixteen trials in an experiment that contrasted with and without visualization, and controlled for learning effects. The results suggest that the visualization significantly improved performance in the movement task and that it had a large effect. The visualization also significantly reduced variance in performance, which suggests that it generated a more consistent behavior among participants. It was also easy for the participants to make effective use of the visualization, and once exposed to the visualization, the learning transferred to a condition without the visualization. This study have practical utility for designers of combat information systems as the results indirectly suggest that people have difficulties in inferring the locations of targets of which they only have fragmentary information. Including similar visualizations in the design may consequently increase overall system performance.

  • 12.
    Waldenström, Christofer
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    What is Difficult in Naval Sensemaking?2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Waldenström, Christofer
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Ekenberg, L
    Danielsson, M
    Threat and control in military decision making2009Conference paper (Refereed)
1 - 13 of 13
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