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  • 1.
    Fors, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Hermansson, Helena
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Koraeus, Mats
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Fördjupad uppföljning av anslag 2:4 Krisberedskap: Tema Inriktning och Samordning2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Crismart har genomfört en effektutvärdering av tolv 2:4-projekt med olika löptider. Projekten har bland annat genomförts av länsstyrelser, MSB och andra myndigheter. Syftet var att stödja MSB:s uppföljning av 2:4-projekt utförda inom åtgärden inriktning och samordning. Detta ska ske genom att projektens påverkan på krisberedskapsförmågan utvärderas.

    I vår analys av de resultat och effekter som uppnåtts i de studerade 2:4-projekten framkommer ett antal större mönster rörande förutsättningarna för projekten att resultera i någon slags systemeffekt. Vi kan se:

    - att det finns en inneboende problematik i hur effekter kan och bör mätas och utvärderas på systemnivå, inte bara ur ett utvärderingsmetodologiskt perspektiv utan även på ett mer praktiskt plan i hur 2:4-projekt drivs och kvalitetssäkras,

    - att 2:4-anslagets avgränsning skapar problem för långsiktighet och förvaltning av de resultat som projekten mynnar ut i,

    - att det samtidigt finns en risk att anslaget över tid får en skev inriktning på grund av hur denna systemnytta kan mätas och värderas,

    - och att anslagets utformning skapar hinder för vilken slags systemnytta som går att uppnå baserat på vilka aktörer som har möjlighet att bidra till och dra nytta av projekten.

  • 2.
    Koraeus, Mats
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Finding Expertise: General Problems and Best Practices in the Use of External Expertise in Crises2009Report (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Koraeus, Mats
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Stressing Knowledge: Organisational closed-ness and knowledge acquisition under pressure2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Organisations have been analytically conceptualised as being somewhat analogous to individuals for a long time. They have culture; they can learn; and they can behave in various odd ways. But how far can the simile be stretched? What other types of organisational cognition can we imagine? And what benefits can we gain by introducing new perspectives of this kind? 

    This study shows that organisations can exhibit familiar symptoms of stress, such as closing themselves to the outside world and becoming unreceptive to external stimuli and input. They retreat to what is familiar and safe and put on blinders to hide anything that does not already fit with how they feel things should be, often in situations where they would be best served by being as open to and perceptive of these external stimuli as possible. Using a model of organisational behaviour that connects external pressure to an internal mode of operation and to specific knowledge-seeking behaviours, the study examines two case pairs—two success stories and two catastrophic failures—to examine patterns of organisational cognition. By comparing and contrasting the failure of the FBI during the 1993 Waco siege with its subsequent success during the 1996 Montana Freemen standoff, and doing the same with the Swedish Foreign Ministry’s handling of the 2004 Southeast Asian tsunami and the 2006 evacuation from the war in Lebanon, a pattern emerges where certain types of knowledge proved to be the key to staying as open-minded, responsive, and dynamic as these crises demanded. This knowledge can be used both during a crisis to resolve some of the confusion and time pressure that is endemic to such situations, as well as before a crisis to mitigate or even stave off the approaching chaos.

  • 4.
    Koraeus, Mats
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Who knows?: The use of knowledge management in crisis2008Book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Koraeus, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Centre for Societal Security.
    Bynander, Fredrik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Centre for Societal Security. Center of Natural Hazards and Disaster Science.
    Suburban Eruption: The Management of Social Unrest in the Suburbs of Stockholm in 20112019In: Societal Security and Crisis Management: Governance Capacity and Legitimacy / [ed] Lægreid, Per; Rykkja, Lise H., Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019, p. 169-186Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the evening of 19 May, the celebration of Sweden’s gold medal in the hockey World Championship took place in the centre of the city, while reports began coming in of an unusually large number of vehicles being set on fire in Husby. During the night, additional vehicles, and even a school and a garage, were set ablaze. Police and rescue personnel were attacked when they arrived on the scene, adding to the event an unusual component in that the police also had to protect the rescue workers on site. The riots in Husby that spread across the Stockholm suburbs lasted for two weeks, although there was nothing to indicate early on that it would last this long, and what crisis management needs would arise.

  • 6.
    Koraeus, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training). Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Stern, Eric
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Exploring the Crisis Management/Knowledge Management Nexus2013In: Strategic Intelligence Management: National Security Imperatives and Information and Communications / [ed] Simeon Yates & Babak Akghar, Oxford, UK: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2013, p. 134-149Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Crises are becoming a ubiquitous phenomenon and are—like the example of Hurricane Isaac—typically surrounded by complex social and technical factors beyond the competence of generalist leaders. By their very nature, crises are associated with considerable uncertainty. Knowing this, crisis managers frequently call upon experts to provide relevant information on specific subject matter. During the past decade and a half, a theoretical and methodological field of study has emerged addressing this issue: how to find missing knowledge, transfer it to where it is most needed, and institutionalize it for future use. This subject is called “knowledge management” and is rooted in older theories on organizational knowledge and organizational learning. In fact, these very same organizational learning theories form the foundation for the post-crisis learning perspectives, which are increasingly prominent in the field of crisis management. Hence, one may question why these two management subdisciplines have not been more systematically combined and integrated. In crisis management, learning is often seen as a process that takes place after a crisis has been resolved, in preparation for the next crisis. Yet, knowledge management considers knowledge creation and learning to be a constant process. Ideally, combining these two perspectives could stimulate some kind of “instant learning” during an actual crisis, so that relevant lessons are learned and implemented for the current crisis as well as for future crises.

    A potential problem with combining crisis management and knowledge management is the difference in typical time frames associated with the two management subfields. By definition, crises involve a strong element of urgency and thus require immediate action. Knowledge management, however, was born out of attempts to improve consumer product innovation cycles, which can run several months or even years. The possibility of tapping into the knowledge management techniques for finding and accessing new or unfamiliar knowledge (e.g., calling in experts) is very alluring, but the question is if such techniques can fit into the tight timeframe associated with crises.

  • 7.
    Trimintzios, Panagiotis
    et al.
    ENISA.
    Holfeldt, Roger
    Secana.
    Koraeus, Mats
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Uckan, Baris
    Secana.
    Gavrila, Razvan
    ENISA.
    Makrodimitris, Georgios
    ENISA.
    Report on Cyber Crisis Cooperation and Management: Comparative study on the cyber crisis management and the general crisis management2015Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this study is to provide an analysis of cyber crisis management by identifying relations between this emerging field and the better established subject of general crisis management. This includes terminology and key concepts in these fields. This study further seeks to gain knowledge and understanding of the involved actors’ perspectives on the challenges for Cyber Crisis management within the European context.

    The purpose of the study is twofold: to compare concepts from the general crisis management systems with the corresponding systems related to cyber crisis management, and to conduct a conceptual analysis of the language and terminology within these two fields. The primary aim is to analyse the similarities and differences between general and cyber crisis management, employing examples from countries and organizations within the EU.

    Based on interviews with members of key national and EU institutions, and on an analysis of the differences between their practitioner perspectives and the theories of general crisis management, the study arrives at six key areas of recommendations for future activities in the cyber security realm.

  • 8.
    Uckan Färnman, Baris
    et al.
    Secana.
    Koraeus, Mats
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Backman, Sarah
    Secana.
    Gavrila, Razvan (Editor)
    ENISA.
    Trimintzios, Panagiotis (Contributor)
    Stavropoulos, Vangelis (Commentator for written text)
    ENISA.
    Zacharis, Alexandros (Commentator for written text)
    ENISA.
    The 2015 Report on National and International Cyber Security Exercises: Survey, Analysis and Recommendations2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During this study ENISA gathered and analysed a large set of over 200 exercises. In addition to the exercise dataset, ENISA analysed specialised literature such as after-action reports and previous studies that have contributed to the analysis. This report includes a model for describing and reporting on such exercises. The study is a step forward towards better resource for planning and collaboration between nations and agencies interested in cybersecurity exercises. The findings show a continuous and accelerated increase in the total amount of exercises held after 2012, as well as an increase in the number of cooperative exercises involving private and public actors. This indicates that it is not just a matter of public agencies running more exercises, but also of more actors benefiting from these exercises.

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