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  • 1.
    Bjarnesen, Mariam
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    From Perpetrator to Protector?: Post-War Rebel Networks as Informal Security Providers in Liberia2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The dismantling of rebel structures at the end of civil war is often considered to be one of the most important aspects of a successful transition to peace. Combatants are expected to lay down their weapons, but also to abandon their wartime networks. Yet, peace agreements and subsequent Disarmament Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR) processes do not automatically, or necessarily, destroy rebel networks. In Liberia such structures have lingered since the war came to an end in 2003 and networks of ex-combatants are still active, though maintained and mobilised for new purposes.

    The security political situation in Liberia, with weak formal security institutions and a history of predatory behaviour, has created an environment where informal initiatives for security and protection are called upon. In such an environment informal security groups have a natural platform. Based on original interview material and findings from fieldwork this thesis examines how post-war rebel networks are organised and operate in the informal security arena, while describing the rationale behind these lingering features of war. By doing so this thesis sheds light on how the adaptive capacity of former rebel soldiers is utilised by various Liberian actors, and the risks, but also possible positive outcomes, of such a development.

    This dissertation follows individuals, former rebel commanders in particular, in post-war rebel networks from the time of war to 2013. We will see them, and ex-combatants around them, mobilised as ‘recycled’ warriors in times of regional wars and crisis, as vigilantes and informal security providers for economic and political purposes. Yet, we will also meet them when there are no specific event ex-combatants could be mobilised to fully examine the relevance of post-war rebel networks and ex-combatant identity in contemporary Liberia. In the conclusions basic underlying aims and purposes with the processes of demobilisation and reintegration are challenged. And as this thesis finds, one might even argue that these ex-combatants have succeeded in reintegrating themselves due to, not despite, the fact that they have not been demobilised.

  • 2.
    Bjarnesen, Mariam
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    The Winner Takes it All: Post-War Rebel Networks, Big Man Politics and the Threat of Violence in the 2011 Liberian Elections2018In: Violence in African Elections: between Democracy and Big Man Politics / [ed] Mimmi Söderberg Kovacs;Jesper Bjarnesen, Zed Books, 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The holding of multiparty elections has become the bellwether by which all democracies are judged, and the spread of such systems across Africa has been widely hailed as a sign of the continent’s progress towards stability and prosperity. But such elections bring their own challenges, particularly the often intense internecine violence that can follow disputed results. While the consequences of such violence can be profound, undermining the legitimacy of the democratic process and in some cases plunging countries into civil war or renewed dictatorship, little is known about the causes of this violence. By mapping, analyzing, and comparing instances of election violence in different localities across Africa, this collection of detailed case studies sheds light on the underlying dynamics and sub-national causes behind electoral conflicts. It reveals them to be the result of a complex interplay between democratization and the older, patronage-based system of “Big Man” politics and offers practical suggestions for preventing such violence through improved electoral monitoring, voter education, and international assistance.Appealing to policy makers and scholars across the social sciences and humanities interested in democratization, peace-keeping, and peace studies, Violence in African Elections provides important insights into why some communities prove more prone to electoral violence than others, and what can be done to help more democracies succeed.

  • 3.
    Grönberg, Göran
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Strategy Section.
    Persson, Mariam
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Strategy Section.
    Ring, Stefan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Strategy Section.
    Conflict Analysis: Handbook2011 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This handbook describes a method of performing conflict analysis as part of strategic planning. The purpose, amongst others, is to achieve a more cohesive and coordinated effort by civilian and military components. The conflict analysis described here involves two different ways of presenting results achieved. Firstly, a method where the primary purpose is to visualize key factors in a way so as to create an understanding of the wholeness and how the various subfactors interact overall. Secondly, written documentation is used; the purpose being to increase knowledge of the various problem areas by presenting background information and by writing down and compiling the discussions which arise while conflict analysis is taking place.

  • 4.
    Grönberg, Göran
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    Ring, Stefan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    Persson, Mariam
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    Handbok: konfliktanalys2010 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna handbok beskriver en metod för att genomföra en konfliktanalys som en del i en strategisk planering. Syftet är bland annat att möjliggöra en mer samlad och koordinerad insats med civila och militära enheter. Den konfliktanalys som här redovisas innehåller två olika sätt att presentera det resultat som uppnås. Dels används en metod som har till främsta uppgift att visualisera centrala faktorer på ett sådant sätt att det skapas en förståelse för helheten och hur de olika delfaktorerna interagerar på ett övergripande plan. Dels används en skriftlig dokumentation vars syfte är att fördjupa kunskapen inom olika problemområden genom att presentera bakgrundsinformation och genom att nedteckna och sammanställa den diskussion som äger rum då konfliktanalysen genomförs.

  • 5.
    Persson, Mariam
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy. War Studies Department, King's College London, UK.
    Demobilized or Remobilized?: Lingering Rebel Structures in Post-War Liberia2012In: African Conflicts and Informal Power: Big Men and Networks / [ed] Utas, Mats, London: Zed Books, 2012, p. 101-118Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Persson, Mariam
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    Jörgel, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    Matti, Hanna
    Beyond the façade of formal statehood: shadow networks, "big men" and franchised rebellion : case studies from the Democratic Republic of Congo and the Central African Republic2008Book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Persson, Mariam
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Kantor, Ana
    Liberian Vigilantes: Informal Security Providers on the Margins of Security Sector Reform2011In: The Politics of Security Sector Reform: Challenges and Opportunities for the European Union’s Global Role / [ed] Ekengren, Magnus & Simons, Greg, Farnham: Ashgate, 2011, p. 273-304Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Persson, Mariam
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Strategy Section.
    Utas, Mats
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Strategy Section.
    Coulter, Chris
    Young female fighters in African wars: conflict and its consequences2008Report (Other academic)
1 - 8 of 8
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