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  • 1.
    Andersson, Isabell
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Ledningsvetenskapliga avdelningen (LVA).
    Spak, Ulrik
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Ledningsvetenskapliga avdelningen (LVA).
    Krav och designkriterier gällande framtida ledningssystem2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2.
    Spak, Ulrik
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Ledningsvetenskapliga avdelningen (LVA). Uppsala universitet, Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Change Detection of the Unexpected: Enhancing change detection of the unexpected in a complex and high risk context – guiding visual attention in a digital display environment2015Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Change detection of objects and events in our visual surroundings is sometimes severely difficult, especially if these changes are unexpected. Such failures in change detection may cause huge malicious outcomes in contexts characterized by high levels of complexity and risk. For operators within organizations active in such contexts, effective change detection is a necessary step for functional feedback control in the pursuit of achieving specified goals. This thesis demonstrates examples of change detection failures from aviation, defence, healthcare, and road traffic.

    The purpose of the thesis is to present a support concept for enhanced change detection in complex and high risk contexts. The design requirements are primarily provided by the field of command and control. The main mechanisms behind the problems of change detection are identified as the psychological phenomena of change blindness and inattentional blindness. A theoretical foundation is presented regarding these phenomena, complemented with a review concerning orientation and capture of visual attention. The solution space for enhanced change detection is explored and a gap in the literature is identified; there is a need for a support concept which considers both blindness phenomena simultaneously. The thesis elaborates on a conceptual design; an adaptive attention aware system (A3S), based on cuing of visual attention.

    The thesis includes four experimental studies. The first examines the effects of instruction on change detection performance. The remaining studies evaluate the possibilities to orient visual attention by a non-obtrusive flash cue in a radar-like display, to compensate for inadequate expectations in a situation characterized by high levels of uncertainty. The participants’ performance is measured in accuracy (hit frequencies) and response times.

    The results indicate that; (a) instructions can affect change detection performance, (b) the bottom-up flash cue enhance change detection independent of perceptual load, (c) the flash cue enhance change detection in both static and dynamic environments, and (d) the flash cue is beneficial for change detection even when its position is outside foveal vision in relation to the changed target object. Design propositions for an A3S are presented, derived from the results of the thesis.

  • 3.
    Spak, Ulrik
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Ledningsvetenskapliga avdelningen (LVA).
    Förändringsdetektering2016Inngår i: Operativ ledning: Slutrapport 2013-2015 / [ed] Isabell Andersson, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan (FHS), 2016, s. 176-199Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 4.
    Spak, Ulrik
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Ledningssektionen (Ledn).
    The common operational picture: A powerful enabler or a cause of severe misunderstanding?2017Inngår i: 22st International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium (ICCRTS): Frontiers of C2 / [ed] Alberts, David, International Command and Control Institute , 2017, Vol. Topic 4, artikkel-id 63Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The representation of the operational environment is crucial in all military operations because it is a necessity for the command and control (C2) function that provides the operation with direction and coordination. The representation, typically in the form of a common operational picture (COP), is considered the key element for establishing situation awareness and understanding for the commander and his/her staff. This article begins by presenting a theoretical overview of the COP concept. Thereafter, empirical support is given that officers conceptualize the COP differently, relating it to different stages of the C2 process and referring to the COP as sometimes an artifact and sometimes a mental state or a product in the human mind. For example, some officers may focus on the representation of the current operational environment; others may focus on representations of courses of actions whereas others may focus on future planned events. This may cause severe misunderstanding when officers use the COP concept in communication.

    This article provides a proposition to make the COP concept more specific – connecting the different stages in the C2 process to specific instantiations of the COP. Moreover, regardless of which stage in the C2 process the instantiations of the COP relate to, it has to be adapted to that specific stage in order to be a powerful enabler. This article concludes by introducing a new concept, the Prepared Common Operational Picture (PCOP).

  • 5.
    Spak, Ulrik
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Ledningssektionen (Ledn).
    Andersson, Isabell
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Ledningssektionen (Ledn).
    Design logic in practice: a method to extract design criteria for future C2 systems2018Inngår i: Proceedings of the 23rd International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium (ICCRTS): Multi-Domain C2 / [ed] David Alberts, International Command and Control Institute , 2018, Vol. Track 3, artikkel-id 61Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The world we live in is a complex system tinged with constant change. In order to cope with this fact, a defense mission system needs to adapt to these challenges. The command and control (C2) system is the component of the defense mission system that is our system of interest, our unit of analysis, in this paper. We present a first attempt to use a method based on design logic complemented with scenario driven exercises, to extract requirements and more fine-grained design criteria to enhance design of future C2 systems.

    As a starting point, three scenarios were developed that intended to reflect key features of future potential conflicts. A number of subject matter experts (SMEs) participated representing strategic, operational and tactical levels of command. The SMEs were asked to state their C2 requirements in each of the scenarios. The resulting set of C2 requirements were analyzed to find design criteria pertaining to the general C2 functions (Data Providing, Orientation, Planning, Influence, and Communication) in Brehmer´s design-logic hierarchy (Purpose, Function and Form). The results indicate that the method can be usefull to find requirements and design criteria for future C2-systems.

  • 6.
    Spak, Ulrik
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Ledningssektionen (Ledn).
    Carlerby, Mats
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Ledningssektionen (Ledn).
    Modelling command and control: the challenge of integrating structure and behaviour2018Inngår i: Proceedings of the 23rd International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium (ICCRTS): Multi-Domain C2 / [ed] David Alberts, International Command and Control Institute , 2018, Vol. Track 5, artikkel-id 72Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an introduction to why it is difficult, and still desirable, to integrate the perspectives of structure and behaviour when modelling command and control (C2). We use basic systems theory in combination with theories from the field of C2 as underpinning for our arguments. The structural perspective is necessary to describe the organization of, and relation between, entities relevant for C2. The behavioural viewpoint is necessaryto put focus on the purpose of C2, which is to enable an adequate response to a problemor a situation at hand. The various problems are typically of a complex character, which includes dynamic changes and therefore has to be handled with feedback, or cybernetic, approaches. However, structure and behaviour are not easy to integrate, as will be evident in this paper.

  • 7.
    Spak, Ulrik
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Ledningsvetenskapliga avdelningen (LVA).
    Lind, Mats
    Institutionen för informatik och media , Department of Informatics and Media.
    Change blindness in intelligence: Effects of attention guidance by instructions2011Inngår i: European Intelligence & Security Informatics Conference: The Premier European Conference on Counterterrorism and Criminology / [ed] Nasrullah Memon and Daniel Zeng, IEEE Press, 2011, s. 142-148Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a first effort to experimentally evaluate if, and how, the instructions given to an operator can cause significant effects regarding his/her change detection performance. The operator monitors a display looking for changes associated with specified target objects. The results show that a more differentiated monitoring instruction can cause a raised level of change blindness to occur for some of the displayed target object classes. We argue that the result will have implications for the intelligence function within military command and control.

  • 8.
    Spak, Ulrik
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Ledningsvetenskapliga avdelningen (LVA).
    Nygren, Else
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Enhancing change detection of the unexpected in monitoring tasks: guiding visual attention in command and control assessment2016Inngår i: 21st International Command and Control Reserach and Technology Symposium (ICCRTS): C2 in a Complex Connected Battlespace, International Command and Control Institute , 2016, Vol. Topic 5, s. 1-18, artikkel-id 054Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many surveillance tasks in military command and control involve monitoring for change in a visual display environment in order to discover potential hazards or new opportunities. Effective change detection in various situational pictures is a requisite for battlespace understanding. The detection of unexpected events is particularly difficult and missed events may cause malicious outcomes in contexts characterized by high levels of complexity and risk. We present examples of change detection failures in the military domain, and explain why and how the psychological phenomena of change blindness and inattentional blindness can generate such failures. We further give an overview of existing solutions to these problems and point out a specific issue, coping with unexpected events, where effective solutions are missing today. Inadequate expectations may be a result of misdirection by the enemy. This article demonstrates a new concept – an adaptive attention aware system (A3S) for enhanced change detection. The A3S is a concept of gentle support. It is based on cuing of visual attention by a non-obtrusive flash cue in the display (bottom-up), to compensate for guidance by inadequate expectations (top-down) in situations influenced by high levels of uncertainty.

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