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  • 1.
    Björkaman, Torsten
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Officer: yrke eller profession2010Report (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Björkaman, Torsten
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Melin, Mertil
    Wikström, Niklas
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Finlands militärstrategiska ledning och organisering2010Report (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Björkman, Torsten
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies.
    Linje- och stabsorganisering2018In: Militära arbetsmetoder: en lärobok i krigsvetenskap / [ed] Peter Thunholm, Jerker Widén, Niklas Wikström, Malmö: Universus Academic Press , 2018, p. 193-233Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Björkman, Torsten
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Melin, Mertil
    Wikström, Niklas
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Den svenska försvarsmaktens högkvarter: analys av dess storlek och sammansättning2009Report (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Björkman, Torsten
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Melin, Mertil
    Wikström, Niklas
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Den svenska försvarsmaktens högkvarter är inte större än våra grannländers2009In: Vårt Försvar, ISSN 0042–2800, no 3, p. 18-19Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Sjöberg, Misa
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Vrbanjac, Aida
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Björkman, Torsten
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Indirect leadership in a military context: A qualitative study on how to do it2005In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 215-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – To develop a theoretical understanding of how indirect leadership is done in a military context.

    Design/methodology/approach – A grounded theory approach was used. Twenty-two high-level Swedish commanders, and six of their subordinates were interviewed.

    Findings – A model was developed which suggests that indirect leadership can be understood as consisting of two simultaneous processes. One is action-oriented and consists of interacting with a link (usually a small group of directly subordinate managers) which passes the messages down to lower organisational levels. The other influence process is image-oriented and consists of being a role model. Both processes are filtered through a “lens” which consists of the relative impact of a safety culture on the activities. In the favourable case, the employees at the lower levels trust both the link and the higher management. This appears to be a necessary condition for commitment and active participation. In the unfavourable case, there is a lack of trust. This breeds redefinitions of the messages and a necessity for relying on reward and punishment to obtain obedience.

    Research limitations/implications – Lack of representativeness, indirect influence from lower to higher levels, as well as possible gender-related aspects, not studied.

    Practical implications – The suggested model may be a valuable tool in higher management education.

    Originality/value – The identification of two co-occurring pathways of influence.

1 - 6 of 6
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