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  • 1.
    Hjorth, Ronnie
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Statsvetenskapliga avdelningen, Sektionen för säkerhetspolitik och strategi.
    Civil Association Across Borders: Law, Morality and Responsibility in the Post-Brexit Era2018Inngår i: Journal of International Political Theory, ISSN 1755-0882, E-ISSN 1755-1722, Vol. 14, nr 3, s. 299-313Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Michael Oakeshott’s distinction between ‘civil association’ and ‘enterprise association’ has inspired international society theorists to conceive of international society as not just a ‘purposive association’ constructed by states to satisfy their interests but also as a ‘practical association’ providing formal and pragmatic rules that are not instrumental to particular goals of state policy. While this article is supportive of the Oakeshottian turn in international society theory, it suggests that somewhat different conclusions can be drawn from it. The article sketches out an alternative conception of international ‘civil association’, one that transcends the boundaries of communities. It is argued that such a notion of civil association is both possible and at the same time anchored in the experiences of the modern state. It is suggested that this notion of international civil association, when sustained by an adequate legal conception, promotes the enforcement of moral and political responsibility across borders. Finally, it is argued that European governments post-Brexit should strive to retain, as much as possible, the element of civil association present in European relations in order to preserve the civil condition, the rule of law, and in order to enhance political responsibility across borders.

  • 2.
    Hjorth, Ronnie
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Statsvetenskapliga avdelningen.
    Equality in International Society: A Reappraisal2014Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The author re-examines the concept of equality in international society, past and present. The conventional view that equality of states necessarily flows from sovereignty, that it is a corollary to sovereignty or simply a synonym, is considered a contingent rather than a necessary contention. The main argument is that equality in global international society should be theorised anew, restoring the normative strength of the principle. It is shown how concepts of equality make intelligible different normative and ethical conceptions of the modern political space in the past. Drawing on the works of such diverse theorists as Hans Kelsen, Peter Singer, John Rawls and Michael Oakeshott, the author suggests how a renewed interest in equality contributes to making international society a more inclusive, egalitarian, and credible moral and political association.

  • 3.
    Hjorth, Ronnie
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Statsvetenskapliga avdelningen, Sektionen för säkerhet.
    Förändrad amerikansk syn på krig och krigstillstånd sedan 2001: utrikes- och säkerhetspolitiska konsekvenser2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 4.
    Hjorth, Ronnie
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Statsvetenskapliga avdelningen.
    Humanitarian Intervention and Moral Responsibility2015Inngår i: De Ethica: A Journal of Philosophical, Theological and Applied Ethics, ISSN 2001-8819, Vol. 2, nr 1, s. 19-34Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This essay investigates the moral aspects of humanitarian intervention. Humanitarian intervention involves the balancing of at least three sometimes contradictory principles - the autnonomy of states, the prohibition of war and the reduction of harm and human suffering - and hence requires not merely a legal and political approach to the matter but renders a moral viewpoint necessary.  It is argued that P.F. Strawson's concept Moral Reactive Attitudes (MRA) contributes to analysing the moral dilemmas and priorities involved. First, MRA underlines the moral aspects of international society that are essential for dealing with the moral conflict inherent in international society. Secondly, MRA helps to balance between competing claims of justification and legitimacy in cases of humanitarian intervention.

  • 5.
    Hjorth, Ronnie
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Statsvetenskapliga avdelningen.
    Metod: Vetenskaplig metod och forskarens frihet2016Inngår i: Att forska: Praktiker och roller inom samhällsvetenskapen / [ed] Linus Hagström, Niklas Bremberg, Arita Holmberg, Stockholm: Carlsson Bokförlag, 2016, s. 143-163Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 6.
    Hjorth, Ronnie
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Statsvetenskapliga avdelningen.
    "Om Brexit?" eller "Om inte Brexit?": Konsekvenser för transatlantisk säkerhet2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The starting point for this analysis is that there is no ’business as usual’ when considering the consequences of the Brexit referendum: there is either the question ’if Brexit?’ or the question ’if-not Brexit?’ because there is no turning around or comfortable retreat to established positions. Starting with an analysis of the British debate this ‘policy-brief paper’ looks at the consequences of the Brexit referendum for transatlantic security relations and in particular the consequences for Sweden. The most important arguments are, in brief: (1) That the value conflict inherent in the British debate, essentially between Eurosceptic nationalism and pro-EU integrationism, is mirrored in several European nations and remains a challenge to the EU; (2) that while Britain remains a European power regardless of the outcome of the referendum, the British geo-political outlook is differs from that of other European nations and will have to be taken into account when considering transatlantic security relations; (3) that NATO is likely to be even more important if Britain leaves the EU but that a strengthening of NATO’s European pillar is likely regardless of the outcome of the referendum, among other things because of US demands on European nations to improve their military capacity; (4) that Sweden in the case of Brexit is likely to lose influence over the development of European security cooperation in general but might nevertheless be able to gain in influence mainly as a result of Sweden’s geo-strategic position.

  • 7.
    Hjorth, Ronnie
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Statsvetenskapliga avdelningen.
    Political Decay and Political Arcadianism2018Inngår i: De Ethica, ISSN 1854-3405, E-ISSN 2001-8819, Vol. 5, nr 1, s. 37-50Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An account of evil in classical political theory is the concept of evil government. The notion of political decay from good to evil government or to anarchy, the absence of government, among classical political theorists represents both a moral and a political problem. This essay argues that political decay remains a perennial problem because the political condition itself involves the seeds to its own destruction. Moreover, it is claimed that the nostalgic longing to a glorious past for nations or peoples risks turning into what is here labelled ‘political arcadianism’, fostering futile attempts to return to past conditions. The argument is that political arcadianism when focusing on the imagined past rather than the present is a possible cause of political decay.

  • 8.
    Hjorth, Ronnie
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Statsvetenskapliga avdelningen.
    State Civil Disobedience and International Society2017Inngår i: Review of International Studies, ISSN 0260-2105, E-ISSN 1469-9044, Vol. 43, nr 2, s. 330-344Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the concept of State Civil Disobedience (SCD) in the context of international society. It is argued that SCD is problematic for several reasons. First, that SCD is extremely difficult to practice in an association such as international society, relying, as it does, a great deal on the policies and powers of a few dominating actors; second, that the unequal status of states makes SCD mainly an instrument of the strong, hence undermining not only the idea of civil disobedience as the strategy of the weak but also questioning the role of SCD within an international society based on the formal equality of states. It is concluded that the practice of SCD in international society requires an invigoration of international society as a moral association. A more practical alternative, it is argued, is to conceive of a limited concept of SCD confined largely to non-violent means and preferably practiced in order to resist legal anomalies.

  • 9.
    Hjorth, Ronnie
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Statsvetenskapliga avdelningen.
    The Poverty of Exceptionalism in International Theory2014Inngår i: Journal of International Political Theory, ISSN 1755-0882, E-ISSN 1755-1722, Vol. 10, nr 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is about the politics of ‘the exception’ and the role of ‘exceptionalism’ in contemporary international theory. The concept of ‘the exception’ was coined by Carl Schmitt and has in recent years become an inspiration for international relations theorists and foreign policy analysts, especially when engaging with issues such as great power politics, humanitarian intervention and the war against terrorism. It is concluded that attempts to apply Schmitt’s concept of ‘the exception’ seldom are persuasive and sometimes even contradictory to Schmitt’s theory. When dealt with out of context, ‘the exception’ becomes just an expression about something else. It is shown that there are other ways of handling the kind of political problem observed by Schmitt than what he and his followers are offering.

  • 10.
    Hjorth, Ronnie
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Statsvetenskapliga avdelningen, Sektionen för säkerhet.
    The Romance of Realism: Pessimism as Tragedy2019Inngår i: Pessimism in international relations: provocations, possibilities, politics / [ed] Tim Stevens & Nicholas Michelsen, Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019, 1, s. 37-52Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter argues that realism in International Relations embraces a romantic account of politics in sharp contrast to its scientific pretentions. Central to the romance of realism is the tragic and pessimistic outlook which reveals the connection between Romanticism and realism, shaping a mythical account of power politics. It is argued that the recurring tragic narrative is more than a way to moderate liberal hubris. It makes it possible to convey to the public a political pessimism building on established narratives reserving the finer moral and political understanding of realism for political theorists and diplomats. Looking backwards for patterns of ‘recurrence and repetition’ and the tragic narrative make realism vulnerable to nostalgia, forming ‘retrotopic’ visions of the future or seeking to restore ‘arcadian’ images of past glory.

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