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  • 1.
    Axelsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    Försvarsmakten.
    Sörenson, Karl
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Strategisk teoris bidrag till förståelse av svensk säkerhets- och försvarspolitik2016In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 118, no 4, p. 445-470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What is the added value of strategic theory in the understanding of Swedish securityand defence policies? By introducing a series of concepts that identify policiesthat are pursued in both peace and war such as escalation, deterrence, andweapons acquisition, we argue that strategic concepts contribute to the analysisof Swedish security policy mainly by highlighting forms of policy that do not conceptuallyrest upon the dichotomy of war and peace. Differently from mainstreamscholarly analysis that treats deterrence as one, uniform concept, we differentiatebetween four different logics of deterrence. Using this conceptual tool, we analyseSwedish policies in the 1950s and 2010s and discover that although Sweden pursueddeterrence during both this periods, her policies depend on a different logic. Bycomparison, 1950s Sweden understood to pursue deterrence understood as a wall,while 2010s Sweden understands the term in terms of a shield.

  • 2.
    Egnell, Robert
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Afghanistan: Krig utan slut?2017In: Om Krig och Fred: En introduktion till freds- och konfliktstudier / [ed] Karin Aggestam och Kristine Höglund, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, 2, p. 153-172Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Egnell, Robert
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum.
    Ångström, Jan
    Uppsala universitet.
    Afghanistans trettioåriga krig2012In: Om krig och fred: En introduktion till freds- och konfliktstudier / [ed] Karin Aggestam & Kristine Höglund, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2012, p. 129-146Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Engelbrekt, Kjell
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Holmberg, AritaSwedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.Ångström, JanSwedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Svensk säkerhetspolitik i Europa och världen2015Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vad betyder det svenska medlemskapet i den Europeiska Unionen för svensk säkerhets- och försvarspolitik? I vad består och vem bedriver svensk säkerhetspolitik idag? Vilka former tar sig svensk säkerhetspolitik? Vilka beröringspunkter finns med andra politikområden? Vad betyder det nordiska samarbetet? Frågorna ställs i den reviderade andra upplagan av "Svensk säkerhetspolitik i Europa och världen" och analyseras utifrån en rad olika perspektiv; från teoretiska till praktiska, från militära till civila och från beslut till implementering.

  • 5.
    Engelbrekt, Kjell
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Holmberg, Arita
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Svensk säkerhetspolitik i omdaning2015In: Svensk säkerhetspolitik i Europa och världen / [ed] Kjell Engelbrekt, Arita Holmberg, Jan Ångström, Stockholm: Norstedts Juridik AB, 2015, 2, p. 265-277Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Engelbrekt, Kjell
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS).
    Ångström, JanSwedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Svensk säkerhetspolitik i Europa och världen2010Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Engelbrekt, Kjell
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS).
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Svensk säkerhetspolitik i omdaning2010In: Svensk säkerhetspolitik i Europa och världen / [ed] Kjell Engelbrekt och Jan Ångström, Stockholm: Norstedts Juridik AB, 2010, 1, p. 237-249Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Larsdotter, Kersti
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    Avslutning: att välja rätt bland rivaliserande kunskaper om operation och krigsvetenskap2008In: Krigsvetenskaplig årsbok 2007 / [ed] Dan Öberg, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan , 2008, p. 215-232Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9. Miles, Lee
    et al.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    From the Editors2010In: Cooperation and Conflict, ISSN 0010-8367, E-ISSN 1460-3691, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 3-5Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Noreen, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Sjöstedt, Roxanna
    Lunds universitet.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Why Small States join Big Wars: The Case of Sweden in Afghanistan 2002-20142017In: International Relations, ISSN 0047-1178, E-ISSN 1741-2862, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 145-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The security behavior of small states has traditionally been explained by different takes of realism, liberalism, or constructivism - focusing on the behavior that aims toward safeguarding sovereignty or engaging in peace policies. The issue of why states with limited military capacities and little or no military alignments or engagements decide to participate in an international mission has received limited attention by previous research. In contrast, this article argues that a three-layered discursive model can make the choices of small states more precisely explained and thereby contribute to an increased understanding of small states' security behavior beyond threat balancing and interdependence. Analyzing a deviant case of a non-aligned small state, this article explains why Sweden became increasingly involved in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)-led International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) mission in Afghanistan. By focusing on the domestic political discourses regarding the Swedish involvement in this mission, it is suggested that a narrative shapes public perception of a particular policy and establishes interpretative dominance of how a particular event should be understood. This dominant domestic discourse makes a certain international behavior possible and even impossible to alter once established. In the Swedish case, it is demonstrated that this discourse assumed a catch-all' ambition, satisfying both domestic and international demands. In general terms, it should thus be emphasized that certain discourses and narratives are required in order to make it possible for a country to participate in a mission such as ISAF and prolong the mission for several years.

  • 11.
    Noreen, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    A Catch-All Strategic Narrative: Target Audiences and Swedish Troop Contribution to ISAF in Afghanistan2015In: Strategic Narratives, Public Opinion and War: Winning Domestic Support for the Afghan War / [ed] Beatrice de Graaf,George Dimitriu & Jens Ringsmose, London: Routledge, 2015Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Widén, Jerker
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Skall militäreori i förstås som teori eller praktik?2006In: Krigsvetenskaplig årsbok 2005 / [ed] Berndt Brehmer, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan (FHS), 2006, p. 51-76Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Strategy Section.
    Book Review Essay: Transformative Learning through Globalization of World Politics: John Baylis, Steve Smith and Patricia Owens (eds) The Globalization of World Politics, 4th edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008, 745 pp. ISBN 13-978-0-19-929777-12009In: Cooperation and Conflict, ISSN 0010-8367, E-ISSN 1460-3691, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 231-240Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Escalation, Emulation, and the Failure of Hybrid Warfare in Afghanistan2017In: Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, ISSN 1057-610X, E-ISSN 1521-0731, Vol. 40, no 10, p. 838-856Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, I argue that hybridization is a contingent result of the dynamics of some conflicts but not others. In particular, faced with opponents with great power, weaker powers seek a situation of asymmetry to gain victory. Drawing on within-case analysis of the conduct of war during the past thirty years in Afghanistan, I demonstrate that what we now consider to be "hybrid" represents an important continuity and strategic option in Afghan warfare. Still, the analysis also demonstrates that choosing "hybrid" has not been a strategy that has worked. Hezb-i-Islami's rather limited attempt for conventionalization of the war against the forces of Dostum and Massoud in 1992 failed and the Taliban's more far-reaching attempt for conventionalization has so far also failed to reap strategic success. This suggests that the threat of hybrid war is inflated.

  • 15.
    Ångström, Jan
    Uppsala universitet.
    Evaluating Rivalling Interpretations of Asymmetric War and Warfare2011In: Conceptualizing Modern War / [ed] Karl-Erik Haug & Ole Jorgen Maao, New York: Columbia University Press, 2011Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum (upphört). Uppsala universitet.
    Exploring the Strategic Logic of Withdrawal from Statebuilding Interventions: When is a State?2013In: New Agendas for Statebuilding: Hybridity, Contingency, and History / [ed] Robert Egnell & Peter Haldén, London: Routledge, 2013Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Försvarsmaktens internationella insatser: i den svenska säkerhetens eller identitetens tjänst?2015In: Svensk säkerhetspolitik i Europa och världen / [ed] Kjell Engelbrekt, Arita Holmberg & Jan Ångström, Stockholm: Norstedts Juridik AB, 2015, 2, p. 233-264Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy. Uppsala universitet.
    Försvarsmaktens internationella insatser: I den svenska säkerhetens eller identitetens tjänst?2010In: Svensk säkerhetspolitik i Europa och världen / [ed] Kjell Engelbrekt & Jan Ångström, Norstedts Juridik AB, 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    Historien bakom misslyckade strategier för upprorsbekämpning: James S Corum: Bad Strategies: How Major Powers Fail in Counterinsurgency Zenith Press, 2008.2009In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 6, p. 131-133Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Ångström, Jan
    Uppsala universitet.
    Ideas and Norms on Future War and Warfare2011In: Strategic Insights, ISSN 1938-1670, E-ISSN 1938-1670, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 36-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, I will develop a slightly different approach that instead assumes that the future is path-dependent. This approach allows for a greater impact of agency and can be easily summed up as what happens in 2030 depends upon what we do in 2029, and what happens in 2029 depends upon what we do in 2028, and so on. Agency thus becomes crucial for shaping the future. Moreover, rather than focusing on actions, in this paper, I will primarily focus on norms. Norms change only gradually and slowly and are therefore a more promising baseline than current actions. Specifically, I will focus on norms of political order: about what it means to govern and be governed, how we understand the relationship between the public and private, and the concepts of civil and military. This paper is structured as follows. First, I will briefly discuss current patterns in war and warfare to evaluate whether or not there are trends that can be discerned. This part of the paper is based on the second approach and it serves a springboard to begin to think differently about the future. Throughout the paper, I will use the trends as a point of departure. Second, I will begin with a discussion on what we already know about the future. In doing so, I will critically engage with the NIC documents Global Trends 2025: A Transformed World and Tomorrow’s Security Challenges: The Defence Implications of Emerging Global Trends. In short, my critique will stress the lack of attention given to ideational factors. Third, and finally, I will suggest ideationally driven scenarios and identify the challenges to such a development of war and warfare.

  • 21.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Strategy Section.
    Introduction: exploring the utility of armed force in modern conflict2008In: Small Wars & Insurgencies, ISSN 0959-2318, E-ISSN 1743-9558, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 297-302Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    Inviting the Leviathan: External Forces, War and State-Building in Afghanistan2010In: Modern War and the Utility of Force: Challenges, Methods, and Strategy / [ed] Jan Angstrom & Isabelle Duyvesteyn, Routledge, 2010, p. 208-230Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Strategy Section.
    Inviting the Leviathan: external forces, war, and state-building in Afghanistan2008In: Small Wars & Insurgencies, ISSN 0959-2318, E-ISSN 1743-9558, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 374-396Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Ångström, Jan
    Uppsala universitet.
    Mapping the Competing Historical Analogies of the War on Terrorism: The Bush Presidency2011In: International Relations, ISSN 0047-1178, E-ISSN 1741-2862, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 224-242Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Seger: ett begrepp i behov av nyansering2018In: Minnet av Narva: om troféer, parader och historiebruk / [ed] Klas Kronberg, Anna-Maria Forssberg, Lund: Nordic Academic Press, 2018, p. 213-234Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum. Uppsala universitet.
    The Changing Norms of Civil and Military and Civil-Military Relations Theory2013In: Small Wars & Insurgencies, ISSN 0959-2318, E-ISSN 1743-9558, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 224-236Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    The Problem of Victory of Defeat in Modern War2007In: Understanding Victory and Defeat in Contemporary War / [ed] Jan Angstrom & Isabelle Duyvesteyn, Routledge, 2007Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    The United States Perspective on Victory in a War on Terrorism2007In: Understanding Victory and Defeat in Contemporary War / [ed] Jan Angstrom & Isabelle Duyvesteyn, Routledge, 2007Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    The US perspective on future war: why the US relies upon Ares rather than Athena2018In: Defence Studies, ISSN 1470-2436, E-ISSN 1743-9698, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 318-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses why the US in its military operations tends to focus on only one dimension in war – the military narrowly understood. More precisely, in the US case, its armed forces tend to be preoccupied with platforms and understand military capabilities as those that deliver death and destruction. I explain this one-sided understanding of the military dimension in war with how the US armed forces think about future war. How the US understands future war is, in turn, a reflection of how it organizes its long-term defense planning procedures. In particular, by approaching the concept of future as by and large structurally determined, a focus on platforms becomes natural. Investments in weapons systems, too, are more easily motivated to Congress since it is easier to attach a price to developing, for example, a new submarine than it is to attach a price to the cost of developing a military organization that is adaptive, learning and anticipating. The understanding of the future as something that happens whether you like it or not is particularly odd in the US context where of course a central tenet of the American dream is that the individual creates her own future.

  • 30.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Transformation into Nature: Swedish Army Ranger Rites of Passage2016In: Transforming Warriors: The Ritual Organization of Military Force / [ed] Peter Halden & Peter Jackson, London: Routledge, 2016, p. 144-162Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Strategy Section.
    Är 11 september och kriget mot terrorism bevis för en civilisationernas kamp?2008In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 3, p. 18-39Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Ångström, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    Duyvesteyn, Isabelle
    Modern war and the utility of force: challenges, methods and strategy2010Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Ångström, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    Duyvesteyn, Isabelle
    University of Utrecht.
    War, what is it good for?2010In: Modern War and the Utility of Force: Challenges, Methods, and Strategy / [ed] Jan Ångström & Isabelle Duyvesteyn, Routledge, 2010, Vol. 35, no 5Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Ångström, Jan
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Honig, Jan Willem
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section. Department of War Studies, King's College, London.
    Regaining Strategy: Small Powers, Strategic Culture, and Escalation in Afghanistan2012In: Journal of Strategic Studies, ISSN 0140-2390, E-ISSN 1743-937X, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 663-687Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Western operations in Afghanistan, small European powers escalate in different ways. While Denmark and the Netherlands have contributed to Western escalation through integration with British and US forces, Norway and Sweden have done so by creating a division of labour allowing US and British combat forces to concentrate their efforts in the south. These variations in strategic behaviour suggest that the strategic choice of small powers is more diversified than usually assumed. We argue that strategic culture can explain the variation in strategic behaviour of the small allies in Afghanistan. In particular, Dutch and Danish internationalism have reconciled the use of force in the national and international domains, while in Sweden and Norway there is still a sharp distinction between national interest and humanitarianism.

  • 35.
    Ångström, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Noreen, Erik
    Uppsala universitet.
    Swedish strategy and the Afghan experience: from neutrality to ambiguity2017In: The Swedish presence in Afghanistan: security and defence transformation / [ed] Arita Holmberg & Jan Hallenberg, London: Routledge, 2017, p. 31-54Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Ångström, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Widen, Jerker
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Contemporary military theory: the dynamics of war2015Book (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Ångström, Jan
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Widén, Jerker
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Adopting a Recipe for Success: Modern Armed Forces and the Institutionalization of the Principles of War2012In: Comparative Strategy, ISSN 0149-5933, E-ISSN 1521-0448, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 263-285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevailing explanation of the institutionalization of the principles of war is misleading. Although the introduction of the principles into Western doctrine coincided with total war and the need to train unprecedented numbers of soldiers and junior officers in tactics, the fact that the principles disappeared from doctrines immediately prior to and during the Second World War suggests that they were not institutionalized to meet an increased need to educate the military. Instead, we test two other explanations: one drawing on the principles’ military effectiveness and one drawing upon the principles’ explanatory power. We find that neither one of these hypotheses stand. Instead, we conclude by elaborating on how the institutionalization of the principles of war can be made understandable using non-rationalist frameworks, in particular the growth of a particular kind of identity of staff officers in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. According to this framework, the two world wars interrupted—rather than promoted—the institutionalization of the principles, since the wars with their large death tolls and mass recruitment increased the difficulties of creating a separate and unique identity for the burgeoning corps of staff officers.

  • 38.
    Ångström, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Widén, Jerker
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Religion or reason?: exploring alternative ways to measure the quality of doctrine2016In: Journal of Strategic Studies, ISSN 0140-2390, E-ISSN 1743-937X, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 198-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we address the often ignored issue of quality standards for doctrine. In doing so, we contribute to the existing literature on military doctrine, since much of previous research has focused on outlining the effects of doctrine or the causes of particular doctrinal content, rather than how we should measure its quality. The predominant way of understanding quality of doctrine is based on the rationalist understanding of doctrine as a force multiplier. However, rationalist aims do not necessarily tell us anything about the contents of doctrine. Hence, a doctrine can be seemingly of high quality, but ultimately impede or lead armed forces astray. Rather than focusing on the utilitarian side of doctrine, we suggest that doctrine should mainly be understood as articles of faith or a belief system. And thus the quality of doctrine becomes inextricably linked to military norms and military identity. Writing doctrine thus becomes part of ritual, rather than reason.

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