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  • 1.
    Bove, Vincenzo
    et al.
    Department of Politics and International Studies (PAIS), University of Warwick, UK.
    Rivera, Mauricio
    Peace Research Institute Oslo, Norway.
    Ruffa, Chiara
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy. Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Beyond coups: terrorism and military involvement in politics2019In: European Journal of International Relations, ISSN 1354-0661, E-ISSN 1460-3713Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A wealth of research in comparative politics and international relations examines how the military intervenes in politics via coups. We shift attention to broader forms of military involvement in politics beyond coups and claim that terrorist violence and the threat of terror attacks provide a window of opportunity for military intervention, without taking full control of state institutions. We highlight two mechanisms through which terrorism influences military involvement in politics: (1) government authorities demand military expertise to fight terrorism and strengthen national security and “pull” the armed forces into politics, and (2) state armed actors exploit their informational advantage over civilian authorities to “push” their way into politics and policy-making. A panel data analysis shows that domestic terror attacks and perceived threats from domestic and transnational terrorist organizations increase military involvement in politics. We illustrate the theoretical mechanisms with the cases of France (1995–1998 and 2015–2016) and Algeria (1989–1992).

  • 2.
    Giacomello, Giampiero
    et al.
    University of Bologna, Italien.
    Ruffa, Chiara
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum.
    Small Navies and Border and Immigration Control: Frontex Operations in the Mediterranean2014In: Small Navies: Strategy and Policy for Small Navies in War and Peace, Farnham: Ashgate, 2014, Ashgate, p. 133-150Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Rietjens, Sebastiaan
    et al.
    Netherlands Defence Academy, The Netherlands.
    Ruffa, Chiara
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy. Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Understanding Coherence in UN Peacekeeping: A Conceptual Framework2019In: International Peacekeeping, ISSN 1353-3312, E-ISSN 1743-906X, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 383-407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coherence is a core objective in most multinational interventions and seems of particular relevance to UN peacekeeping missions with their increasing complexity and multidimensionality. Yet, coherence has rarely been studied empirically. We borrow the concept of ‘fit’ from organizational theory and use it to develop a conceptual framework to study coherence in peacekeeping operations. Fit is the degree of match between what is required by the mandate, on the one hand, and an institutional set-up and the implemented practices, on the other. We identify three relevant dimensions of fit to study coherence: strategic and organizational, cultural and human and operational fit. Our empirical material focuses on the UN mission in Mali (MINUSMA) and in particular on the interplay between the intelligence components and the rest of the mission. We draw upon a large empirical dataset containing over 120 semi-structured interviews, field observations and participation in pre-deployment exercises and evaluation sessions. Our empirical analysis suggests that low level of fit across several dimensions leads to inertial and widespread frictions in the practice of peacekeeping and could potentially undermine peacekeeping effectiveness. Building on existing scholarship on micro-level approaches to peacekeeping, we hope to further the debate on organizational dynamics within peace operations.

  • 4.
    Ruffa, Chiara
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Cohesion, Political Motivation and Military Performance in the Italian Alpini2015In: Frontline: Combat and Cohesion in Iraq and Afghanistan / [ed] Anthony King, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015, p. 250-268Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Ruffa, Chiara
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Designing and Conducting the Comparative Case Study Method2019Other (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This case is about the comparative case study method and discusses the opportunities and challenges of designing and conducting it in practice. It draws on my research about military organizations in peace operations. In my research, I argue that military organizational cultures influence the way in which soldiers behave while deployed in a peace mission and, ultimately, their ability to keep peace. I complement this argument with an explanation for why those domestic national military cultures look the way they do. To answer my questions, I combine most similar system with most different system designs and compare French and Italian units deployed in the UN mission in Lebanon and the NATO mission in Afghanistan, respectively. I collected my data combining in-depth qualitative interviews, semi-structured questionnaires, focus groups, and observations between 2007 and 2014.

  • 6.
    Ruffa, Chiara
    Department of Peace and Conflict Research , Uppsala University.
    Introduction: Coordinating actors in complex operations2013In: Small Wars & Insurgencies, ISSN 0959-2318, E-ISSN 1743-9558, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 206-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    International responses to conflicts and humanitarian emergencies have become more crowded. Not only do traditional actors intervene on a greater scale, such as non-governmental organizations and the military, but new actors such as Private Military Security Companies also play an increasingly important role. These actors often differ in their precise objective and the constituencies they are accountable to. Yet, the practices of these actors in operations are intertwined and many of their tasks overlap. Improved communication and coordination of these actors in complex operations can thus be expected to lead to strong increases in mission effectiveness. This Special Issue provides a conceptual platform to understand and explain under what conditions coordination among these actors occurs. The articles cluster around three themes. A first set focuses on who the actors involved are along a private vs public and military vs civilian divide; a second group of articles assesses experiences of coordination of different actors in the field; finally, a third looks at a plurality of elements that may trigger or hinder coordination.

  • 7.
    Ruffa, Chiara
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    'Just deploy and always call it peacekeeping!': Italian strategic culture and international military operations2016In: European Participation in International Operations: the role of Strategic Culture / [ed] Malena Britz, Palgrave Macmillan, 2016, p. 101-122Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Ruffa, Chiara
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Military Cultures and Force Employment in Peace Operations2017In: Security Studies, ISSN 0963-6412, E-ISSN 1556-1852, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 391-422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although hundreds of thousands of soldiers from different national contingents are deployed every year in multinational peace operations, no previous study has examined differences in peacekeeping practices along national lines. This paper first documents systematically differences in the way national contingents behave during peace operations in their respective area of operation. In a second step, it argues that these differences in behavior are largely consistent with the most important traits of each army's military culture. Based on extensive fieldwork conducted between 2007 and 2014 in Lebanon and Afghanistan, the paper shows how, within each mission, Italian soldiers prioritized humanitarian activities, while the French engaged in more patrolling activities, despite being both contingents deployed under similar conditions. These variations in behavior are consistent with the way French and Italian soldiers perceive the mission and context in which they deployed. And both the differences in behavior and perception are in line with the respective armies' military cultures. This paper contributes to the debate on the role of ideational factors in international politics and in particular to the ongoing discussion on strategic and military cultures.

  • 9.
    Ruffa, Chiara
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Military Cultures in Peace and Stability Operations: Afghanistan and Lebanon2018 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Ruffa, Chiara
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Peacekeeping operations2015In: Encyclopedia of Public Administration and Public Policy / [ed] Domonic A. Bearfield, Melvin J. Dubnick, London: CRC Press, 2015, 3, p. 2362-2369Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Ruffa, Chiara
    Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard University, USA.
    Realist-Normative power Europe?: explaining the EU policies towards Lebanon from an IR perspective2011In: Comparative European Politics, ISSN 1472-4790, E-ISSN 1740-388X, Vol. 9, no 5, p. 562-580Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article seeks to explain the relationship between the European Union (EU) and one of its Middle Eastern neighbors: Lebanon. By conducting an in-depth empirical single case study and engaging in competitive theory testing, this article shows that the EU in Lebanon behaves at the same time as a normative and a realist power. This article challenges both the scholarship on the EU that sees the EU as a normative power as well as scholarship that focuses on structural neorealism to explain the EU's role in its neighborhood. This article adopts an approach that is different from the mainstream approaches in two ways. First, it focuses on the entire set of policies that the EU has implemented or not in Lebanon. Second, it provides an in-depth case study centered on the interaction between the EU and Lebanon, while also looking at the regional dynamics and at the domestic tensions within Lebanon. By doing so, it shows that the EU is a ‘realist-normative’ power in the specific case of Lebanon. Thus, these two frameworks are a false dichotomy and the argument shall be tested on other cases to make it generalizable. This suggests that the constructivist-realist divide coexists in practice

  • 12.
    Ruffa, Chiara
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum.
    Societal beliefs about the use of force in Israël, Italy and France2014In: The Tocqueville Review / La revue Tocqueville, ISSN 1918-6649, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 101-117Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Ruffa, Chiara
    Department of Peace and Conflict Research , Uppsala University.
    The long and winding road... to success?: Unit Peace Operation Effectiveness (UPOE) and the success of the NATO mission in Afghanistan2013In: Defense and Security Analysis, ISSN 1475-1798, E-ISSN 1475-1801, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 128-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Why does peacekeeping sometimes fail? How can effective peacekeepers increase the likelihood of success of a mission? The two main flaws in the current evaluations of peace operations are that they mainly rely on already concluded missions and that they make use of indicators that do not reveal micro-level dynamics. This article introduces an analytical framework relating the effectiveness of soldiers to their actual impact in their area of operation in a peace operation. The framework is called “unit peace operation effectiveness” (UPOE). Focusing on soldiers in peace operations, this article shows that: different units behave differently; emphasize different aspects of the mandate; and are effective in different ways. Ultimately, this has an actual impact on the end-state of the mission. It relies on and adapts classic security studies works to theoretically enrich the peacekeeping literature. The model is tested in an illustrative case study based on ethnographic work on French and Italian units in Afghanistan between 2008 and 2010.

  • 14.
    Ruffa, Chiara
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum. Uppsala universitet.
    What Peacekeepers Think and Do: An Exploratory Study of French, Ghanaian, Italian, and South Korean Armies in the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon2014In: Armed forces and society, ISSN 0095-327X, E-ISSN 1556-0848, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 199-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This exploratory article points out how armies differ in the performance of their daily military activities during a peacekeeping mission and analyses the role of contrasting perceptions of the mission operational environment in explaining this variation. As a first step, this article documents systematic variations in the way French, Ghanaian, Italian, and Korean units implement the mandate of the UN mission in Lebanon in their daily military activity. Second, it shows that the four armies also interpret or “construct” the operational environment differently and in a way that is consistent with their different military behavior. Third, preliminary evidence suggests that previous experiences of each army influence the way in which the operational environment is constructed. Data were collected combining participant observation in Southern Lebanon with questionnaires and interviews. This article thus builds on sociological works on different operational styles but takes a methodological approach closer to that in security studies.

  • 15.
    Ruffa, Chiara
    et al.
    Department of Peace and Conflict Research , Uppsala University.
    Dandeker, Christopher
    King's College London, Storbritannien.
    Vennesson, Pascal
    Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
    Soldiers drawn into politics?: The influence of tactics in civil–military relations2013In: Small Wars & Insurgencies, ISSN 0959-2318, E-ISSN 1743-9558, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 322-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The tactical level has become increasingly important in the conduct of contemporary complex military operations. Yet, the potential impact that this tactical level may have on domestic civil–military relations has been neglected. In this article, we focus on mechanisms by which low-level soldiers have acquired an increasing importance in tactical operations and we suggest that this may influence civil–military relations in the future. We argue that two phenomena deserve particular attention. These mechanisms are not new but they have had new effects by making it possible for soldiers to influence politics in sometimes unforeseen ways: the first is the strategic corporal and the second is the expansion of ancillary tasks. Our contribution lies at the interface between military sociology and security studies and seeks to show how the tactical level of warfare has become a fundamental context in which civil–military relations are enacted. Exploring these dynamics is fundamental to understanding under what conditions soldiers may interact with other actors in complex operations.

  • 16.
    Ruffa, Chiara
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Portela, Clara
    Singapore Management University.
    The Politics of Coercion: Assessing the EU:s Use of Military and Economic Instruments2015In: Sage Handbook of European Foreign Policy / [ed] Knud Erik Jorgensen, Aasne Kalland Aarstad,Edith Drieskens, Katie Laatikainen, Ben Tonra, London: Sage Publications, 2015, p. 545-558Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Ruffa, Chiara
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum.
    Soeters, Joseph
    Tilburg University, Nederländerna.
    Cross-national research in the military: comparing operational styles in peace missions2014In: Routledge Handbook of Research Methods in Military Studies / [ed] edited by Joseph Soeters, Patricia Shields and Sebastiaan Rietjens, London: Routledge, 2014, p. 216-227Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Ruffa, Chiara
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Sundberg, Ralph
    Uppsala, University, Sweden.
    Breaking the Frame: Frame disputes of war and peace2018In: Acta Sociologica, ISSN 0001-6993, E-ISSN 1502-3869, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 317-332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Frames guide the way in which organizations and individuals interpret their surrounding contexts and shape avenues for thought, action, and behavior. This paper tests the individuallevel effects of experiencing ‘frame disputes’: the state of holding individual-level frames that are at odds with dominant organizational frames. We hypothesize that on the individual level a frame dispute will be associated with negative effects on outcomes important for an organization’s functioning. The hypothesis is tested using a survey of a battalion of Italian soldiers. Our results demonstrate that, on average, soldiers who experienced frame disputes in that they perceived their mission differently from the dominant organizational frame displayed significantly lower levels of perceived cohesion, performance, and legitimacy. Frame disputes are likely to be widespread phenomena among organizations and social movements, and understanding their effects has theoretical, empirical, and policy relevance beyond the military case under study.

  • 19.
    Ruffa, Chiara
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum (upphört).
    Vennesson, Pascal
    S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
    Fighting and Helping?: A Historical-Institutionalist Explanation of NGO-Military Relations2014In: Security Studies, ISSN 0963-6412, E-ISSN 1556-1852, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 582-621Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In complex humanitarian emergencies, why are NGO-military relations cooperative in some cases, yet deeply conflictual in others? Drawing on historical-institutionalist theoretical insights, we argue that NGOs and military organizations are embedded in, and responding to, domestic institutional configurations that define a set of political incentives and constraints, material and normative, which structures and influences the characteristics and outcomes of their relations. Counterarguments suggest that organizational differences and the nature of their missions affect NGO-military relations. Using fresh empirical evidence we assess these arguments by comparing the Italian and the French experiences of NGO-military relations during the NATO-led International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) mission in Afghanistan and the UN mission in Lebanon (UNIFIL II) between 2007 and 2011. We find that domestic institutional configurations are not left behind when NGOs and military units deploy abroad. Rather, they shape NGOs' and militaries' capacity to work together instead of at cross purposes and ultimately influence the success of international action.

  • 20.
    Verdun, Amy
    et al.
    University of Victoria, Kanada.
    Ruffa, Chiara
    Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School, Harvard University, USA.
    Chira, Gabriela
    Research Executive Agency of the European Commission, Belgien.
    South East and Eastern European countries EU accession quandary?2011In: Comparative European Politics, ISSN 1472-4790, E-ISSN 1740-388X, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 367-371Article in journal (Refereed)
1 - 20 of 20
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