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  • 1.
    Castenfors, Kerstin
    et al.
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Deverell, Edward
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Anthrax Letters in Sweden?: Analysis of how FOI’s Division of NBC-Protection managed the ”Anthrax Letters” during the fall of 2001 – from a Crisis Management Perspective2004Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    When the so-called anthrax letters began to appear in the U.S.A. in early October 2001, FOI(the Swedish National Defense Research Agency), prepared to put its personnel and its expertknowledge at society's disposal, in case Sweden should be subjected to similar incidents.When the first parcel1 with suspect contents appeared in Sweden in the middle of October,FOI-NBC-Protection (the Division of Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Protection, in thenorthern city of Umeå), abbrev. FOI-NBC, undertook the task of analyzing its contents. Atthe request of the Swedish National Police Board (RPS), FOI also agreed to test the contentsof any further such parcels that might turn up. FOI is traditionally a research and advisoryorganization, not a day-to-day operative organization. Thus, NBC-Protection had to make anumber of quick decisions concerning management and re-organization, in order to meet thedemands of the situation.Since the term "crisis" is central to this report, a short explanation of what the authors meanby this term is justified. A crisis is a situation and a process in which decision makersperceive2 all of the following:

    • a threat to fundamental values• severe time pressure• uncertainly

    Such situations can have their origins both in internal organizational factors and in externalfactors (Sundelius, Stern & Bynander, 1997).This report presents an analysis of interviews and testimonies given by staff of FOI-NBC, inconnection with the so-called anthrax crisis. The situation/process which arose at that timewas experienced not only as fundamentally threatening to society, but also to FOI-NBC'scredibility as an organization. It also involved intense time pressure and a great deal of dayto-day uncertainly.However, crises not only involve threats, but also present new opportunities. Morespecifically, if FOI NBC-Protection could successfully master the situation, this could onlylead to an increase in its credibility as a (expert) knowledge organization.In the aftermath of the “anthrax crisis”, FOI-NBC was – naturally – interested in finding out ifits staff had been given adequate means to do a proper job, if delegated responsibilities wereaccepted, how assigned tasks were carried out and if the decision making process wasemployed in a competent manner. In short, how well did the organization actually functionwhen, during that short, intense period in the fall of 2001, it was forced to transform itselffrom an "advisory" organization to an "operative" one?Thus, in the spring of 2002, FOI's Division of Defense Analysis in Stockholm was given thetask of studying how FOI-NBC in Umeå handled the events of 2001.

  • 2.
    Castenfors, Kerstin
    et al.
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Deverell, Edward
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Mjältbrandsbrev i Sverige?: Analys av FOI Avdelningen för NBC-skydds hantering av de så kallade mjältbrandsbreven under hösten 2001 utifrån ett krishanteringsperspektiv2003Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 3.
    Deverell, Edward
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet och strategi (ISS), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    An Analytical Memoir of the WHO Operation in China2011Inngår i: SARS from East to West / [ed] Eva-Karin Olsson and Lan Xue, New York City: Lexington Books , 2011Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 4.
    Deverell, Edward
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Statsvetenskapliga avdelningen, Sektionen för krishantering och internationell samverkan.
    Att identifiera och motstå informationspåverkan: En jämförande studie av hur de nordiska länderna organiserar arbetet2019Inngår i: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, nr 1, s. 31-54Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Authoritarian states and democracies have long used propaganda and disinformation to manipulate target audiences. Recently interest in this issue has increased, especially as active pro-Kremlin disinformation measures have targeted the Nordic countries. So far, research on disinformation measures in a Nordic context is limited and focuses mainly on how individual countries have been exposed, or how disinformation in regard to a particular and debated issue have affected the debate in individual countries, while research is lacking on how Nordic countries organize themselves and work to identify and counter such threats ina comparative perspective. This comparative case study uses qualitative analysis of literature, policy documents and interviews with expert practitioners to show that Sweden and Finland have established and tested organizations and networks to identify and counter disinformation campaigns. Similar institutionalization is now underway in Denmark and Norway. The states inspire each other and participate in international collaboration. But how the countries participate in such collaboration varies and, moreover, has bearing on their vulnerability in facing the threat.

  • 5.
    Deverell, Edward
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Att lära av kriserfarenheter2015Inngår i: Perspektiv på krishantering / [ed] Deverell, Edward, Hansén, Dan & Olsson, Eva-Karin, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, s. 195-217Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 6.
    Deverell, Edward
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Crises as learning agents: Developing and exploring a conceptual framework of crisis induced learning and testing its practical applicability2008Inngår i: Proceedings of the first Young Researchers' Seminar, Malmö, 2008, s. 23-34Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to contribute to the debate on organizational learning from crisis by shedding light on the phenomena of crises as learning agents. It suggests a conceptual framework based on conceptual categories and answers to four fundamental questions: what lessons are learned (single- or double-loop)?; what is the focus of the lessons (prevention or response)?; when are lessons learned (intra- or intercrisis)?; is learning carried out or blocked from implementation (distilled or implemented)? The practical applicability of the framework is explored in a case study of two consecutive crises that provoked lessons from two organizations with public task orientations. In the final sections of the study four propositions on crisis-induced learning are posed for future research.

  • 7.
    Deverell, Edward
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Crises as Learning Triggers: exploring a Conceptual Framework of Crisis-Induced Learning2009Inngår i: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 17, nr 3, s. 179-188Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article contributes to the debate on organizational learning from crisis by shedding light on the phenomenon of crises as learning triggers. To unveil theoretical patterns of how organizational crisis-induced learning may appear and develop, I suggest a conceptual framework based on concept categories and answers to four fundamental questions: what lessons are learned (single- or double-loop)?; what is the focus of the lessons (prevention or response)?; when are lessons learned (intra- or intercrisis)?; is learning blocked from implementation or carried out (distilled or implemented)? The framework's applicability is explored in a study of how a Swedish utility and the city of Stockholm responded to two large-scale blackouts in Stockholm. The final sections suggest four propositions for further research.

  • 8.
    Deverell, Edward
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Crisis induced learning: Swedish public sector organizations’ learning after crises2006Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning from major failures and crisis experiences is essential for creating robust, safe, and reliable organizations and societies as well as for preventing a repeat of the crisis. Hence, it is of great importance to increase knowledge about why some individuals and organizations learn from crisis experiences and others do not. Studying how organizations learn from crisis episodes raises a number of issues pertaining to the difficulties of applying the concept of organizational learning empirically. This article discusses the problems of defining, disaggregating, and categorizing the organizational learning concept along with the effects of timing on organizational learning and why we should expect that crises are stimulants to learning in the first place. The concluding section presents an empirical application of the organizational learning concept that acknowledges the learning cycle as a fourfold process involving knowledge gathering, acting on knowledge, knowledge dissemination, and maintaining/reconsidering knowledge.

  • 9.
    Deverell, Edward
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Crisis-induced learning in public sector organizations2010Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    How do public organizations manage crises? How do public organizations learnfrom crises? These seemingly basic questions still pose virtual puzzles for crisismanagement researchers. Yet, the interest of the academic and practitionerrealms in crisis management has grown in recent years. In this doctoral dissertationEdward Deverell sheds light on the problems regarding the lack ofknowledge on how public organizations manage and learn from crises, with anumber of critical knowledge gaps in contemporary crisis management as thestarting point. 

    In the last few decades the interest in crisis management as a scholarly fieldhas grown. This developing field is composed of an increasing number of looselyconnected social science scholars concerned with issues of extraordinary events,their repercussions and the way in which they are managed by authorities,organizations, policy makers and other key actors. However, there are severallacunae to be dealt with in the emerging field of crisis management research.This dissertation sets the spotlight on four of these limitations of the crisis managementliterature to date. 

    First, influential scholars within the field call for increased structuration andfeasible models to help us understand and explain various important factorsinfluencing the crisis management process. In this dissertation I try to bridgethis gap by developing theory on crisis response and learning. Crisis responsesignifies organized activities undertaken by a stakeholder when a community ofpeople – an organization, a town, or a nation – perceives an urgent threat to corevalues which must be dealt with under conditions of uncertainty. Crisis-inducedlearning refers to purposeful efforts, triggered by a crisis event and carried out bymembers of an organization working within a community of inquiry, that leadto new understanding and behavior on the basis of that understanding. 

    Second, organizations play a key role in crisis management. Surprisinglyenough, however, crisis management research have only occasionally built theoryon how organizations respond to crisis. So far, the literature tells us moreabout crises as events than on how these events are actually managed. One reasonis the focus within crisis management research on highly unusual, big catastrophicevents and industrial accidents. Therefore, this dissertation explorescrisis episodes that affect specific organizations rather than entire communitiesor national governments. In addition, the dissertation brings together debateson crisis management and crisis-induced learning from a public managementand organizational perspective. 

    Third, crisis management researchers have to date dealt mostly with acutecrisis response and issues of preparedness, while the issues of crisis aftermathsand crisis-induced learning are still relatively unknown. However, althoughthis study recognizes the importance of crisis planning and sense-making, thisshould not lead to a relative neglect of the issue of learning from crisis. Crisisinducedlearning is important as crises are rare events with huge repercussions.Thus crises are opportunities to draw lessons in order to improve future managementand crisis response, and to mitigate the risk of future crises. 

    Fourth, the relatively few studies that have dealt with crisis-induced learninghave focused on learning after the crisis (intercrisis learning), while theoryon learning during crisis (intracrisis learning) is not as developed. My interestin both inter- and intracrisis learning obligates me to study crisis response andcrisis learning in conjunction. This means studying how organizations respondto crises and how they learn during and from these episodes. By focusing onprocesses of crisis response and learning under pressure – rather than pre-crisisplanning, threat perception, risk management and preparedness – the dissertationlooks into how organizations and their members manage the challenge ofcrises and how they take on, make use of and implement lessons learned fromone crisis to the next. 

    The lacunae outlined above are theoretical points of departure for this dissertation’sinterest in the extent to which public organizations learn from crises.Accordingly, the overall objective of the dissertation is to increase understandingof crisis response and crisis learning in public organizations. In doing so, Iconduct an abductive study of how public organizations respond to crises andhow they learn during and after these events. The term ‘abductive’ refers toa research strategy which is characterized by continuous movement back andforth between theory and empirical data. 

    The first step of the research process was grounded in the empirical world.The empirical contribution is a careful process tracing and case reconstructionof six cases involving Swedish public sector organizations. In the methodologychapter (Chapter 3) I describe the basis of the empirically bounded case study approach and case reconstruction and process tracing method. Six case studiesof organizational crisis management and learning were selected for furtheranalysis. The case studies were based on a variety of sources including posthoc accident investigations, articles, organizational documents and 129 extensivesemi-structured interviews with key crisis managers. The process tracingand reconstruction efforts led to case narratives, which were then dissected byidentifying dilemmas and critical decision-making occasions that were studiedin more detail. The following cases are explored in the dissertation: TheSwedish energy utility Birka Energi’s management of two cable fires that causedlarge-scale blackouts in Stockholm in March 2001 and May 2002; The cityof Stockholm’s management of the 2001 blackout and the repeated incidentin 2002; The Swedish Defence Research Agency’s (FOI) management of hoaxanthrax letters in 2001; and three Swedish media organizations’ (the Swedishpublic service radio Sveriges Radio, the Swedish private TV station with publicservice tasks TV4, and the Swedish public service TV station Sveriges Television)management of news work and broadcasting challenges on 11 September 2001(and to some extent following the murder of the Swedish Foreign MinisterAnna Lindh in September 2003). 

    As the case selection reveals, all organizations under study are not puregovernment organizations. Rather three organizations (Birka Energi, SverigesRadio and Sveriges Television) are publically owned corporations, while one(TV4) is a privately owned media organization. Accordingly, this dissertationclaims that ownership is not the only measure of ‘publicness’. Media organizations,for instance, are of great importance for democratic societies. The term‘public organization’ is thus in this dissertation not used in the sense of equatingto government, but rather in reference to the degree of which political authorityand influence impacts on the organization. 

    The theory generating approach that this dissertation takes on impliesthat the case studies are ‘heuristic’ case studies. The dissertation aims to promotenew hypotheses for further research rather than to produce generalizedknowledge. To this end the case studies are further analyzed by specific theoreticalapproaches suggested by prior research. This second step of the researchprocess is dealt with in some detail in the literature review. The literature reviewin Chapter 2 aims to bring an injection of organizational studies into the fieldof crisis management research. The review presents relevant studies from thefields of crisis management studies, organization studies (with special attentiongiven to organizational learning theory) and public administration and management.The review puts forth a twofold argument: There is a need of increasedknowledge not only about crises and how they develop, but also about how theyare actually managed by public organizations. However, prior crisis managementresearch with bearing on public management organizations are mostly based on either political executive foreign policy decision making or on veryspecific high reliability organizations operating in the pre-crisis phase. Hence,organization studies and public management studies should play a greater partin crisis management research. 

    The review also provides an overview frame for the study by highlightingrelevant research. The chapter discusses the problems of defining, categorizingand operationalizing key concepts such as crisis, crisis management and organizationallearning. 

    In the third step of the research process, the case studies are further analyzedusing theoretical approaches aimed at proposing propositions on how publicsector organizations may respond to crises, and how they may learn from theircrisis experiences. These analyses have been carried out with an aim to producestand-alone articles aimed for publication in international scholarly journals.Thus this dissertation differs somewhat from the typical public administrationdissertation as it is comprised of an analysis of several articles, as opposed to amonograph. The journal articles are published or accepted for publication inthe Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, the Journal of HomelandSecurity and Emergency Management, Public Management Review, and RiskManagement. The articles are reprinted in four empirical chapters (Chapters4-7), which make up the core of the dissertation. Introductory and concludingchapters aimed at bringing the discussion together have then been added.I present the first empirical analysis in Chapter 4. It looks into how organizationalculture affects strategy and adaptability in crisis management. The keyresearch question is: What mechanisms affect organizations’ ability to restructurein order to cope with acute crisis management challenges? In the study I propose atypology of temporal organizational responses to crises in public perception. Thetypology is based on organizations’ abilities to change strategy and adapt theirmanagerial and operational levels to deal with crises. The empirical data used toconstruct the typology covers three organizational crisis responses: 1) The utilityBirka Energi’s response to a cable fire that caused a thirty-seven hour blackoutin Stockholm in 2001; 2) The TV station TV4’s response in terms of how toreorganize and broadcast during the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks; 3)FOI, the Swedish National Defence Research Agency’s response to the anthraxletter scare of 2001 and 2002. The different organizational outcomes featuredby the typology reveal distinct aspects of organizational crisis management.According to the typology, the Fully Adapting Organization (TV4) managesto adapt both its strategy and its managerial and operational levels to deal withthe crisis. The Semi-Adapting Organization (FOI) changes its strategy but lacksthe capacity to change managerial and operational levels according to the newstrategy. The Non-Adapting Organization (Birka Energi) does not grasp theimportance of strategy change in the first place. Based on three inductive case studies, the study concludes that organizational culture plays an important rolein this process where the Semi-Adapting Organization and the Non-AdaptingOrganization were dominated by strong expert cultures which proved to be lessinclined to change. In contrast, the Fully Adapting organization had deliberatelyfostered an organizational culture in which flexibility – understood as thecapacity to readily adapt to changing demands – was a cornerstone. 

    The second empirical analysis is presented in Chapter 5. It deals with theissue of flexibility and rigidity in crisis response and crisis learning at two Swedishpublic organizations. The point of departure for the study is that the relationshipbetween crises, organizational crisis management response and learning hasto date been understudied. In an effort to broaden theoretical knowledge on therelation between crisis and learning, the study analyzes the crisis responses oftwo public organizations during a sequence of two failures. The empirical datais grounded in thorough process tracing and case reconstruction analyses ofhow the utility Birka Energi and the city of Stockholm managed two comprehensiveblackouts in March 2001 and in May 2002. The key research questionis: How does organizational rigidity and flexibility affect public organizations’ crisisresponse and crisis learning? A framework of rigidity versus flexibility in responseis utilized in the analysis. The findings are then discussed in relation to theirimplications for the nexus between crisis and learning. The study concludes byraising four propositions for further research. 

    The third empirical analysis is presented in Chapter 6. This study aims tocontribute to the debate on organizational learning from crisis by sheddinglight on the phenomenon of crises as learning triggers. In the study I pose thefollowing key research question: How can we analyze organizational learningduring and after crisis and what criteria should be part of the analysis? In an effortto unveil patterns of how organizational crisis-induced learning may appearand develop, I suggest a conceptual framework based on conceptual categoriesand answers to four fundamental questions: what lessons are learned (single- ordouble-loop)?; what is the focus of the lessons (prevention or response)?; whenare lessons learned (intra- or intercrisis)?; is learning carried out or blocked fromimplementation (distilled or implemented)? In the analysis section I explorethe practical applicability of the framework by using the same empirical casestudies as in Chapter 5. The final section suggests four propositions for furtherresearch. 

    The last empirical study is presented in Chapter 7. There I construct aframework of management, learning and implementation in response to crisis.My point of departure is a proposition from previous crisis managementresearch which posits that previous experience can shape crisis response as away of repeating former routines or as a precondition for improvisation. Thekey research question is: How do organizational management structures affect crisis response, learning and implementation? In the study I argue that flexibilityis closely connected to the way organizations learn – in behavioral or cognitivemodes. Moreover, these learning modes are connected to the role of managerialgroups, where I differentiate between centralized and decentralized top managerialgroups. In addition, two case studies of how two bureaucratic media organizations(Sveriges Radio and SVT) managed and learned from extraordinarynews events – most notably 9/11 and the assassination of the Swedish ForeignMinister Anna Lindh – are conducted. The findings show how the decentralizedmanagerial group learned in a behavioral fashion, by creating new formalpolicies and structures, while organizational members in the centralized managerialgroup relied on individual cognitive structures as a way of ‘storing’ lessonslearned. The study ends by discussing the findings from a crisis managementperspective, where I propose that the two modes of learning profoundly affectthe crucial issue of flexibility in organizational crisis response.The concluding Chapter 8 discusses and contrasts the findings and propositionsgenerated from the four separate empirical analyses. Here the role oforganizational structure and culture are highlighted by revisiting specific organizationalfactors that seem to impact on organizational crisis management andlearning processes, such as previous experience, flexibility and rigidity in crisisresponse and learning, and centralization and decentralization. These factorswere also outlined in the literature review. Further empirical evidence of howthe factors affect crisis response and crisis learning in organizations was foundin the four empirical analyses. 

    In addition, findings from the empirical studies also related to different types of learning processes such as intra- and intercrisis learning and singleand double-loop learning. Consequently these concepts are also deliberated upon in the concluding sections of the dissertation. As a final attempt to bring the propositions and arguments together, a framework of the crisis management and learning process is proposed. In regard to this venture, it is important to acknowledge the limitations of the framework, and of the dissertation as a whole. As it is only based on data from six cases of Swedish public organizational responses to crisis, the framework is merely a visual schematic of a number of propositions to be further tested and validated by further research. However, the framework also has a few virtues. It is an attempt to approach the ambiguous nature of crises and crisis management processes. The framework may also assist in providing more sensible and practical conceptualizations, and thus bring us closer to definitions that remain close to everyday operations of practitioners involved in crisis management. This dissertation thus makes an effort to bridge the gap between crisis management scholars and practitioners. This is also an overall goal guiding research activities at the National Center for Crisis Management Studies (CRISMART) at the Swedish National Defence College, where the research behind this dissertation has been conducted.

  • 10.
    Deverell, Edward
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Decision-Making and Crisis-Induced Learning at Swedish Public Sector Organizations Under Pressure2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to analyse the crisis management and learning responses of two public organizations during two sequences of failures in order to develop theory on the relationship between crisis and learning. It is found that organizations initially respond rigidly to crisis signals and that crisis-induced creativity and learning tends to be initiated in the acute crisis management phase. The findings are also discussed in relation to their implications for the nexus between crisis and organizational learning and it is found that politicization in the crisis aftermath may generate organizational learning.

  • 11.
    Deverell, Edward
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Elavbrottet i Kista den 29-31 maj 2002: organisatorisk och interorganisatorisk inlärning i kris2004Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 12.
    Deverell, Edward
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Flexibility and Rigidity in Crisis Management and Learning at Swedish Public Organizations2010Inngår i: Public Management Review, ISSN 1471-9037, E-ISSN 1471-9045, Vol. 12, nr 5, s. 679-700Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To date the relationship between crises,organizational crisis management, and learninghas been understudied. In an effort tobroaden theoretical understandings of therelation between crisis and learning, thisarticle analyses the crisis management andlearning processes of two public organizationsduring a sequence of two failures. Aframework of rigidity versus flexibility inresponse is utilized in the analysis. Thefindings are discussed in relation to theirimplications for the nexus between crisis andlearning. The study concludes by raising fourhypotheses for further research.

  • 13.
    Deverell, Edward
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Statsvetenskapliga avdelningen, Sektionen för krishantering och internationell samverkan.
    Hede, Susanne
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Horizontal Collaboration in Crisis Management: An Experimental Study of the Duty Officer Function in Three Public Agencies2019Inngår i: Risk, Hazards & Crisis in Public Policy, ISSN 1944-4079, E-ISSN 1944-4079, Vol. 10, nr 4, s. 484-508, artikkel-id https://doi.org/10.1002/rhc3.12179Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Lately, scholars have been engaging in studies on the crossroads between collaborative public management and crisis management, but our knowledge on how organizations work together with interorganizational goals in times of crisis or in relation to the threat that crises pose, is still limited. This study aims to illuminate how interagency horizontal collaboration plays out in practice. An interview study with twenty‐three Swedish duty officers in three organizations with critical tasks in the institutional crisis management system is carried out to unearth impediments to interagency collaboration that emerge when organizations from different policy subsystems engage in crisis collaboration. Empirically, the study contributes with new knowledge on how a crucial function in crisis management carries out work and deals with challenges. Theoretically, it contributes to the literature on crisis management collaboration by shedding light on processes of horizontal collaboration in the area of crisis management.

  • 14.
    Deverell, Edward
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Investigating the Roots of Crisis Management Studies and Outlining Future Trajectories for the Field2012Inngår i: Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, ISSN 2194-6361, E-ISSN 1547-7355, Vol. 9, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a review of some literatures that have been instrumental in forming attimes disparate scholarly thoughts on managerial and operational decision-making and behaviorduring extraordinary events into the nascent academic field known as crisis management studies.The article outlines some of the most influential literature streams, presents their main findings,reveals four significant knowledge gaps in the present literature, and calls for future crisismanagement research to direct attention to the organization as the principal level of analysis.

  • 15.
    Deverell, Edward
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Is Best Practice Always the Best?: Learning to Become Better Crisis Managers2012Inngår i: Journal of Critical Incident Analysis, ISSN 1949-1182, Vol. 3, nr 1, s. 26-40Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article argues for a reassessment of the idea of learning from critical incidents and crises in organizations. Crisis management research looks upon crisis-induced learning as highly desirable albeit immensely challenging. This paper argues that, although learning from crisis is important for crisis management performance, the idea of crisis-induced learning holds an intrinsic contradiction, which becomes one of the main challenges to building crisis management capacities and competencies from lessons learned from previous crisis experiences. As crises are dynamic and evolving processes permeated by uncertainty and elements of surprise, learning from prior crisis experiences will not suffice for an effective future crisis response. Empirical episodes from inductive case studies are used to show that learning from crisis can lead to rigid structures and behavior hampering crisis management and organizational resilience. The study concludes by discussing conditions that need to accompany crisis-induced learning processes in organizations in order to avoid rigidity in future crisis response.

  • 16.
    Deverell, Edward
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Is best practice always the best? Learning to become better crisis managers2012Inngår i: Åre Risk Event: Att kommunicera det (o)tänkbara: Hur formar vi framtidens kriskommunikation.: Book of abstracts, 2012, s. 8-8Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper argues for a reassessment of the idea of learning from critical incidents and crises in organizations. Crisis management research looks upon crisis-induced learning as highly desirable albeit immensely challenging. This paper argues that, although learning from crisis is important for crisis management performance and resilience, the idea of crisis-induced learning holds an intrinsic contradiction, which becomes one of the main challenges to building crisis management capacities and competencies from lessons based in previous crisis experiences. As crises are dynamic and evolving processes permeated by uncertainty and elements of surprise, learning from prior crisis experiences will not suffice for an effective crisis response. Empirical episodes from deep case studies are used to show how learning from crisis can lead to rigid structures and behavior hampering crisis management and organizational resilience. The study concludes by discussing conditions that need to accompany crisis-induced learning processes in organizations in order to avoid rigidity in future crisis response. 

  • 17.
    Deverell, Edward
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Krishantering och lärande: Faktorer som påverkar myndigheters förmåga att lära2012Inngår i: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, Vol. 216, nr 1, s. 117-130Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This essay discusses new research on how public sector organizations learn from their crisis experiences. The essay aims to distill practical lessons from theoretical studies on crisis-induced learning that should offer public officials advice on how to increase the learning capacities of public sector organizations in the wake of crises. The essay concludes that for organizational crisis-induced learning to take place, it is favorable to document incidents and crises thoroughly and to refine the documentation into investigations and evaluations. Moreover, in order for organizations to reform in line with suggestions put forth in investigations and evaluations, organizational self-reflection and flexibility is required.

  • 18.
    Deverell, Edward
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Organizational learning from crisis2013Inngår i: Handbook of Research on Crisis Leadership in Organizations / [ed] Andrew J. Dubrin, Cheltenham, UK & Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2013, s. 290-310Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The chapter explores the concepts of crisis, leadership and learning. It takes a critical glance at research, opinion and advice from the interdisciplinary field of crisis management studies. Analysts using literature from the nascent field of crisis management studies as a point of departure, tend to look at a crisis as a series of interconnected challenges presented to leaders of firms, agencies or organizational units. Under conditions of uncertainty, complexity, time pressure, and threats to core values, leaders are expected to make sense of unfolding events, make and implement strategic decisions, clarify complex issues of accountability and mandates, and convey meaning to these processes in internal and external communication. When management of the crisis is approaching termination, leaders find themselves playing an important role in the return to normalcy. Apart from managing the present crisis, leaders are also expected to prevent crisis repetition. Amidst hazardous, uncertain and stressful conditions then, leaders need to notice and reflect upon lessons enabling them to prevent future crises, and at a later stage make sure that these lessons are implemented throughout their organizations. Learning from crisis experience thus becomes a core task and demanding challenge for any leader. So far the important issue of crisis-induced learning has only attracted limited attention from scholars. There are only a few studies on the topic and even fewer relate to the strategic management and leadership perspective. This chapter takes stock of this budding knowledge on the crossroads of crisis management, organizational learning and leadership. Moreover, it suggests some implications for practice and points out potential trajectories for future research. 

  • 19.
    Deverell, Edward
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Statsvetenskap med inriktning krishantering: Hur kan vi utbilda i det vid FHS?2012Inngår i: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, ISSN ISSN 0023-5369, nr 4, s. 109-119Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den statsvetenskapliga forskningen och utbildningen vid Försvarshögskolan (FHS) utmärker sig från statsvetenskap vid andra lärosäten genom sin särskilda inriktning på säkerhetspolitik och krishantering. Kurser med denna inriktning har genomförts vid FHS sedan 2000 och kommer att utgöra huvuddelen av innehållet i det civila utbildningsprogram som ska inledas hösten 2013. Medan säkerhetspolitik traditionellt sett har varit ett ämnesområde inom statsvetenskapen som har fått relativt stor uppmärksamhet även vid andra universitet och högskolor, är krishantering en yngre och mer otydligt definierad underdisciplin. Denna otydlighet ger upphov till syftet med föreliggande artikel. Först diskuteras den till synes enkla frågan vad statsvetenskap med inriktning krishantering egentligen är. Sedan förs utifrån pedagogisk litteratur en diskussion som utmynnar i ett antal konkreta förslag på hur vi kan gå tillväga för att utbilda studenter inom kunskapsfältet.

  • 20.
    Deverell, Edward
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Systems for Post-Crisis Learning: A Systemic Gap in Civil Security Governance?2015Inngår i: European Civil Security Governance: Diversity and Cooperation in Crisis and Disaster Management / [ed] Raphael Bossong & Hendrik Hegeman, Houndsmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015, s. 160-187Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing the capacity of governments to learn from harmful events, such as for instance pandemics, hurricanes, terrorist attacks or large scale accidents, is of importance for civil security and organizational safety (Stern, 1997; Deverell, 2010). A frequently used strategy by governments and public organizations in this regard is to launch a crisis investigation after an event. This chapter deals with such forms of investigations and especially the importance of organizing structures for post hoc crisis investigations. The chapter argues that a lack of structured arrangements regarding post hoc crisis investigations will have negative effects on organizational and governmental lesson drawing from crises, and thus on long term EU civil security. We depart from the premise that taking structured and deliberate steps after crisis events to restore legitimacy and to make sure that historic mistakes are not repeated is an important part of civil security governance (cf. Sulitzeanu-Kenan and Holzman-Gazit, 2013). At the same time, civil security governance can also be seen as a problem for learning. Civil security governance involves a wide variety of actors and confronts ambiguous policy problems and fuzzy boundaries. As such it tends to work against systemization and standardized organisational processes required for effective post hoc crisis investigations.

  • 21.
    Deverell, Edward
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    The 2001 Kista blackout: Corporate crisis and urban contingency2003Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The study examines the management of the blackout in Stockholm’s northwestern suburbs, most importantly in Sweden’s center for high-tech industry in Kista, on March 11, 2001. The blackout, which was a result of a cable fire, was one of Sweden’s most comprehensive power disturbances ever and its effects were dramatic for the residents, the accountable power company, and the city leadership.The crisis management displayed by the operational units, public administrations, municipal companies and private corporations is examined, and the communication between these actors is considered throughout the report. Seven decision occasions are selected and scrutinized. The case is then analyzed and compared to similar cases studied by CRiSMART researchers, most notably: the blackouts in Auckland, New Zealand (1998) and Buenos Aires, Argentina (1999), and the power outages which followed the wake of the ice storm in eastern Canada (1998). Some examples of best practices in crisis management are also presented based on the case findings.

  • 22.
    Deverell, Edward
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    What makes some organizations better than others at handling crises?: Exploring state of the art public crisis management2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport görs en populärvetenskaplig sammanfattning av det arbete som har genomförts inom det MSB-finansierade post doc-projektet "What makes some organizations better than others at handling crises? Exploring state of the art public crisis management". Projektet leddes av Fil dr Edward Deverell vid Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap vid Försvarshögskolan 2011-2013. Utgångspunkten för projektets arbete var avhandlingen "Crisis-induced learning in public sector organizations" (Deverell, 2010). Avhandlingen ramade in krishanteringsstudier som kunskapsfält och betonade vikten av att i vidare studier undersöka organisationers roll i krishantering. Vidare framhölls vikten av att mer ingående studera organisationers lärprocesser i samband med kriser eftersom mer kunskap om lärande i relation till kriser behövs för att vi ska kunna skapa mer robusta organisationer och samhällen samt för att undvika att drabbas av liknande kriser framöver. I linje med det tidigare avhandlingsprojektet ämnade post doc projektet att fördjupa studiet av krishanteringsstudier med fokus på organisationers lärprocesser i relation till kriser. Detta genom att studera krishanteringslitteratur och fallstudier av verkliga kriserfarenheter. Föreliggande rapport ger en kortfattad beskrivning av de delstudier som sammanställdes under de två år som projektet löpte.

  • 23.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Dan, HansénFörsvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).Olsson, Eva-KarinFörsvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Perspektiv på krishantering2015Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Du tycker att samhällsfrågor är spännande och har ett särskilt intresse för kriser och oförutsedda händelser. Vad gör egentligen de som har ansvar och förväntningar på sig att ställa saker till rätta i en krissituation? Hur fungerar mediernas granskning och hur agerar andra parter som har till uppgift att utkräva ansvar? När väl den akuta fasen är över, vad lär sig de inblandade aktörerna, och hur fungerar förändringsarbetet och införandet av nya policyer? Perspektiv på krishantering är till för dig som vill fördjupa dig i dessa frågor.

    De perspektiv som presenteras är olika sätt att närma sig och studera krishantering som fenomen. Boken är indelad i tre övergripande perspektiv: hantera, granska och förändra. Genomgående i boken presenteras fallbeskrivningar av verkliga händelser och faktiskt handlande. Men fokus ligger inte på händelserna som sådana, utan på förståelsen av dem – de teoretiska perspektiven. Även om boken är rik på perspektiv gör den inte anspråk på att vara heltäckande. Snarare inbjuder den dig som är intresserad och engagerad att själv studera krishantering och bidra till kunskapsfältet.

  • 24.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Hansén, Dan
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Learning from Crises and Major Accidents: From Post-Crisis Fantasy Documents to Actual Learning in the Heat of Crisis2009Inngår i: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 17, nr 3, s. 143-145Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 25.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Hansén, Dan
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Perspektiv på krishantering: Introduktion2015Inngår i: Perspektiv på krishantering / [ed] Deverell, Edward, Hansén, Dan & Olsson, Eva-Karin, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, s. 5-18Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 26.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Culture Clash – How organizational culture affects effective crisis management2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Given the importance of organizational culture in explaining organizational behavior, it is surprising that research on how organizational culture affects organizations’ ability to react to and act in times of crisis has received limited interest. In this paper we examine how specific organizational cultures affected crisis responses in three cases – the handling of the so called anthrax letters in Sweden by the Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI) in 2001, the electrical power company Birka Energy’s management of a big tunnel fire in Stockholm, Sweden in 2001 and the television broadcasting company TV 4’s response to September 11, 2001. The cases have been researched by the use of a detailed process tracing of the main decision making occasions that the organizations confronted that e.g. included interviews with key participants in the crisis management. The studies show that in the FOI case, the democratic expert advisory culture led to a crisis response that was characterized by vague leadership and lack of decision making capacity. In the case of Birka Energy, the technical engineering culture resulted in a crisis response that lacked understanding of symbolic and communicative dimensions of crisis communication, focusing solely on the technical and operational parts of the crisis. The TV 4 case on the other hand shows a flexible organizational culture that managed to handle the change in mission.

  • 27.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet och strategi (ISS), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet och strategi (ISS), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Hur organisationskultur påverkar strategi och anpassningsförmåga i kriser2011Inngår i: Strategisk kommunikation: forskning och praktik / [ed] Mats Heide och Jesper Falkheimer, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2011Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 28.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Learning from crisis: A framework of management, learning and implementation in response to crisis2009Inngår i: Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, ISSN 2194-6361, E-ISSN 1547-7355, Vol. 6, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 29.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Organizational culture effects on strategy and adaptability in crisis management2010Inngår i: Risk Management: An International Journal, ISSN 1460-3799, E-ISSN 1743-4637, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 116-134Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a typology of temporal organizational responsesto crises in public perception aimed at examining the ability of organizations torestructure in order to cope with acute crisis management challenges. The typologyis based on organizations ’ capacities to launch crisis management strategies andadapt their managerial and operational levels to deal with crises. According to thetypology, the Fully Adapting Organization manages to adapt both its strategy andits managerial and operational levels to deal with the crisis. The Semi-AdaptingOrganization changes its strategy but lacks the capacity to change managerial andoperational levels according to the new strategy. The Non-Adapting Organizationdoes not grasp the importance of strategy change in the first place. Based on threeinductive case studies the study concludes that organizational culture plays animportant role in this process where the Semi and the Non-Adapting organizationswere dominated by strong expert cultures that proved to be less inclined to change.In contrast, the Fully Adapting Organization had deliberately fostered an organizationalculture in which flexibility was a cornerstone.

  • 30.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Statsvetenskapliga avdelningen.
    Hellman, Maria
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Statsvetenskapliga avdelningen.
    Johnsson, Magnus
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen.
    Understanding Public Agency Communication: the case of the Swedish Armed Forces2015Inngår i: Journal of Public Affairs, ISSN 1472-3891, E-ISSN 1479-1854, Vol. 15, nr 4, s. 387-396Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article suggests a diagnostic framework of public communication intended to capture new communication strategies used by Armed Forces across Europe to legitimize new tasks and recruit new personnel. Three distinct communicative models that impact differently on democratic values and public support are suggested: an Old Public Administration (OPA) model influenced by bureaucratic values, a New Public Management (NPM) model fuelled by market values and a deliberative model labelled ‘New Public Service’ (NPS) that is largely influenced by proponents of ‘e-democracy’. A case study of the communication of the Swedish Armed Forces identifies a lingering bureaucratic (OPA) ideal. The market ideal (NPM) however clearly dominates. The article concludes that communication along market purposes, principles and practices risks distancing Armed Forces further from society. Yet, an embryonic deliberative ideal (NPS)—much fuelled by the use of social media such as blogs—was also identified. This growing ideal holds the potential of infusing deliberative vigor into the organization and presumably facilitates the bridging of the gap to society.

  • 31.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Stiglund, Jonatan
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Crisis: Designing a method for organizational crisis investigation2015Inngår i: Organizing after crisis: the challenge of learning / [ed] Nathalie Schiffino, Laurent Taskins, Cecile Donis & Julien Raone, Brussels: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2015, s. 29-54Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 32.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Statsvetenskapliga avdelningen.
    Marknadiseringen av Försvarsmaktens kommunikation: ett strategiskt maktmedel i en tid av förändring2016Inngår i: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 118, nr 4, s. 589-622Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research shows that the Swedish Armed Forces’ communication is dominatedby market communication, and that this may impact on how the organizationis anchored in society. By adopting a neo-institutional perspective to the studyof agency communication, this article aims to deepen the analysis of the ArmedForces’ communication. Our analysis, based on interviews and official documents,demonstrates both risks and opportunities with marketization of the Armed Forces’communication. On the one hand, market communication may lead to the neglectof alternative values and images of the Armed Forces. Also, the rushed changes incommunication strategies identified risk providing an image of a complex organizationthat is difficult to comprehend, which may undermine the Armed Forces’legitimacy. On the other hand, the Armed Forces’ enhanced role as an employer andcomprehensive use of social media has led to more transparency and to the fosteringof values corresponding to values in society at large. How the Armed Forces, itsleadership, management, and communicators relate to these opportunities andrisks will be crucial for the organization’s future legitimacy.

  • 33.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet och strategi (ISS), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Örtenwall, Per
    Almgren, Ola
    Bombattentatet i köpcentrumet i Finland 20022005Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 34.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Örtenwall, Per
    Almgren, Ola
    Bombattentatet i Myyrmanni köpcentrum 20022004Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 35.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Örtenwall, Per
    Almgren, Ola
    Riddez, Louis
    KAMEDO Report No. 87: Bomb Attack in Finnish Shopping Center, 20022007Inngår i: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, ISSN 1049-023X, E-ISSN 1945-1938, Vol. 22, nr 1, s. 86-88Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 36.
    Fors, Fredrik
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet och strategi (ISS), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Deverell, Edward
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet och strategi (ISS), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Hjelm, Johan
    Krisberedskapsmyndigheten.
    Sjölund, Sara
    Krisberedskapsmyndigheten.
    Terrorattackerna i London den 7 juli 2005 : Brittiska lokala och regionala myndigheters agerande och lärdomar för det svenska krishanteringssystemet2006Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Strax före klockan nio på morgonen den 7 juli 2005 inträffade de första självmordsbombningarnanågonsin i Västeuropa. Tre tunnelbanetåg i centrala Londonsprängdes i en samtidig attack klockan 08.50. Ungefär en timme senare skeddeden fjärde attacken, då en bomb detonerade på en buss. Sammanlagt dödades56 människor i terrorattentatet och 755 människor skadades.

    Denna observatörsrapport syftar till att identifiera erfarenheter och lärdomarfrån hanteringen av terrorattentatet i London som är relevanta för det svenskakrishanteringssystemet. Detta görs genom att kartlägga händelseförloppet samtbeskriva och förklara de regionala och lokala myndigheternas agerande,beslutsfattande, samverkande och lärande i samband med terrorattentatet.

    I ett inledande kapitel sammanfattas lärdomar för det svenska krishanteringssystemet.Två frågor står i fokus: Vad kan svenska krishanterare lära av händelsernaden 7 juli 2005? Vilka av erfarenheterna från London är väsentligaatt ta med i den fortsatta utvecklingen av det svenska krishanteringssystemet?

    Andra delar av rapporten ger bakgrundsinformation kring krishantering iLondon och Storbritannien, redovisar händelseförloppet under terrorattacken,samt analyserar de brittiska organisationernas agerande.

  • 37.
    Fors, Fredrik
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet och strategi (ISS), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Newlove Eriksson, Lindy
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet och strategi (ISS), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Deverell, Edward
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet och strategi (ISS), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Stern, Eric
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet och strategi (ISS), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Shaken, not stunned: The London Bombings of July 20052006Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Executive summary - The bombings of July 2005

    On July 7th, the morning rush hours in London formed the backdrop for the first suicidebombings in Western Europe in modern times. Three different parts of the London subwaysystem were attacked around 08.50: Aldgate, Edgware Road, and Russell Square. The three Tube trains were all hit within 50 seconds time. A bomb on the upper floor of a double-deckerbus at Tavistock Square was detonated at 09.47.

    In the terrorist attacks, four suicide bombers detonated one charge each, killing 52 people. Seven people were killed by the blasts at Aldgate, six at Edgware Road, 13 at Tavistock Square, and 26 at Russel Square – in addition to the suicide bombers themselves. More than 700 people were injured. Hundreds of rescue workers were engaged in coping with the aftermath. Over 200 staff from the London Fire Brigade, 450 staff and 186 vehicles from the London Ambulance Service, several hundred police officers from the Metropolitan Police and from the City of London Police, as well as over 130 staff from the British Transport Police were involved. Patients were sent to 7 area hospitals.

  • 38.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Deverell, Edward
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Statsvetenskapliga avdelningen.
    Hellman, Maria
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Statsvetenskapliga avdelningen.
    EU, armed forces and social media: convergence or divergence?2016Inngår i: Defence Studies, ISSN 1470-2436, E-ISSN 1743-9698, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 97-117Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores how armed forces in EU member states work with and view social media in national and international settings, and what the patterns of convergence/divergence are on these issues. To that end, a questionnaire targeted at EU armed forces was constructed. An index of qualitative variation was calculated to explore the relative convergence among respondents (n = 25) on issues of risks and opportunities with using social media nationally and internationally. Consistent with previous research on European armed forces, we found higher levels of divergence than convergence. Contrary to our expectations that similar challenges, joint international standards, and membership in international organizations would foster convergence with regard to social media use in areas of deployment, we found that convergence appeared foremost pertaining to the domestic level. Policy divergence was strongest in areas of deployment.

  • 39.
    Stern, Eric
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Deverell, Edward
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Fors, Fredrik
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Newlove-Eriksson, Lindy
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Post mortem crisis analysis: Dissecting the London bombings of July 20052014Inngår i: Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance, ISSN 2051-6614, Vol. 1, nr 4, s. 402-422Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Taming the complexity of crisis and integrating diverse narratives and sources regarding crisis events is a serious challenge. The purpose of this paper is to present a methodology for reconstructing, dissecting, and thematically comparing crisis experiences, using the 7/7 London bombings of 2005 as an illustrative empirical application.

    Design/methodology/approach – A cognitive-institutional process-tracing methodology suitable compatible with structured focussed comparison of crisis cases (Stern and Sundelius, 2002; cf. George and Bennett, 2005) is used. This cognitive-institutional process tracing and analysis strategy consists of four steps: contextualization, development of a synthetic chronological narrative, identification and reconstruction of decision occasions, and (comparative) thematic analysis.

    Findings – The paper demonstrates the feasibility of applying the methodology to real-world cases in the UK and concludes with reflections about the need for contextualized, systematic post mortem crisis analysis taking into account problem and process complexity, differential crisis performances of individuals and organizations under adverse conditions, and the increasing importance of social media and personal communications devices for crisis research and practice.

    Practical implications – The methodology used in this paper has the potential to improve the effectiveness of organizational learning and reform efforts in the wake of crisis experiences.

    Social implications – Insights associated with the application of this methodology can lead to improved post-crisis learning and fairer accountability processes, and thus contribute to enhancing societal resilience.

    Originality/value – The study not only presents an original methodology developed by one of the authors, but also provides a systematic, relatively comprehensive and theoretically informed analysis of the July 7 London bombings based not only upon the documentary record, but also upon a substantial number of interviews.

  • 40. Örtenwall, Per
    et al.
    Almgren, Ola
    Deverell, Edward
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet och strategi (ISS), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    The Bomb Explosion in Myyrmanni, Finland 20022003Inngår i: International Journal of Disaster Medicine, ISSN 1503-1438, E-ISSN 1755-4713, Vol. 1, nr 2, s. 120-126Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
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