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  • 1.
    Castenfors, Kerstin
    et al.
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Deverell, Edward
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Anthrax Letters in Sweden?: Analysis of how FOI’s Division of NBC-Protection managed the ”Anthrax Letters” during the fall of 2001 – from a Crisis Management Perspective2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When the so-called anthrax letters began to appear in the U.S.A. in early October 2001, FOI(the Swedish National Defense Research Agency), prepared to put its personnel and its expertknowledge at society's disposal, in case Sweden should be subjected to similar incidents.When the first parcel1 with suspect contents appeared in Sweden in the middle of October,FOI-NBC-Protection (the Division of Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Protection, in thenorthern city of Umeå), abbrev. FOI-NBC, undertook the task of analyzing its contents. Atthe request of the Swedish National Police Board (RPS), FOI also agreed to test the contentsof any further such parcels that might turn up. FOI is traditionally a research and advisoryorganization, not a day-to-day operative organization. Thus, NBC-Protection had to make anumber of quick decisions concerning management and re-organization, in order to meet thedemands of the situation.Since the term "crisis" is central to this report, a short explanation of what the authors meanby this term is justified. A crisis is a situation and a process in which decision makersperceive2 all of the following:

    • a threat to fundamental values• severe time pressure• uncertainly

    Such situations can have their origins both in internal organizational factors and in externalfactors (Sundelius, Stern & Bynander, 1997).This report presents an analysis of interviews and testimonies given by staff of FOI-NBC, inconnection with the so-called anthrax crisis. The situation/process which arose at that timewas experienced not only as fundamentally threatening to society, but also to FOI-NBC'scredibility as an organization. It also involved intense time pressure and a great deal of dayto-day uncertainly.However, crises not only involve threats, but also present new opportunities. Morespecifically, if FOI NBC-Protection could successfully master the situation, this could onlylead to an increase in its credibility as a (expert) knowledge organization.In the aftermath of the “anthrax crisis”, FOI-NBC was – naturally – interested in finding out ifits staff had been given adequate means to do a proper job, if delegated responsibilities wereaccepted, how assigned tasks were carried out and if the decision making process wasemployed in a competent manner. In short, how well did the organization actually functionwhen, during that short, intense period in the fall of 2001, it was forced to transform itselffrom an "advisory" organization to an "operative" one?Thus, in the spring of 2002, FOI's Division of Defense Analysis in Stockholm was given thetask of studying how FOI-NBC in Umeå handled the events of 2001.

  • 2.
    Castenfors, Kerstin
    et al.
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Deverell, Edward
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Mjältbrandsbrev i Sverige?: Analys av FOI Avdelningen för NBC-skydds hantering av de så kallade mjältbrandsbreven under hösten 2001 utifrån ett krishanteringsperspektiv2003Book (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Dan, HansénSwedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).Olsson, Eva-KarinSwedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Perspektiv på krishantering2015Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Du tycker att samhällsfrågor är spännande och har ett särskilt intresse för kriser och oförutsedda händelser. Vad gör egentligen de som har ansvar och förväntningar på sig att ställa saker till rätta i en krissituation? Hur fungerar mediernas granskning och hur agerar andra parter som har till uppgift att utkräva ansvar? När väl den akuta fasen är över, vad lär sig de inblandade aktörerna, och hur fungerar förändringsarbetet och införandet av nya policyer? Perspektiv på krishantering är till för dig som vill fördjupa dig i dessa frågor.

    De perspektiv som presenteras är olika sätt att närma sig och studera krishantering som fenomen. Boken är indelad i tre övergripande perspektiv: hantera, granska och förändra. Genomgående i boken presenteras fallbeskrivningar av verkliga händelser och faktiskt handlande. Men fokus ligger inte på händelserna som sådana, utan på förståelsen av dem – de teoretiska perspektiven. Även om boken är rik på perspektiv gör den inte anspråk på att vara heltäckande. Snarare inbjuder den dig som är intresserad och engagerad att själv studera krishantering och bidra till kunskapsfältet.

  • 4.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Hansén, Dan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Perspektiv på krishantering: Introduktion2015In: Perspektiv på krishantering / [ed] Deverell, Edward, Hansén, Dan & Olsson, Eva-Karin, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, p. 5-18Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Culture Clash – How organizational culture affects effective crisis management2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given the importance of organizational culture in explaining organizational behavior, it is surprising that research on how organizational culture affects organizations’ ability to react to and act in times of crisis has received limited interest. In this paper we examine how specific organizational cultures affected crisis responses in three cases – the handling of the so called anthrax letters in Sweden by the Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI) in 2001, the electrical power company Birka Energy’s management of a big tunnel fire in Stockholm, Sweden in 2001 and the television broadcasting company TV 4’s response to September 11, 2001. The cases have been researched by the use of a detailed process tracing of the main decision making occasions that the organizations confronted that e.g. included interviews with key participants in the crisis management. The studies show that in the FOI case, the democratic expert advisory culture led to a crisis response that was characterized by vague leadership and lack of decision making capacity. In the case of Birka Energy, the technical engineering culture resulted in a crisis response that lacked understanding of symbolic and communicative dimensions of crisis communication, focusing solely on the technical and operational parts of the crisis. The TV 4 case on the other hand shows a flexible organizational culture that managed to handle the change in mission.

  • 6.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Hur organisationskultur påverkar strategi och anpassningsförmåga i kriser2011In: Strategisk kommunikation: forskning och praktik / [ed] Mats Heide och Jesper Falkheimer, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2011Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Learning from crisis: A framework of management, learning and implementation in response to crisis2009In: Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, ISSN 2194-6361, E-ISSN 1547-7355, Vol. 6, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Organizational culture effects on strategy and adaptability in crisis management2010In: Risk Management: An International Journal, ISSN 1460-3799, E-ISSN 1743-4637, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 116-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a typology of temporal organizational responsesto crises in public perception aimed at examining the ability of organizations torestructure in order to cope with acute crisis management challenges. The typologyis based on organizations ’ capacities to launch crisis management strategies andadapt their managerial and operational levels to deal with crises. According to thetypology, the Fully Adapting Organization manages to adapt both its strategy andits managerial and operational levels to deal with the crisis. The Semi-AdaptingOrganization changes its strategy but lacks the capacity to change managerial andoperational levels according to the new strategy. The Non-Adapting Organizationdoes not grasp the importance of strategy change in the first place. Based on threeinductive case studies the study concludes that organizational culture plays animportant role in this process where the Semi and the Non-Adapting organizationswere dominated by strong expert cultures that proved to be less inclined to change.In contrast, the Fully Adapting Organization had deliberately fostered an organizationalculture in which flexibility was a cornerstone.

  • 9.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Hellman, Maria
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Johnsson, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Understanding Public Agency Communication: the case of the Swedish Armed Forces2015In: Journal of Public Affairs, ISSN 1472-3891, E-ISSN 1479-1854, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 387-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article suggests a diagnostic framework of public communication intended to capture new communication strategies used by Armed Forces across Europe to legitimize new tasks and recruit new personnel. Three distinct communicative models that impact differently on democratic values and public support are suggested: an Old Public Administration (OPA) model influenced by bureaucratic values, a New Public Management (NPM) model fuelled by market values and a deliberative model labelled ‘New Public Service’ (NPS) that is largely influenced by proponents of ‘e-democracy’. A case study of the communication of the Swedish Armed Forces identifies a lingering bureaucratic (OPA) ideal. The market ideal (NPM) however clearly dominates. The article concludes that communication along market purposes, principles and practices risks distancing Armed Forces further from society. Yet, an embryonic deliberative ideal (NPS)—much fuelled by the use of social media such as blogs—was also identified. This growing ideal holds the potential of infusing deliberative vigor into the organization and presumably facilitates the bridging of the gap to society.

  • 10.
    Eriksson, Mats
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Örebro; Mittuniversitetet, Sundsvall.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Centre for Societal Security, CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training). Mittuniversitetet, Sundsvall.
    Facebook and Twitter in Crisis Communication: A Comparative Study of Crisis Communication Professionals and Citizens2016In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 198-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This mixed-methods study presents a comparative analysis of the use and perceived usefulness of Facebook and Twitter, among Swedish citizens and crisis communication professionals, as crisis communication tools and information sources. The use and perceived usefulness of Facebook and Twitter are not congruent and consistent between the two different groups, according to the overall study. Communication professionals, for example, report higher levels of perceived usefulness regarding Facebook’s potential as a crisis communication tool than do the citizens. Taken together, the results show that researchers (within social media and crisis communication) and crisis managers both need to deal with the fact that social media is not a homogenous phenomenon with a single coherent role in crisis management and communication research and practice.

  • 11.
    Falkheimer, Jesper
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Dept Strateg Commun, Strateg Commun, Helsingborg, Sweden.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Depoliticizing terror: The news framing of the terrorist attacks in Norway, 22 July 20112015In: Media, War & Conflict, ISSN 1750-6352, E-ISSN 1750-6360, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 70-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes how the Norwegian news media framed the terrorist attacks in Oslo and the island of Utöya, which killed 77 mainly young people on 22 July 2011. Did the news media favour or counteract the propaganda of the terrorist? After discussing earlier research about terrorism and media and presenting theories on news framing, results from a content analysis of 924 news articles in two major Norwegian newspapers during the first two weeks after the attacks are analyzed. The coverage of the attacks is found to be very descriptive, focused on the perpetrator as an individual, giving him questionable political exposure and not analyzing reasons and consequences on a political–societal level. The news framing functioned as a way of depoliticizing the terror attacks by portraying the attack as conducted by a lone lunatic in contrast to a politically motivated terrorist linked to right-wing extremism.

  • 12.
    Fredriksson, Magnus
    et al.
    Göteborgs Universitet .
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    A Model for Evaluating Corporate Environmental Communication2014In: Communicating Corporate Social Responsibility: Perspectives and Practice / [ed] Ralph Tench, William Sun, Brian Jones, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2014Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The chapter proposes a model for evaluating environmental information based on informativity as a measurement of whether corporate environmental disclosures provide readers with information relevant for making reasonable assessments of companies’ environmental work.

    Methodology/approach

    On a general level, informativity denotes a set of universal principles for information qualities. In order to make informed assessments, information ought to provide readers with information on specific projects, outcome, and long-term impact. The model proposed herein allows researchers and practitioners to quantify corporate environmental information based on a set of key textual variables. By allowing for the quantification of qualitative information, the model allows for comparative studies of CSR communication across, for example, companies, sectors, and nations.

    Research implications

    The model is applicable for corporations with an interest to evaluate their performance by applying standardized and set principles.

    Practical implications

    The model can be used as a tool for consumers and investors alike in making better and more informed assessments about a corporation’s environmental initiatives and performances. This application is particularly relevant for stakeholders with an interest in developing statistical data for assessing and benchmarking environmental communication.

    Originality

    The chapter proposes a model for evaluating environmental information as a measurement of whether corporate environmental disclosures provide readers with information relevant for making reasonable assessments of companies’ environmental work.

  • 13.
    Fredriksson, Magnus
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Pallas, Josef
    Uppsala universitet.
    Creativity caged in translation: a neo-institutional perspective on crisis communication2014In: Revista Internacional de Relaciones Públicas, ISSN 2174-3681, Vol. 4, no 8, p. 65-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Crisis communication research has primarily focused on universal models guiding managers of various organisations in times of crisis. Even though this is about to change, a tendency remains for research in the field to overlook the impact of structural conditions on organisation’s crisis communication. In order to add to the emergent discussion on new theoretical and empirical venues within the field of crisis communication, this paper proposes a framework based on new institutional theory for analysing crisis communication practices as a societal phenomenon. New institutionalism is advocated due to its ability to shift the focus from agency to structure and in doing so emphasise the social preconditions for organisational activities. In line with this, this conceptual paper discusses crisis communication as an institution, i.e., as a set of more or less conscious ideas about formats (the organisational structures developed for crisis communication work), contents (the content of organisations’ communication in times of crisis) and contexts (the situations during which organisations are expected to perform crisis communication). Moreover, we discuss how these ideas become translated (i.e., modified) as they travel (i.e., become legitimate, popular and get widely spread) across organisational and institutional contexts. In order to illustrate the framework described above, the Swedish authorities’ communication in connection to the A/H1N1 outbreak is used as a case study.

  • 14.
    Fredriksson, Magnus
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Pallas, Josef
    Uppsala Universitet .
    Creativity Caged in Translation: A Neo-Institutional Perspective on Crisis Communication2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    After early attempts to create universal models guiding managers in times of crisis - more recent attempts have focused on situational factors and the relationships between organizations and stakeholders in times of crises. Albeit this shift, structural conditions are often overlooked in the main bulk of research on crisis communication and if they are integrated they are defined as context and as such often excluded in the analysis. This is our point of departure for bringing neo-institutional theory into crisis communication research recognizing the importance of cultural, political, technological, and institutional environments of organizations. By this we shift focus from agency to structure and the social preconditions for organizational activities. However this is not to say that institutions are static or deterministic in the way they influence organizations and their behavior. On the contrary, institutions are open for innovations and interpretations. In this paper we put forward the concept of translation to illustrate and explain how organizations actively relate to and handle institutional pressure, thereby escaping the legal and moral/normative boundaries of institutions. Hereby we aim to contribute to the growing debate within the crisis communication field on new theoretical venues in understanding crisis communication as a practice but also as societal phenomenon. In our conclusion we suggest that the appliance of neo-institutional frameworks will help us understand the conditions under which crisis communication is carried out and in doing so allow researchers and practitioners to have a realistic stance on the limitations and possibility on communication in crises. Further, the framework will increase our abilities to understand the development of crisis communication, its institutionalization and the conditions for these developments.

  • 15.
    Galaz, Victor
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Moberg, Fredrik
    Stockholms universitet.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Paglia, Eric
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Parker, Charles
    Uppsala universitet.
    Institutional and political leadership dimensions of cascading ecological crises2011In: Public Administration, ISSN 0033-3298, E-ISSN 1467-9299, Vol. 89, no 2, p. 361-380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While some of the future impacts of global environmental change such as some aspects of climate change can be projected and prepared for in advance, other effects are likely to surface as surprises - that is situations in which the behaviour in a system, or across systems, differs qualitatively from expectations. Here we analyse a set of institutional and political leadership challenges posed by 'cascading' ecological crises: abrupt ecological changes that propagate into societal crises that move through systems and spatial scales. We illustrate their underlying social and ecological drivers, and a range of institutional and political leadership challenges, which have been insufficiently elaborated by either crisis management researchers or institutional scholars. We conclude that even though these sorts of crises have parallels to other contingencies, there are a number of major differences resulting from the combination of a lack of early warnings, abrupt ecological change, and the mismatch between decision-making capabilities and the cross-scale dynamics of social-ecological change.

  • 16.
    Hellman, Maria
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    EU Armed Forces’ use of social media in areas of deployment2016In: Media and Communication, ISSN 2083-5701, E-ISSN 2183-2439, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 51-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The advent of social media can be seen both as a risk and an opportunity by armed forces. Previous research has primarily examined whether or not the use of social media endangers or strengthens armed forces’ strategic narrative. We examine armed forces’ perceptions of risks and opportunities on a broad basis, with a particular focus on areas of deployment. The article is based on a survey of perceptions of social media amongst the armed forces of EU member states, thus adding to previous research through its comparative perspective. Whereas previous research has mainly focused on larger powers, such as the US and the UK, this article includes the views of the armed forces of 26 EU states, including several smaller nations. In analyzing the results we asked whether or not risk and opportunity perceptions were related to national ICT maturity and the existence of a social media strategy. The analysis shows that perceptions of opportunities outweigh perceptions of risks, with marketing and two-way communication as the two most prominent opportunities offered by the use of social media. Also, armed forces in countries with a moderate to high ICT maturity emphasize social media as a good way for marketing purposes.

  • 17.
    Konow Lund, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Journalism and Media Studies, Oslo, Norway; Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Bech, Isabel
    Department of Journalism and Media Studies, Oslo, Norway; Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Work First, Feel Later: How News Workers Reflect on Subjective Choices During a Terror Attack2017In: Putting a Face on It: Individual Exposure and Subjectivity in Journalism / [ed] Birgitte Kjos Fonn, Harald Hornmoen, Nathalie Hyde-Clarke and Yngve Benestad Hågvar, Cappelen Damm Akademisk / NOASP , 2017, p. 309-327Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In journalism studies, the discussion of objectivity as a strategic ritual is long stand-ing, while the impact of subjectivity and emotion upon journalism has received much less attention. During terror events, journalists’ notion of objectivity as a strategy is likely to be challenged due to unexpected autonomy. In order to explore how this unfolds, we have interviewed 24 journalists in three different news organ-isations shortly after the Norwegian terror attack in 2011, where 77 people were killed. Studies of what journalists experience during a terror attack, and how they reflect upon their experiences, are scarce. The present study addresses this gap, and in particular looks at how news workers deal with dilemmas where their percep-tions of professionalism are challenged.

  • 18.
    Konow Lund, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Journalism and Media Studies, Oslo, Norway; Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    News Frames and Global Terrorism Coverage in the UK and Norway: Context and Consequences for Humanitarian Issues2017In: The Routledge Companion To Media and Humanitarian Action / [ed] Robin Andersen and Purnaka L. de Silva, Routledge, 2017, 1, p. 221-230Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the potential of history for framing acts of terrorism, such as the July 5, 2005 British and the July 22,2011 Norwegian attacks, in the aftermath of September 11, 2011. It focuses in particular on the impact of historical analogies for creating meaning and framing new reporting at both local and global levels. In both caseslocal frames of reference and meaning addressed citizens’ emotional and communal needs, such as solace, a sense of historical legacy, and identity concerns. The global frame of reference differed. In the British case, historical analogies were foremost means of connecting that terror event to the broader “war on terror frame,” which facilitated the identification of motives and policy responses. In the Norwegian case, no such analogies existed, which meant that history was unable to provide a contextual understanding. In short, historical analogies can serve to bring order to chaos but also limit other explanations and arguments and, as such, hamper knowledge crucial in creating informed publics. Yet, to a large extent analogies are nationally contextualized. In order for journalistic accounts to create meaning and comfort for global audiences, stronger efforts should be made to communicate such values by using inclusive, comprehensible and relevant global analogies.

  • 19.
    Konow Lund, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Journalism and Media Studies, Oslo, Norway; Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Social Media’s Challenge to Journalistic Norms and Values during a Terror Attack2017In: Digital Journalism, ISSN 2167-0811, E-ISSN 2167-082X, Vol. 5, no 9, p. 1192-1204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past decade, the frequency of terror attacks around the world has increased. In the context of the 22 July 2011 terror attacks in Norway, social media use by citizens, and even victims, became an essential feature of reporting. Social media confronted the legacy media's way of covering crisis events. It raised questions about traditional journalism's ability to handle audience's as, not only news consumers, but also producers. In the present article, we look at the ways in which the professional norms and values of traditional journalism are specifically challenged by social media use in times of terror, using the 22 July 2011 attacks as a case study. We find that Norwegian journalists initially held to their professional roles, and to the classic self-representational principles of journalism, including objectivity, autonomy and immediacy. When they integrated social media into their traditional platforms and modes of coverage, they framed it as a "source" of sorts. As the 22 July 2011 event coverage became more focused on the collective grief felt by the nation, in turn, the traditional journalistic principles of objectivity and autonomy became less relevant, enabling yet more audience participation and social media use in relation to the attack.

  • 20.
    Konow Lund, Maria
    et al.
    Høgskolen i Oslo og Akershus, Norge.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Centre for Societal Security, CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    When Routines are Not Enough: Journalists' crisis management during the 22/7 domestic terror attack in Norway2016In: Journalism Practice, ISSN 1751-2786, E-ISSN 1751-2794, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 358-372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interest in crisis management among journalism scholars grew in the wake of the terror attacks of September 11, 2001. Yet, few studies explore journalists and their organizations from a newsroom and organizational crisis management perspective. In this study, we study journalists’ ability to conduct news work when faced with a frame-breaking news event—in this case, the July 22, 2011 attacks in Norway. Dividing the journalistic response to these events into three stages, each with its own particular challenges, we have been able to unpack how these Norwegian journalists were capable of reporting on the events despite the chaos and uncertainty that followed in their wake, including the fact that the newsroom itself suffered severe damage from the bomb blast. This study shows that coping mechanisms in times of organizational stress will range from the expected (routine, habit) to the unexpected (improvisation, bricolage). The individual must pick up where the organization leaves off, relying upon experience and professionalism as well as face-to-face interaction and the assistance of whatever technology survive

  • 21.
    Konow-Lund, Maria
    et al.
    Høgskolen i Oslo.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Crisis management in media organizations: when routines are not enough2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Lindholm, Kristina
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Crisis Communication as a Multilevel Game: The Muhammad Cartoons from a Crisis Diplomacy Perspective2011In: The International Journal of Press/Politics, ISSN 1940-1612, E-ISSN 1940-1620, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 254-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Muhammad cartoon crisis in 2005 provides an illustrative example of how crises travel across geographical boundaries, in this case, from a national newspaper into a full-fledged public diplomacy crisis at the international level. From a crisis management perspective, a multilevel setting poses a real challenge to actors trying to contain the situation at hand. Likewise, the multilevel nature of a crisis poses a challenge to crisis communication theories, which have traditionally focused on rhetorical strategies in single organizational crises. As a response, this article proposes a framework for examining crisis communication based on how actors’ framing impact the perceptions of arenas, stakeholders, and communication strategies.

  • 23.
    Nord, Lars
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet .
    Färm, Karl-Arvid
    Mittuniversitetet .
    Jendel, Lena
    Mittuniversitetet .
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training). Mittuniversitetet .
    Efter Husbykravallerna.: En studie av mediebilder och kriskommunikation2014Report (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Nord, Lars
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet .
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Frame, Set, Match!: Towards a model of successful crisis rhetoric2013In: Public Relations Inquiry, ISSN 2046-147X, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 79-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the mechanisms behind the ability of political leaders to win praise and support in times of crisis by Studying one such case of crisis exploitation: the Swedish government’s communication during the 2008 financial crisis. Looking back at the first term in office for the centre-right Alliance government, the government was initially struggling with historically low results in the regular opinion polls and a new electoral victory seemed to be beyond reach. However, this trend changed completely in the midst of the financial crisis when the government and its most prominent ministers from the dominant Moderate Party regained public support and confidence, and were able to win the next national election in 2010. The article argues that in order to explain successful political communication in times of crisis both the frames advocated by the political actors themselves and the media need to be taken into account. Based on this assumption the article proposes that successful political communication in crisis depends on a three-step process with interrelated aspects: the actor’s ability for frame promotion, setting and matching. Frame selection here refers to actors’ ability to use active frames (herein managerial, moral and responsibility frames), their ability to set the frame contexts so that they create a coherent logic resulting in frame reinforcement and, finally, their ability to match the political frames with the media’s framing.

  • 25.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Communicating in Crises of Public Diplomacy: The Quest for Ethical Capital2011In: Ethics and Crisis Management / [ed] Lina Svedin, Charlotte: Information Age Publishing, 2011, p. 141-162Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Crisis Communication in Public Organisations: Dimensions of Crisis Communication Revisited2014In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 113-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on crisis communication has traditionally focused on private organisations' reputation and blame avoidance strategies. As a result, there is limited knowledge on crisis communication from the perspective of public organisations. This is troublesome as public organisations have substantial responsibilities for preparing, communicating and managing large-scale crisis events. In order to be able to better conceptualise public organisations' crisis communication, a typology based on communication aims and orientations is introduced. According to the typology, public organisations engage in two dimensions of crisis communication: reputation-oriented vs. resilience-oriented and strategic vs. operational. These dimensions are illustrated and discussed by empirical examples from the Queensland floods of 2010/2011. The paper ends with a discussion on how to understand these dimensions of crisis communication in relation to public organisations' priorities, processes and practices.

  • 27.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Defining Crisis News Events2010In: Nordicom Review, ISSN 1403-1108, E-ISSN 2001-5119, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 87-101Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on news organizations’ handling of ‘what-a-story’s proposes that journalists find routines for handling these events based on their previous experiences of similar situations. Still, conceptual discussions on how to define extraordinary events or ’what-a-story’s have thus far attracted limited interest. In response, the present article proposes a definition of‘what-a-story’s in order to provide an understanding of what events become a part of news organizations’ historical case banks. Accordingly, the aim of the article is to present a definition of crisis news events from an organizational perspective, which can help distinguish critical news events of importance to news organizations’ learning and preparedness. The article argues that crisis news are to be understood as surprise events that challenge key organizational values and demand a swift response. Based on interviews with Swedish broadcasting media managers, the article illustrates how the September 11

    th

    terror attacks can be defined as a crisis event.

  • 28.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    How Journalists Portray Political Leaders: The Personalization of Prime Ministers and the Connection to Party Affiliation in Swedish News Coverage2017In: Putting a Face on It: Individual Exposure and Subjectivity in Journalism / [ed] Birgitte Kjos Fonn, Harald Hornmoen, Nathalie Hyde-Clarke, and Yngve Benestad Hågvar, Cappelen Damm Akademisk / NOASP , 2017, p. 99-119Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Journalists not only represent political leaders in terms of their policies and political competence. The personalities and private lives of leaders have also become an important component in mediated stories and narratives crucial for voter identifi-cation and interest. This chapter explores how the Swedish press reports on prime ministers’ social backgrounds, personal appearance and leadership characteristics in relation to party affiliation. The empirical material consists of news reporting on four former Swedish prime ministers: two from the Swedish Social Democratic Party; and two from the Moderate Party. The findings show that it is not only party affiliation that is of interest to journalists in reporting on prime ministers. Broader societal trends of what it means to be a politician in a certain time and era also influence reporting.

  • 29.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Media Crisis Management in Traditional and Digital Newsrooms2009In: Convergence. The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, ISSN 1354-8565, E-ISSN 1748-7382, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 446-461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By comparing two newsrooms’ responses, one with a traditional mode of production and one with a digital, to the terror attacks of 9/11, this article demonstrates that newsrooms, in contrast to what previous research tells us, differ in their ability to cover crisis events. Drawing upon findings from previous research on how news organizations cope with extraordinary — and crisis — events, the study explains news desks’ ability to cope with the disruptions of everyday deadlines caused by ‘disaster marathon modes’ of reporting, based on organizational everyday structures and previous experiences. The study concludes that a digital newsroom designed to handle 24 hour reporting does not necessarily nor automatically have a suitable structure to deal with a crisis event. Rather, in this particular case the structure used for 24/7 coverage, based on journalists’ independence and decentralization, was directly counterproductive when dealing with a crisis event.

  • 30.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Public diplomacy as a crisis communication tool2013In: Journal of International Communication, ISSN 1321-6597, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 219-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transboundary incidents with the potential to develop into crises transcending geographical, cultural and religious boundaries are becoming increasingly common in today's interconnected world. This development poses new demands on governments to communicate with publics on a transnational level, what is commonly referred to as public diplomacy. Based on an inductive comparative case study, this article suggests a framework for understanding public diplomacy as a crisis communication tool consisting of three core tasks: sense making, networking and messaging. The article ends with a proposal as to how public diplomacy can contribute to crisis mitigation.

  • 31.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Responsibility framing in a 'climate change induced' compounded crisis: facing tragic choices in the Murray-Darling Basin2009In: Environmental Hazards: Human and Policy Dimensions, ISSN 1747-7891, E-ISSN 1878-0059, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 226-240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Crises impose vast demands on political leaders' communicative abilities in terms of explaining the causes of the problem at hand as well as showing a plausible way out of the situation. These challenges become even more complex in connection with climate change induced compounded crises. These crises touch upon a broad range of issues, such as economic, environmental, social and energy policies. Drawing upon previous research on political crisis communication, this article aims to examine political actors framing strategies in connection with compounded crises and how these are affected by the media context in which they are communicated. The study rests on a case study examining The Australian's reporting of the drought in the Murray-Darling Basin in terms of how various actor groups portrayed in the reporting framed crisis responsibility. The article ends by proposing propositions for further research on responsibility framing in climate change induced compounded crises.

  • 32.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Rule regimes in news organization decision making: explaining diversity in the actions of news organizations during extraordinary events2009In: Journalism - Theory, Practice & Criticism, ISSN 1464-8849, E-ISSN 1741-3001, Vol. 10, no 6, p. 758--776Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Transboundary crisis networks: The challenge of coordination in the face of global threats2015In: Risk Management: An International Journal, ISSN 1460-3799, E-ISSN 1743-4637, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 91-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In today's interconnected world, transboundary crises such as pandemics, ecological and financial crises are becoming both more frequent and more devastating. The transboundary nature of these threats requires actors at various administrative and geographical levels to create joint responses which, at the aggregated level, form the basis of a global crisis management network. However, the forming of such a network is challenged by ambiguity, complexity and uncertainty in terms of responsibility, cooperation and mandates. In order to overcome these deficiencies, the network should develop a delicate mix of organizational robustness and flexibility. The article explores the preconditions and functioning of such a global crisis management health network by proposing a model based on coordination systems and practices of importance to the response. The SARS outbreak in 2003 will be used to illustrate the model. The article ends by exploring the preconditions for global crisis management based on how levels of formalization may impact on the network's capacity for adaptation and coordination.

  • 34.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Buus, Stephanie
    Utrikespolitiska Institutet.
    China and SARS: Crisis Management in a Legitimacy Vacuum2011In: SARS from East to West / [ed] Eva-Karin Olsson and Lan Xue, New York City: Lexington Books , 2011Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Deverell, Edward
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Hellman, Maria
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    EU, armed forces and social media: convergence or divergence?2016In: Defence Studies, ISSN 1470-2436, E-ISSN 1743-9698, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 97-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores how armed forces in EU member states work with and view social media in national and international settings, and what the patterns of convergence/divergence are on these issues. To that end, a questionnaire targeted at EU armed forces was constructed. An index of qualitative variation was calculated to explore the relative convergence among respondents (n = 25) on issues of risks and opportunities with using social media nationally and internationally. Consistent with previous research on European armed forces, we found higher levels of divergence than convergence. Contrary to our expectations that similar challenges, joint international standards, and membership in international organizations would foster convergence with regard to social media use in areas of deployment, we found that convergence appeared foremost pertaining to the domestic level. Policy divergence was strongest in areas of deployment.

  • 36.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Edling, Erik
    Stern, Eric
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Crisis communication and community resilience: Exploring symbolic religious provocations and meaningful exchange2015In: Strategies for supporting community resilience: Multinational experiences / [ed] Robert Bach, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan (FHS), 2015, 1, p. 263-288Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Eriksson, Mats
    Örebro universitet.
    The logic of public organizations' social media use: toward a theory of 'social mediatization'2016In: Public Relations Inquiry, ISSN 2046-147X, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 187-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study aims to explore government agencies’ social media use. Inspired by the notion of mediatization, we ask whether it is possible to find traces of a corresponding emerging social media logic with the propensity to challenge established organizational practices and processes. In doing so, we use a modified framework originally developed by Van Dijck and Poell which identifies key three characteristics of social media logics: programmability, popularity, and connectivity. We conducted a qualitative interview study using an abductive and hermeneutist-inspired methodology. The empirical material consists of 21 interviews with representatives of Swedish government agencies. The findings reveal patterns across the organizations studied which can be understood as an emerging social media logic. Regarding connectivity, the social media logic causes agencies to spend resources on channels that engage relatively few people who are already favorably disposed toward the agency, despite government agencies’ obligation to communicate with citizens at large. Programmability refers to agencies’ increased communicative and image-building power. Finally, popularity leads agencies to engage in more personalized communication, which includes exposure of individual employees as well as use of informal communicative styles. Taken together, these categories have important ramifications which risk jeopardizing agencies’ legal and normative foundations

  • 38. Olsson, Eva-Karin
    et al.
    Falkheimer, Jesper
    Lund Universitet .
    Depoliticizing terror: The news framing of the terror attacks in Norway2013In: Online Programme: IAMCR 2013 Dublin Conference, International Association for Media and Communication Research , 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Falkheimer, Jesper
    Lunds universitet .
    Gränsöverskridande kriskommunikation: En studie av politiska aktörers, offentliga organisationersoch nyhetsmediers kommunikation under samhällskriser2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är en populärvetenskaplig sammanfattning av forskningsprojektet gränsöverskridande kriskommunikation som genomförts under 2011-2013.

  • 40.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Falkheimer, Jesper
    Lunds Universitet .
    Nord, Lars
    Mittuniversitetet .
    How journalistic styles and standards contribute to political actors’ crisis exploitation2013In: Online Programme: IAMCR 2013 Dublin Conference, International Association for Media and Communication Research , 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Hammargård, Kajsa
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    The rhetoric of the President of the European Commission: charismatic leader or neutral mediator?2016In: Journal of European Public Policy, ISSN 1350-1763, E-ISSN 1466-4429, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 550-570Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite efforts made to improve communication, the Commission is still facing difficulties getting across its messages. Scholars have stressed how both structural and personal characteristics impede the Commission's ability to communicate. These obstacles are particularly troublesome in connection to crisis situations when the European Union receives the most media attention and scrutiny. At the national level, research has shown that political actors tend to increase their use of charismatic rhetoric during crisis events as a way of gaining and sustaining legitimacy and credibility. In this study we explore whether the same pattern can be seen at the European level by examining the European Commission during the financial and eurozone crisis. The main findings of the study demonstrate the opposite; that is, as the crisis got worse and as member states got increasingly engaged in its management, the Commission's rhetoric became less charismatic.

  • 42.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Jääsaari, J
    Official news in crisis: Reporting 9/11 terrorist attacks and the tsunami disaster on Finnish and Swedish Television2010In: Communicating Risks: Towards Threat Society / [ed] Stig-Arne Nohrstedt, Göteborg: Nordicom, 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Jääsaari, Johanna
    Journalistic norms, organizational identity and crisis decision-making in PSB news organizations2010In: Communicating risks: towards the threat society? / [ed] Stig A. Nohrstedt, Göteborg: Nordicom, 2010, p. 73-96Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Nord, Lars
    Mittuniversitetet, Sverige; Åbo Akademi, Åbo, Finland; DEMICOM.
    Mediernas roll i kriser2015In: Perspektiv på krishantering / [ed] Deverell, Edward; Hansén, Dan; Olsson, Eva-Karin, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, 1, p. 145-170Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Nord, Lars
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Paving the way for crisis exploitation: the role of journalistic styles and standards2015In: Journalism - Theory, Practice & Criticism, ISSN 1464-8849, E-ISSN 1741-3001, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 341-358Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Crises tend to be crucial political events with the ability to determine the public’s faith in political actors. If well managed, crises provide windows of opportunities for political actors to show action, strengthening credibility and pushing through new policies. This article explores one such instance of successful crisis exploitation: the Swedish government’s management of the financial crisis in 2008. During the worst turbulence, the government was able to successfully frame the event, without being challenged by contrasting frames, as a crisis managed with great competence and in the best interest of ordinary citizens. We explain this phenomenon through journalistic styles and standards. The article concludes by discussing the findings where we propose that issue framing, in combination with descriptive journalism, contributes to portraying political actors as credible crisis managers rather than tactical politicians, with the result being that they appear more trustworthy and competent. Moreover, due to unbalanced coverage, actors who are framed as competent crisis managers succeed in further strengthening their positions.

  • 46.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Nord, Lars
    Mid Sweden Univ, Ctr Democracy & Commun, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Falkheimer, Jesper
    Lund Univ, Dept Strateg Commun, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Media Coverage Crisis Exploitation Characteristics: A case comparison study2015In: Journal of Public Relations Research, ISSN 1062-726X, E-ISSN 1532-754X, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 158-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    If well managed, crises do not only pose a threat to political actors but also provide opportunities to show action, strengthening credibility and launching new policies. Within the field of crisis communication, research has primarily taken an interest in the rhetorical strategies of actors when explaining successes or failures. In this article, we examine key characteristics of what we refer to as crisis exploitation coverage in the news media. We do so based on a comparative quantitative study of 3 crisis cases (terror, floods, and financial crisis) selected due to their differences in journalistic routines and preparedness. The results of the study revealed that the similarities in the cases were more pronounced than their differences. All three cases showed high levels of descriptive journalism and issue framing in combination with unbalanced reporting-characteristics that were all favorable toward the governmental actors in charge of managing the crisis.

  • 47.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Paglia, Eric
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Global Problem: National Accountability: Framing Accountability in the Australian Context of Climate Change2008In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 70-79Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Stern, Eric K.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Xue, Lan
    School of Public Policy and Management, Tsinghua University.
    SARS: Meeting an Epidemic Head-On2011In: SARS from East to West / [ed] Eva-Karin Olsson and Lan Xue, New York City: Lexington Books, 2011Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Söderlund, Malin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Falkheimer, Jesper
    Communicating terror: Selecting, reinforcing and matching frames in connection to the Norway July 22 attacks2015In: Offentlig Förvaltning. Scandinavian Journal of Public Administration, ISSN 2000-8058, E-ISSN 2001-3310, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 3-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In essence, terror attacks are communicative events. From the perspective of political leaders, the challenge is to make sense of the event by explaining what has happened, who is behind the attack, what is the most appropriate response, and how to move forward. Adding to the difficulties is the fact that leaders have to communicate in a highly mediated environment. In this article, we explore the Norwegian government’s crisis communication in the terrorist attacks in Oslo and on the island of Utöya on July 22, 2011. We do so by applying a model of crisis framing. According to the model, political leaders have to be able to select appropriate frames that reinforce each other and match the media coverage. The study proved managerial, responsibility and cultural congruence frames to be central. Moreover, the study demonstrated how the crisis produced a certain type of news coverage characterized by high levels of descriptive journalism, which, in combination with issue and episodic framing, supported the government’s communication strategy.

  • 50.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Centre for Societal Security, CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Verbeek, Bertjan
    Department of Political Science, Institute for Management Research, Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    International Organisations and crisis management: Do crises enable or constrain IO agency?2018In: Journal of International Relations and Development, ISSN 1408-6980, E-ISSN 1581-1980, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 275-299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article seeks to bridge the gap between the literature on international organisations (IO) and the field of crisis management (CM) by focusing on two themes: how crisis conditions lead organisations to centralise decision-making and how this subsequently affects an international organisation’s autonomy. We do this based on two dimensions inspired by the CM literature, that is, the degree of the perceived time pressure and the precrisis legal institutional framework. The plausibility of the analytical framework is assessed on the basis of three cases: the WHO’s dealing with the SARS crisis; the European Commission’s dealing with the Mad Cow Disease crisis; and the UN’s handling of the humanitarian crisis in the Great Lakes region. The results show that the perceived time pressure affected IO autonomy in so far as higher time pressure that rendered IO autonomy stronger, whereas with regard to the institutional framework no stringent pattern could be seen. Moreover, based on our findings, we propose that IO autonomy in crisis situations also depends on the framing of an issue in terms on impartiality, on the extent to which the IO in question is subject to politicisation, as well as on the degree to which it possesses specific technical expertise.

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